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Does the Internet have the potential to accelerate development in poor nations?

1. INTRODUCTION

The Internet and information technology (IT) represent a revolution that may well have an economic impact corresponding to the wave of innovations that made up the core of the industrial revolution two centuries ago. The industrial revolution dramatically increased global economic inequalities, which in the 19th and 20th centuries produced discrepancies in political power among nations that led to imperialism and warfare. After a discussion of earlier technological breakthroughs, this paper presents data that show a significant gap between wealthy and poor countries in the rate of diffusion of the Internet. The evidence suggests that poor countries are being left further behind as a result of the ongoing technological revolution elsewhere in the world. We consider proposals for helping developing countries participate in the “new economy” by improving their communications infrastructures and transferring technology from technological leaders to poorer countries, as well as whether it might be in the interest of leading nations to sponsor such efforts.

The last half of the 20th century has witnessed a revolution in information technology, capped off at century’s end by the Internet. Numerous popular and academic articles describe the “new economy” and new business models stimulated by IT. Computers, databases and communications networks are pervasive in post-industrial countries. The Internet provides standards for worldwide connectivity, and its impact on business and commerce has been dramatic. The impact of IT on economy-wide measures of productivity is also increasingly evident, particularly but not exclusively in the United States, the leader in applying information technology.

The Internet allows global market access for a vendor; over 150 million people can access the web site of someone with a product or service to sell on the Net. Many organizations are developing electronic customer/supplier relationships, resulting in a dramatic increase in efficiency. There is a movement toward purchasing “hubs” in which a web site joins together buyers and sellers, for example, shippers with trucking companies. Led by Detroit automakers, a number of industries are establishing purchasing sites to reduce the cost of dealing with suppliers. Companies are integrating their supply chains and providing suppliers with access to their production plans.

The Internet has given rise to new business models. Companies such as Dell Computer and Cisco Systems integrate technology into all of their operations. Cisco processes almost all of its orders on the Web, and handles approximately 85% of its customer service on the Internet. Companies adopting the Internet are substituting technology for physical assets. In addition to developing commerce, the Internet offers the potential for new forms of distance-education and learning, and for improving the quality of medical care.

The Internet needs a robust telecommunications infrastructure to function well. In the United States, there are a number of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that connect individuals to the Internet backbone. Companies like UUNet provide high-speed fiber backbone communications to carry Internet traffic. In 1999 UUNet was reportedly expanding its capacity 10 times a year to keep up with demand.

Individual organizations connect to the Internet through leased lines to a service provider, generally at a much higher speed than the 56Kb of a typical modem. Many home users only have the option of a modem, but increasingly high-speed home service is available through cable TV companies, DSL lines from the Phone Company, or satellite TV providers. A communications infrastructure is a prerequisite for obtaining maximum benefits from the Net.

The Internet in 1999 connected 58,000 separate networks with an estimated 150 million users world-wide .A UN Human Development Report (1999) noted that the lead of the US in Internet development has resulted in 80 percent of web sites being in English and 26 percent of Americans using the web, whereas only 3 percent of Russians, 0.04 percent of South Asians, and 0.02 percent of people in Arab states do so. The US has more computers (potential web access) than the rest of the world combined. Moreover, while an American can buy a computer with a month’s salary, a Bangladeshi would need 8 year’s income to buy one. Nearly half of U.S. homes have Internet access in 2000. By implication, the reduction in worldwide economic inequality that occurred in the last half of the twentieth century is being reversed, contrary to the rosier scenarios of some economists who argue that the recent reductions in inequality are likely to continue in the twenty-first century.

An optimistic scenario has developing countries adopting the Internet to stimulate economic growth. There are many stories of artisans in poor countries marketing their products world-wide through a web site. The Internet is promoted as a technology that will enhance education and expand commerce, allowing developing countries to make rapid advances.

The Internet is a kind of technological infrastructure, however, and developing countries are notoriously short of infrastructure. The Internet also requires a level of education and training to use, and educational opportunities in poorer countries are generally inferior to those in wealthy countries. Unfortunately, our data analysis shows that poor countries are almost “off the screen” as far as Internet capabilities. The data suggest that what appear to be key determinants of the Internet’s penetration in more developed country settings have almost no explanatory power for developing countries. If this situation persists most of the continued diffusion of Internet technologies will occur in wealthy countries, and the likelihood increase based on the historical impacts of earlier network technologies that economic inequality and political and social instability will increase in the world.

The consensus of economic historians is that roughly two centuries ago there was far less economic inequality among the world’s major regions and societies than there is today. From then to the present, the gap in average incomes between rich and poor societies became much wider. Two hundred years ago it is estimated that the was on the order of 2 to 1; today it is more like 30 to 1.

Consider the three most populous nations in the world today, China, India, and the United States of America. Together the three have about 40 percent of the world’s people. The succinct phrase economic historians have used in response to this question is “the industrial revolution.” The initial industrial revolution, England’s, began with late 18th-century technological breakthroughs in the production of textiles, coal, and iron, and the innovation of steam engines. Economic historians use these specific or “core” examples of innovative change to develop general principles underlying industrialization.

Spinning and weaving breakthroughs in textiles represent the general principle of substituting power-driven machines for human labor. Technological developments in iron (and coal) processing illustrate the substitution of abundant mineral substances for scarcer animal and vegetable materials. Steam engines generalize to the substitution of inanimate converters of energy for traditional animate (human, plant and animal) converters. Each specific technological breakthrough represented a quantum leap forward in production and the productivity of human labor. As the general principles involved were extended to other industries, economic growth—production per person–increased and became self-sustaining. From textiles, machine production spread to other industries.

Iron led directly to steel, and as the chemical technologies involved were increasingly understood, a host of new materials were developed and used across a range of modern industries. Steam engines were forerunners of internal combustion engines and nuclear reactors. With these epochal developments, living standards rose. But not everywhere, or at the same rate in different societies. England, which by the mid-nineteenth century.

Among this group of industrializes, the followers or late-comers tended to grow faster than the pioneers, so that eventually the differences in income levels among all of them became much less than between them and the non-industrial rest of the

World. Well into the twentieth century, that “rest of the world” lagged well behind

Europe, North America, and Japan. But in the second half of the twentieth century, it too

Began to industrialize.

This traditional economic-historical account of the industrial revolution helps to explain the dramatic increases in economic inequality among nations that developed during the past two centuries. It also indicates how that inequality eventually tends to be reduced. The latecomers grow faster than the pioneers, reducing the income gaps that the industrial revolution initially engendered among them. In a recent article, Robert Lucas, a prominent economic theorist and Nobel laureate, utilized these stylized facts of economic history to develop a model predicting that economic inequality in the world would be far lower a hundred years from now than it is today.

Suppose, however, that the Internet and related IT, as some argue, are really epochal innovations such those of the British industrial revolution two centuries ago, or the railroad technologies that came along in the middle decades of the nineteenth century, or the electrical and automotive technologies that were developed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s. If so, these new technologies, like the older ones just mentioned, might well increase inequality in the world for decades, with political and social consequences that do not differ from those that came with inequalities brought by industrialization after 1800

A newer interpretation of the past two to three centuries from the one above puts this possibility in historical perspective. This new interpretation of economic history, while not denying the importance of the great inventions and innovations of the industrial era, gives more emphasis to the importance of network innovations and network externalities in shaping the modern economic world.

In the new view, the Internet and IT technologies in general are the latest ofseveral major breakthroughs in network technologies that were fundamental in promoting and sustaining industrialization where it took place. The earlier network technologies, in order of their appearance, were modern financial systems in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries early transportation networks from the late eighteenth to the late nineteenth centuries, and, finally modern transportation (highway, airway), communication (telegraph, telephone) and electrical networks which began in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s.

Each of these historical network breakthroughs can be associated with the industrialization of the modern world and the income gaps among nations and world regions to which “selective” industrialization led. In the first (and least recognized) of the great network technologies of the modern world, finance, which adopted and added to British financial techniques in late 18th and early 19th centuries.

All of these countries early in their modern histories had what some have termed “financial revolutions.” In all three, financial networks—banking systems and securities markets, for example—were in place to mobilize and allocate capital before the Industrial Revolution, so that the revolution could advance rapidly without capital-supply

2. The Internet and Prescriptions for Economic Growth

Landes (1998) has proposed the following factors for stimulating economic growth in developing nations:

1. Manage and build instruments of production; master the technological frontier

2. Impart knowledge to the young

3. Hire and promote based on competence and relative merit

4. Encourage initiative, competition and emulation

5. Allow people to benefit from their labor and enterprise

6. Practice gender equality

7. Have a political system that:

a. Secures the rights of private property

b. Secures the rights of personal liberty

c. Enforces the rights of contracts

d. Stable government of laws rather than men (not necessarily democratic)

e. Provides responsive and honest government

f. Moderate, efficient and non-corrupt government keeping taxes down

8. An ideal society would be honest

To successfully integrate the Internet into an economy, a country’s leaders will have to follow many of Landes’s suggestions. The instrument of production for the Internet is a telecommunications infrastructure, something that is expensive and competes with other infrastructure projects such as roads. While a developing country may be able to use wireless technology for phone connections, high-speed Internet access demands either fiber optic lines or satellite communications.1 The rich countries have the capital and know-how to develop such new infrastructures and are doing so. The poor countries likely do not.

3.THE GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE INTERNET

Which countries are using the Internet todayWhat is the extent of Internet use among developing countriesWhat factors predict the intensity of Internet use in a particular countryThe answers to these questions are important in formulating policies to assist developing countries take advantage of technology.

3.1 Research Design

To address the questions above, we collected data from the World Bank on 1998 economic development indicators. We added to these data information about the number of Internet hosts in each country from the Network Wizards Web site: http://www.isc.org/ds/. Hosts are the computers on the Internet that contain content; they respond to requests from client computers. A PC in one’s office running a browser like Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer is a client computer. It requests information from a variety of servers using a URL or Universal Resource Locator. As an example, the URL for the Stern School of Business at New York University server is http://www.stern.nyu.edu. A country with a large number of hosts or servers is indicative of more Internet penetration and activity than a country with fewer hosts.

3.2 Internet Hosts

The Data

We obtained development-indicator and Internet-host data from the World Bank and from a survey of Internet Domain names by the Internet Software Consortium .There are some problems with the data. First, the World Bank data for different countries may not be for the same year due to different practices on collecting and reporting information in various countries. The Internet host data are based on high-level domain names. For example, a domain name that ends in “com” generally is from the United States, while one that ends in “sg” is from Singapore, “ca” from Canada and so on. However, there is no law that says domain names have to reflect the physical location of the server. The Taliban government in Afghanistan has a Web server, but the host data showed no hosts in Afghanistan in 1998 or 1999.

However, none of the countries with less than a 100 hosts in the Network Wizards survey has 100 or more hosts in the MMQ data. The largest discrepancy is for Canada where MMQ estimates almost 600,000 more hosts than the Network Wizards data show. MMQ also estimates a quarter of a million more hosts in Taiwan than Network Wizards. In the analysis below, we estimate our basic model with combined data from both surveys. We use the MMQ data when it exists for a country, and the Network Wizards estimate where it does not.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The UN Development Report data and the results above suggest a wide gap between countries that have adopted the Internet extensively and those that have not. The major factors associated with Net adoption are GDP and telecommunications infrastructure as measured by the number of phones per 1000 people. For the countries with the lowest adoption in the analysis, these variables are only modestly associated with the number of Internet hosts, and the model explains little variance. The conclusion is inescapable that less developed countries are significantly behind on Internet technology compared to those with more resources. If we assume that the Internet and associated technologies are important for economic growth, then what are the policy implications of these findingsWhat factors inhibit the adoption of the Internet, and what can be done to mitigate them???

5.REFERENCES

Adams, Henry, History of the United States of America during the First Administration of

Thomas Jefferson, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1939 [first ed., 1889].

Burkhart, G., S. Goodman, A. Mehta, L Press, “The Internet in India: Better Times

Ahead?” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 41, No. 11 (November 1998), pp. 21-26.

Daly, J., and R. Miller, “Corporations’ Use of the Internet in Developing Countries,” IFD

Discussion Paper Number 35, (www.ifc.org/DEPTS/OPS/ECON/PUBS/DP35/Dp35.htm),

Gibson, R., “Informatics Diffusion in South American Developing Economies,” Journal

Of Global Information Management, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 35-42, 1998

Kedia, B., and R. Bhagat, “Cultural Constraints on Transfer of Technology Across

nations: Implications for Research in International and Comparative Management,”

Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.559-571

Landes, D., The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why some Are so Rich and Some so

Poor, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998.

Lucas, Robert E., Jr., “Some Macroeconomics for the 21st Century,” Journal of Economic

Perspectives 14 (Winter 2000). Pp.159-168.

Montealgre, R., “A Temporal Model of Institutional Interventions for Information

Technology Adoption in Less-Developed Countries, JMIS, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 207-232.

Petrazzini, B. and M. Kibati, “The Internet in Developing Countries,” Communications of

the ACM, Vol. 42, No. 6 (June 1999), pp. 31-36.

Press, L., “The Role of Computer networks in Development, ” Communications of the

ACM, Vol. 39, No. 2 (February 1996), pp. 23-30.

Press, L., “Tracking the Global Diffusion of the Internet,” Communications of the ACM,

Vol. 40, No. 11 (November 1997), pp. 11-17.

Pomeranz, Kenneth, the Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the

Modern World, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Sylla, Richard, “U.S. Securities Markets and the Banking System, 1790-1840,” Federal

Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review 50 (May/June 1998), pp. 83-98.

10/17/00 2:48 PM 27

Sylla, Richard, “Emerging Market in History: The United States, Japan, and Argentina,”

in Ryuzo Sato et al., eds., Global Competition and Integration, Boston: Kluwer

Academic Publishers, 1999, pp. 427-446.

World Bank, Knowledge for Development, Washington: World Development Report,1999.
UNDP, Human Development Report, 1998, New York, Oxford University Press, 1998.
UNDP, Human Development Report, 1999, New York, Oxford University Press, 1999.

Categories
Free Essays

Interplanetary Internet from NASA’s experiment

ABSTRACT

Internet has already revolutionized the way we live and work, but it is still in its infancy in some areas to provide ubiquitous connectivity in future. To solve the problem of Ubiquitous connectivity in communication – challenged areas Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) provides an opportunistic networking architecture. Opportunistic networks represent a class of networks where end-to-end continuous connectivity between source and destination is intermittent [1]. There are variety of challenged areas like areas as high latitudes, war prone areas or disastrous scenario where environmental considerations create impossibility for conventional mobile telephony and satellite coverage is inadequate or economically infeasible or because of infrastructure deployment constraints, or power source availability, or because of government policy decisions do not allow access.

Moreover, DTN seeks to address the technical issues in heterogeneous networks to use every possible feasible access method to provide internetworking among existing types of wireless or wired networks like Internet, Mobile and WLAN [7]. Integrating DTN capabilities with the existing TCP/IP based Internet it aims to deliver Internet-like communications even for long variable delay, asynchronous as well as interrupted heterogeneous environment where existing transport protocol and congestion control mechanism have limitations [1]. Basic DTN architecture by IETF RFC involves use of ‘Bundle protocol’ which allows communication over multiple hops by means of ‘custody transfers’ andmessages in DTN are routed in store-and-forward manner on each node[2].

Research and development going on over last ten years has set out some challenges that need more focus before DTN becomes a day to day reality. In this Interim report I am focusing on Denial of Service (DoS) attacks due to open channel and multi-hop DTN transmission characteristics which can limit its full utilisation. First I will review the state-of-art in context of DTN security and attacks at present then I will analyse possible DoS attacks in DTN and their countermeasures.

I will present a comprehensive resilience mechanism to address the identified attacks, focusing on a critical metrics of performance. I will propose a simulation model and demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly proposed techniques through simulation using ONE simulator.

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

1.1 Background and Context

The emergence of the idea of Delay tolerant networking started in late 1990 as ‘Interplanetary Internet’ from NASA’s experiment of deep space, high delay, store-and- forward networks [5]. That early work focused on protocols suitable for very long propagation delays of deep- space- interplanetary communications. Other early work includes military specific Disruption-Tolerant Networking due to scenarios of long delayed links, broken or intermittent links. Extending initial work purpose in 2002-03 researchers looked at other applicable scenarios, like terrestrial wireless networks, wireless sensor networks and other local area networks, where communication opportunities were not much certain. DTN has shown its suitability and strength to applications having long or unknown delays due to frequent disconnections and for interconnecting various heterogeneous networks, which commonly is not a conventional IP-based network.

The development of wireless communication technologies made the Internet ubiquitously. Within the vision of ‘any time anywhere’ networking, efficient internetworking among existing types of wireless networks is inevitable. Integrating DTN networks as another access method into the existing network infrastructure allows the Internet to reach people who are hundreds of kilometres, or more away from existing infrastructure. Although Internet has already revolutionized the way we live and work, but it is still in its infancy in some areas. Challenges faced by current Internet

Today’s Internet is based on end-to-end network connectivity based TCP/IP protocol model. It makes certain fundamental assumptions like continuous source destination connectivity, end – to- end low delay paths, low transmission error rate and bidirectional symmetrical data rate which applies a number of constraints to its reachability[1][5].

So the overall vision [6] of Future Internet should be to provide ubiquitous and pervasive networking for the users and applications in well-connected regions with keeping in mind communication challenged areas. The current Internet must develop to be more able of dealing with new evolving forms of content and their consumption but there are many challenges in the wide range of application requirements related to network heterogeneity as well as by the growing number of non-TCP/IP networks and mobile devices.

1.2 Motivation to DTN:

1.2.1 Challenged networks/environments for Internet

Some regions are called ?communications challenged’ because they have little or negligible infrastructure that is required to support modern wireless and wired Internet communications.

These Challenged environments are very heterogeneous and have characteristics [1] [5] such as

End-to-end path may not exist creating Intermittent connectivity
Node reachability and density may be
Predictable (Planetary dynamics, scheduled vehicles, message ferries)
Unpredictable (Sparse sensor networks, data mules, vehicular)
Semi-predictable (animals, vehicles, etc.)
Large, unpredictable, variable delays for transmission (deep space- moon: 3s, Mars: 2min, Pluto: 5h)
Asymmetric/ asynchronous data rate which may be very low (acoustic underwater modems: 1 bit/s–few Kbit/s)
High bit error rate (wireless, underwater, satellite)
Using different transport protocols in different parts of the network making interactive communication impossible/ inefficient or unreliable
Environment having very large round trip times (deep space, military or remote area communication)

Many of the challenges have been tried to address using Performance Enhancing Proxies (PEPs) which try to solve high delay low bit rate links performance but it still demands end-to-end connection.

1.2.2 Challenges due to Mobility

Mobility may create potential disconnection in end-to-end connectivity which produces challenges for current TCP/IP based Internet in form of:

Communication link availability (not ubiquitous due to movement Limited Transmission range
Communication link specially interactive communication link may be costly due to frequent movement of nodes
Link may be unavailable due lack of battery power or storage

Although Ad-hoc and Peer-to-Peer networks may solve the problem to some extend but there are limitations due to not enough mobile nodes available or willing nodes or nodes with incompatible devices.

1.3 DTN concept: Solution to Challenged environments and mobility

DTN aims to provide solution for challenged environment where no end- to-end connection is available or it is disrupted. Delay Tolerant Network is a network over underlying heterogeneous networks having opportunistic encounter driven ‘store, carry and forward’ approach to provide connectivity on hop-by-hop basis. Most discussedcurrent approach to DTN is centred on an overlay protocol called the bundle protocol (BP).[11]

2.4 DTN Denial of service attack (DoS): Motivations

DTN transmission is open channel and multi-hop which makes attacks in such situations an easier task. Traditional mechanisms to mitigate these attacks are not well sufficient to challenge environments where nodes are not connected for long periods of time and direct end-to-end communication is not possible and resources are scarce. Most of the solution available so far in literature address security in general and does not give attention to Denial of Service aspects in DTN. DoS is the most common attack in Internet communication and in DTN environments due to longer delays DoS attempts will be more effective. So there is need for more research explicitly considering DoS at all times.

1.5 Objectives of Project

Study of delay tolerant network (DTN) architecture, its concepts and Bundle layer and how they differ from current networks, giving more emphases on security and attacks. First I will review the state-of-art in context of DTN security and attacks at present then I will analyse possible.
Identify the common DoS attacks and their countermeasures, focussing on a scenario of communication in delay tolerant networks comprising mobile nodes.
To design develop and test some resilience mechanism mechanism to address the identified attacks (nodes with address spoofing, false authentication and packet flooding), focusing on a critical metrics of performance using Simulator Simulation result will show how performance of a DTN network suffers when no Resilience scheme is used.

1.6 Overview of Dissertation:

First I will review the state-of-art literature review in context of DTN architecture, security and analyse possible DoS attacks in DTN and their countermeasures. Then (in Ch-3) I will present an attack model and resilience mechanism for DoS attack. In next sections will follow ONE simulator overview and future work in direction of achieving objectives of project with Gantt chart and finally conclusion and references.

CHAPTER 2: State-of-The-Art and Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

DTN aims to provide usable Internet-way communications for long variable delays, asynchronous as well as interrupted heterogeneous environment where existing transport protocol and congestion control mechanism have limitations [1].

2.2 Delay Tolerant Network history and Overview

Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have become a hot research topic among researchers and academicians since it was proposed by Kevin Fall in 2003 SIGCOMM seminar paper [1]. Vinton Cerf who is recognized as “one of the fathers of Internet” contributed in designing and defining its reference Architecture [2] in DTNRG for IETFdraft of RFC-4838.

Basic DTN architecture by Internet Research Task Force’s Delay-Tolerant Networking Research Group (IRTF DTNRG) involves use of ‘Bundle protocol’ which allows communication over multiple hops by means of ‘custody transfers’ andmessages in DTN are routed in store-and-forward manner on each node[RFC-5050].

2.3 Delay Tolerant Networking Definition and Contexts of DTNs in Literature

A delay- or disruption-tolerant network has been defined in several ways in literature. In [1], the DTN is defined as challenged networks, which may not follow the assumptions of the Internet. In [2]RFC-4838 describes it as occasionally and opportunistically -connected networks that may comprise more than one different set of protocols. It includes a hop-by-hop transfer of message for reliable delivery. A DTN as stated in [5] was defined as a network of regional networks, where it serves as a store-and-forward overlay on top of (and providing interoperability between) regional networks (Internet, the MANETs, sensor network or any other network).

2.4 Constraints in Delay Tolerant Networks

Node Constraints includes (a) Limited Memory (b) Limited and unreliable Power and Energy (c) limited transfer time for messages.
Network Constraints are (a) Unreliable Communication (b) Collisions and latency
Physical Limitations are (a) Unattended after deployment (b) Remotely managed
Link constraints (a) long and varying delays (b) changeable mobility pattern of devices
In Opportunistic networks such as Sensor/Actuator networks that use scheduled intermittent connectivity (to conserve power), because they have extremely limited node power, storage memory, and CPU processing capability.
In Vehicular networks which use opportunistic (unpredictable) contact for message delivery.
In Satellite networks having medium delays or periodic connectivity
In Terrestrial wireless networks that connect mobile devices, including PDAs etc.
In Underwater acoustic (sensor) networks having frequent interruptions with moderate delays.
Outer (deep)-space networks (InterPlaNetary (IPN) Internet project).
Military Ad-hoc Networks such as a military battlefield where systems operate in highly hostile environments having mobility, bad environmental factors, or regulations causing disconnections like intentional jamming.
In Rural villages or developing regions low cost and remotely located networks that non-interactively and occasionally communicate with the Internet. For example remotely located schools, kiosks and computer centres are linked on occasional basis using satellite and data mules or local transport infrastructures.
In sparsely connected ad hoc networks where some wireless devices or networks may fall outside the required communication range of each other.

2.5 Major DTN Applications and Examples

Example of Projects involving DTN: [6,7] Diesel net. Haggle, Interplanetary Internet, BBN’s SPINDLE project, FirstMileSolutions SeNDT – Sensor Network with Delay Tolerance, Saratoga and HTTP-DTN, SNC Project, N4C Project, ZebraNet, FidoNet, SUMOWIN, Shared Wireless Infostation Model (SWIM) at Cornell, The Mindstream Project at the University of Waterloo School of Computer Science, Time Equals Knowledge (TeK),World Wide Web Offline Explorer (WWWOFFLE), Bytewala DTN, Chianti, IBR-DTN etc.

2.6 Routing in DTN **

Traditional routing protocols operate under the assumptions of continuous connectivity, low delay and very low packet loss rate but in case of DTN opportunistic and disconnected links new routing protocols and system architectures are required to be developed. There are various types of DTNs based on their characteristics, but allows great flexibility for routing protocols in these networks based on their specific requirements.

There are several DTN routing schemes proposed in the literature. Four major ones could be

Epidemic routing: Epidemic routing simply makes multiple copies of packets to flood the network in a hope that any one of them will be delivered to the destination. This protocol performs best in terms of packet delivery and latency when network bandwidth and storage are unlimited. But it is not the case in practice.

PROPHET: estimates delivery predictability to destinations using the history of encounters.

MaxProp: computes a rank for each packet in terms of delivery probability and sorts packets in the transfer buffer accordingly. Upon transfer opportunity, packets are replicated in the order of their ranks

Spray-and-Wait: follows a flooding scheme, but limits the total number of copies per packet.

2.6 Threats in DTN

To understand the topic I will first examine the terminology, then the definitions of threats and DoS followed by discussion why DoS is potential problem in DTN. Security and attack literature reviews are given in next chapter.

Threat: [20] Any circumstance or event (such as the existence of an attacker and vulnerabilities) with the potential to adversely impact a system through a security.

Attack: Attempt to gain unauthorized access to a service, resource, or information, or the attempt to compromise integrity, availability, or confidentiality. It is irrelevant to success, which may or may not.

Non DTN node threats: The first set of threats considered were those coming from network elements which are not directly part of the DTN. As an overlay network, bundles typically traverse multiple underlying networks. Any vulnerability in the bundle protocol can be exploited at any of those network elements [13].

Denial of Service (DoS): Classically, the definition of denial-of-service (DOS) involves three components: authorized users, a shared service, and a maximum waiting time [20][13].

In DoS Authorized users are said to deny service to other authorized users when they prevent access to or use of a shared service for longer than some maximum waiting time.

More generally to denial-of-service in DTN: The result of any action that prevents any part of a DTN from functioning correctly or in a timely manner so that intended user cannot use it. It is directly a breach to availability [20].

2.7 Denial of Service Attacks:

[3]In addition to the basic resource consumption threats mentioned above there is also a range of denial of service (DoS) attacks which must be considered in the DTN context.

DoS attacks can be mounted at any layer, from physical to application. In a DTN environment, the generally longer latencies involved will probably act to make DoS attempts more effective. As with all networks, security mechanisms will themselves create new DoS opportunities. Therefore whatever services and mechanisms are defined for DTN security should explicitly consider DoS. For example, mechanisms which involve certificate status checking (via some protocol to a key) based on received messages create new DoS opportunities since such lookups consume resources on both the receiving node and the key server. Common DoS attacks:

Attacks that are common to DTNs are

Dropping of packets,
Flooding the network with unnecessary spurious packets,
Spoofing a different node’s address to intercept all the packets destined to that node, orrupting routing states and
Counterfeiting network acknowledgments
Resource consumption (Battery exhaustion, creating routing loops)

2.8 Resource consumption

Due to the resource-scarcity that characterizes DTNs, unauthorized access and use of DTN resources is a serious concern. Specifically, the following can consume DTN resources and be considered threats against a DTN infrastructure [13]:

1. Access by unauthorized entities,

2. Unauthorized applications controlling the DTN infrastructure,

3. Authorized applications sending bundles at a rate or class of service for which they lack permission.

4. Unauthorised bundle content modification -tempering

5. Compromised network elements, be they DTN nodes or not.

In addition to these threats, DTN nodes can act to assist or amplifysuch resource consuming behaviour as follows:

Forwarding bundles that were not sent by authorized DTN nodes.
Generating reports not originally requested (e.g. if a bundle has been modified)
Not detecting unplanned replays or other misbehaviours.

DoS prevention: As described above, denial-of-service is a breach of the security characteristic of availability. Along with availability, confidentiality and integrity are the primary concerns of security.

DoS cannot be prevented because most attacks leverage the use of routing and other network activity but there are countermeasures to mitigate it like:

Spread spectrum techniques (using network coding)
Proper authentication using either Public-key cryptography (computationally expensive)

or Fast symmetric-key cryptography must be used sparingly

Currently work has been done using Identity based cryptography (IBC) or Hierarchical based cryptography (HIBC).

DTN Security Requirements: [5] According to DTNRG The emphasis of DTN security is

on protecting the DTN infrastructure from unauthorized access and use Prevent access by unauthorized applications,
Prevent unauthorized applications from asserting control over the DTN infrastructure,
Prevent authorized applications from sending bundles at a rate or class of service for which they lack permission,
Promptly detect and discard bundles that were not sent by authorized users, (early detection within infrastructure rather than at destination),
Promptly detect and discard bundles whose headers have been modified
Promptly detect and disable compromised entities
Secondary emphasis is on providing optional end-to-end security services to bundle applications.

CHAPTER 3: My proposed approach to DOS in DTN

3.1 Introduction

In this section I summarise my analysis of previous work done in the areas of security and attacks in DTN, especially Denial of Service in DTN. Also I identify conditions that are can materialise an attack materialise. Then I show that based on these conditions the attack effectively happening in a representative model, with a set number of nodes and chosen network topology, routing schemes and security scheme.

I also demonstrate that security and privacy are crucial in DTN and using cryptographic techniques we can secure DTN. I assert that because of constrained nature of DTN, participants have limited access to Trusted Authority.

In view of these constraints, I propose a model based on a symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography to mitigate DOS attacks in DTN. My model is based on prior creation and distribution of keys to participants at setup stage, where each trusted participant knows keys of others.

3.1 Scenario

My scenario is based on IETF DNRG architecture on Delay tolerant network. There are multiple operating groups in this DTN. Each group has its own trusted and well known registering agency/organisation which can work as an affiliation agency or service provider. These could be any mobile service provider or any company which will register its employees and knows them prior or any university/school/hospitals which can register members by verifying their identity and credentials. This means that members of this group are now trusted and known and are not malicious.

With this set up we have limited authenticated participant nodes and we can avoid any malicious activity by unknown/ untrusted nodes. Such network is a special DTN and can also be useful for example in a conflict zone where participation by anonymous nodes is not desired.

I consider a scenario in which these mutually trusted DTN mobile nodes exchange messages within its group (using PDA/Bluetooth devices/mobile phones) with one another after authentication phase is successful.

Fig1: Used Scnario

3.2 Background/Review of Security and DOS in DTN In Literature

Here I will discuss solutions and reviews based on literature survey on DTN security and DOS attacks. There is a particular lack of research papers addressing DOS attacks in DTN. Most work is based on assuming that routing or security mechanism of DTN will prevent DOS to some extent. Nevertheless these schemes can never underlie the necessity of authentication protocols.

Farrell and Cahill [11] review the current state of DTN security work inspired by Internet. They identify and analyse threats for DTN and the security requirements in bundle protocol. Then they discuss open issues in bundle security and implementation issues in DTN security as follows. (1.) First set of threats are from outside network due to being overlay nature of DTN. (2.) modification of messages or bundles in transit for malicious purposes. (3.) Unauthorized use of scarce DTN resources like replay attacks and (4.) denial of service which can be mounted on any network layer, and (5.) confidentiality and integrity threats like changing the destination in bundle.

The author propose for DOS that firstly using random values instead of counters for identifying messages will make it hard to guess valid message content. Secondly, accepting only fresh authenticated messages and dropping all others will be advantageous in mitigating attacks. Thirdly, authors point that networks and security protocols themselves can create new DOS if not carefully designed. I am building on the second concept in my proposal i.e. exchange message after successful authentication.

Moreover, Farrell and Cahill [11] propose that security architecture is needed in which security services can be provided both on hop-by-hop and end-to-end basis, and additionally between two intermediary nodes in the middle of a route. They also mention that several open issues remain in DTN security like the implementation cost and level of complexity should not rise too high, since typically complicated solutions are not secure in practice. Another big open issue is key management [11][12] briefly addresses security services on an end-to-end basis (e.g. confidentiality and DoS), but does not go into specifics nor considers the case of initial communication between two nodes without any prior security context.

[13]The Delay Tolerant Networking Research Group (IRTF-DTNRG) has produced an Internet draft for bundle security protocol specification [12] and an additional draft [13] explaining the security overview and design choices made in the specification. The draft which is near completion describes security headers that can be added to bundles to provide different security services.

Security Blocks in Bundle security Specification: According to RFC draft [13] there are four types of security block that can be included in a bundle. These are the (1.)Bundle Authentication Block (BAB), (2.) Payload Integrity Block (PIB), (3.) Payload Confidentiality Block (PCB) and (4.) Extension Security Block (ESB).

The BAB is used to assure the authenticity and integrity of the bundle along a single hop from forwarder to intermediate receiver.
The PIB is used to assure the authenticity and integrity of the payload from the PIB security-source, which creates the PIB, to the PIB security-destination, which verifies the PIB authenticator.
The PCB indicates that the payload has been encrypted, in whole or in part, at the PCB security-source in order to protect the bundle content while in transit to the PCB security-destination. PIB and PCB protect the payload.
The ESB provides security for non-payload blocks in a bundle. ESB therefore is not applied to PIB or PCBs, and of course is not appropriate for either the payload block or primary block.

Extension Blocks

Bundle Payload

Primary Blocks (Time Stamp, Life Span, Flags, Source EID, Destination EID, Report to EID, Custodian EID)

Security Blocks (optional)

BAB, PIB, PCB, ESB

Each security block contains source and destination information and a cipher-suite defines the algorithms that should be used to process the received security headers. The security-sender and the cipher-suite information together determine the choice of keys. Different combinations of these four security headers can be used simultaneously.

The need to authenticate bundles using Security blocks is very useful to protect against denial-of service (DOS) attacks against a bundle agent’s resources, but need more insight knowledge how to implement it.

In [14], [15] (Seth and Kate) authors discuss the challenges of providing secure communication (i.e., confidentiality) in DTN and suggest employing Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) to let a source derive the destination public key from some associated identity string, e.g., an e-mail address. In [14] Seth et al. discuss in detail about rural area DTN and shows that traditional mechanisms including a combination of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and certificates issued by trusted third party are not suitable for DTN. They develop a security mechanism for DTN using Hierarchical Identity-Based Cryptography (HIBC) for creating secure channels, providing mutual authentication, and key revocation.

[15] Kate et al. uses identity based cryptography (IBC) for source authentication and anonymous communication as well as message confidentiality are provided using IBC. Its main idea is to make an entity’s public key directly derivable from its publicly known identity information such as e-mail address. Eliminating the need for public-key certificates and their management makes IBC much more appealing for securing DTNs, where the need to transmit and check certificates has been identified as a significant limitation. I note that the existing techniques to secure DTNs are aimed to provide data confidentiality and authentication only.

In [16] Burgess et al. suggested that some Delay tolerant networks coupled with replication-based routing protocols are intrinsically fault tolerant even without authentication mechanisms. They compare four different routing algorithms (MaxProp and its three variants) against four different attack models: dropping of packets, flooding of packets, routing table falsification and counterfeiting delivery acknowledgments. They distinguish between two types of attack; weak and strong attacks on the basis of prior knowledge of DTN scenario. One of the major themes in the paper is the two-fold benefit of epidemic-style packet dissemination in DTN routing which improves packet delivery rates and greater attack tolerance. However, this paper does not provide any attack specific simulation.

In [22] authors poses the question of the necessity of authentication or the level of authentication required especially since authentication imposes overhead. Without authentication, the number of nodes willing to join the network may actually increase due to the easier deployment, resulting in better overall performance. They identify conditions for an attack and present an attack based on a combination of targeted flooding and acknowledgement counterfeiting. They suggested that generally, attacks become increasingly effective when the minimum hop count required increases.

Coclusion: Identity-based cryptography requires a global trusted third party to guarantee for new nodes entering the network (by generating the necessary private keys). But IBC is no better than traditional PKI in terms of authentication and only a little better than traditional PKI in terms of encryption since network connectivity is not necessarily needed at the time of reception and decryption.

In [17] authors propose a scheme that gives confidentiality and authentication to messages leveraging social contact information and past present affiliation of peers. Author evaluates the proposed scheme by analysing real-world social network data of Facebook, simulating communication scenarios, and through an informal security analysis.

In [18] authors focus on DOS and describe few possible DOS attacks for DTN and propose a token based mechanism against those attacks. Authors suggest attack depends on routing protocol. Therefore, it is obvious that the routing protocol that maintains routing table like in-node states can be subject to severe DOS attacks. Spray-and-wait protocol is a stateless protocol in that nodes do not maintain any routing states; instead a tiny state is kept in each packet header. Their first approach is very trivial but second approach based on Token utilising collision count with every peer node provides countermeasures against spoofing and packet dropping in a limited scenario. There are many drawbacks in this approach for example an honest node always meets the same malicious node spoofing the same address and that honest node never meets with the actual address holder or any other adversary spoofing that address. In this case the honest node does not suspect this peer to be an adversary and always follows basic Spray and will transfer message to malicious node.

In [19] A. Wood very broadly discusses about DOS attack taxonomy to identify the attacker, his capabilities, and the target of the attack, vulnerabilities used, and the end result. Although, author surveys vulnerabilities and give possible defences in Wireless sensor network some of which issues are useful in gaining insight of DOS attacks in DTN. According to author denial-of-service is the result of any action that prevents any part of a network from functioning correctly or in a timely manner. It is directly a breach to availability.

In [2s0] authors also use Identity based cryptography to investigate how security in DTNs can be bootstrapped and present an improved scheme for authentication of fragments. We show that DTN with replicative routing protocols are not necessarily robust under known denial of service attacks if there are no authentication mechanism in place. Under many networking settings and mobility patterns, carefully designed attacks based on well-known techniques can cause considerable performance degradation. They investigate the attack effectiveness under various settings and identify properties of the networking environment that attribute to the vulnerability of the network. They observed that routing protocols which globally floods routing metadata to guide routing decisions are more susceptible to attacks as the routing metadata can be easily spoofed. They also observed that the minimum hop count required for packet delivery plays an important role.

3.3 Attack Model

My objective is to determine how performance of a DTN network suffers when no authentication scheme is used. This also depends on other variables set aside in assumptions about the security model and what attacks I want to consider. By recognise that these little variations can cause DTN to perform badly even in the presence of few attackers, for example in case of extremely low mobility of nodes and one node positions itself at a crucial location along the routing path. If that node misbehaves, by dropping or flooding bundles, DTN will perform miserably at least along that routing path.

I have chosen a hop by hop authentication model where main aim of adversary nodes is to create DOS by preventing the successful delivery of packets to their intended destinations. The adversary nodes can join together to launch a coordinated attack or a standalone adversary node can perform an opportunistic attack.

3.4 Authentication

Without authentication no estimation can be formed about the identities of nodes and therefore the intentions of peers can be determined. In traditional TCP/IP, data frames are transmitted to all other nodes on a network. Each receiving node checks the destination address of each frame, and simply ignores any frame not addressed to its own MAC. Because it is a local broadcast domain, MAC address spoofing is fairly easy. Attackers can spoof address of any node and can become any node at any time including the destination node of the bundle.

3.5 Routing Model

While routing is important consideration and routing data exchange between nodes is an important factor, the need for peer to peer and end to end authentication cannot be precluded. In my model I am ignoring any attacks based on routing data exchange and also at application layer such as spoofing requests that floods legitimate nodes to flood each other with unneeded traffic.

3.6 Mobility Model

An attacker’s mobility can be variable. It can attack all nodes that come within its transmission range or it can choose to remain in the vicinity of one node in the network for extended periods. Tailgating is also possible. [6] Burgess et al call the latter approach a parasite attack – the most effective use of the attacker’s resources.

3.7 Attack types

In the above situation DOS attacks are possible by misbehaving nodes. I am considering the following two:

Packet Dropping: An adversary node does not replicate, forward or store a packet that is received from its peer. These nodes act like black holes in the network and impair packet propagation in the network, although routing choices such as Spray provide some resilience to such attacks, because additional copies of packets might exist at other locations.

Address Spoofing: An adversary fakes the some other node’s address when it encounters another node in the network. An unsuspecting node sends packets to this malicious node and removes packets from its queue. The unsuspecting node might also delete the packet after delivery.

If the malicious node receives packets with a high replication count, the successful delivery of such packets becomes highly unlikely. Spoofing created more problems in the network than dropping with respect to packet delivery. An attacker can also perform both types of attacks simultaneously.

3.8 Assumptions

In this section I describe assumptions for my proposed resilience mechanism to prevent DOS attacks in DTN. I’m considering two schemes; one based on pre shared symmetric keys and other based on public key cryptography.

There is a Trusted Authority is assumed not to be compromised and nodes can only be registered by proving their credentials. Registration Authority can be any service providing company or any local company or government organisation. Also malicious nodes cannot be registered and registered nodes are not malicious.
Each node has a unique ID and I assume that all group nodes have enough power and storage capability to perform cryptographic operations.
For pre pre-shared keys scheme, each node at registration phase is given a group key, which it uses for authenticating other nodes.
For public key cryptography based scheme, each node is given a public- private key pair at registration phase. Also, each node maintains a table of every other node in the group and their public keys. This table is provided at registration phase.

3.9 Proposed Resilience Mechanism

My proposed schemes are based on creating a mutually trusting network of nodes. Spoofing nodes cannot utilise this network because they cannot pass authentication checks.

a) Scheme based on pre-shared group key:

The communicating nodes thwart potential DOS attacks of packet flooding by malicious sender and packet dropping by malicious receiver. Nodes authenticate each other before sending packets. The intention is to find if a peer is spoofing someone’s address. This is done as follows.

Two nodes N1 and N2 are part of the group, which shares the group key G that they received at registration phase and wants to authenticate each other.

Node N1 generates a random token RN1 and encrypts is with the group key G and sends the encrypted message G[RN1] to N2
Node N2 decrypts G[RN1] with G and sends result G’[G[RN1]] to N2
Node N1 checks whether RN1 is equal to G’[G[RN1]], if mismatch, N1 terminates further communication, otherwise proceed to next steps
Node N2 generates a random token RN2 and encrypts is with the group key G and sends the encrypted message G[RN2] to N1
Node N1 decrypts G[RN2] with G and sends result G’[G[RN2]] to N2
Node N2 checks whether RN2 is equal to G’[G[RN2]], if mismatch, N2 terminates further communication, otherwise proceed to next steps
N1 and N2 exchanges message.

The drawback of this scheme is if pre-shared group key is compromised a malicious node can spoof any other node and coordinated attacks can be very disastrous.

b) Scheme based on public key cryptography:

In this scheme each trusted node maintains a table of other nodes and their public keys. This list is originally provided by Trusted Authority and refreshed when subject node comes in contact with Trusted Authority opportunistically or at scheduled times.

The communicating nodes authenticate each other based on each other’s public keys before sending packets. This is done as follows.

Two nodes N1 and N2 are part of the group, with each having their public private key pair [NiPub, NiPvt] received at registration phase.

N1 generates a random Token RN1
N1 creates encrypted Token N2pub[RN1] Using shared N2’s public key and sends to N2
N2 decrypts N2pub[RN1] using its private key and responds with N2pvt[N2pub[RN1]]
N1 checks whether N2pvt[N2pub[RN1]] is equal to RN1. If mismatch, N1 terminates further communication, otherwise proceed to next steps
N2 generates a random Token RN2
N2 creates encrypted Token N1pub[RN2] Using shared N1’s public key and sends to N1
N1 decrypts N1pub[RN2] using its private key and responds with N1pvt[N1pub[RN2]]
N2 checks whether N1pvt[N1pub[RN2]] is equal to RN2. If mismatch, N2 terminates further communication, otherwise proceed to next steps
N1 and N2 exchanges message.

In both of these schemes one node needs to know if

the bundle originates from a trusted community in order to prevent flooding attack by a malicious node and
the bundle is sent to a trustworthy node in order to prevent packed dropping

If a malicious node spoofs some other node’s address, it cannot decrypt the encrypted random token it received from its peer.

Analysis of Proposed Mechanism:

I have chosen the above mutual authentication schemes as a mechanism to prevent DOS attacks on DTN because this is a reliable way to identify malicious nodes and prevent packet flooding by rejecting packets from untrusted nodes and also prevent the risk of packet dropping by not sending packets to untrusted nodes.

If a malicious node tries to send junk packets to legitimate nodes, the packets can be discarded at first contact with a legitimate node because a malicious node cannot authenticate itself to the network without pre-shared group key or public-private keys issued by Trusted Authority.

There is a need to address current distribution of security information among nodes. This will involve key management and revocation issues. But this is part of more general DTN configuration management solution.

3.10 Simulation model and parameters

Result Matrices:
The simulation results will show that packet delivery rate decreases significantly in the presence of malicious nodes, i.e., packet droppers and/or address spoofers.
The results will also show that delivery rate is increased with our countermeasures.
In addition to that, I will also measure the overheads caused by the countermeasures in terms of number of copies of a single packet.
One Simulator (used for simulation)
The Opportunistic Networking Environment (ONE) simulator has been specially designed for evaluating DTN routing and application protocols. It is written in JAVA. It provides

Generation of node movement using different movement models e.g. 1. Random Movement

2. Map based Random Movement 3. Human behaviour Based Movement

Routing messages between nodes with various DTN routing algorithms and sender and receiver types.
Visualizing both mobility and message passing in real time in its graphical user interface.
I have run some scenarios and already Implement protocols in ONE like 1.) MaxProp 2.)Direct Delivery, 3.) Epidemic, 4.) First Contact, 5.) PROPHET 6.) Spray and Wait
I have tried to read and understand Code of different classes,
I have configured ONE using Eclipse
Work done

Fig: Screen shot of scenario

One simulator test runs

Five test runs were done on One Simulator using default epidemic routing with varying number of nodes from 60 to 180 in steps of 30. Some of the results are captured in the table below

Nodes60

90

120

150

180

sim_time165

374

541

780

1096

delivered288

292

313

300

299

delivery_prob0.3876

0.3914

0.4196

0.4032

0.4024

hopcount_avg20.7396

15.2705

17.7636

15.12

12.9398

Future work

I have chosen mutual authentication as a means to prevent DOS attacks because current implementation of DTN does not yet completely address the problem of address spoofing and packet dropping. Without the aid of some form of authentication either at node level or bundle level, it is difficult to discern malicious nodes.

The bundle security protocol draft introduces four new security blocks in Bundle architecture (BAB, PIB) and their purposes. These blocks can be used to implement existing cryptographic techniques to provide some robust resilience against DOS and other common attacks in DTN. However this will involve development of reliable cipher suites and cryptosystems and this is an area of continued research. My further work will be mainly focused in the area of Bundle security specification.

CHAPTER 4: Conclusion

4.1 Project Work Plan

5: References

[1]K. Fall, “A Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture for Challenged Internets,” SIGCOMM, August 2003.

[2]Vinton Cerf, Scott Burleigh, Adrian Hooke, Leigh Torgerson, Robert Durst, Keith Scott, Kevin Fall, and Howard Weis, Delay-tolerant network architecture. DTNRG Internet Draft, March 2003 and IETF RFC 4838, informational, April 2007.

[3]K. Scott and S. Burleigh, “Bundle Protocol Specification,” IETF RFC5050, experimental, November 2007.

[4]K. Fall and S. Farrell, “DTN: an architectural retrospective,” Journal of Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 26 no. 5, pp. 828- 836, June 2008.

[5]William D. Ivancic (NASA Glenn Research Center), “Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks”, IEEEAC paper1057, Version 4, Updated 2009:10:27

[6]DTN The State of the Art (http://wiki.n4c.eu/wiki/images/0/03/Proposal_description.pdf) [7] Challenged Internet Access Network Technology Infrastructure (CHIANTI March 2008)

[7]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delay-tolerant_networking

[8]L. Wood, W. Eddy, P. Holiday: “A Bundle of Problems,” IEEE Aerospace conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 2009.

[9]K. Scott and S. Burleigh, “Bundle Protocol Specification,” IETF RFC5050, experimental, November 2007.

[10] F. Warthman. Delay tolerant networks tutorial..tnrg.org/docs/tutorials/warthman-1.1.pdf, 2003.

[11] Stephen Farrell and Vinny Cahill. Security considerations in space and delay tolerant networks. In Proc. 2nd IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology (SMC-IT’06), July 2006.

[12] Stephen Farrell, Susan Symington, and Howard Weiss. Delay-Tolerant networking security overview.IRTF, DTN research group, October 2006. Draft version -03; expires in Expires: January 4, 2008.

[13] S. Symington, S. Farrell, H. Weiss. Bundle Security Protocol Specification. http://www.dtnrg.org/draft-irtf-dtnrg-bundlesecurity-19.txt, Expires: September 12, 2011.

[14] A Seth, U. Hengartner, and S. Keshav. Practical security for disconnected nodes. In First Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSec), Revised 2006 version of the NPSec paper http://www.cs.uwaterloo.ca/a3seth/practical security v2.pdf.

[15] A. Kate, G. Zaverucha, and U. Hengartner. Anonymity and security in delay tolerant networks. In Secure Comm 2007.

[16] J. Burgess, G. D. Bissias, M. Corner, and B. N. Levine. Surviving attacks on disruption-tolerant networks without authentication. In MobiHoc ’07, pages 61–70, New York, NY, USA, 2007. ACM.

[17] K. El Defrawy, J. Solis, G. Tsudik. Leveraging Social Contacts for Message Confidentiality in Delay-Tolerant Networks 33rd Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference, Seattle, Washington, July 20-24, 2009

[18] Technical Report on ‘Denials in DTN’ by www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/14821/denialindtns.pdf?…

[19] Wood A. D. and Stankovic J. A. “A taxonomy for denial-of service attacks in wireless sensor networks”, in Handbook of Sensor Networks: Compact Wireless and Wired Sensing Systems, edited by Mohammad Ilyas and Imad Mahgoub, CRC Press LLC, 2005.

[20] N. Asokan, K. Kostianinen, P. Ginzboorg, J. Ott, and C. Luo, “Towards securing disruption-tolerant networking,” Nokia Research Center, Tech. Rep. NRC-TR-2007-007.

[21] Virgil D. Gligor. On denial-of-service in computer networks. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering, pages 608.617. IEEE, 1986.)

[22] Fai Cheong Choo, Mun Choon Chan and Ee-Chien Chang “Robustness of DTN against Routing Attacks,” COMSNET, Bangalore, Jan 4-9, 2010.

[23] Ari Keranen, Jog Ott, and Teemu Karkkainen. The ONE Simulator for DTN Protocol Evaluation. In SIMUTools ’09: Proceedings of the 2nd Inter-national Conference on Simulation Tools and Techniques, New York, NY, USA, 2009. ICST.

[24] One simulator tool website. http://www.netlab.tkk.fi/tutkimus/dtn/theone/.

Categories
Free Essays

How is the Internet changing our lives?

Introduction

The Internet is transforming lives. It has become an invaluable tool for communication, information and entertainment. The numbers of people, who join in social network services (SNSs), such as Facebook, twitter, and blogs, has been increasing for a decade. SNS makes the way of communication easier, faster and has also changed our lifestyles as it is so much more convenient compared to before we were using it. In this paper, I will begin by defining what constitutes SNSs and then present a history of them. Following this, I am going to review of three questions:

1 Why SNSs have become important as a means of communication between people?

2 What is the impact of using SNSs on social relations for the individual or group?

3 What are the factors that make SNSs more effective between people?

Definition

SNSs is web-based services which allows individuals to (1) establish a public or semi-public profile within specific network system, (2) link a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system (Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 2007).

History

According to the definition, ‘SixDegrees.com’ is the first recognizable social network site witch launched in 1997. It allowed users to have profiles, list their Friends.

From 1997 to 2001, the number of community tools began to allow users to create personal, professional, and dating profiles—users could identify friends on their personal profiles without seeking approval for those connections. In 2001, people launched SNSs as their business networks. The users first introduced the site to his friends which helped users to expand their business networks.

From 2003, many new SNSs were launched, which the form of profile-centric. Take two most popular SNSs, which are called “MySpace” and “Facebook”, as examples.

MySpace began in 2003 to compete with other SNSs. It was able to grow rapidly between young adults and allow the user to have relationship between artists and fans. The bands-and-fans dynamic was beneficial each other: Bands and their music company, which they are belonging, want to contact fans for business opportunities and fans also desired from their favourite bands as well. Nowadays, it became the most popular SNSs between teenagers in USA (Boyd, D.M. 2008).

On the other hand, Facebook began as a Harvard-only SNS in early 2004. To join, a user had to have a “harvard.edu” email address. After 2005, Facebook expanded to everyone. The change to open signup did not mean that new users could easily access users in closed networks. Unlike other SNSs, Facebook users are unable to make their full profiles public to all users. Another unique feature of Facebook is the ability for outside developers to build “Applications” which is enables users to personalize their profiles and perform other tasks, such as compare movie preferences and chart travel histories (Boyd, D.M. 2008). There are four hundred million users who are from thirty countries, according to the recent survey. (Tech countries, 2011)

Questions

1 Why SNSs have become important as a means of communication between people?

Most users find it indispensable and are using it in ways that enhance their lives. The developing SNSs allow people to have more opportunities compare to before. Especially for from young adults to business people, they have become the most popular way of communication.

Most SNSs focus on growing broadly and exponentially, others explicitly seek narrower audiences. Their systems are designed for these points. They introduce, for instance, new friends to users automatically according to their interests, hobby, and degrees so on between networks (Boyd, D. M. 2007). Therefore it is often happens to be able to contact with old friends or old classmates, who have not contact for a long and also make friends with people who have same interest without meeting face-to-face.

Not only for maintaining friendship but also for business, SNSs have become the important tools. ‘Ecademy’ is one of the business networking sites built up of a networking. Members share business connections and opportunities each other. It is free to join in, however, membership can be upgraded to power networker for 14 dollars a month (Ina, O. 2004).

On the other hand, others point out the negative impact of SNSs. Internet abuse is a broad common word which has varied manes and definitions. The terms used include interne addiction (IA) and it has been found worldwide. Two studies in Taiwan that used representative samples show that 12 per cent of high school students who had ever used the Internet had IA. Other studies which have used convenience samples report IA incidence as ranging from 3.5 – 15 per cent (Janet, M.M.2009).

Nowadays, it is common for teens to depend on SNSs for their first socializing, and the worlds of fantasy and reality have often collided into disaster. ‘”Mean girls” who wouldn’t give a wallflower the time of day in the halls of an upper secondary school have “friended” them on cyberspace, causing an oddly skewed perception of social acceptance.’ (Love To Know Corp. 2011)

Some teens even experience physical harm over Internet relationships spurred by SNSs. It is usual cases that some of users commit suicide because of cyber bullying incidents. SNSs give all generations the opportunity to remain anonymous, lost in a large virtual world, which they are able to express themselves (Love To Know Corp. 2011).

However, the impact of social network services does not have to be so negative. These negative aspects can be avoided by their parents’ control accounts. Additionally, there are many useful services for defending young adults against dangerous. Moreover, having opportunities to discuss the rules and positive aspects of social networking with friends and family can also help them to confirm the role of social networking.

2 What is the impact of using SNSs on social relationship for the individual or group?

The impact of using SNSs for the individual

Internet use involves special factors which together create a unique physical environment for the user. McKenna, K.Y.A. (2002) suggests four major factors that differentiate between Internet interaction and face-to-face interaction:

a. Greater anonymity;

b. The reduction of the importance of physical appearance;

c. Greater control over the time and space of interactions;

d. The ease of finding similar others;

Greater anonymity

On the internet, people can easily keep their anonymity. They can select a false name and nickname or hide other personal information. This secrecy around their identify helps people to express their own opinion more freely and sincerely than they would in a face-to-face meeting. However, when a common social identity is available in the net communication, for instance it is likely to improve intergroup discrimination through email addresses (Postmes,T. 2000).

The reduction of the importance of physical appearance

Attractive people have more social advantages in our culture than the other people. They are better liked, more helped and seen possessing better personality feature and intellectual abilities. And the first impression in a face-to-face also sets the course for the rest of the interaction (Fiske, S.T. 1991). In this case, it is hard for people with unsightly or unattractive physical characteristics to express themselves in public. However a typical Internet social communication is solely text-based, the physical characteristics keep undisclosed. Therefore, they have opportunities to present themselves in any way they choose on the Internet. Ben, Z.A. (2005) point out that the anonymity of the Internet encounter may also be enjoyed by people who are concerned that their appearance is the only reason that others wish to get to know them.

Greater control over the time and space of interactions

People, who are socially inhabited, very shy, or have no social skills may often feel lack of control and even fear during a typical face-to-face meeting. The unique aspect of Internet communication is that the user can decide when he or she will write message and when he or she will reply. Additionally, the whole encounter is taking place in an environment of their choice and this would be a source of security and comfort. Therefore the user is able to ‘go out to meet the world’ from their own living room (Duval, S 1972). The flexibility of the Internet interactions fits very well with the demands of modern lifestyle.

The ease of finding similar others

The Internet is accessed everyday by many users, who have various different interests. On the Internet, many thousands of different groups exist and it is directly to find a group of similar others. This, together with the ease of finding details of their different interests and services offered by the net, makes it extremely ease to find out like-minded others visiting the same site. In summary, this fact has opened up opportunities for people belonging to groups (Amichai, Y. 2007).

The impact of using SNSs for the group

In general, there is space for write email address on the any forms, such as from application forms for member’s cards in shops, questionnaires to prescriptions in hospital. Those email addresses are used to send massages or newsletters to all the members on the list. What are the advantages of this is that it makes the sender easier to find specific recipients who need information from them. It is good for each other because senders do not need to send useless information to people who are not interested in their fields, and also recipients can receive useful information only (Tanis, M. 2009).

The other type of group online is web-based discussion forums, which member can contribute by posting messages that others can read, and if desired, respond to. So, the discussions consist of previous posting and members’ opinions (Tanis, M.2009).

All this makes web-forms easy accessible locations and where people can give and receive support and where people that are interest in the topic of the group can browse through the postings in an attempt to find the information they need.

3 What are the factors that make the SNSs more effective between people?

Many of the theories explain the way of communication in Internet – real relationships in cyberspace. According to Lea and Spears (1995), both of the visual anonymity and the lack of co-presence of the communicators would expand the interaction possibilities, and for some this is the ‘magic’ of on-line relationships. Other theories have also made the claim that the anonymous of the Internet provides a space to feel more comfortable to self-disclose information about themselves (Parks, M.R and Roberts, L.D. 1998). Clearly, people feel more comfortable disclose to someone that they will probably never meet again.

SNSs also focus on growing network between friends on the internet. Their features or use searching and profile browsing, many sites offer a range of community building. It is predicted that SNSs collaboration and communication techniques be means of mobile phones or network connected portable tools (Ina, O. 2004).

Additionally, users use not only their user name and birthday but also more personal information, such as photograph, real name, hometown, e-mail address, cell phone number, relationship status (i.e. in a relationship or single), sexual orientation, and instant messenger screen name as their profile on SNSs. As in other SNSs, Friendster members create a profile and make public links to others. These functions support users to develop new relationships and share information and also have general use (Dwyer 2007).

However, according to Dwyer (2007), the news media point out that the reputation of SNSs has diminished. Although millions of people have joined them with adding reveal personal information, privacy within social networking sites is often not expected or is undefined. Although members can control what appears on their profile, they cannot control what appears on a friend’s profile. Take a teacher and her students as an example, Crude pictures or movies on a friend’s profile caused concern for a teacher when her students asked to ‘friend’ her. This placed her in an uncomfortable position, because it is enable students to access to her profile would also allow them to look at her friends, who she knew to have dangerous pictures on their profile (boyd, 2004).

Conclusion

The adults among us can still remember the days before the Internet. However, Internet, for children and young adults, is a natural part of life.

The population of Internet users is becoming ever closer to that of the general population. Not only for maintaining relationships but also for business opportunities, they have been used by many people, and also they are designed growing network between the users on the internet, such as offering a range of community building. They encourage the users to make new networks. Additionally, they support the user to feel comfortable to join SNSs through many variety factors, such as using real user’s profiles or anonymity. Therefore, many users feel that SNSs interaction is more freely and useful than face to face communication.

It is true that although SNSs are indeed useful, we have become too depend on them. It enables people, especially for young adults, to make relationship skill be weak in face to face interaction. In addition to that the number of Internet Addiction has increased for the last two decades. However, the number of their user will expand in the future because their advantages outweigh disadvantages.

Reference

Amichai, Y. (2007) The Oxford Handbook of Internet Psychology: personality, individual differences and Internet use, ed. New York : Oxford University Press.

Boyd, D.M. (2004) Friendster and Publicly Articulated Social Networks: Proceedings of ACM Conference on Human Factor in Computing System, ed. New York: ACM press.

Duval, S. (1972) A theory of objective self-awareness, ed. New York: Academic Press.

Dwyer, C. (2007) Trust and Privacy concern within social networking sites, Google scholar [online], available: http://csis.pace.edu/~dwyer/research/DwyerAMCIS2007.pdf [accessed 20 March].

Fiske, S.T. (1991). Social cognition,ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Janet, M.M.(2009) The Oxford Handbook of Internet Psychology: Internet use and abuse and psychological problems, ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lea, M. and Spears, R.(1995) Love at first byteBuilding personal relationships over computer networks: In J.T. Wood and S.W. Duck,ed. Newbury:sage.

McKenna, K.Y.A. (2002) ‘Relationship formation on the Internet, what’s the big attraction?’, Journal of Social Issue, 58,9-32.

Parks, M.R. and Roberts, L.D. (1998) ‘making MOOsic’: the development of personal relationships online and a comparison to their off-line counterparts’, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15, 517-537.

Postmes, T. (2000) ‘The emergence and development of group norms in computer mediated communication’. Human Communication Research, 26, 341-371

Tanis, M. (2009) The Oxford Handbook of Internet Psychology: Online social support groups, ed. New York : Oxford University Press.

Tech countries (2011) The World’s Top Ranked Tech Countries 50 [online], available: http://www.weforum.org/news-0 [accessed 10 March].

Ina, O. (2004) Online Social Business Networking communities, Google scholar [online], available: http://www.diri.ie/ [accessed 20 March].

Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (2007) Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication [online], available: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html [accessed 15 March].

Love To Know Crop (2011) Social network [online], available: http://socialnetworking.lovetoknow.com/Impact_of_Social_Network_Services [accessed 15 March].

Categories
Free Essays

The Rise of Youtube and the Causes of Internet Music piracy

Introduction
Sharing of illegal musical contents is becoming very popular nowadays. Sharing tools and many websites such as Kazza and Pirates bay are considered as a major source for downloading musical tracks and albums from the Internet around the globe. There are many reasons which have caused these illegal acts to emerge.

One of the possible causes is the high cost of some albums and concert tickets. Many musical concerts might ask for very high entry fee. Example of this is the ticket price of a local concert for an artist named Stevie Wonders at Yas Island which is set to a price of Dhs250!

Some CD and DVD packages might be little overpriced as well; however, several websites such as Amazon offer used CD albums while other websites such as iTunes offer cheap Mp3 tracks and albums for as low as 1$ ( 4Dhs).

Another possible cause is the diversity of tools and methods used by the pirates to publish the stolen and illegal material. Tools such Ares, Shareeza, and Kazza could be downloaded easily into your computer and use the P2P technology to acquire all the latest albums. The P2P (peer to peer) technology allows thousands of persons to share the same album and even allow the illegal users to comment on and rate these contents. There are several search engines created to find the illegal peers (distributors) such as torrentz.com website which connects thousands of violating sites. There are also several website where you can search for recorded musical events too. Several sites exist like YouTube where people can upload and watch HD quality full concerts for free with subtitles which make it more convenient for them than paying for the ticket money. Some people might also use forums and blogs to distribute such albums. Twitter (which is a blogging site) is an excellent source for the leaked mp3 tracks downloads.

A third cause of this major issue is the lack of moral and legal knowledge about this issue. For instance, many of the teens nowadays think that it’s not bad to download songs from the Internet. A recent study made by Barna group discovered that only eight percent of the sample of 1448 teenagers thinks it’s morally wrong to download music illegally from the internet (Ventura, 2004). As a result, several laws are enforced to protect Artist’s rights such as the UAE Copyright Law .These laws range from huge fines to impressments of copy-right violators, but these laws are mostly implemented heavily on companies rather than particular persons and this might seem quite disappointing.

As a conclusion, it’s hard to ignore the several causes that made some Internet users distribute copied music contents through the Internet. It will be better to educate these persons on the possible effects of their actions.

Bibliography

Moore, C. W. (2003, August 8). Is Music Piracy StealingRetrieved March 12, 2011, from Applelinks: http://www.applelinks.com/mooresviews/pirate.shtml

Stevie Wonders. (n.d.). Retrieved 03 12, 2011, from Yas Island: http://www.yasisland.ae/en/events-calendar/flash-events/yas-island-show-weekends/concerts/stevie-wonder-live-on-yas-island/

Ventura. (2004, April 26). Fewer Than 1 in 10 Teenagers Believe that Music Piracy is Morally Wrong. Retrieved 03 12, 2011, from The Barna Group: http://www.barna.org/barna-update/article/5-barna-update/139-fewer-than-1-in-10-teenagers-believe-that-music-piracy-is-morally-wrong

Categories
Free Essays

Bio-metric technologies are capable of providing the secured way of identification and personal activities to overcome the security issues in the process of Internet banking in banks

INTRODUCTION:

The purpose of this literature is to identify whether Bio-metric technologies are capable of providing the secured way of identification and personal activities to overcome the security issues in the process of Internet banking in banks. This literature also discusses about the possible security threats which most affect the online banking and the progress of counter measures taken to overcome the security issues. The main aim of this research is to analyse the capability of Bio-metric technologies and also about the benefits of using Bio-metric technologies for the security purpose in Internet banking.

GROWTH OF INTERNET BANKING:

According to Aravind Duraiswamy (2009), traditional way of banking requires their customers to visit the banks every time even to perform their basic banking needs like checking their bank account balance. As the usage of Internet becomes popular banks came up with the concept of Internet banking where customers could perform most of the transactions from their homes or anywhere for that matter. The Internet banking application has features that help to meet most of the banking needs of a bank account holder over the internet.

A recent paper (Hisamatsu et al, 2010) mentioned that the concept of online banking started in the 1980’s and it first became available for client use in 1995. Since then, the number of banks offering online banking services as well as demand for the service has increased. In the UK alone, the number of people using online banking has increased by 174% in just 5 years from 2001 to 2006. In the US, 53 million people, or one out of every 4 adults, used online banking in 2005.

According to Lee (2008, p.130-141) However, despite the fact that online banking provides many advantages, such as faster transaction speed and lower handling fees, there are still a large group of customers who refuse to adopt such services due to uncertainty and security concerns.

Binshan et al. (2010) indicates that trust is the “heart of the system” for online banking. Thus, we can say that internet banking is susceptible to greater sense of insecurity than older banking services and thereby importance of trust is also relatively higher in adoption of internet banking. A review by Michal et al. (2009) mentions that, a high level of perceived risk is considered to be a barrier to propagation of new innovations. Influenced by the imagination-capturing stories of hackers, customers may fear that an unauthorized party will gain access to their online account and serious financial implications will follow.

Rise of Security Attacks in Internet Banking:

A paper (Zakaria et al, 2009) reported that information security means the protection of information and information systems from illegal and unauthorized access, use, destruction or modification of data or information. However at the same time, information security issues are considered as the major factors affecting the growth of online banking as the fraudulent activities are prominently increasing. Also it has been reported that one-third of account holders who had signed up for e-banking had stopped using it due to unsatisfactory security service or the complexity of using the service.

A review by Laerte et al. (2011) indicates that the number of malware and exploits focused on online banking systems vulnerabilities has been steadily growing during past years. Recent reports indicate that banking Trojans were among the 50 main security threats in 2009. While Brazil figures as the source and destination of most of those attacks performed in Latin America.

Rachwald (2008, p.11-12)argues that in the physical world attackers are limited by their ability to manipulate physical items like making an extra copy of your account number. In the online world attackers are essentially unlimited in the resources they can bring to bear.

A review by Francisco et al. (2010) mentions that, Banking is considered a highly dynamic business, even more so when price reductions or better conditions are offered to customers contracting services over the internet. However some groups of customers are reluctant to use such services. Regarding electronic commerce in general, consumers show more concern about the use of banking services when the amount of money potentially exposed to fraud is significantly larger, than with other types of services or organizations.

Various types of possible Security Attacks:

Most internet banking fraud occurs in a two-step process. First, the offender must get their hands on the customer’s account information, like their username and password. Second, the offender will use that information to move his victim’s money to another account or withdraw it to make fraudulent purchases, which can be found online (Internet Banking Fraud: Why is Online Banking so Popular, 2009).

These fraud schemes include,

Phishing:

Hossain et al. (2011) argues that, Phishing is a web-based attack that allures end users to visit fraudulent websites and give away personal information (e.g., user id, password). The stolen information is the beginning point of many illegitimate activities such as online money laundering. Phishing attacks cost billions of dollars in losses to business organizations and end users.

A recent paper (Pravin et al, 2011) argues that, although phishing is a simple social engineering attack, it has proven to be surprisingly effective. Hence, the number of phishing scams is continuing to grow, and the cost of the resulting damages is increasing. One of the main reasons why phishing attacks are possible is because mails can be spoofed easily.

Butler (2007, p.517-533) found that a White Paper on Phishing explains that use of the term “phishing” originates in the term “password harvesting fishing”. Phishing attacks are popular, as they are relatively inexpensive to launch, while the potential returns for the phisher could be significant. Phishers succeed in their attacks as consumers are not adequately informed about the risks of disclosing their personal details.

A review by Gerald et al. (2008) indicates that the term ‘phishing’ has its origins from the analogy that identity thieves are using lures usually in the form of e-mails to ‘fish’ for passwords and financial data from the ‘sea’ of Internet users. As users are getting more aware of the modus operandi of phishing attacks over the Internet, identity thieves are taking measures to deceive the public and to continue harvesting stolen identities online. A variant of phishing that is yielding potent results to these perpetrators is spear-phishing which is more targeted and specific if compared to its predecessor.

A review by Petr et al. (2010) mentions that in the Phishing kind of attack, the attacker tries to obtain victims private information like credit card number, passwords or account numbers. It is based on sending bogus e-mails, which pretend to be an official request from victim’s bank or any other similar institution. These e-mails requests to insert victim’s private information on referenced page. This page looks similar to official internet banking and the user fills in all requested fields in good faith that all his information will be safe, which leads to the compromising of all of his information.

Malware, Botnets and DDoS Attacks:

According to Wajeb et al. (2011) nowadays, there is a huge variety of cyber threats that can be quite dangerous not only for big companies but also for an ordinary user, who can be a potential victim for cybercriminals when using unsafe system for entering confidential data, such as login, password, credit card numbers, etc. Among popular computer threats it is possible to distinguish several types depending on the means and ways they are realized. They are: malicious software (malware), DDoS attacks (Distributed Denial-of-Service), botnets.

Shrutiet al. (2010) argues that Botnets are the network compromised machines under the control of a human operator. Using botnet attacker can perform various attacks like distributed denial of service (DDoS), email spamming, key logging, click fraud etc. DDoS attack is used to perform overloading in a network or system, so that an authorized user cannot use the service.

Starting a distributed denial of service attack needs a whole bunch of machines. According to various sources, it’s very easy to compromise a computer. As soon as a computer is compromised it can be used to engage in malignant activities. A so called “Bot” is created. One bot as itself cannot be very harmful but as a user gathers a collection of bots and binds them together, the user is creating a “BotNet” which has a much high bandwidth capability. The communication between the bots is using a specific control channel which is owned by the bot herder or bot master (Burkhard et al., 2011, p.22).

Malware infects PCs, waits for the user to log onto a list of targeted banks and financial institutions, and then steals their credentials which are sent to a remote server in real time (Gendron, 2010).

A recent paper (Shih-Yao et al., 2009) indicates that malware is designed specifically to expose confidential information, such as system data, confidential files and documents, or logon credentials that are stored on the infected computer. With the widespread use of online shopping and Internet banking, the compromises of this nature results in significant financial loss, particularly if credit card information or banking details are exposed.

Viruses:

Online banking customers are being targeted by international cyber criminals who are using sophisticated computer viruses to empty their accounts. A new version of a well-known Trojan virus has stolen ?675,000 from about 3,000 online customers of an unnamed British bank, according to an internet security company (Griffiths and Harvey, 2010). The cash has been remotely transferred out of the accounts, held by businesses and individuals.

The virus checks to see how much money is in the accounts, steals it and shows the customer fake bank balances to cover its tracks, the company said. It uncovered the scale of the theft after penetrating the criminals’ command-and-control server, which is based in Eastern Europe. The company said that it had informed the financial institution concerned and the police two weeks ago and the attack appeared to be continuing. Zeus v3 is one of a new wave of viruses that often invade consumers’ machines when they visit legitimate websites, in what is termed a “drive-by” infection (Griffiths and Harvey, 2010).

Burton (2008) identified a Trojan virus labelled SilentBanker. SilentBanker is aptly named because this virus embeds itself on home computers after users have visited random websites and it has the ability to redirect money from customer’s accounts during a normal Internet banking session, all without any outward signs that a virus is at work. And most worrisome of all is that the usual indicators of a secure website; the locked padlock symbol and the letter “s” in a website address (https :), no longer guarantee that a website is secured.

Spyware and Adware:

Clutterbuck (2010) highlighted that, Spyware has been described as a software paradigm designed to illicitly collect and distribute targeted consumer information. “It is difficult to define spyware with precision. The working definition proposed … was software that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge and which may send such information to another entity without the consumer’s consent, or asserts control over a computer without the consumer’s knowledge.”

In the analysis of Aycock (2010, pp.2) Adware can be considered a somewhat less harmful and usually more obvious form of Spyware. Spyware is covert; adware is overt. Just as for Spyware, there are behaviours that could be thought of as being characteristic of adware.

Janice et al. (2008) defines Adware, a type of spyware, delivers specific advertisements and offerings, customized for individual users as they browse the web. These advertisements can take the form of pop-up or pop-under ads, web banners, redirected webpages, and spam e-mail. Some adware however, may alter a homepage by hijacking a web browser, or add URLs to bookmarks, to persistently present a competitor’s website or a look-alike site, disallowing the user web access for his own purposes.

According to Janice et al. (2008) personal information such as financial data, passwords, and identification-tagged downloads can be transmitted, without the user’s knowledge or consent, to the spyware author or third-party sites. These sites can “phish” for data from user inputs while surfing, banking, and making purchases. The data could then be used to promote gambling, pornography, or fraudulent schemes, such as identity theft, to unsuspecting users.

Insider Attacks:

(Hui et al., 2010) defines insider and insider threat as “An insider is a current or former employee, a contractor or a business partner who has or had authorized access and intentionally exceeded that access in a manner that negatively affected the confidentiality, integrity or availability of the organization’s information or information systems’.

Fyffe (2008, p.11-14) argues that, In response to the increase in data breaches and the need to monitor and prevent attacks at every level, security professionals are proactively seeking ways to combat the insider threat. Despite this increased focus, internal attacks remain difficult to prevent. The motivation of those behind the breaches can be difficult to identify and the perpetrators often hide in plain sight. In many cases, insider attacks are premeditated and deliberate, but organisations must also recognise that non-malicious insiders can inadvertently access and distribute sensitive information.

Existing counter measures and why they are not effective:

(Paget, 2009) argues that financial fraud often starts with the diversion of personal information. A trash or recycling bin, a telephone conversation, or a poorly protected computer can be the starting point for fraud. Businesses are often vulnerable as well. Stolen laptops and data loss can lead to lasting damage to its brand image and heavy financial consequences for the company itself or its customers. In this respect, banks find themselves on the front line. Although it is impossible to completely eliminate the chance of becoming a victim of identity theft, individuals can effectively reduce their risk by following some commonsense recommendations.

Anti-Phishing Counter measure:

A recent paper (Abdullah and Malcolm, 2009) indicates that there have been different proposed anti-Phishing solutions to mitigate the problem of Phishing. Security toolbars have been used to prevent Phishing attacks such as SpoofStick. There are also anti-Phishing approaches that make users aware of Phishing emails and websites and how to avoid them. The most basic approach is publishing guidelines for the Internet users to follow when they go online.

According to (Abdullah and Malcolm, 2009) Anti-Phishing training will make the end-user aware and it will erect an effective barrier against Phishing attempts. Anti-Phishing awareness was shown to have a great positive effect in mitigating the risk of Phishing. There is a variety of anti-Phishing training approaches to make users aware of Phishing emails and websites and to learn how to avoid them.

People are vulnerable to phishing attacks because spoofed websites look very similar to legitimate websites. People have trouble identifying phishing sites even in tests in which they have been alerted about the possibility of such attacks. Furthermore, when phishers personalize their emails, they can further increase the likelihood that the attack will be successful. Researchers have developed several technical approaches to countering phishing attacks, including toolbars, email filters, and verified sender addresses. However, these approaches are not foolproof. In a recent study of 10 anti-phishing tools, only one tool was able to correctly identify over 90% of phishing websites, and that tool also incorrectly identified 42% of legitimate websites as fraudulent. Furthermore, while automated phishing detection is improving, phishers continuously adapt their attack techniques to improve their chances of success (Johnny, 2007).

According to (Cranor, 2008) with so much of money at stake, the computer security community has been scrambling to develop tech­nologies to combat phishing, such as filters for e-mail and Web browsers that flag phishing at­tempts. Although such software has helped stop many attacks, phishers are constantly evolving their tactics to try to stay a step ahead of such technologies. Since phishing plays on human vul­nerabilities, a successful attack requires a victim to succumb to the lure and take some action and it is also not strictly a technological problem.

A review by Ponnurangam et al. (2010) indicates that most anti-phishing research has focused on solving the problem by eliminating the threat or warning users. However, little work has been done on educating people about phishing and other semantic attacks. Educating users about security is challenging, particularly in the context of phishing, because users are not motivated to read about security in general and therefore do not take time to educate themselves about phishing for most users, security is a secondary task (e.g. one does not go to an online banking website to check the SSL implementation of the website, but rather to perform a banking transaction) and it is difficult to teach people to make the right online trust decision.

Malware, Botnets and DDoS Counter Measures:

Traditional ways of counter-measuring botnets is generally restricted to spotting a central weak point in their infrastructure that can be manipulated, disrupted or blocked. The most common way is to cooperate with an Internet service provider to gain access and shut down the central component, resulting in a loss of control for the botnet owner: The botnet cannot be commanded anymore. Such actions are often performed during emergency response to an ongoing incident like a DDoS attack (Felix et al., 2009).

According to (Felix et al., 2009) the most promising approach is to remove the base of a botnet, which is the C&C server. Pulling the plug of the command-and-control host allows to extinguish the whole botnet in one go. Unfortunately this is only possible if all of the following conditions are met:

1. The botnet uses a centralized structure

2. The location of the C&C server is known

3. The provider cooperates

If any one of those conditions is not met, the C&C server cannot be removed.

A review by Muththolib et al. (2010) mentions that Static Passwords, also the most common type of authentication method used in e-banking websites. It is based on proof knowledge. This type of mechanisms is prone to all type of attacks and usually attacks like capture, replay, guessing or phishing are common and effective attacks. Soft-token Certificate/SSL-TLS,this mechanism conducts mutual authentication between the user terminal and internet banking server, based on the certificates stored on the user’s web browser. The mechanism is prone to malicious software attacks such as key logger screen captures and also allows access to the user’s certificate stored on the browser which would also result in identity theft Muththolib et al. (2010). Hard-token Certificate/SSL-TLS:in this mechanism it uses a token for the authentication process. This mechanism is prone to token attack tools, malicious software attacks and also these tokens can be stolen. One-time Password/Time-based Code Generator: in this mechanism a one-time password is generated by a random calculator, using a seed that is pre shared between a PIN protected user’s device and the Internet Banking Server. This mechanism is also prone to number of attacks including device theft.

Viruses, Spyware and Adware Counter Measures:

(Miko, 2010) argues that using trusted HW deviceslikeHW calculators, HW password generators, smart cardreaders, mobile phonewill help to block the viruses. Assume that the computer is under attacker control (e.g. via Trojan Horse). Using alternate channel (OOB – out of band) SMS messages, phone calls will help to overcome from the attack. Assume that all the communication computer -Internet is under attacker control.

According to (Kishore, 2009) to protect the systems against Trojan horses, users should use virus scanners and be careful with downloaded software or e?mail attachments. However usage of one-time passwords (OTP) solves only credential stealing and the confirmation codes are not linked with authorising transaction which made more vulnerable to the viruses.

Summary:

Finally, from the above discussions we can understand that the bank industries faces an enormous growth with the help of Internet banking facilities and also we can realize that how Internet banking becomes a negative aspect for the banking industry in the means of security issues which cannot be able to completely prevented with the use of existing counter measures. In the next step we can find out and analyse whether Bio-Metric technology is capable of providing a secured way of authentication in Internet banking to overcome the security threats.

References:

(Butler, 2007; Johnny, 2007; Burton, 2008; Cranor, 2008; Fyffe, 2008; Gerald Goh Guan Gan, 2008; Janice C. Sipior, 2008; Lee, 2008; Rachwald, 2008; Internet Banking Fraud: Why is Online Banking so Popular?

, 2009; Abdullah Alnajim, 2009b; a; Aravind Duraiswamy, 2009; Felix Leder, 2009; Kishore, 2009; Paget, 2009; Shih-Yao Dai, 2009; Zakaria Karim, 2009; Michal Polasik, 2009

; Aycock, 2010; Binshan Lin, 2010; Clutterbuck, 2010; Francisco Munoz-Leiva, 2010; Gendron, 2010; Griffiths, 2010; Hui Wang, 2010; Miko, 2010; Muththolib Sidheeq, 2010; Petr Hanaeek, 2010; PONNURANGAM KUMARAGURU & LORRIE FAITH CRANOR, 2010; Shruti Singh, 2010; Hisamatsu, 2010

; Burkhard Stiller, 2011; Hossain Shahriar 2011; Laerte Peotta & Jr, 2011; Pravin Soni, 2011; Wajeb Gharibi, 2011)

Abdullah Alnajim, M. M. (2009a) ‘An Approach to the Implementation of the Anti- Phishing Tool for Phishing Websites Detection’, 2009 International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems. IEEE. [Online]. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=05370926 (Accessed: 30 March 2011).

Abdullah Alnajim, M. M. (2009b) ‘An Evaluation of Users’ Anti-Phishing Knowledge Retention’, 2009 International Conference on Information Management and Engineering. 18 June 2009. IEEE. [Online]. Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5077029 (Accessed: 30 March 2011).

Aravind Duraiswamy, S. (2009) Security Testing Handbook for Banking Application. Cambridgeshire: IT Governance.

Aycock, J. (2010) Spyware and Adware. [Online]. Available at: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=UKNgoM3nLe0C&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=spyware+and+adware&ots=ISwyV-b5-s&sig=EmiqG3ChX6bB5CZKkm_Lnc4cTKs#v=onepage&q&f=false (Accessed: 21 March 2011).

Binshan Lin, A. Y.-L. C., Keng-Boon Ooi, Boon-In Tan (2010) ‘Online banking adoption: an empirical analysis’, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 28 (4), pp. 267-287 [Online]. Available at: http://jr3tv3gd5w.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Online+banking+adoption%3A+an+empirical+analysis&rft.jtitle=International+Journal+of+Bank+Marketing&rft.au=Binshan+Lin&rft.au=Alain+Yee-Loong+Chong&rft.au=Keng-Boon+Ooi&rft.au=Boon-In+Tan&rft.date=2010-01-01&rft.pub=Emerald+Group+Publishing+Limited&rft.issn=0265-2323&rft.volume=28&rft.issue=4&rft.spage=267&rft.epage=287&rft_id=info:doi/10.1108%2F02652321011054963&rft.externalDBID=n%2Fa&rft.externalDocID=10_1108_02652321011054963 (Accessed: 17 March 2011).

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Internet usage on a mobile phone or other forms of interaction with a hand held cell phone while driving is not only a serious offence in most developed countries but has been banned in most countries

Introduction

Literature review

Talking on a cell phone, internet usage on a mobile phone or other forms of interaction with a hand held cell phone while driving is not only a serious offence in most developed countries but has been banned in most countries because it contributes serious distraction and danger to the drivers and other road users (WHO.2011). In spite of the serious dangers this behaviour poses to the public; evidence shows that many drivers are yet using cell phones while driving. For example, a survey conducted by Nationwide shows that the usage of a cell phone while driving increases a drivers distraction comparative to alcohol consumption beyond the legal limit of .08. The survey result also shows that cell phone usage is the primary source of distraction while driving; that users of cell phone while driving are four times more prone to get into serious fatal accidents; that driving while distracted contribute about 25 percent of reported accident by police among other factors (see www.nationwide.com).

This report was based on analysis of a study conducted for gaining better understanding of the role as well as relative impact of the number of factors on the formation the drivers’ opinions of using a mobile phone whilst driving. The Questionnaires distributed to the large sample of part-time students who are studying at a UK university during the class time. This report is an attempt to conduct a quantitative analysis and interpretation of the study conducted to determine reliability, generalizability and internal consistency of variables utilised in survey and the most important factor in explaining drivers’ behaviour towards using cell phone while driving. The study presumed an assumption that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is valid to gauge the role and impact of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control and past behavior on drivers’ opinion to use a hand held mobile phone while driving. The next section is a critical review of literatures on the theory of planned behaviour theoretical model used in the study. The second and third section presents a report of data descriptions, interpretation of the research and summary of findings in order to determine the internal consistency of the variables employed and their relative relationship and contribution to the model.

Literatures advocate that the theory of planned behavior was an expansion of the theory of reasoned action, which propose that behavioural intentions predict behaviour better than attitudes. The theory of planned behaviour was proposed by Ajzen (1975) to eliminate the limitation observed in theory of reasoned action by adding a third variable perceived behavioural control to TRA, later researchers in various fields have added other constructs to the model. Theory of planned behaviour is applied virtually into the every social and management sector from health to education, consumer behaviour and technology; to examine the relationship between intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Theory is specifically applicable for predict, identify, understand and explain human influences and motivation; hence its applicability to practically every social and management field. (George 2004; Mathielson, 1991; Taylor and Todd, 1995). The theory of planned behaviour is constituted by three primary variables Figure 1 shows components of TPB(See Mathielson, 1991; Taylor and Todd, 1995; Kim and Han 2010, Paul and Mendel, 2006). However, several other variables not necessarily mentioned in report are said to contribute for predicting intention as results and conclusion has shown.

Figure 1 TPB variables (Ajzen 1991)

1. The TPB primary components

Attitude is the number one primary variable among TPB constituents (ATT), its often regarded as the level of the usefulness of psychological object to the individual which determines negative or positive behaviour of individual towards object –of the products (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975, 2000). Some literature suggest that attitude is the most A number of studies which found attitude to be key element in predicting intention in the various context. (See Gopi and Ramayah (2007), Kim and Han (2010), Sang and Chen (2010). Thus, it is expected that driver’s attitude towards the harmful effect of using a cell phone while driving will be positively related

Subjective norm (SN) in contrast is suggested to demonstrate individual perceived shared or societal demands to perform certain behaviour. Thus, it may be inferred that the general opinion of other drivers’ towards driving and using mobile phones will influence individual opinion or intention to perform this behaviour although it is negative or illegal. Literatures suggest that the subjective norm has significant effect on the behavioural intention and the intention (e.g. Hillhouse et al., 2000; Kalafatis et al., 1999; Karahanna et al. 1999). Therefore, a positive correlation between SN and intentions or opinion of drivers to use a cell phone while driving is expected. On the other hand, perceived behavioural control could be regarded as the degree to which it is possible to perform behaviour or a given action (for example drivers’ the attitude and the intention to driving and mobile usage while driving).

PBC is one of the primary elements of the theory of planned behaviour and a co-determinant of the intention along with the attitude and the subjective norm. (Ajzen, 1991; Mathielson, 1991; Taylor and Todd, 1995).Ajzen (1991) suggest that the PBC has only one construct however, critics says that it has two constructs: self efficacy and controllability; casting doubts on the nature and measurement of PBC, doubting Ajzen’s (1991) hypothesis that PBC has only one construct rather than critic suggestion (Paul and Mendel, 2006). However, it was suggested that the possibility of this two construct does not invalidate original unitary assertion (Taylor and Todd, 1995; Kim and Han 2010). Thus, we propose null hypothesis that PBC will positively correlated with drivers’ intention for using mobile phone while driving; or PBC will not be positively correlated with drivers’ intention to use a mobile phone while driving.

Table 1: TPB main constructs (Ajzen, 2000)

Behaviour:

It is transmission of intention or perceived behavioural control into the action.
Behavioural Intention:It is an indication of how hard people who are willing for trying and of how much effort they are planning for exerting, in order to performing behaviour. Influenced by three components: person’s attitudetoward performing the behaviour; perceived social pressure; called subjective norm and perceived behavioural control.

Attitude:It is the first determinant of behavioural intention. It is degree to which person has a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of the behaviour in question.

Subjective Norm:It is considered the second predictor of behavioural intention. This is an influence of social pressure that is perceived by the individual (normative beliefs)for performing or not performing the certain behaviour. This weighted by the individual’s motivation to comply with those perceived expectations (motivation to comply).

Perceived Behavioural Control:Antecedent of behavioural intention. This construct is defined as the individual’s belief concerning how easy or difficult to perform behaviour will be. It often reflects actual behavioural control

2Analysis and result

This section is an analysis of the information on factors that influence and affect drivers’ intention to use a mobile phone while driving based on a study conducted UK. The data collected will be analyzed and interpreted to explain the properties of the measurement scales and the items that constitute the survey conducting a reliability analysis to show the relationship of individual items in the scale (Morris, 2002).

In general, we want to find out whether the survey measure drivers opinion in a valid and sufficient wayUsing reliability analysis, we want to deduce the extent to which the items in the questionnaire are related to each other, in order to deduce an overall index of the repeatability or internal consistency of the scale as a whole, and identify problem items that should be excluded from the scale. The proceeding section identifies significant correlation and regression to determine the predictive ability values of intention on attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and past behavior. Behavioural intention is suggested to be the most important predictor of the behaviour (Teo and Lee (2010). Apparently, this may not be applicable in all the cases.

2.1Sample profile statistics and results
The respondents comprises of participants from a UK university with no missing data for all variables. The descriptive statistics does not contain demographic information or frequency of usage.
2.2 Data analysis reliability measures

This study utilize Likert-type scales to report overall scale and subscale internal consistency reliability estimates in the analysis of the individual respondent to a survey scale items. The study which this report presents its findings used 18 multiple likert items based on the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour to determine drivers’ opinion to using mobile phone while driving. Each question seeks a response for example how “very likely” to very unlikely” in order to understand whether the respondents to this questionnaire agree to presumed harmful effect of using a mobile phone while driving. In order to measure the reliability analysis for each of the TPB constructs Cronbach’s alpha is most commonly used to measure internal consistency of multiple likert scale. Literature suggest that a scale to be reliable must contain multiple items to measure a quantitative response and respondents are asked to rate each items on a scale of response which reflects their best response to the item (Nunnally and Bernstein (1994), and Spector, 1992). It is noted that past behaviour was combined in the SPSS output wit intention since cronbach alpha cannot measure a single item. The proceeding shows the item-analysis output from SPSS for the multi-item scale of student opinion towards their using a mobile phone while driving. The Cronbach’s alpha is 0.495, which indicates a low level of internal consistency for the scales items used for this study as shown in table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaCronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized ItemsN of Items
.495.46518

The Item-Total Statistics table 2.2 presents the Cronbach’s Alpha if item deleted in the final column, as shown below:

Table 2.2 Item-Total Statistics
Scale Mean if Item DeletedScale Variance if Item DeletedCorrected Item-Total CorrelationSquared Multiple CorrelationCronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted
Int157.6573.085.427.717.413
Int258.3768.352.477.797.387
att160.8097.597-.321.690.556
att261.1790.661-.060.686.515
att361.2490.979-.068.625.514
att460.14104.081-.461.601.599
att560.2395.106-.217.450.552
att661.5989.215.032.566.499
sn157.3685.957.100.279.491
sn258.8872.326.480.574.402
sn358.4675.902.365.562.432
sn459.3777.453.230.426.463
sn557.1484.501.178.335.478
pbc159.5570.365.451.687.400
pbc260.6575.230.398.586.425
pbc357.1780.869.250.236.462
pbc461.5082.774.212.242.471
Past Behaviour61.9287.334.438.386.476

This column presents the value that Cronbach’s alpha would be if that particular item was deleted from the scale. It suggests that removal of any question except att4, would result in a lower Cronbach’s alpha. Therefore, it will not give us a better result even if att4 is delete from these questions. Removal of question (att4) would lead to a small improvement in Cronbach’s alpha and we can also see that the Corrected Item-Total Correlation value was low (-0.461) for this item. This might lead us to consider whether we should remove this item. Appendix B suggest that if all attitude question are deleted the cronbach alpha will increase to 0.657 which is a much better result. Table 2.2 column 4 total correlation result for all items shows there is positive correlation between intention and Past behavior (.438; SN-item 2 (.480); and pbc – item 1 (.451) but a weak and the negative correlation between intention and attitude (-.461).

Table 2.3 Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s AlphaCronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized ItemsN of Items
.599.54817

Table 2.3 shows that a removal of question (att4) increases the cronbach alpha 0.495 to 0.599 and also increases the individual items internal consistency cronbach alpha. Table 2.4 shows the measure of spread around the mean (63.13) with a dispersion SD: 9.531.

Table 2.4 Scale Statistics
MeanVarianceStd. DeviationN of Items
63.1390.8389.53118

Cronbach’s alpha reliability the coefficient normally ranges between 0 and 1. However, there is actually no lower limit to coefficient. Closer Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is to 1.0 ,greater the internal consistency of the items in the scale. Based upon the formula _ = rk / [1 + (k -1) r] where k is number of items which is considered and r is mean of the inter-item correlations the size of alpha is determined by both number of items in scale and mean inter-item of correlations. George and Mallery (2003) provide following rules of thethumb: “_ > .9 – Excellent, _ > .8 – Good, _ > .7 – Acceptable, _ > .6 – Questionable, _ > .5 – Poor, and _ < .5 – Unacceptable” (p. 231). While increasing value of the alpha is partially dependent upon the number of items in the scale, it should be noted that this has a diminishing returns. It should also be noted that an alpha of .8 is probably a reasonable goal some studies report alpha of .7 as a suitable. George & Mallery (2003) also noted that while a high value for Cronbach’s alpha indicates good internal consistency of the items in the scale, it does not mean that scale is undimensional explaining that this factor analysis which is not dealt with in this study can be useful.

3. Relationship between the variables

3. 1 Regression Analysis

Regression was used for exploring relationship between intention (dependent variable) and the independent variable of the attitude, SN, PBC, and past behavior the items are supposed to be averaged. According to Cohen (2007) linear regression analyzes is most appropriate to evaluate relationship between two or more predictor variables and the dependent variable (intention). Table 3.1 provides the R and R2 value. The R value is attitude 0.671; subjective norm 0.702; and pbc 0.788 respectively for which represents the relative contribution of each of the variable items in the scale with pbc contributing more in the regression model. Thus, it means that the percentage of variation in intention is explained by the independent variables of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. The R2 value indicates how much of the dependent variable, intention, can be explained by the independent variables. In this case, 57.5% can be explained, which is relatively above average. Representing 42.5% of intention not explained by the TPB variables which are not included in the model and therefore other factors may contribute significantly to variation in intention which is not explained. It also means that about that percent of variance in intention variable can be explained by the regression model. The F-test result was 10.391 with significance (“Sig”) of .000. This meant that the probability of this results occurring by chance was less than 0.05. Thus, a significant relationship was present between intention of students and actual behaviour of using a mobile phone while driving.

Table 3.1 Model Summaryd
ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the EstimateChange Statistics
R Square ChangeF Changedf1df2Sig. F Change
1.671a.450.4251.685.45018.0186132.000
2.702b.493.4491.649.0432.1595127.063
3.788c.621.5751.449.12810.3914123.000
a. Predictors: (Constant), att.avg
b. Predictors: (Constant), att.avg, sn.avg
c. Predictors: (Constant), att.avg, sn.avg, pbc.avg
d. Dependent Variable: int.avg

Table 3.2 below tells us whether or not the regression result is meaningful using the last column (p-value at .05). The ANOVA result is less than .005 meaning that the regression model is appropriate and that a significant amount of variation in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variables, overall, the model applied is significantly good enough in predicting the outcome variable.

Table 3.2 ANOVAd
ModelSum of SquaresDfMean SquareFSig.
1Regression306.931651.15518.018.000a
Residual374.7531322.839
Total681.683138
2Regression336.2901130.57211.241.000b
Residual345.3941272.720
Total681.683138
3Regression423.5241528.23513.453.000c
Residual258.1591232.099
Total681.683138
a. Predictors: (Constant), att.avg
b. Predictors: (Constant), att.avg, sn.avg
c. Predictors: (Constant), att.avg, sn.avg, pbc.avg
d. Dependent Variable: int.avg

The coefficients table (3.3) indicates which of the three independent variables predict significantly the dependent variable of intention better. The result shows that all three TPB variables have a role in predicting intention, however, we can see that subjective norm (.452) have a stronger role, then attitude (.273) and pbc (.057) of the standardized coefficients in fourth red row has a much weaker role to play. Hence, the SN and ATT p-value is less than .000 which means that it is more significant than PBC (.401).

The correlation result (table 3.3) between the dependent variable (intention) and attitude shows that there is a fairly weak but positive correlation between intention and attitude.401, and SN .521 but intention and PBC have a negative correlation -0.12. Also, there is a very weak and no significant relationship between attitude and PBC. However, there is weak but positive relation between intention, SN and Attitude (table 3.3).

3.3 Co efficientsa
ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.Correlations
BStd. ErrorBetaZero-orderPartialPart
1(Constant)1.470.420 3.496.001
Attitude –.538.101.4015.319.000.401.401.401
2(Constant).793.389 2.040.043
Attitude –.371.094.2763.955.000.401.310.265
sn_avg.435.069.4436.348.000.521.464.425
3(Constant)-.0741.099 -.067.947
Attitude –.367.094.2733.908.000.401.308.262
sn_avg.445.070.4526.395.000.521.468.429
pbc_avg.154.182.057.843.401-.012.070.056
a. Dependent Variable: int_avg

The regression coefficient analysis revealed that subjective norm was a highly significant predictor of intention ((? = 44.5%, p value=.000, and t value = .005), attitude (? = 36.7%, p value=.000, and t value = 3.908) and PBC (? = 15.4%, p value=.401, and t value = 0.843). In summary SN predict approximately 45% of intention, attitude 37% and PBC with the lowest contribution (15).

The part correlation, last column, shows the unique contribution of individual variable to the dependent variable (Intention) indicating that subjective norm (45.2%) contribute more and has a greater significance (.000) to predicting intention than attitude (27.3%) contribution and the lowest contribution with PBC (05.7%) contribution (p-value=.401) inferring that PBC is less significant. Further analysis was conducted to examine the additional contribution of past behaviour to intention.

3.2 Additional contributions of past behaviour to predicting Intention

Further regression was explored on the additional contribution of past behavior to intention. The r value (47.8%) adjusted R square for this is 22.9%. It is expected that the ANOVA (table 3.3) result will be significant at .000. The coefficients table (3.4) indicates a higher contribution from country to the model (47.8%) comparative to the key predictor variables. Thus, we may infer that past behavior has a higher contribution to predict intention better than the main constituent variables as shown in above (see table 3.3).

Table 3.2 Model Summaryb
ModelRR SquareAdjusted R SquareStd. Error of the EstimateChange Statistics
R Square ChangeF Changedf1df2Sig. F Change
1.478a.229.223.259.22940.9511138.000
a. Predictors: (Constant), Past Behaviour
b. Dependent Variable: Int.avg
Table 3.3 ANOVAb
ModelSum of SquaresDfMean SquareFSig.
1Regression157.1401157.14040.951.000a
Residual529.5451383.837
Total686.686139
a. Predictors: (Constant), Past Behaviour
b. Dependent Variable: Int.avg
Table 3.4 Coefficientsa
ModelUnstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig.Correlations
BStd. ErrorBetaZero-orderPartialPart
1(Constant)1.776.496 3.578.000
Past Behaviour2.452.383.4786.399.000.478.478.478
a. Dependent Variable: Int2

4. Discussion and Conclusion

This study examines that the theoryof planned behaviour (TPB) in the context of intention to use a mobile phone while the driving attempt for apply TPB to cross examines major determinants of the intention for using a mobile phone while driving.Additionally, past behavior was explored. A sample of students who provided these information about the driving behaviour, as well as views, attitudes and intention regarding for keeping to the regulation banning the use of the mobile phone while driving. The result is however not consistent TPB studies (Ajzen, 1991, Devellis et al,. 1990). The result shows that the subjective norm and the attitude predicted intention better than the PBC. According to (Ajzen, 1991) perceived behavioural control plays important role when the behaviour in question becomes more non-volitional. The result of this study also shows that it is more in agreement with intention predictive ability from other studies using the model TPB. The model fit well in the ANOVA t-test, indicating that as can be seen from table 3.2. This study is consistent with other such results to confirm that the TPB model is valid and is significant in predicting intentions to drive using a mobile phone. Results shows that a percentage of intention (table 3.1) may be explained by other variables confirming other studies conclusion that suggested the extension of TPB by other variables such as past behaviour, self identity among others been added in various studies to explain the variations in intention. The results also show a significant relationship between the variables except pbc which has the lowest correlation (Table 3.3).

Based on foregoing, the primary hypothesis that the theory of planned behaviour is significant in predicting intention is accepted that is consistent with other studies (Kim and Han, 2010; Sang and Chen 2010;Gopi and Ramayah, 2007; Vackier, 2005 etc). Secondly, we noticed that the contribution of the other variables to predicting intention may be responsible to explain the higher percentage variation in intention. Thus, most studies include other variables in order to reduce limitation of the present study. Results of the study show past behavior rather than the TPB variables to be pertinent, accounting for 47.8% of the variance in sample. Some of the limitations of this study include a low level of internal consistency result for perceived behavioural control, these might be responsible for the null-effect result for PBC which is however not consistent with previous studies (e.g. Pavlou et al, 2006). Empirical evidence may not be available to suggest that this result is applicable to other European countries in terms of generalization. Indeed, perceived behavioural control has lowest variance compared to other variables in our study (.067), and it might therefore be less relevant in prediction of the intentions in this case. A second limit might be lack of consideration which is given to additional variables and lack of the measurement which is given to demographic factors and the actual behaviour, which might be contribute to outcome. Finally, this study concludes that perceived behavioural control has the lowest significant contribution for predicting intention as we can see that the subjective norm (.452) has stronger role, then the attitude (.273) and the PBC (.057).

Reference

1. Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behaviour. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

2.Armitage, C. J. & Conner, M. (2001) Efficacy and the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471-499.

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How have mobile phones and Internet changed contemporary art?

Introduction

The main aim of this essay is to investigate the impact of technology on contemporary art. In a more detail, this essay will exploref the impact of mobile phones and the Internet on contemporary art. This essay will include theoretical foundation, backed up with examples. Firstly, a brief overview of the art world in the context of a general technology’s impact, will be presented. Following this,, this study will look into the effect of mobile phones and Internet in contemporary artistic creation and perception. Therefore, this essay will focus on the identification of main technological features that have impacted the art movement and the process of its production. The changes in the modern, individual perception of art are going to be investigated as well.

Background of Issue

Recent research suggests that we as human beings and also consumers, live in the information and digitalisation age. Internet and mobile phones have become the main sources of information and, therefore, the primary mediums of communication with other individuals (Burnham, 1970). In the cultural context, the individuals have started to focus more on the innovation acquisition and creation. The main reason behind it is the constantly changing environment, which triggers the changes in the individual perception. In the context of art, the artists have acquired the tools that facilitate the process of art creation (Shanken, 2009). On the other hand, the people have received the ability to share, what they perceive as art via more exposed and facilitated channels, namely, the Internet and mobile phones. Currently, every person may take a photo of a scene, which is perceived to be artistic and share it with others (Huffington Post, 2012). This, in turn, would be claimed as art. The concept of art has lost its complexity, thus becoming more technology – driven and adhering to the new cultural and artistic frameworks and concepts. As a result, it is crucial to identify the pattern and direction of the contemporary art movement in order to define its future implications.

Impact of technology on the Contemporary art

As it has already been estimated, technology, as part of the environmental dynamics has had a large influence on contemporary art. The internet has provided a more facilitated, digital access to a wide amount of information (Shanken, 2009). The individuals have acquired the possibility to access more enhanced amount of information, which affects the creation and production of art. This includes not only the information, itself, but also the new design programs and mobile applications (Huffington Post, 2012).

Emergence of photography

As part of the technological advancement, photography has become a popular form of contemporary art (Janson and Janson, 2004). To date, there are still debates as to if the significance of photography in contemporary art market is reasoned enough. This suggests that the majority of artists state that the emergence of photography as a form of art has anchored an element of shallowness to the whole concept of contemporary art (Janson and Janson, 2004). This shows that any persona can take a camera in order to make a picture, which would be considered as art. These debates have been present, however, to a lesser degree, in times of black and white film photos. At the moment, the majority of academics still tend to criticize the colour photography as it fails to deliver the beauty of the nuances and moments (Phillips, 2006).

Expanding on this subject, there is also a lot of debates over the subject of the mobile phones and mobile applications. Given that photography is quite a popular form of art at the moment, there have been a lot of applications developed for photography sharing. One of the most popular mobile phone applications is Instagram (Huffington Post, 2012). There is a lot of criticism in relation to this application, since it allows the amateurs to take any picture and share it as a form of art by means of the integrated filters. However, on the other hand, mobile applications have increased the exposure of art works of less known artists (Pew Internet and American Life Project Artists Callback Survey, November/December, 2003). This is supported by the findings of the recent survey, which has been maintained among young artists. The results have demonstrated that the majority of the artists have estimated that the Internet has helped them to promote their works, and to increase the amount of networking connections. The minority of the surveyed population has stated that the Internet exposure has hurt them and their reputation (Pew Internet and American Life Project Artists Callback Survey, November/December, 2003).

Change from form to perspective

It is necessary to note that a change has been reported in the concept of art. This implies that, in the Modernism era, the main focus has been placed on the form in the context of art production (Bersson, 2004). Along with the rise in popularity of technology and the Internet, the main focus has shifted towards context. This implies that the originality has been framed within the boundaries of the ability to re – represent already produced art works. This adds the ironic feature to the whole concept of post-modernism art (Bersson, 2004). Content has also become quite valuable in the post-modernist era. This has been driven by the digitalisation of the art, thus placing a large focus on the content of artistic work.

The context of the artworks is intensified in the light of the absence of the actual truths and facts (Prior, 2005). This implies that only the opinions and perspectives matter whereas the truths and facts have become subjective, thus changing along the dynamics of the daily lives. Post-modernists suggest that knowledge is facilitated by means of culture and language (Prior, 2005). Given the fact that the general culture and language are unified by the globalization and digitization, the knowledge is defined by the technology and internationalisation, in the context of art. Additionally, the production of artworks has become more facilitated, therefore, the artists start to be more focused on the content of the artwork in order to deliver value.

Impact on production

Along with the global advancement and the significance of the innovative product solutions, at the moment, the artists have all the necessary tools in order to produce art. However, the importance of handmade paintings has been diminished over the past decade (CNN, 2006). This implies that the paintings have been linked to more aesthetic and esoteric works of art. Photography, on the other hand, has become a true form of art (Bersson, 2004). This implies that the handmade paintings evolved into a computerized form of art, namely photography. The technology, namely PC, Internet and Smartphones have allowed producing and exposing the photographs by the click of the mouse, via specialized applications and programs. The supportive production-related technological appliances still fall into the specializing category, thus being quite expensive (Poole and Ho, 2011). As the result, the majority of artists tend to rent the editing technology in order to produce qualitative pieces of works. In this case, the main focus is placed on the quality and value of the work and this attracts the artists to use more expensive appliances at the high end. Given this desire, the artists still need a specialized knowledge and skills in order to utilize editing applications and technological solutions (Poole and Ho, 2011). Only the minority of artists tend to utilize the computer based programs for the entire art production process. Normally, the artists would make the sketches and then finish them by means of computerized programs, namely for colouring purposes.

Even though, it has been suggested that the production of art via PC-based programs is more facilitated, it is well arguable. This suggests that a number of artists claim that the process of art production still, requires the same amount of skills while utilizing specialized computer programs, as in the hand-made art production (Poole and Ho, 2011). The only difference applies to the specifics of the required techniques and abilities, however, not to the degree.

There is a high concern over the security and privacy of the shared creative content. Even though, Pew Internet and American Life Project Artists Callback Survey, (2003) demonstrated that the artists have not experienced any negative consequences of high visibility of their works over Internet, there is still high risk associated with this. Recent research suggests that the privacy and security are regarded to be the main issues that may arise on the Internet (Kim et al., 2004). However, these are attributed to the degree of the perceived security in relation to interactive platform. This implies that older users of computer – based programs do not perceive Internet-based platform as highly risky in terms of privacy and security.

Therefore, the studies suggest that the increase in confidence in utilizing the Internet is correlated to the less perceived risk in relation to the possibility of the private content share.

Impact on Perception of Art

It has been estimated that, after the Modernism era, the line between the high art and popular art has become more unclear. This implies that the concepts of popular and high types of art have become mixed up as the result of a large impact of technology, globalization, and ideas (Bertozzi and Jenkins, 2007). This has started with the rise in popularity of Andy Warhol’s art works (CNN, 2006). Modern art is defined by the ability of the artists to become popular in small, niche groups, rather than on a more global scale. This suggests that art has become more scattered, however, also more unified in terms of categorization. This implies that there are a lot of different types of artworks and movements; however, there is no clear focus on any of those movements (Bertozzi, 2007). Contemporary art is defined by the ability to express the views and opinions with others. And this is easier to do in the modern age of interactive, social media. Therefore, people have a more enhanced access to the artworks, which results in the emergence of inspiration to produce art. It has been stated that the whole social networking share platform increases the chance for plagiarism. It is especially intensified since in the modern age, the majority of artists, tend to transform and re-produce the current media content (Bertozzi and Jenkins, 2007). These actions are linked to the features of plagiarism. However, this should be regarded more as evolution of art, rather than plagiarism. In details, this suggests that the artists utilize the raw materials, which are found in the existing artworks, in order to re-produce the new creations (Bertozzi and Jenkins, 2007). For example, the fact that jazz music has evolved from creative improvisations of the popular music melodies proves this suggestion. This implies that it has not been labelled as plagiarism. Therefore, the main question arises as to how people should perceive the modern digital art – shallow and/or the evolution of the post-modernism art movement. It is suggested by a number of academics that, in general, digital communication is regarded to be shallow (Chomsky in Salon, 2011). It is mainly associated with the need to put the thought in a short sentence so that it would fit in 140 characters on Twitter. This may be assumed to be shallow since shortening modifications are made in order to share the thought on Twitter. These modifications tend to include the utilization of urban language and abbreviations, which result in the shallowness of the language (Chomsky in Salon, 2011) The same applies to art, where the individual may take any picture of any object and share it with others whilst claiming that it is an artwork. On the other hand, post – modernism art movement is defined by the ability to share the views and perceptions of the ways one sees the world, which is innovative by definition. This suggests that different people view the world differently. On the other hand, the picture that is shared via social networking website may be just need to practice the skills in the production of the artworks, in order to grow as an artist. And in this evolution, some people might find the new art movement, that may be appreciated. Additionally, as it turns out, the artworks have to be either aesthetic or deliver some message to the people. As Pablo Picasso once stated, – “Art is a lie that makes you realize the truth” (Gardner and Kleiner, 2010, p.699). Therefore, the content is highly crucial in the context of the ability to tell the truth. This, in turn, expands individual perception and their way of thinking (Costache, 2000). As the result, if the artwork reaches the person and its cognition than it has been worth producing.

Conclusion

This paper was designed in order to demonstrate the exploration of the role of mobile phones and Internet in art perception and production. It has been estimated that recently, the technological advancement has driven the majority of the population to utilize the Internet and mobile phones for communication purposes. This has also affected the art industry. This implies that the artists have started to utilize digitalised tools for art production. This has been perceived as a facilitated way to produce art. However, it has been further stated that the utilization of the specialized computer based equipment requires highly developed skills. Another problem with the technological integration in art production has been attributed to the ability of to make the work artistic by means of mobile applications. This adds the element of shallowness to the actual art production and further perception. As with the digital communication, the majority of critics tend to perceive it as being a not serious form of art. However, given the general shift from the form to the context and content, this may be regarded as the evolution of art, in general. This implies that people do not focus entirely on the significance form in the artworks; however, they tend to acknowledge the message it has to deliver. This is directly interrelated with the key aim to share the perspective of the world and situations with others. In general, it has been found out that the majority of artists tend to benefit from the integration of technology. It has been estimated that the main benefit is attributed to the ability to generate and expand the networking connections by means of social networking. Furthermore, the Internet is a medium that allows reaching more customers thus adding exposure to the artist and his works.

References

Bersson R. (2004). Responding to art: form, content, and context, p.67, McGraw – Hill: USA

Bertozzi H., Jenkins V. (2007). 7 Artistic Expression in the Age of Participatory Culture: How and Why Young People Create. Routledge: UK. Available: http://www.artsjournal.com/league/bertozzi.pdf (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Burnham, J. (1970). The Aesthetics of Intelligent Systems. On the Future of Art, p.119, New York: Viking

Chomsky in Salon. (2012). Why Chomsky is wrong about Twitter. Available: http://www.salon.com/2011/10/23/why_chomsky_is_wrong_about_twitter/ (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Costache I. (2000). “The Truth in Painting” Or in TextThe Dialogue Between Studio Art and Theory in Education. Available: http://www.aesthetics-online.org/articles/index.php?articles_id=9 (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

CNN, (2006). Globalization, technology changing the art world. Available: http://articles.cnn.com/2006-11-26/entertainment/art.globalization_1_high-art-curators-and-museum-directors-art-boom?_s=PM:SHOWBIZ (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Gardner H., Kleiner F., (2010). Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume 2, p. 699, Cengage: USA

Huffington Post, (2012). Instagram: Photography’s Antichrist, Savior, Or Something In Between?. Available: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/18/instagram-photography_n_1893230.html?utm_hp_ref=design#slide=1536224 (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Janson H., Janson A. (2004). History of Art: The Western Tradition, 6th ed., Pearson: USA

Kim S.S., Malhotra K.N., Agarwal J., (2004). Internet Users’ Information Privacy Concerns (IUIPC): The Construct, the Scale, and a Causal Model. Information Systems Research, Vol.15, Iss. 4, pp. 336 -355

Shanken E.A. (2009). Art in the Information Age:Technology and Conceptual Art. Leonardo, Vol.35, Iss. 4, pp. 433-438

Phillips R. (2006). Modeling Life: Art Models Speak About Nudity, Sexuality, And the Creative Process, p.24, New York Press: New York

Poole D. and Ho S. (2011). Digital Transitions and the Impact of New Technology On the Arts. Available: http://www.cpaf-opsac.org/en/themes/documents/DigitalTransitionsReport-FINAL-EN.pdf (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Prior N. (2005). A Question of Perception: Bourdieu, Art and the Postmodern. The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.56, Iss.1, 123-139

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The emergence and social impact of the internet on primary school education

Introduction

The computer and its related technology such as the internet are increasingly used in society today, impacting various systems including classrooms in primary schools across the world. There has been an increase in use and emphasis of information and communication technology (ICT) in educational activities, to aid teaching and to enhance learning. Primary schools have been encouraged to integrate ICT into the curriculum and to provide not only access, but also knowledge and skills to prepare students for life in a modern society.

Several western countries throughout the globe such as the United Kingdom and the United States have prioritized the use of ICT in education through policy development and the allocation of funds for the endeavour (US Department of Education, 2004; Labour Party, 1997). The No Child Left Behind Act announced by the US government in 2001 and its constituent subsection Enhancing Education through the Technology Act of 2001, provided for the evaluation of technology and its significance to teaching and learning in the long term.

In the UK, access to computer technology was prioritized in the ‘National Grid for Learning’ providing access to essential education materials of high quality (Labour Party, 1997). The British government made huge investments in creating initiatives such as ‘UK online’- networked online centres, the ‘National Grid for Learning’ initiative – the connection of 30,000 public schools to the internet by 2002, as well as the ‘New Opportunities Fund’ – to train teachers in the use of technology (Selwyn, 2002).

To support the strategic use of ICT in UK’s four education departments, BECTA (the British Educational Communications and Technology Agency was established (BECTA, 2006). It serves to provide insight from research and analysis of ICT as a strategic advisor and coordinator of e-strategy. It also works with relevant partners to enable the strategic delivery of e-strategy (BECTA, 2006). In the US, the Department of Education’s Office of Educational technology (OET) seeks to maximize the contribution of technology towards the improvement of education (US Department of Education, 2004; 48).

These policy initiatives, in addition to those of other stakeholders such as school’s management and boards, parents, as well as the ICT and other industry, have served as catalysts for the development of new standards, enhancing the use of ICT tools and the internet in primary schools (Prior and Hall, 2004).

Discussing the all-round internet use by children, Livingstone (2003) distinguished three major categories including: entertainment, education and edutainment. This variance in usage can both be beneficial in improving learning outcomes with the enhancement of engagement, and challenging outcomes, where the children have difficulty in withdrawing from the desire for entertainment provided through ICT. For instance, regarding the use of ICT for leisure purposes (especially game-playing), there is significant evidence linking to the hindrance of progress to target attainment. The more time in leisure activities such as on games, the less is available for study Lankshear and Knobel, 2003).

A study conducted by Passey et al., 2004 made the finding that pupil’s learning with the use of ICT was characterized by greater motivation levels towards the achievement of personal learning goals, which is a desirable outcome in education, but less desirable was their increased motivation towards gaining positive feedback on their individual competence. This latter trait had its evidence in the concern among pupils of failure in front of others, especially the teacher. Other studies (Passey et al., 2004, HMIE, 2005; Livingstone and Condie, 2003) also support the view that these technologies and their visual nature – animations, simulations and moving imagery, enhanced the engagement of learners through the employment of varying approaches to teaching, and enhanced their conceptual understanding.

With regard to ICT and attainment, an extensive review of literature by Cox et al., 2003 found in a survey of almost all National curriculum subjects, that ICT had a positive effect on pupil attainment, marked in core subject areas in which investment on specific ICT resources to support teaching and learning has been greater such as English, Mathematics and Science. These technologies were specifically found to generally support language development, especially at early stages, on word recognition and vocabulary building which are essential sub-skills (Lankshear and knobel, 2003). The internet has significantly enhanced the support and stimulation of education activities across the curriculum with the increased range of resources.

Engagement with teachers was also improved, with the teachers having positive responses to the use of learning objects in their classrooms, as well as their competence and ability to integrate technology into the learning environment and process (Saude et al., 2005). These benefits have enhanced change and innovation in primary school education increasing access to and the use of technologies (Ofsted, 2004).

Williams, 2005 reported that ICT had particular positive effect for pupils with special needs enabling them to rise above their unique barriers to learning and, in as well, leading to their greater achievement, improvement in self-esteem and confidence, as well as enabling greater participation in their present work.

Partly due to its support of a student-centred learning environment, the use of the internet in teaching is growing exponentially (Hill et al., 2004). The interactive technologies offered by ICT allow for teachers to capture materials digitally from a variety of sources, which are cut and pasted to create new and exciting teaching materials relevant to the context and the young student’s learning needs. Valentine et al., 2005 in a survey of parent and pupil perceptions of ICT found that these stakeholders believed that the internet and ICT tools made schoolwork more enjoyable and improved achievement, as well as improving motivation and confidence of the pupils.

Saude et al., (2005); Plowman and Harlen, (2000); and Cox et al., (2003) note that teachers often encounter challenges in the integration of ICT and the internet into primary school education programs. In primary school, pedagogy is invariably given greater attention and the traditional focus on the child, as opposed to process skills or specific subject knowledge in the higher levels of learning. The teacher’s role has, however, changed especially in situations of more extensive ICT use in classrooms and e-learning contexts, becoming more of a facilitator, offering support and mediation. This changed role, Reeves (2008) notes, encourages a predominantly ‘instructivist’ pedagogical culture rather than constructivist, where the learner is often viewed as a passive recipient of instruction receiving little emphasis.

Inequality in access, especially with regard to ICT tools for home use, is a major challenge impeding participation for the disadvantaged and therefore challenging their outcomes. This inequality could be due to numerous factors including socio-economic status, gender, ethnicity, etc. (John and Sutherland, 2005). There is also a challenge in technology’s unintended promotion of segmented learning as opposed to group learning. The internet and ICT technologies and especially the use of laptops and personal computers encourage stationary operations and individuality opposed to the mobility and sociability of students characteristic in a traditional primary school classroom. Children are often swept off by the immense opportunities afforded including the use of various media, and are difficult to control as a group. It would be hard in such instances of drift to revert back to the whiteboard or chalkboard, and the controlled learning process (Cox et al., 2003). The use of interactive whiteboards, however, mirrors the traditional setting and control and enables greater involvement and participation, with the teacher at the front and engaging the whole classroom.

With the internet making available tons of information with dedicated search engines providing ease of search, it is characteristic for the primary school students to scan for bits of information in rapid fashion rather than spend time to increased concentration on the context, thereby minimizing their acquisition of the content of information (Cox et al., 2003). E-learning has also been increasingly questioned over issues such as the loss of the traditional opportunity to think out loud, to engage in working through problems, and to engage in the constitution and articulation of new ideas. These could be a hindrance to the desired outcome and the development of social skills (Hill et al., 2003). In the traditional setting, students are able to see their peers in action with everyone wanting to put up their best work.

There are concerns over Child Safety with the availability of the internet. It is essential to have child safety in all its forms and various countries have, in light of such concerns, instituted protection measures for children. The US government through the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA) of 2001, for instance, sought to enforce the introduction of policies for internet safety for students in primary schools. In this endeavour, procedures and technologies to hinder access to inappropriate sites, such as teacher monitoring, blocking software or filters, as well as contracts with both parents and students have been instituted in various primary school systems and settings (Barrow, C., and G., Heywood-Everett, 2006).

In the UK, internet safety is also a pressing issue, and various filtering strategies and safety policies, including the employment of an internet safety coordinator (BECTA, 2002). However, a research study made the finding that Year 6, 10 and 11 students were more likely, due to internet usage at home, to access unsuitable sites in breach of set-out policy (Barrow and Heywood-Everett, 2006). Risk areas associated with the internet can be distinguished including cyber-crime (bullying or stalking), its negative effect on social relations, and negative emotional impact due to exposure to pornography, violence and explicit language. Studies also indicate negative impacts on time management, with the neglect of school tasks drawn away by internet addiction (BECTA, 2002). The internet also seems to cause reduced concentration with intense use due to its offer of a plethora of infinite opportunities. It is also linked to physical impacts on health such as obesity and muscle pain (Barrow and Heywood-Everett, 2006.).

With the increased use of technology and especially the internet in society today, there has been an increase in use of such technologies in primary school educational activities across the globe. The benefits conferred by ICT use include enhanced interest and engagement in the school curriculum, improvement of basic skills, lessened disengagement of students and the improvement of learning outcomes. Its negative impacts include the consequent lack of concentration, challenges in time management, hindrance of socialization and concerns of child safety from risks of cyber-crime and exposure to inappropriate content.

References
Barrow, C., and G., Heywood-Everett, 2006. E-safety: The experience in English educational establishments: An audit of e-safety practices; 2005. Viewed from: http://partners.becta.org.uk/index.
BECTA, 2002. Internet Safety. Viewed from: http://partners.becta.org.uk/index.
BECTA, 2006. About BECTA. Viewed from: http://about.becta.org.uk/display
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Hill, J., D., Wiley, L., Nelson, and S., Hans, 2004. Exploring research on Internet-based learning: From infrastructure to interactions. In: D.H. Jonassen (ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (2nd ed. Pp. 433-460). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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How have mobile phones and Internet changed contemporary art?

Introduction

The main aim of this essay is to investigate the impact of technology on contemporary art. In a more detail, this essay will exploref the impact of mobile phones and the Internet on contemporary art. This essay will include theoretical foundation, backed up with examples. Firstly, a brief overview of the art world in the context of a general technology’s impact, will be presented. Following this,, this study will look into the effect of mobile phones and Internet in contemporary artistic creation and perception. Therefore, this essay will focus on the identification of main technological features that have impacted the art movement and the process of its production. The changes in the modern, individual perception of art are going to be investigated as well.

Background of Issue

Recent research suggests that we as human beings and also consumers, live in the information and digitalisation age. Internet and mobile phones have become the main sources of information and, therefore, the primary mediums of communication with other individuals (Burnham, 1970). In the cultural context, the individuals have started to focus more on the innovation acquisition and creation. The main reason behind it is the constantly changing environment, which triggers the changes in the individual perception. In the context of art, the artists have acquired the tools that facilitate the process of art creation (Shanken, 2009). On the other hand, the people have received the ability to share, what they perceive as art via more exposed and facilitated channels, namely, the Internet and mobile phones. Currently, every person may take a photo of a scene, which is perceived to be artistic and share it with others (Huffington Post, 2012). This, in turn, would be claimed as art. The concept of art has lost its complexity, thus becoming more technology – driven and adhering to the new cultural and artistic frameworks and concepts. As a result, it is crucial to identify the pattern and direction of the contemporary art movement in order to define its future implications.

Impact of technology on the Contemporary art

As it has already been estimated, technology, as part of the environmental dynamics has had a large influence on contemporary art. The internet has provided a more facilitated, digital access to a wide amount of information (Shanken, 2009). The individuals have acquired the possibility to access more enhanced amount of information, which affects the creation and production of art. This includes not only the information, itself, but also the new design programs and mobile applications (Huffington Post, 2012).

Emergence of photography

As part of the technological advancement, photography has become a popular form of contemporary art (Janson and Janson, 2004). To date, there are still debates as to if the significance of photography in contemporary art market is reasoned enough. This suggests that the majority of artists state that the emergence of photography as a form of art has anchored an element of shallowness to the whole concept of contemporary art (Janson and Janson, 2004). This shows that any persona can take a camera in order to make a picture, which would be considered as art. These debates have been present, however, to a lesser degree, in times of black and white film photos. At the moment, the majority of academics still tend to criticize the colour photography as it fails to deliver the beauty of the nuances and moments (Phillips, 2006).

Expanding on this subject, there is also a lot of debates over the subject of the mobile phones and mobile applications. Given that photography is quite a popular form of art at the moment, there have been a lot of applications developed for photography sharing. One of the most popular mobile phone applications is Instagram (Huffington Post, 2012). There is a lot of criticism in relation to this application, since it allows the amateurs to take any picture and share it as a form of art by means of the integrated filters. However, on the other hand, mobile applications have increased the exposure of art works of less known artists (Pew Internet and American Life Project Artists Callback Survey, November/December, 2003). This is supported by the findings of the recent survey, which has been maintained among young artists. The results have demonstrated that the majority of the artists have estimated that the Internet has helped them to promote their works, and to increase the amount of networking connections. The minority of the surveyed population has stated that the Internet exposure has hurt them and their reputation (Pew Internet and American Life Project Artists Callback Survey, November/December, 2003).

Change from form to perspective

It is necessary to note that a change has been reported in the concept of art. This implies that, in the Modernism era, the main focus has been placed on the form in the context of art production (Bersson, 2004). Along with the rise in popularity of technology and the Internet, the main focus has shifted towards context. This implies that the originality has been framed within the boundaries of the ability to re – represent already produced art works. This adds the ironic feature to the whole concept of post-modernism art (Bersson, 2004). Content has also become quite valuable in the post-modernist era. This has been driven by the digitalisation of the art, thus placing a large focus on the content of artistic work.

The context of the artworks is intensified in the light of the absence of the actual truths and facts (Prior, 2005). This implies that only the opinions and perspectives matter whereas the truths and facts have become subjective, thus changing along the dynamics of the daily lives. Post-modernists suggest that knowledge is facilitated by means of culture and language (Prior, 2005). Given the fact that the general culture and language are unified by the globalization and digitization, the knowledge is defined by the technology and internationalisation, in the context of art. Additionally, the production of artworks has become more facilitated, therefore, the artists start to be more focused on the content of the artwork in order to deliver value.

Impact on production

Along with the global advancement and the significance of the innovative product solutions, at the moment, the artists have all the necessary tools in order to produce art. However, the importance of handmade paintings has been diminished over the past decade (CNN, 2006). This implies that the paintings have been linked to more aesthetic and esoteric works of art. Photography, on the other hand, has become a true form of art (Bersson, 2004). This implies that the handmade paintings evolved into a computerized form of art, namely photography. The technology, namely PC, Internet and Smartphones have allowed producing and exposing the photographs by the click of the mouse, via specialized applications and programs. The supportive production-related technological appliances still fall into the specializing category, thus being quite expensive (Poole and Ho, 2011). As the result, the majority of artists tend to rent the editing technology in order to produce qualitative pieces of works. In this case, the main focus is placed on the quality and value of the work and this attracts the artists to use more expensive appliances at the high end. Given this desire, the artists still need a specialized knowledge and skills in order to utilize editing applications and technological solutions (Poole and Ho, 2011). Only the minority of artists tend to utilize the computer based programs for the entire art production process. Normally, the artists would make the sketches and then finish them by means of computerized programs, namely for colouring purposes.

Even though, it has been suggested that the production of art via PC-based programs is more facilitated, it is well arguable. This suggests that a number of artists claim that the process of art production still, requires the same amount of skills while utilizing specialized computer programs, as in the hand-made art production (Poole and Ho, 2011). The only difference applies to the specifics of the required techniques and abilities, however, not to the degree.

There is a high concern over the security and privacy of the shared creative content. Even though, Pew Internet and American Life Project Artists Callback Survey, (2003) demonstrated that the artists have not experienced any negative consequences of high visibility of their works over Internet, there is still high risk associated with this. Recent research suggests that the privacy and security are regarded to be the main issues that may arise on the Internet (Kim et al., 2004). However, these are attributed to the degree of the perceived security in relation to interactive platform. This implies that older users of computer – based programs do not perceive Internet-based platform as highly risky in terms of privacy and security.

Therefore, the studies suggest that the increase in confidence in utilizing the Internet is correlated to the less perceived risk in relation to the possibility of the private content share.

Impact on Perception of Art

It has been estimated that, after the Modernism era, the line between the high art and popular art has become more unclear. This implies that the concepts of popular and high types of art have become mixed up as the result of a large impact of technology, globalization, and ideas (Bertozzi and Jenkins, 2007). This has started with the rise in popularity of Andy Warhol’s art works (CNN, 2006). Modern art is defined by the ability of the artists to become popular in small, niche groups, rather than on a more global scale. This suggests that art has become more scattered, however, also more unified in terms of categorization. This implies that there are a lot of different types of artworks and movements; however, there is no clear focus on any of those movements (Bertozzi, 2007). Contemporary art is defined by the ability to express the views and opinions with others. And this is easier to do in the modern age of interactive, social media. Therefore, people have a more enhanced access to the artworks, which results in the emergence of inspiration to produce art. It has been stated that the whole social networking share platform increases the chance for plagiarism. It is especially intensified since in the modern age, the majority of artists, tend to transform and re-produce the current media content (Bertozzi and Jenkins, 2007). These actions are linked to the features of plagiarism. However, this should be regarded more as evolution of art, rather than plagiarism. In details, this suggests that the artists utilize the raw materials, which are found in the existing artworks, in order to re-produce the new creations (Bertozzi and Jenkins, 2007). For example, the fact that jazz music has evolved from creative improvisations of the popular music melodies proves this suggestion. This implies that it has not been labelled as plagiarism. Therefore, the main question arises as to how people should perceive the modern digital art – shallow and/or the evolution of the post-modernism art movement. It is suggested by a number of academics that, in general, digital communication is regarded to be shallow (Chomsky in Salon, 2011). It is mainly associated with the need to put the thought in a short sentence so that it would fit in 140 characters on Twitter. This may be assumed to be shallow since shortening modifications are made in order to share the thought on Twitter. These modifications tend to include the utilization of urban language and abbreviations, which result in the shallowness of the language (Chomsky in Salon, 2011) The same applies to art, where the individual may take any picture of any object and share it with others whilst claiming that it is an artwork. On the other hand, post – modernism art movement is defined by the ability to share the views and perceptions of the ways one sees the world, which is innovative by definition. This suggests that different people view the world differently. On the other hand, the picture that is shared via social networking website may be just need to practice the skills in the production of the artworks, in order to grow as an artist. And in this evolution, some people might find the new art movement, that may be appreciated. Additionally, as it turns out, the artworks have to be either aesthetic or deliver some message to the people. As Pablo Picasso once stated, – “Art is a lie that makes you realize the truth” (Gardner and Kleiner, 2010, p.699). Therefore, the content is highly crucial in the context of the ability to tell the truth. This, in turn, expands individual perception and their way of thinking (Costache, 2000). As the result, if the artwork reaches the person and its cognition than it has been worth producing.

Conclusion

This paper was designed in order to demonstrate the exploration of the role of mobile phones and Internet in art perception and production. It has been estimated that recently, the technological advancement has driven the majority of the population to utilize the Internet and mobile phones for communication purposes. This has also affected the art industry. This implies that the artists have started to utilize digitalised tools for art production. This has been perceived as a facilitated way to produce art. However, it has been further stated that the utilization of the specialized computer based equipment requires highly developed skills. Another problem with the technological integration in art production has been attributed to the ability of to make the work artistic by means of mobile applications. This adds the element of shallowness to the actual art production and further perception. As with the digital communication, the majority of critics tend to perceive it as being a not serious form of art. However, given the general shift from the form to the context and content, this may be regarded as the evolution of art, in general. This implies that people do not focus entirely on the significance form in the artworks; however, they tend to acknowledge the message it has to deliver. This is directly interrelated with the key aim to share the perspective of the world and situations with others. In general, it has been found out that the majority of artists tend to benefit from the integration of technology. It has been estimated that the main benefit is attributed to the ability to generate and expand the networking connections by means of social networking. Furthermore, the Internet is a medium that allows reaching more customers thus adding exposure to the artist and his works.

References

Bersson R. (2004). Responding to art: form, content, and context, p.67, McGraw – Hill: USA

Bertozzi H., Jenkins V. (2007). 7 Artistic Expression in the Age of Participatory Culture: How and Why Young People Create. Routledge: UK. Available: http://www.artsjournal.com/league/bertozzi.pdf (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Burnham, J. (1970). The Aesthetics of Intelligent Systems. On the Future of Art, p.119, New York: Viking

Chomsky in Salon. (2012). Why Chomsky is wrong about Twitter. Available: http://www.salon.com/2011/10/23/why_chomsky_is_wrong_about_twitter/ (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Costache I. (2000). “The Truth in Painting” Or in TextThe Dialogue Between Studio Art and Theory in Education. Available: http://www.aesthetics-online.org/articles/index.php?articles_id=9 (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

CNN, (2006). Globalization, technology changing the art world. Available: http://articles.cnn.com/2006-11-26/entertainment/art.globalization_1_high-art-curators-and-museum-directors-art-boom?_s=PM:SHOWBIZ (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Gardner H., Kleiner F., (2010). Gardner’s Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective, Volume 2, p. 699, Cengage: USA

Huffington Post, (2012). Instagram: Photography’s Antichrist, Savior, Or Something In Between?. Available: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/18/instagram-photography_n_1893230.html?utm_hp_ref=design#slide=1536224 (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Janson H., Janson A. (2004). History of Art: The Western Tradition, 6th ed., Pearson: USA

Kim S.S., Malhotra K.N., Agarwal J., (2004). Internet Users’ Information Privacy Concerns (IUIPC): The Construct, the Scale, and a Causal Model. Information Systems Research, Vol.15, Iss. 4, pp. 336 -355

Shanken E.A. (2009). Art in the Information Age:Technology and Conceptual Art. Leonardo, Vol.35, Iss. 4, pp. 433-438

Phillips R. (2006). Modeling Life: Art Models Speak About Nudity, Sexuality, And the Creative Process, p.24, New York Press: New York

Poole D. and Ho S. (2011). Digital Transitions and the Impact of New Technology On the Arts. Available: http://www.cpaf-opsac.org/en/themes/documents/DigitalTransitionsReport-FINAL-EN.pdf (Accessed on 21st Nov. 2012)

Prior N. (2005). A Question of Perception: Bourdieu, Art and the Postmodern. The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.56, Iss.1, 123-139

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The Changing Trend in Counselling Psychology: Internet Counselling as a Psychotherapy Practice

Introduction

The emergence of counselling psychology as a distinct profession in the United Kingdom two decades ago was a significant pointer that the field’s practitioners, represented by the British Psychological Society, had finally recognised that the field is unique in terms of identity and practicing philosophy. This recognition is captured in the definition by the Society that counselling psychology is a value based approach to counselling as a profession, and puts emphasis on the counselling primacy or relationship-oriented approach based on therapeutic observation (Milton, 2010). However, amidst the recognition are challenges, both present and potential, affects and will continue to challenge the effectiveness of counselling psychology as a noble profession. The challenges, as a matter of fact, are based on the modes of delivery of delivery of counselling psychology. Presently, scholars and practitioners have identified issues, such as technological revolution challenges, ethical dilemmas in relation to health maintenance organisations, psychologists facing certain challenges including prescription delivery services, and challenges with empirical research based support system among many other issues. Although these issues are no doubt a big concern currently, the biggest debate has revolved around the role of technology in counselling psychology, considering that the literature about this area is hard to come by. The growing dilemmas are based on the impact of technology on the growth of counselling psychology and, at the same time, the challenges that come with its increased use, given the nature of counselling psychology services modes (Gackenbach, 2011).

Internet Counselling

Technology has become part of almost every household, and is predicted to continue having tremendous impact on the lives of families and households, particularly in the spheres of economic, socio-political and cultural aspects. In fact, internet technology has not only affected how families and households buy or sell things online through ecommerce trading platforms, but has also had a tremendous impact on physical and mental health of many people around the world. Health professional practitioners have, therefore, incorporated internet into one of their modes of transferring services to the care receivers or clients. In turn, the general public, including those in need of counselling services, can access these services from home within minutes, and cost effectively. However, the inherent challenges when delivering counselling services via internet cannot be assumed, and has attracted unending debate not only on its viability but also its effectiveness as compared to the traditional in-person mode of counselling (Reamer, 2013). The question would therefore be on whether advantages of internet counselling supersede its disadvantages.

The British Psychological Society established a “Division of Counselling Psychology: Professional Practice Guidelines” in 2006 (Reamer, 2013), which emphasised the need to have a balanced approach to counselling psychology service delivery methods. For instance, they state that the practitioners should not assume any form of automatic superiority over any one in terms of experience, feeling, value, and know-how. They also state that any practitioners should be ready to challenge the views of persons who pathologise on the basis of “sexual orientation, disability, class origin, or racial identity and religious and spiritual views” among other critical aspects of the society (British Psychological Practice, 2006, cited in Reamer, 2013, p.169). The concept of not assuming one-way knowledge in counselling psychology has led to a number of challenges, particularly with the increasingly growing technology-laden population, including those in need of counselling and psychological support. In certain cases, the client may not have the adequate mental capacity to interpret certain information, thus leading to miscommunication. In other words, the client may wrongly interpret a message as critical or not friendly, thus end up feeling hurt or injured. After all, online interaction sessions do provide neither counselling psychologist nor client with shared environment.

Internet psychotherapy sessions may suffer from miscommunication between the psychotherapist and client. In any case, studies have shown that miscommunication may inadvertently harm the client and possibly increase trauma after the disclosure of important facts about them (Gackenbach, 2011). For example, text or email based communication is prone to miscommunication since the more important non-verbal cues are missing. Moreover, most counselling psychologists are mainly trained on in-person techniques. The counselling psychologist may, thus, lack the writing skills necessary to adequately express meanings in written words. (Patrick, 2006)

As technology pushes people o the brink of being an entirely online society, the viability of internet counselling will remain a thorny issue as it is apparent that certain aspects of counselling psychology could be more difficult to deal with than others. Most professional organisations unanimously recommend that counselling therapists practicing online counselling sessions should continue using the basic ethical standards applied in the in-person psychotherapy sessions (Luepker, 2012). Some of the recommendations are based on the need to adhere to the informed consent used in in-person counselling, including informing the clients about risks, benefits, available safeguards, limitations, and exceptions to confidentiality and privacy, identity verification, limiting practice to the scope of one’s qualification, accurately representing themselves and their licensure status, finding solutions to the potential harm that may arise from dual roles, and establishing emergency response for clients in different geographical locations (Gackenbach, 2011). However, the question that has never been answered is how to deal with clients coming from different jurisdiction locations with varied laws and legal procedures. In addition, a therapist may find it extremely difficult to handle a case where a client threatens to commit suicide.

Informed consent, Disclosure and Confidentiality

The introduction of diverse digital versions in the counselling psychology practice has brought with it diverse problems related to informed consent, disclosure and confidentiality. However, like any other internet usage, the concept of informed consent, disclosure and confidentiality still lingers as serious sources of dilemma. The lack of physical presence may make it difficult to verify identity, thus may lead to psychotherapist treating a minor without parental knowledge, and this consent (Gackenbach, 2011). When such occurrence become rampant, there is likely to be more actions from policy makers to protect the majority from the possible breach of informed consent in the context of internet counselling.

Within the context of informed consent is the issue of confidentiality, a critical aspect of counselling psychology. Studies have shown that internet is not a secure platform to assure the preservation of confidentiality (Barak, 2008). Although psychotherapists are advised to inform the clients of the potential dangers and risks associated with modes of service delivery, including breach of confidentiality and experimental nature of the process, this kind of advice still leaves gaps in better ways in which confidentiality can be maintained, a concern that is unlikely to end any time soon.

Accuracy in assessment and monitoring effectiveness of interventions

One of the first steps in the counselling process is to assess and monitor the client (Milton, 2010) However, with barriers in the virtual world, it is may be difficult to accurately assess and monitor the patients during service delivery sessions. It is important to note that virtual interaction means lost contact, which is an integral part of achieving the goals of counselling psychology as outlined by the British Psychological Society. Moreover, one of the perspectives that were present during the formative periods of counselling psychology is the need for psychologist to understand people as relational beings.

In the process of fostering collaborations with people as well as contexts that draw on a range of perspectives, including the traditional views of people as independent entities, counselling psychology has always recognised that relational perspectives have significant contribution to make on not only understanding people but also help the clients work towards bettering their wellbeing (Patrick, 2006). However, this relationship is lost through lack of physical interaction between the psychologist and the client. Moreover, the psychologist’s inability to focus on other family members and intimate partners obviously jeopardises any chance of learning the relationship between the clients and their significant others. As Barnett (2005) states, failure to understand the relationship between clients and people close to them may make it difficult to assess the former’s self-esteem, likes, cultural upbringing and socio-political background.

The controversy that is likely to extend over a long period of time is the criteria in which internet psychotherapy sessions can be evaluated. While the traditional in-person counselling therapy has elaborate theoretical frameworksand models that support its use, internet counselling psychotherapy does not have any historical frameworks and models that guide its use. Although most psychotherapists have solely relied on relational counselling, they still run short because of the inability to establish therapeutic relationships with clients. At present, the main concern is how the traditional models can be interpreted into online models. Barak et al (2008) observed that internet-based interventions in the field of counselling psychology have been used for over a decade. However, no clear analysis of its effectiveness has been forthcoming. They, however, recommend adoption of online counselling as a legitimate option in offering psychotherapeutic counselling sessions. Still, they warn that the psychotherapists must be willing to use online counselling with strong ethical issues in mind.

Ethical challenges

The other challenge is the ethical issues that emerge from counselling psychology practice. In the field of practice of counselling psychology, one of the potential current issues is how to enforce ethical code of conducts, including ensuring psychologists only practice within their areas of competence based on qualifications in terms of training as well as experience (Patrick, 2006). In addition, the psychologists are expected to take reasonable steps in ensuring their work follow necessary procedures that protect clients from any possible harm. However, this challenge still poses serious challenges to the regulatory authorities as it is difficult to weed out unqualified persons from assuming counselling responsibilities at the detriment of the clients. In essence, professional accountability is still considered far from being managed. Furthermore, laws governing counselling psychology practices may be different from one geographical jurisdiction to another, with questions as to how the two persons; client and psychologist, can operate (Luepker, 2012). It has been observed that many practicing counselling psychologists have attempted to navigate through the legal and professional barriers in internet counselling by defining their online counselling services as psycho-education (Patrick, 2006). Although some online counselling may be legitimately offering purely therapeutic education services, some therapists cross the boundary and treat clients within multiple sessions, which clearly suggest therapeutic counselling sessions rather than claimed educational. This is a serious ethical breach that, although may be tamed by stricter regulatory laws and policies, may be difficult to interpret for appropriate actions to be taken.

Conclusion

Despite the advancement in technology and the desire to build long-standing strategies to effectively deliver appropriate services to clients in the field of counselling psychology, there are inherent challenges that remain controversial to date. Confronting the complexity of electronic media to deliver counselling sessions in the most professional manner has is one area that remains a challenge, and is expected to continue dominating this comparatively new profession. Moreover, virtual interactions are limited in the sense that the psychotherapist and the client are not connected beyond internet, hence are not able to experience the common advantages that come with physical interactions, such as nonverbal cue interpretations. Issues that have arisen, and will continue to generate debate in the foreseeable future are: miscommunication, inability to stick to professional code of ethics by some counselling psychologists, inability to assess and measure the success of online counselling sessions, and difficulty in keeping internet communications secure. In fact, these issues have been discussed and continue to dominate the profession’s sphere of influence. It may be important to state that counselling psychologists may need to participate in developing thoughtful policies and procedures related to technology use in the field of counselling psychology by involving clients in the process. Lastly, it must be important to state that whenever technological intervention affects therapeutic relationship, either positively or negatively, the impact becomes part of the profession, hence must remain in the record.

References

Barak , A., Hen, L., Boniel-Nissim, M. and Shapira, N. (2008). A comprehensive review and a

meta-analysis of the effectiveness of internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26 (2-4): 109-160.

Barnett, J.E. (2005). Online Counseling: New Entity, New Challenges. The Counseling

Psychologist, 33 (6): 872-880.

Gackenbach, J. (2011). Psychology and the Internet: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and

Transpersonal Implications. Waltham, Massachusetts: Academic Press.

Luepker, E.T. (2012). Record Keeping in Psychotherapy and Counseling. Protecting

Confidentiality and the Professional Relationships. London: Routledge.

Milton, M. (2010). Therapy and Beyond: Counseling Psychology Contributions to Therapeutic

and Social Issues. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Patrick, P. K. S. (2006). Internet counseling: Trends, applications, and ethical issues. In P. K. S.

Patrick (Ed.). Contemporary Issues In Counseling. Manuscript submitted for publication (Allyn and Bacon).

Reamer, F.G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: ethical and risk management challenges.

Social Work, 58(2): 163-172.

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Free Essays

The Internet Today: Causes and Effects

1996 was the year of Internet. We constantly saw and heard the word “Internet” everywhere last year. The beginning of the Internet was the computer network called ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) which started in 1969 and was supported by the Department of Defense in America since they wanted the webbed network which cannot be severed easily. At the beginning, ARPA had been used for the military need; and when it became more commercialized, it came to be called ‘Internet’.

Accordingly, you can say that the need of defense caused Internet to begin. Currently, Internet is now changing the concept of nation, the means to communicate with people and even your view of life. Then what should we do to deal with it? Can we be only a fanatic of Internet or be an anti-Internet? First, I’d like to show the positive effects that Internet has caused; then, I will move on to the negative side.

Maybe you can come up with many positive effects of Internet. First, you can get the latest news on the web anytime everywhere. It must be interesting if students make a good use of the web because what teachers teach you is not always the latest thing. Even though the teacher say something to students, they can reply like this; `No, that’s not true, Mr. [Blank], I asked Dr. [Know-it-all] at [Top] University just a few minutes ago on the web, and he said [Blank-sensei is totally wrong, the correct information is . . .]’ You can have an opportunity to keep in touch with things new and what’s happening in the world now. This was not possible a decade ago.

Second, Internet is changing the concept of organization or system like a nation, an ethnic group, a company and a network of people. Imagine you are Japanese living in Sweden…….you can’t speak Swedish, you don’t have any Japanese friends living your neighboring city. Maybe you’ll become nervous because you can’t get any Japanese news other than the letters from your friends. You don’t have enough money to call Japan since it’s too expensive. Once you get on Internet account, your problem will all be gone!

You can chat with your Japanese friends on the web at a low price and can get any information that you want. Actually, Chinese people living all over the world are now making a network which support them each other on the Internet. For them, Internet is a very practical means to confirm their nationality and unify them as Chinese. You can be one of them (the Chinese) wherever you are. The borders between countries are fading by Internet in this way.

In case of company, the differences between the classes are now fading slowly in Japan. You can say what you want to tell your boss or a company president by sending E-mail directly. Consequently, the relationship among people in the company is changing since you don’t need someone to communicate with your superior anymore. The working style is also changing; you don’t have to go to the company everyday because you can do your work at home and send what you’ve done by E-mail. You can have more free time and can change your lifestyle as you like.

Fourth, concerning a network of people, Internet helped to connect and gather volunteers after the big earthquake had rocked the city of Kobe in 1995. The homepage made by one of the volunteer posted lots of information such as what refugees in Kobe need and which shelter needs helpers.

Fifth, Internet is a good means to express yourself. You can make your homepage and introduce yourself there. Then some people who saw your homepage would be interested in you or your information offered on the homepage and would contact you. It can be someone from unfamiliar country that you’ve never been to. Isn’t that kind of a great meeting? Maybe you want to found your own company on the web. It’s possible now. Internet is very useful if you have something that you want to do or express.

Now I’d like to state the negative effects of Internet. First, an infringement of copyright (or piracy) on the web is one of the most controversial problem that Internet has caused. It is very hard to protect the copyright since you can get any information on the web any time. You can draw some pictures offered in someone’s homepage into yours and you can copy everything that is shown on the web-which you’re supposed not to do so.

Second, subversive materials posted on the web is also a big problem. It’s obvious that subversive materials like porno or the picture of a dead body are not good for you nor for children. It can happen that innocent kids cruising the web to find a toy company’s homepage stumble across the place where many horrible pictures are posted. Though Singapore’s government now started controlling and policing those obscene material on the web, there is a question to be raised: doesn’t the regulation offend the freedom of speech?

The same question has also been raised from the United States when the obscene pictures on the web were prosecuted. Then, how should we protect our children from those subversive materials on Internet? Is there any way to measure the degree of the obscene materials? To make matters worse, there is currently no universal law that can supervise those problems. As you know, since Internet is worldwide, all countries must cooperate to restrict something on the web; otherwise, you can do it in the country where the law is not enforced.

Third, you have to be concerned about the crime on the web. Because you can offer some information anonymously on Internet, some people can also trespass upon your privacy through Internet by spreading some information that you want to private. Furthermore, a crime on the web can sometimes be very serious. If you are a computer specialist, you could steal a secret information like the military secrets of another country. It actually happened a few years ago: a guy from Brazil stole through Internet military secrets from the Department of Defense in U.S.A.

Fourth, as some people say, the Internet is a box of waste since most of the information which is offered on the web is junk. All you do on the web is just wasting your time. In addition, E-mails sometimes bother people; you can’t write back to a hundred mails! Some mails may even have nothing to do with you. Dealing with E-mail could waste a lot of your time.

As I said earlier, Internet, which was first created for military use, causes both positive and negative effects today. Nevertheless, you just can’t complain all the time about the negative effects of Internet. You know that it’s too late to stop the expanding of Internet. You won’t be able to live without it. What is now demanded for us is to deal with both positive and negative side of Internet–and, hopefully, to change its negative effects for the better.

by Rumiko Nomura

http://www.tsujiru.net/compass/compass_1997/reg/nomura_r_3.htm

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Is Internet Dating Safe?

Is internet dating safe? The internet is just another way for people to meet, and is being used by more and more singles every year. Compared to traditional dating you have to be ready for the added risk of meeting someone who wants to hurt you. Internet dating is used by 1 out of every 10 sex offenders. This does not mean that you should not take the risk. Of course you can just keep your eyes as open as your heart. There are many benefits to internet dating, firstly your safety is very important so no one sees your full name, address, email address or phone number.

So there is no identifying information given out, and you remain completely safe. Meeting someone online is a lot faster than traditional dating, meaning it is quicker to find a potential match. Rejection is easier online, it never feels good, but it’s easier to just not get a response back than to have someone walk away from you at the bar. It’s easy to get flustered when meeting someone in person, when you meet someone online you have more time to think and you can take time in responding if you need to. The internet is up all day and night and never sleeps.

So you have the luxury of searching for a soul mate anytime, day or night. The best online dating sites allow you to sign up and create a profile completely free of charge, this allows you to log in to the website and look for potential matches without paying anything. Every person you meet online is available and looking for a relationship. Going out to a bar or a club to meet singles for dating can be successful, but most likely less than half the people at these places are there to meet someone to create a relationship.

So you are more likely to find a potential match online. Internet dating links you with people all over the world, so you can pursue relationships from afar if you find that you are willing to move for someone but are not sure yet where you’d like to go. Using internet dating, you could find your soul mate and bring love and happiness to your life. If your ex-partner has cheated on you, you may find internet dating helpful. It may help you forget the horrible experience and find someone you deserve. However there are also a lot of dangers associated with internet dating.

While both men and women are at risk it is generally the woman who will be exposed to the more severe dangers. Here are a few dangers of this form of dating that you should be mindful of. The very first danger of online dating is when you become a scam victim. Many scam artists and paedophiles can simply mask their real identity in order to cheat someone not only of their money but emotions as well. There are cases when men sexually assault the women they have met through internet dating when they first meet up for a date. It is easier to lie using internet dating, men admit to lying mostly about their income, height and age.

Women admit to lying mostly about their age, weight and body type. You must remember that any person you meet online is a stranger, so you must be cautious. Be careful about sharing your personal information; don’t share your full name, never give out the details of exactly where you work, don’t ever give out your address, and be very careful about giving out your telephone number, especially your mobile number. You also need to be careful about sharing your email, most online dating sites allow you to use an anonymous internal communication system.

You should use this, until you feel completely comfortable with someone before sharing an email address with them. You should not move off the internet dating site too soon. However when you do decide to do this you shouldn’t share your regular email address, instead you should create a free email address that you use strictly for your internet dating activities. You can easily obtain one through yahoo, hotmail, gmail, etc. When you meet for the first time, select the meeting place carefully, you should meet in a public place during ‘normal’ hours (between 10am and 8pm).

Do not deviate from the plan and go anywhere with the person unless you’re completely comfortable with them. Do not let your guard down until you meet a friend, family, or co-worker. This ensures that you can cross-check some of the things you know to be true about the person. If you never meet anyone that the person knows and the person can’t offer anyone up for a double-date, after work drink, or other social encounter, you have a right to be suspicious. With all the benefits and dangers associated with internet dating, you may decide that it is unsafe and not for you. That is completely understandable, ut all you have to do to make yourself feel comfortable and safe is make sure you get pictures from the person and see them on webcam. That way they are less likely to be someone who wants to hurt you. You should always tell at least one friend you are using a dating site, just in case anything happens to you unexpectedly. You could also take a friend along when meeting someone for the first time, to make you feel more comfortable. Try not to be scared and good luck with searching for your perfect partner. Do not give up too easily, 33% of single meet-ups become relationships, there is someone out there for you.

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The Challenge of Starting Up A New Internet Venture

Lui and Wong had made a good choice in choosing music as there online start up business, because of the nature of music itself is information rich, easy to distribute, consumption experience are indifferent between digital or physical product, also, without the space limitation of a physical store, MusicJuice. net can provide a large amount of selection for user to choose. In addition, internet landscape empowers the business model of Crowd-Sourcing, where millions of vertical interest group can form their own communities, share and support each other on the internet.

And such business model has proven to be very successful in Europe, theoretically, MusicJuice. net should also be successful in North America where the potential market size was approximately 240,000 musicians. However, the company has been losing money month after month since launched in April 2008, only 70 artistes has signed up in July 2008 and none of them had reached the fundraising goal, and of course, no premium members at all. The two co-founders have to decide what could be done to save MusicJuice. et or whether they should close the business for good. Before jumping into conclusion, let’s examine the situation with the 5 Forces analysis. First of all, the threats of new entrants are too high, just like their competitor – Slicethepie. com was launched one month after MusicJuice. net began its development. Forming such music portal requires relatively low capital investment, and there is no customer or brand loyalty at all, because the users will only loyalty to the musicians. The threats of substitute products for MusicJuice. et is also very high, as people will enjoy and obtain the music they like in many different sources, CD Store, radio, youtube, iTunes, sharing between friends, or even download from piracy websites! Not only facing the threats of new entrants and substitute, what really bothers MusicJuice. net is the high bargaining power of supplier, i. e. the musicians. The business of MusicJuice. net is bet on the quality of their signed musicians, but what musicians really cares is to expand their fans network, but not to build any relationship with a particular platform.

Even though the bargaining power of customers is comparatively low when the user addicted into any single musician, but such advantage is not sustainable once the musician switch to other platform. And the biggest force affecting MusicJuice. net is the high intensity of competitive rivalry, many companies including those major music labels and big IT corporations e. g. Microsoft also attempted to use MySpace to slice the pie of the profitable music industry, not to mention those giants like iTunes and Amazon.

Even thought in such unfavorable situation, MusicJuice. net can still do something to rescue their business, not just working on marketing campaign or functional enhancement, but to focus on building the pure music community by forming strategic partners with indie band and independent music labels, line up with quality musicians to build few showcases of successful stories, aforementioned, their business is bet on the quality of their suppliers, they should provide a reason for the musicians to sign up on their platform.

After all, people are looking for music as an enjoyment, not an investment, MusicJuice. net should provide more interesting free content for the user to enjoy music, but not just invest on music. (end)

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Should the Chinese Government Ban the Internet Censorship?

Qing Yuan ESL114 Section G Ryan Salvador May 3, 2012 Should the Chinese government ban the internet censorship? Since the birth of internet, people have been bombarded with different kind of information every day. Internet is a network that connects the data of different private computer networks and organizational computer groups from people or organizations around the world (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). As a result, people are looking forward to having access to any kind of websites of their interest, and receiving the latest information about what is happening around their countries or around the world.

However, things cannot be as perfect as expected. It is noticed by many people that many countries have set barriers to the internet in their own areas. China, which has the largest population of web users among the world, has created the most advanced surveillance system for internet monitoring (Rohde, 2011). The system is known as “Great Firewall”—also called “the Golden Shield Project”, and is designed to sift out pornography and commercial frauds, but simultaneously blocks certain search terms for the government’s own purposes (McDonald, 2012).

However, nobody is satisfied to be a frog in a well which can only perceive scenario above the wellhead but nothing beyond. So the internet censorship has provoked a fierce controversy in the society. Many people including some groups of experts argue for humans’ equal rights to know true and latest resources of information around them. The Chinese government should no longer conduct their censorship program because every person has the right and freedom to know what is going on around them.

If the Chinese government insists on this project, people would be trapped in a vicious cycle because the continuity of information blocks would affect the next generation which doubles its effect on people’s ignorance and it would do nothing but fool its own people. First, in China, people’s words online are carefully inspected which means people do not have the freedom to say what they want, but rather only what are permitted by the Chinese government.

According to a study by the Language Technologies Institute at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, more than 16 percent of all messages which are posted by web users in China are considered “unqualified” and get deleted (McDonald, 2012). The Chinese government explained to the media that the “Great Firewall” sifted out words or names that it evaluates as politically odorous. However, due to the matter of fact, it is not that reasonable, but rather private contains emotions of the government.

For example, Sina Weibo, a most popular micro blogging site in China whose users surpassed 300 million, is required to inspect those bloggers whose have more than 100,000 followers (McDonald, 2012). If there are any posts that disobey the government’s rules must be deleted within five minutes. “295 terms with a high probability of being censored,” said the Carnegie Mellon team. So words like “Tibet”, “Dalai Lama”, “Ai Weiwei” (outspoken artist), “Liu Xiaobo” (imprisoned Nobel laureate), and even “Egypt”, “Jon Huntsman” (the former American ambassador), and “Playboy” (the magazine), etc. are banned (McDonald, 2012).

As a result, some people have invented some subversive lexicons to refer to the words prohibited such as using “grass-mud horse” to replace a four-letter word of obscenity, using “river crab” to replace “harmony” which is also banned because it was used to refer to websites deletion by the government, and using phrase “Buying soy sauce” to indicate someone who is involved in scandals like embezzlement and bribery. The phrase “Buying soy sauce” came from the mouth of a government official who was involved in a political scandal and wanted to show his innocence through the TV interview (McDonald, 2012).

So if the government insists on such obvious and self-deceiving procedures, people would finally uncover the truth and thus lose trust in the government because many insightful people like who use VPN to “scale the wall (also a subversive word which means to browse foreign websites)” and have known some truth of some political issues or more people who are studying abroad where has no such internet-defending programs know the truth as well. Maybe this kind of methods worked before, but it would not work anymore as people are familiar and proficient in computer science.

If the government stops their unacceptable programs right now, the status of the society will be much more stable, or the controversial would be more serious and finally trigger something unimaginable. Second, the Chinese government censors some websites which are considered vicious and unbeneficial to them, so they block websites just because they are not in government’s whitelist. In 2009, The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology posted new regulations on domain management institutions and internet services providers because them want to have a deeper control over domain name registration (Hornby and Le, 2009).

The Chinese government explained this is beneficial for an on-going anti-pornography program by creating a list of so called “whitelist. ” However, this policy did not mention the treatment of overseas websites. In fact, foreign sites that have not registered could also be blocked such as Google’s YouTube, Twitter, Flickr and Facebook. The reason is these sites are thought politically sensitive and containing unreasonable schemes by the Chinese government (Hornby and Le, 2009).

However, as many web users who used VPN to get access to foreign websites have already known that the websites such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are highly recognized in the U. S. Many popular stars like NBA players often update their newest progress in preparing for the play-off on Twitter, which is often referred to as a trustworthy resource by sports channels like ABC and ESPN. Also, YouTube is even a normal educational tool in some world-famous universities as its sources are updated frequently and carefully (Hornby and Le, 2009).

Many of the videos like the videos on cultural diversities and new-born social phenomena etc. are authoritative. They are often in the forms of a real interview with famous experts in the places where the issues happened like the case of Trayvon Martin, people can find many videos on YouTube which are interviews hold by some sociologists. As a result, blocking websites that the Chinese government considered vicious is detrimental to people’s development in learning advanced thoughts and real educational resources from foreign countries some of which are recognized as much more better in high-level education than that of China.

If the government continues to do things arbitrarily like this, people would lose trust in their government because they do have the ability to consider what kind of information is true and what kind of information is of plot. In conclusion, the Chinese government should stop their internet censorship because it really affects people’s common lives both in freedom of communication and education. The importance of relieve the inspection on internet is obvious and necessary. If the Chinese government moderates the censorship, people can obtain easier access to foreign resources.

As people’s educational levels are higher and higher along with the rapidly-developing status of China’s economy, people are getting more insightful in absorbing more advanced technologies and methods. For instance, teachers can use foreign websites such as YouTube which has huge amount of authoritative resources in college education. Many people have realized that students in China’s colleges know little about realities about some big issues around the world and also have big obstacles in English skills which are not beneficial to students’ development.

Also, if students get such progress in education, there will be more opportunities for them to get jobs abroad which can not only enhance Chinese people’s skills in international business but also relieve the pressure in competition for jobs. Finally, stopping the internet censorship helps the Chinese government to win people’s trust and is also educationally, economically beneficial to a large number of Chinese people. References: Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (n. d. ). Internet. Retrieved from http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/internet Hornby L. and Le, Y. 2009, December 22). China to require internet domain name registration. Retrieved from http://www. reuters. com/article/2009/12/22/us-china-internet-idUSTRE5BL19620091222 McDonald, M. (2012, March 13). Watch your language! (in china, they really do). New York Times. Retrieved from http://rendezvous. blogs. nytimes. com/2012/03/13/watch-your-language-and-in-china-they-do/? ref=internetcensorship Rohde, D. (2011, November 18). China’s newest export: Internet censorship. Retrieved from http://blogs. reuters. com/david-rohde/2011/11/17/chinas-newest-export-internet-censorship/

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Ethical Issue on the Internet

Ethical issues relating to the use of the Internet and the implications for managers and business practice. by Mihai C. Orzan Abstract When we address the topic of ethical issues on the Internet we are generally referring at two different matters: privacy and intellectual property. Each has been examined extensively in the last five years, since the Internet explosive intrusion in everyday life activities, each has an important number of sub fields that require special attention from managers and other business professionals.

The purpose of this paper is to to make a short presentation of most relevant developments pertaining Internet ethical issues in direct connection with the business world. The Privacy debate is centered on the arguments regarding citizens’ right to privacy granted or implied by laws on one hand and companies approach on “customer data, considered an asset to sell for profits” (Choi, 2000, p. 317) on the other hand. Privacy on the Internet is exploding as a topic of public concern these days. A recent Internet survey showed that 4 out of 5 users have major concerns regarding various privacy threats when they’re online.

Yet only 6% of them have actually experienced privacy abuses. Those who are not yet on the Net cite privacy as the main reason they have chosen not to become Internet users. If electronic commerce is going to thrive, this fear is going to have to be dealt with by laws and by industry practices and this paper attempts to give a thorough description of the major computer ethics trends of the moment. The other major source of concern for business world as well as the majority of Internet users is copyright control.

Serious question come from both approaches on this matter: what information available on the Internet can I freely use and how can one protect the hardly earned information that he posts on a website. In fact, “The Internet has been characterized as the largest threat to copyright since its inception. It is awash in information, much of it with varying degrees of copyright protection. ” (O’Mahoney, 2001). Copyrighted issue constitutes an important part of this paper and it details most of the present concerns of intellectual property. 1 Privacy Everyone has the right to know what information is collected and how it will be used and to accept or decline the collection or dissemination of this information– particularly financial and medical information. ” President George W. Bush. Privacy has become a major concern on the Internet. According to (Ferrell, Leclair & Fraedrich, 1997), “the extraordinary growth of the Internet has created a number of privacy issues that society has never encountered before and therefore has been slow to address. ” Opinions have been expressed and actions were taken in order to resolve these matters in one way or another.

In an interview earlier this year United States President George W. Bush (Miller, 2001) expressed numerous and informed concerns regarding privacy issues, including access, security, and use of personal information. He promised to ensure actions that will meet consumer demands for privacy protection and advocated “opt- in” policies for mailing lists. He concluded the interview by stating: “I share many people’s concerns that, with the advent of the Internet, personal privacy is increasingly at risk, and I am committed to protecting personal privacy for everyone. Privacy issues on the Internet relate to two major concerns. The first concern is users’ ability to control the rate, type, and sequence of the information they view. Spam, or unsolicited commercial e- mail, is a control concern because it violates privacy and steals resources. A second concern relates to the ability of users to address and understand how organizations collect and use personal information on the Internet. Many 2 Web sites require visitors to identify themselves and provide information about their wants and needs.

Some Web sites track visitors’ “footsteps” through the site by storing a cookie, or identifying string of text, on their computers. The use of cookies can be an ethical issue, especially because many users have no idea that this transfer of information is even occurring. Internet privacy is an important ethical issue because most organizations engaging in e- commerce have not yet developed policies and codes of conduct to encourage responsible behavior. Spamming “Junk e- mail and spam are both terms for advertising and e- mail sent to you which you did not ask for and which you do not want”, (Elbel, 2001).

However, spam is a more generic term that includes broadcast posting to newsgroups as well as individuals. And spamming is very costly for the end users: recent surveys showed that various forms of spam consume up to 15% of Internet bandwidth. According to a recent European Union study “junk email costs all of us some 9. 4 billion (US) dollars per year, and many major ISPs say that spam adds 20% of the cost of their service”, (Elbel, 2001). As you can see spamming is a very profitable endeavor and have grown over the years to assume a number of different forms.

Thus, we can distinguish: v Unsolicited e- mail is any email message received where the recipient did not specifically ask to receive it. It might not be always an abuse. v Bulk e- mail is any group of messages sent via e- mail, with substantially identical content, to a large number of addresses at once. Many ISPs specify a threshold for bulk e- mail to be 25 or more recipients within a 24- hour period. Once again, bulk e- mail itself is not necessarily abuse of the e- mail system. 3 Unsolicited Commercial E- mail (UCE) is a form of e- mail containing commercial information that has been sent to a recipient who did not ask to receive it. Several ISPs specify that sending even one UCE is a violation of privacy. v Make Money Fast (MMF) are e- mail messages that “guarantee immediate, incredible profits! “, including such schemes as chain letters. v Multi-Level Marketing (MLM) are e- mail messages that “guarantee incredible profits! “, right after you send them an “initial investment” and recruit others. v Mailbomb is probably the most harmful type of spamming.

It takes the form of email packages delivered repeatedly to the same address until the mailbox is overloaded, or perhaps even the system that hosts the mailbox crashes. Mailbombs generally take one of two forms. A mailbox might be targeted to receive hundreds or thousands of messages, making it difficult or impossible for the victim to use their own mailbox, possibly subjects them to additional charges for storage space, and might cause them to miss messages entirely due to overflow. This is seen as a denial- of- service attack, perhaps also harassment.

Another form of mailbombing is to forge subscription requests to many mailing lists, all for one recipient. The result is a huge barrage of email arriving in the victim’s e- mail box, all of it unwanted, but “legitimate”. There are several ways to escape spamming, but none will guarantee 100 percent reliability. First, a complaint to the ISPs that originated and forwarded the spam is required. It is also recommended to switch to an ISP that uses one or all of the anti- spam databases available (RBL, RSS, and DUL). About 40% of the Internet is using these services, with good success.

Also, it is important that you never, under any circumstance, reply to junk e- mail, even if it is to send a “remove” request. Most spammers ignore such 4 responses, or worse, add you to their list of validated e- mail addresses that they sell. Also, getting removed doesn’t keep you from being added the next time they mine for addresses, nor will it get you off other copies of the list that have been sold or traded to others. Finally, we should note that there are voices that argue that spamming is a legitimate form of expression and restricting it would be a First Amendment infringement.

Even more, has been suggested that “junk e- mail (also called “bulk” e- mail and “spam”) should be legally protected”, (D’Ambrosio, 2000). Tracking a user on the Internet Data about individuals is collected in a wide variety of ways, including information provided on application forms, credit/debit card transactions, and cookies. Many users expect that such activities are anonymous, but unfortunately they are far from being so. It is possible to record many online activities, including which newsgroups or files a subscriber has accessed and which web sites a subscriber has visited.

This information can be collected both by a subscriber’s own service provider (available in the request headers of browsers) and by agents of remote sites which a subscriber visits. But the most popular form of collecting data about web surfers is the cookie. These are short pieces of data used by web servers to help identify web users. The cookie is stored on the user’s computer, but contrary to popular belief it is not an executable program and cannot do anything harmful to the machine. Cookies are used by Internet shopping sites to keep track of users and their shopping carts.

When someone first visits an Internet shopping site, they are sent a cookie containing the name (ID number) of a shopping cart and other useful tags. Another use of cookies is to create customized home 5 pages. A cookie is sent to the user’s browser for each of the items they expect to see on their custom home page. One of the less admirable uses of cookies, and the one that is causing all the controversy, is its use as a device for tracking the browsing and buying habits of individual web users.

On a single web site or a group of web sites within a single subdomain, cookies can be used to see what web pages you visit and how often you visit them. However, such concerns can be easily addressed by setting the browser to not accept cookies or use one of the new cookie blocking packages that offer selective cookie access. Note that blocking all cookies prevents some online services from working. Also, preventing the browser from accepting cookies does not confer anonymity; it just makes it more difficult to be tracked on the Web. Related to cookies, but more damaging is the activity known as “prying”.

Many of the commercial online services will automatically download graphics and program upgrades to the user’s home computer. News reports have documented the fact that certain online services have admitted to both accidental and intentional prying into the memory of home computers signing on to the service. In some cases, personal files have been copied and collected by the online services. Use of Personal Information You can find out simple directory information about people on a variety of web sites, like Switchboard, Whowhere, Four11, Bigfoot.

These contain information retrieved from telephone books. And most of these sites allow someone who doesn’t want to be listed in their databases to have his/her information removed. But beyond the free services there are the fee- based services where one can find out a great deal about 6 individuals on the Internet. There are services like as KnowX, Informus, Infotel, CDB, Infotek, Information America, and Lexis- Nexis that offer subscription based services and give access either through the Internet or through their own telephone networks.

The information they provide is primarily from public records like records of court cases, both civil and criminal (not the full text, not yet anyway, but an index of cases), bankruptcies, judgments and liens, property records, such as county tax assessors files, professional license information, if regulated by the state, Dept of Motor Vehicle data from many states, voter registration data from many states, stock investments, if you own 15% or more of a company’s stock, and many more other sources.

Data warehouses built with this kind of sensitive personal information (including “browsing patterns,” also known as “transaction- generated information”) are the lifeblood of many enterprises that need to locate their customers with direct mailing (or e- mailing) campaigns. It may also create the potential for “junk e- mail” and other marketing uses. Additionally, this information may be embarrassing for users who have accessed sensitive or controversial materials online. In theory, individuals (data subjects) are routinely asked if they would permit their information to be used by the information collector.

Application forms usually include a clause stating that personal information provided may be used for marketing and other purposes. This is the principle of informed consent, meaning that if the individual does not so request that his/her data not to be used for such purposes, it is assumed that he/she had given permission. The alternative principle, of affirmative consent, where an individual is required to give permission for each and every occasion on which a data user wishes to make use of an individual’s data, becomes extremely expensive and complex and is seldom practiced.

The Federal Trade Commission is urging commercial web site operators to make public their information collection practices in privacy policies posted on web sites. 7 Many web sites now post information about their information- collection practices. You can look for a privacy “seal of approval,” such as TRUSTe, Council of Better Business Bureaus (BBB), American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, WebTrust, and others on the first page of the web site. Those that participate in such programs agree to post their privacy policies and submit to audits of their privacy practices in order to display the logo.

There are several technologies that help online users protect their privacy. v Encryption is a method of scrambling an e- mail message or file so that it is unintelligible to anyone who does not know how to unscramble it. Thus, private information may be encrypted, and then transmitted, stored or distributed without fear that outsiders will have access to its content. Various strong encryption programs, such as PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) and RSA (RSA Data Security) are available online.

Because encryption prevents unauthorized access, law enforcement agencies have expressed concerns over the use of this technology, and Congress has considered legislation to create a “back door” to allow law enforcement officials to decipher encrypted messages. Federal law limits exporting certain types of encryption code or descriptive information to other countries and file them under the same ammo type as nuclear weapons. v Anonymous remailers. Because it is relatively easy to determine the name and email address of anyone who posts messages or sends e- mail, the practice of using anonymous remailing programs has become more common.

These programs receive e- mail, strip off all identifying information, and then forward the mail to the appropriate address. v Memory protection software. Software security programs are now available which help prevent unauthorized access to files on the home computer. For 8 example, one program encrypts every directory with a different password so that to access any directory you must log in first. Then, if an online service provider tries to read any private files, it would be denied access. These programs may include an “audit trail” that records all activity on the computer’s drives.

Censorship and Blocking Software “With its recent explosive growth, the Internet now faces a problem inherent in all media that serve diverse audiences: not all materials are appropriate for every audience” (Resnick & Miller, 1996). Any rules or laws about distribution, however, will be too restrictive from some perspectives, yet not restrictive enough from others. Apparently it might be easier to meet diverse needs by controlling reception rather than distribution. In the TV industry, this realization has led to the V- chip, a system for blocking reception based on labels embedded in the broadcast stream.

On the Internet, the solution might be considered even better, with richer labels that reflect diverse viewpoints, and more flexible selection criteria. Not everyone needs to block reception of the same materials. Parents may not wish to expose their children to sexual or violent images, businesses may want to prevent their employees from visiting recreational sites during hours of peak network usage, and governments may want to restrict reception of materials that are legal in other countries but not in their own.

The blocking solution with the largest acceptance at this moment is PICS (Platform for Internet Content Selection). Its labels are supposed to be able to describe any aspect of a document or a Web site. As was natural to be expected, PICS labels started out as an attempt to block web pages that were not compliant with indecency 9 laws. As one of its initiators said, “the original impetus for PICS was to allow parents and teachers to screen materials they felt were inappropriate for children using the Net”, (Weinberger, 1997).

At this moment, Microsoft, Netscape, SurfWatch, CyberPatrol, and other software vendors have PICS- compatible products, while AOL, AT WorldNet, CompuServe, and Prodigy provide free blocking software that is PICS- compliant. Intellectual Property Intellectual Property concerns the protection of “all products created or designed by human intellect – book, songs, poems, trademarks, blueprints…and software” (Davidson, 2000, p. 9). The copying of software programs, although nominally protected by copyright laws, is certainly widespread. Much of the argument about IP lies in the deontological dichotomy between rights and duties”, (Davidson, 2000, p. 12). Software producers claim that they have the right to protect the fruit of their endeavors, and have the right to be compensated for the resources spend in the development process, while consumers claim that they have the right to use a product for which they have paid and expect that the product will be free of defects. This should lead to competitively priced products with superior quality, providing value for money. 10 Copyright, Patents, and Trademarks

According to prof. Johnson (2000) “as computing resources become more and more prevalent, computer software becomes easier and easier to access, and as such, easier and easier to copy”, (p. 124). Protection for one’s work, from a legal point of view, requires copyright, patents, and trademarks for sensible and strategic information. The best approach is to have a combination of trade secret protection, copyright laws, and trademark laws for the product in question because these are cheap, effective, and fast ways of protecting a software product from being pirated.

Copyright Issues Copyrighted works on the net include news stories, software, novels, screenplays, graphics, pictures, Usenet messages and even e- mail. “In fact, the frightening reality is that almost everything on the Net is protected by copyright law” (O’Mahoney, 2001). Software and manuals, as novels and other literary works, are protected under copyright laws. In simple terms, this guarantees the copyright owner, the author in most cases, the exclusive rights to the reproduction and distribution of his intellectual property.

Thus, copyright law guarantees the owner of the intellectual property the same types of rights that patent law guarantees the owner of an invention or other piece of seemingly more tangible physical property. Computer software and data are intellectual property, and as such are covered by copyright law. The problems start when people cannot, or will not, make the mental transition from physical to intellectual property. While most people would not steal books from a bookstore or a software package from a dealer’s showroom, 11 ven if they knew they would not be caught, many of the same people would not hesitate copying a computer program from a demo or from their friends and colleagues. The only free software is the one places in the public domain, also known as freeware. For the rest of the software products the user must abide by the license agreements which usually come with a program and places restrictions upon reproducing and distributing the software, including such things as loaning the software to a friend or colleague and making duplicates for classroom or network use. Some licenses even go so far as to restrict use to a specific computer.

In most cases, however, the user does have the right to make a backup copy of the software for archival purposes. In theory, any use of a software package which falls outside of the limits of the license agreement renders the user, and quite often the user’s company or institution, liable to prosecution. A computer program is defined in the copyright law as “a set of statements or instructions to be used directly or indirectly in a computer in order to bring about a certain result. ” Copyright protection begins at the time a work is created in fixed form; no act other than creation of the work is required to obtain a copyright for the work.

According to (Yoches and Levine, 1989) “the scope of copyright protection for a computer program’s expression may extend beyond its literal code to the structure, sequence and organization of the program. ” Another debated and important aspect of software copyright involves the use of databases, data warehouses, and other forms of data collections. Under traditional concepts of literary copyright, the data contained in a compilation, and the selection of the data, may sometimes not be protected from copying. Only the coordination and arrangement of the database may be protected, and even then there must be some originality to the collection and arrangement for it to be protected”, (Losey, 1995). 12 There are essentially three ways to legally protect computer databases: copyright, trade secret and contract. Raw facts in a database may not be protected by copyright, regardless of the time or expense that went into locating them. However, in many databases the data itself, or the particular expressions of the facts, may have been created by the author. In such cases the data has originality and can be protected.

Even if the contents are raw facts, not new materials created by the author, the compilation aspects of the database (selection, coordination and arrangement) may still receive copyright protection. A trade secret is “knowledge which a person or company acquires through its own efforts and which has some value to it” (Losey, 1995). Typically, this knowledge is kept secret from competitors because it is felt that this information provides some type of competitive advantage. Since a computer database is a compilation that derives economic value, it is a type of intellectual property that has frequently received trade secrecy protection.

Finally, the owner of a database can require that any purchaser enter into a written contract as a condition of purchase of the database. That written agreement could expressly provide that the purchaser will not disclose the content to anyone but authorized users, nor make any copies or unauthorized use of the information. Typically this takes the form of a License Agreement between the owner/licensor of the database and the user/licensee of the database. Protect your site against theft It might be useful to know that a link is a URL, a fact not unlike a street address, and is therefore not copyrightable.

However, a URL list may be copyrightable under a 13 compilation copyright if it contains some originality. The Internet was created on the basis of being able to attach hypertext links to any other location on the Web. Consequently, by putting yourself on the Internet, “you have given implied permission to others to link to your Web page, and everyone else on the Web is deemed to have given you implied permission to link to their Web pages” (O’Mahoney, 2001). The two primary methods of protection are technical countermeasures and legal protection.

Technical countermeasures include strategies such as digital watermarking and spiders that search the Internet for copies of your pages or graphics. These strategies tend to be difficult, expensive, and user- unfriendly. The primary vehicle for legal protection is copyright. This is by far the easiest and most popular form of protection in use today. In implementing a copyright strategy, there are three items that you should consider: v Ownership: before trying to copyright your website, a clear understanding of what exactly it is considered to be copyrighted is required.

There are many elements to a website, including text, graphics, scripts, data, and code. If everything was created from scratch for the website, ownership is not an issue. However, if someone else created text, or some clip art was downloaded from another website, or scanned photographs from archives were used, or a web design firm was hired to load all informational content into an attractive package, then ownership of the respective elements is shared with the original creators, unless otherwise stated in contracts and licenses. Copyright notice: it is generally a good idea to put a copyright notice on your website. It used to be that in order to be afforded any copyright protection whatsoever, one needed to put the world on notice by attaching a copyright notice to the work. While this is no longer the case, it is still customary to attach a 14 copyright notice on copyrighted works in order to be eligible for certain types of damages. The copyright notice consists of at least elements that include the copyright symbol and/or the term “Copyright”, the year of copyright, and the name of the copyright holder. Registration: register your copyright with the Copyright Office. Although the Copyright Act gives protection just for creating your work and reducing it to a tangible form, that protection proved somewhat illusory in some cases when registration was overlooked. Patents and Trademarks “A recognized brand name or trademark represents the goodwill that has been built into the product or service”, (Eldenbrock & Borwankar, 1996). Consumers tend to associate the recognized brand name or trademark with certain characteristics that are specific to that name or mark.

Therefore, companies often spend millions of dollars annually for safeguarding the investment in the related intellectual property rights. Trademark laws protect the name of the software, not the software itself. Some examples include: “Lotus 1- 2- 3”, “Apple “, “D- BASE”, “WordPerfect”, and many others. Copyright protection protects the expression of an idea, not the idea itself. A patent protects the idea itself. There are two major drawbacks to patents. They take a lot of money and a lot of time (usually two or more years).

Computer games are rarely patent protected because the shelf life for a game is usually no more than six months. 15 Fair Use “When the fair use doctrine applies to a specific use of a work, the person making fair use of the work does not need to seek permission from the copyright owner or to compensate the copyright owner for the use of the work”, (Lehman, 1998). The fair use is a form of limitation of the exclusive rights of copyright owners for purposes such as criticism, comments, news reporting, teaching (including the possibility to make multiple copies of a copyrighted work for classroom use), scholarships, or research.

In order to determine whether the use made of a work in any particular case is not a copyright infringement, Smith’s (2001) Copyright Implementation Manual offers the following guidelines: 1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; 2. the nature of the copyrighted work; 3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and 4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors. Those creators and authors who wish to dedicate their works to the public domain may, of course, do so notwithstanding the availability of protection under the Copyright Act. 16 Libel and Defamation “We know that as the Internet grows, there will be more and more lawsuits involving libel and defamation. ” said attorney David H. Donaldson, editor of Legal Bytes, “The only question is if the number of cases will grow steadily or if there will be an explosion of lawsuits all at once. The Internet has been used to harass, slander, threat and these online activities led to arrests, successful sues (because have used netnews to slander and for delivering inappropriate screen saver images) and other forms of legal punishments. The most frequent form of libel on the Internet is flaming, defined as “the practice of sending extremely critical, derogatory, and often vulgar e- mail messages, or newsgroup postings to other users on the Internet or online services” (O’Brien, 2002, pp. 326).

Famous cases of racism or defamation have turned the attention at the gaps in legislation regarding Internet crime. Sexual explicit web pages are responsible for another stir in social awareness regarding Internet- related legal void. Sometimes even a “link to another’s page could be defamatory and may subject someone to legal liability”, (INET Legal Networks, 2001), if it links to a page where offensive or illegal content is present and if you do not give strong warning to the web surfer about the consequences of his/her “click”.

There are a number of features unique to the Internet that distinguish it from any other medium and have “led to the current re- examination of existing libel laws to allow for their possible evolution and ultimately their application in the cyberspace”, (Potts & Harris, 1996). These features include its global nature (more than 125 countries are linked via Internet), which raised questions about jurisdiction, repeated publication every time a 17 page is updated/viewed, and the possibility to enforce judgments.

Another Internet specific aspect is its highly interactive nature, which decreases the effectiveness of later corrections, but empowers the ability to reply, which might be considered more gratifying, immediate and potent than launching a libel action. Accessibility is another feature of the Internet, which distinguishes it from traditional print or broadcast media. The relatively low cost of connecting to the Internet and even of establishing one’s own website means that the opportunity for defamation has increased exponentially. Now, on the Internet everyone can be a publisher and can be sued as a publisher.

Internet anonymity means that users do not have to reveal their true identity in order to send email or post messages on bulletin boards. This feature, coupled with the ability to access the Internet in the privacy and seclusion of one’s own home or office and the interactive, responsive nature of communications on the Internet, has resulted in users being far less inhibited about the contents of their messages than in any other form of media. Computer Crime One of the biggest threats for the online community comes from various ways in which a computers network in general and the Internet in special might be used to support computer crime.

The list of such actions is vast as “criminals are doing everything from stealing intellectual property and committing fraud to unleashing viruses and committing acts of cyber terrorism” (Sager, Hamm, Gross, Carey & Hoff, 2000) and a few of the most dangerous and common ones have already entered the general IT folklore. The Association of Information Technology Professionals defined computer crime as including “unauthorized use, access, modification, and destruction of hardware, software, data, or network resources; unauthorized release of information; unauthorized copying of 18 oftware; denying an end user access to his or her own hardware, software, data, or network resources; using or conspiring to use computer or network resources to illegally obtain information or tangible property. ” Software piracy Software piracy is the illegal copying of computer software. It is also considered the computer industry’s worst problem and, according to the specialists, has become a household crime. “People who wouldn’t think of sneaking merchandise out of a store or burgling a house regularly obtain copies of computer programs that they haven’t paid for”, (Hard- Davis, 2001).

Software piracy is fought by legal means (licenses, copyright, trademarks and patents, and lawsuits, when all else fails). According to Zwass (1997), “deterrent controls (legal sanctions) and preventive controls (increasing the cost of piracy by technological means) can be used to combat software piracy. ” Information technology is a key driver in the globalization and growth of the world economy. In a recent study of worldwide software market (International Data Corporation, 1999) the total worldwide package software market has been stimated at $135 billion. Worldwide expenditures on software are expected to increase to about $220 billion by the year 2002. The U. S. software industry is reaping the benefits of this hyper growth, having captured 70% of global software sales. According to (Software Publishers Association, 1998), the worldwide revenues of business- based PC applications was $17. 2 billion, but global revenue losses due to piracy in the business application software market were calculated at $11. 4 billion.

This is very similar to the report of (International Research and Planning, 2001)’s Business Software Alliance (BSA), a watchdog group representing the world’s leading software manufacturers, which announced the results of 19 its sixth annual benchmark survey on global software piracy. The independent study highlights the serious impact of copyright infringement with piracy losses nearing $11. 8 billion worldwide in 2000. Figure 1 shows an interesting correlation between the national piracy rates compiled by the SPA with the per capita GNP for 65 countries in the year 1997.

Higher software piracy rates are heavily skewed towards countries with low per capita GNP. The effect of GNP is much more pronounced for the countries with GNPs less than $6,000, as shown in Figure 2. Each $1,000 increase in per capita GNP is associated with a nearly 6% decrease in the piracy rate. These results indicate a significant income effect on the global piracy rates, particularly in the poorer segments of the world. The different ways of illegally copying computer software can be broken down into five basic ways of pirating. Counterfeiting is duplicating and selling unauthorized copies of software in such a manner as to try to pass off the illegal copy as if it were a legitimate copy produced by or authorized by the publisher. v Softlifting is the purchasing of a single licensed copy of software and loading it on several machines, contrary to the terms of the license agreement. This includes sharing software with friends and co- workers. v Hard- disk loading is selling computers pre- loaded with illegal software. v Bulletin-board piracy is putting software on a bulletin- board service for nyone to copy or copying software from a bullet in- board service that is not shareware or freeware. v Software rental is the renting of software for temporary use. An interesting study regarding software piracy in academic environment was conducted at the Faculty of Business at the City University of Hong Kong (Moores & 20 Dhillon, 2000). A total of 243 usable responses were received, of which 122 were female and 121 were male. As shown in Figure 3, 81% of the respondents report they buy pirated software on a regular basis, with a significant minority (29%) buying every month, and 3% even reporting they buy several times a week.

The most popular pirated software bought was spreadsheets, followed by programming languages, databases, word processors, and statistical packages. Other software mentioned included e- mail, graphics, and game software. Only 7% claim to have never bought pirated software. Illegal Information The Internet was designed as an inherently insecure communications vehicle. This allowed an impressive number of security gaps that led to numerous hacking techniques. Probably the most famous one at this moment is the denial of service attack, that led to the shutdown of many famous Internet sites, including Yahoo! , eBay, Amazon, and CNN.

Other hacking tactics include spoofing (faking an web page to trick users into giving away critical information), Trojan horses (programs that are planted on user’s machine without his knowledge), logic bombs (instructions in computer programs that triggers malicious acts), and password crackers. According to Givens (2001), “Identity thieves are able to shop online anonymously using the identities of others. Web- based information brokers sell sensitive personal data, including Social Security numbers, relatively cheaply. ” In December 1999 300,000 credit card numbers were stolen from the online music retailer CD Universe database.

That’s way it is considered a federal crime to possess 15 ore more access devices like cellular activation codes, account passwords, and credit card numbers. 21 Beside the theft that these kinds of devices enable, such actions lead to loss of trust from customers to such services that have been the target of hacking. It is also illegal in many states to have pornographic related material on your machine, and in some cases mere possession of child pornography is punishable by many years in jail. As mentioned before, possession or export of certain types of cryptographic techniques is a very serious federal crime.

AMA Code of Ethics of Marketing on the Internet “All professionals find a code of ethics is useful to guide them through the sometimes thorny issues that confront them” (Klampert, 1998). Codes of ethics are an organized, written set of rules that describe expected behaviors. There are many such codes in Information Systems (ACM, IEEE, British Computer Society), but none of them has overall recognition. Most institutions that provide Internet access have formulated policies and procedures regarding the fair use of their facilities.

The most frequent policies are grouped under the following categories: a Code for Ethical Computer Use (usually a written policy an institution has developed to describe ethical use of their computer system), an E- mail Privacy Policy, and an Internet Access Policy. One of the most representative such codes for the Internet community is the one that has been imposed by the American Marketing Association for its members. Below there are a few of the most interesting requirements, as they can be found in the latest edition of (AMA, 2001) Code of Ethics for Marketing on the Internet: 2 Adherence to all applicable laws and regulations with no use of Internet marketing that would be illegal, if conducted by mail, telephone, fax or other media. Organizational commitment to ethical Internet practices communicated to employees, customers and relevant stakeholders. Information collected from customers should be confidential and used only for expressed purposes. All data, especially confidential customer data, should be safeguarded against unauthorized access. The expressed wishes of others should be respected with regard to the receipt of unsolicited e-mail messages.

Information obtained from the Internet sources should be properly authorized and documented. Marketers should treat access to accounts, passwords, and other information as confidential, and only examine or disclose content when authorized by a responsible party. The integrity of others’ information systems should be respected with regard to placement of information, advertising or messages. Conclusions This R paper gives a general overview of the most debated ethical issues related to the use of Internet and their implications for managers and business practice.

However, there are several other less critical aspects that should be considered by a very thorough revision and some very interesting papers on these subjects are listed in Appendix C. These aspects include unauthorized use of computer resources at work, accessing individuals’ private e- mail and telephone conversations and computer records by the companies they work for and other forms of computer monitoring, challenges to 23 work conditions and individuality that are brought about by computer systems, mistaken computer matching of individuals, and many, many more.

To protect themselves and the people they work with, information professionals need to be as professional as they can be and, sometimes, must decline a project if clients insist that they do something they have moral objections about. Ethical considerations are inherent for any IT professional. Moral behavior, including acting with integrity, increasing personal competence, setting high standards of personal performance, accepting responsibility for your actions, avoiding computer crime, and increasing the security of computer systems developed are just a few of many such considerations.

Overall, I believe that there is a critical need for heightened debate on professional ethics in Information Systems. 24 Appendix A Figure 1. Per capita GNP and piracy rates. Figure 2. Piracy rates and per capita GNP less than $6000 25 Figure 3. Frequency of pirated software. 26 Appendix B Cited Works 1. Choi, S. – Y. & Whinston, A. B. (2000). The Internet Economy: Technology and Practice. Austin, TX: SmartEcon Publishing. 2. D’Ambrosio, J. (2000,. January). Should “Junk” E- mail Be Legally Protected? [online]. Available: http://www. fmew. com/archive/junk/. October 26, 2001). 3. Davidson, Robert (2000, April). Professional Ethics in Information Systems: A Personal Perspective. Communications of the AIS, Vol. 3, Article 8. 4. Elbel, F. (2001, October 23). Junk E- mail and Spam. [online]. Available: http://www. ecofuture. org/jmemail. html. (October 26, 2001). 5. Elderbrock, David and Borwankar, Nitin. (1996). Building Successful Internet Businesses: The Essential Sourcebook for Creating Businesses on the Net. Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide. 6. Ferrell, O. C. , Leclair, D. T. , & Fraedrich, J. P. (1997, October).

Integrity Management : A Guide to Managing Legal and Ethical Issues in the Workplace. O’Collins Corp. 7. Givens, Beth. (2001, March). A Review of Current Privacy Issues. [online]. Available: http://www. privacyrights. org/ar/Privacy- IssuesList. htm. (October 26, 2001). 8. Hard- Davis, G. (2001, March). Internet Piracy Exposed. Alameda, CA:Sybex. 27 9. INET Legal Networks (2001). Defamation – Law for Internet [online]. Available: http://www. lawforinternet. com/subject_defamation. php3? searchkys=defamation =topdefamation. html. (October 26, 2001). 10.

International Data Corporation (1999, February 10). Distribution of Worldwide Software Revenues Vary Dramatically [online]. Available: www. idcresearch. com/Press/default. htm. (October 26, 2001). 11. International Research and Planning. (2001, May). Sixth Annual BSA Global Software Piracy Study. [online]. Available: http://www. bsa. org/resources/200105- 21. 55. pdf. (October 26, 2001). 12. Johnson, Mark B. (2000, January). Software Piracy: Stopping It Before It Stops You. Proceedings of the sixteenth ACM SIGUCCS Conference on User Services. pp. 124- 131. 13. Klampert, Elizabeth (1998, July 13).

Business Ethics for Information Professionals. Proceedings of the AALL 1998 Conference on Independent Law Librarian Program, Anaheim, CA. 14. Lehman, B. A. , (1998). The Conference on Fair Use: final report to the commissioner on the conclusion of the Conference on Fair Use. Washington, DC: Office of Public Affairs U. S. Patent and Trademark Office. 15. Losey, Ralph C. (1995). Practical and Legal Protection of Computer Databases [online]. Available: http://www. eff. org/Intellectual_property/database_protection. paper. (October 25, 2001). 16. Miller, M. J. (2001, February 6).

Bush’s Privacy Plan. PC Magazine, Vol. 20, No. 3. 28 17. Moores, T & Dhillon, G. (2000, December). Software Piracy: A View from Hong Kong. Communication of the ACM, Vol. 28, No. 10, p. 88- 93. 18. O’Brien, J. A. (2002). Management Information Systems: Managing Information Technology in the E- Business Enterprise. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill. 19. O’Mahoney, B. (2001). Copyright Website [online]. Available: http://www. benedict. com/digital/digital. asp. (October 26, 2001). 20. Potts, David & Harris, S. (1996, May 16). Defamation on the Internet [online]. Available: http://owl. nglish. purdue. edu/handouts/research/r_apa. html. (October 26, 2001). 21. Resnick, P. & Miller, J. (1996). PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 87- 93. 22. Sager, Ira, Hamm, Steve, Gross, Neil, Carey, John and Hoff, Robert. (2000, February 21). Business Week. 23. Smith, Steve. (2001, May). Copyright Implementation Manual [online]. Available: http://www. groton. k12. ct. us/mts/cimhp01. htm. (December 1, 2001). 24. Software Publishers Association (1998). SPA’s Report on Global Software Piracy [online]. Available: www. pa. org/piracy/98report. htm. (October 26, 2001). 25. Weinberger, J. (1997, March). Rating the Net. Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 19. 26. Yoches, E. Robert & Levine, Arthur J. (1989, May). Basic principles of copyright protection for computer software. Communications of the ACM Vol. 32 No. 5. pp. 544. 27. Zwass, Vladimir. (1997, Spring). Editorial Introduction. Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 3- 6. 29 Appendix C Bibliography 1. American Marketing Association (2001). Full Text of the AMA Code of Ethics [online].

Available: http://www. ama. org/about/ama/fulleth. asp. (October 26, 2001). 2. Berman, J. & Weitzner, D. (1995). User Control: Renewing the Democratic Heart of the First Amendment in the Age of Interactive Media. Yale Law Journal, Vol. 104, pp. 1619. 3. BRINT Institute. (2001). Intelectual Property: Copyright, Trademarks and Patents. [online]. Available: http://www. brint. com/IntellP. htm. (October 26, 2001). 4. British Computer Society. (2000). British Computer Society Code of Practice [online]. Available: http://www. bcs. org. uk/aboutbcs/cop. htm. (November 30, 2001). 5. CETUS. (1995).

Fair Use: A Statement of Principle [online]. Available: http://www. cetus. org/fair4. html. (December 1, 2001). 6. Cheng, H. K. , Sims, R. R. , and Teegen, H. (1999, Spring). To Purchase or to Private Software: An Empirical Study. Journal of Management Information Systems Vol. 13, No. 4, p. 49- 60. 7. Gopal, R. D. , & Sanders, G. L. (1997, Spring). Preventive and Deterrent Controls for Software Piracy. Journal of Management Information Systems Vol. 13 No. 4. pp. 29- 47. 30 8. Hinman, Lawrence M. (2001, September 15). Ethic Updates [online]. Available: http://ethics. acusd. edu/index. tml. (October 25, 2001). 9. Jamison, B. , Gold, J. & Jamison, W. (1997). Electronic Selling: 23 Steps to ESelling Profits. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. 10. Lending, D. & Slaughter, S. A. (2001, April). Research in progress: the effects of ethical climate on attitudes and behaviors toward software piracy. Proceedings of the 2001 ACM SIGCPR conference on Computer personnel research. p. 198- 200. 11. Limayem, Moez, Khalifa, Mohamed , Chin, Wynne W. (1999, January). Factors Motivating Software Piracy. Proceeding of the 20th international conference on Information Systems, p. 124- 13. 12.

Scott, Thomas J. , Kallman, Ernest A. , Lelewer, Debra. (1994 November). Ethical Issues Involving the Internet. Proceedings of the conference on Ethics in the computer age. pp. 31- 32. 13. Thong, J. Y. L. , & Yap, C. – S. (1998, Summer). Testing and Ethical DecisionMaking Theory: The Case of Softlifting. Journal of Management Information Systems Vo. 15, No. 1. pp. 213- 237. 14. U. S. Department of Energy Computer Incident Advisory Capability Information Bulletin. (1998, March 12). Internet Cookies. [online]. Available: http://ciac. llnl. gov/ciac/bulletins/i- 034. shtml. (October 26, 2001). 31

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Should the Government Regulate the Internet More Strictly

Tittle: Should the government regulate the Internet more strictly Should the government regulate the Internet more strictly? It is no exaggeration to say that the Internet has changed the world. Today, we can get all kinds of information from around the world through the Internet and life in the world easy to communicate with others. Therefore, the Internet seems to be at first glance dream tool. However, the Internet is not always a bright side. It can be harmful, when we use it and little care. Therefore, it should be better for the government to control the Internet.

From my opinion, there are few ways here that government should regulate the internet more strictly. Firstly, the number of crimes on the Internet at breakneck speed is increase in the past few years. For example, we sometimes encounter some fraud when we do some shopping on the Internet. In this case, we are doing procurement and they do not sent to the buyer, although the money has been sent to the seller. This is very difficult to track down criminals, because we have almost no criminals, who they are, what they do, even where they live we also don’t know.

If we use the Internet for online shopping, our credit card number is stolen, then the money in our bank account may be used up. Using the Internet to do our personal information is not safe, especially those important document. In fact, when we surf the Web, reading e-mail, download software, even with our friends, is called a hidden program, Trojan chat, can send to our computer without our knowing. It will steal and transfer all the information that we already save. After that, this person may make use of it to others. Nguyen Long Quoc, 2008) Secondly, the Government should review the information on the Internet that is more stringent. In reality, we can find out a lot of illegal work, such as music, movies, or books on the Internet. Shall be strictly controlled, or who owns the copyright and intellectual property rights because of this serious damage. Between that, pornography is a drawback of the Internet also. This is a very serious problem, especially when it comes to children. There are thousands of pornographic sites on the Internet can easily be found.

This kind of site is very harmful to the child, and likely to incite them to take action, on the other sex. According to researchers Jennings Bryant about 600 junior high school aged men and women, 31% male and 18% of women admitted to actually do some things that they see pornography. In addition, a recent study shows that, often exposed to pornography may lead to children’s participation in disease, addiction and unplanned pregnancy, the adverse effects of the mental life of children. (Nguyen Long Quoc, 2008) Lastly, we must be careful to computer viruses when we on the Internet.

Some people do the purpose of computer viruses; they spread out on the Internet. Once these viruses infect our computers, they destroy some of the information or even the computer itself. These kind of criminals also difficult to find out, so we must rely on government help to prevent these viruses. The virus is just a program; it would disrupt the normal operation of our computer system. Computer connected to the Internet is more vulnerable to virus attacks; they can go to our computer slowing down, destruction of data and our entire hard drive crashes to an end.

Maybe we here at least, no matter how hard we tried to stop them to use some anti-virus program on infected computers from viruses. Therefore, we should clearly know that they cause bad damage, but also inevitable. In conclusion, the Internet can have some bad effects toward us, such as unsafe personal information, the impact of pornography on children’s mental life, and virus threats. However, this does not mean that we should not use the Internet. It is difficult to imagine without the internet in our lives. We should only need to be more careful, every time we use the internet.

Nowadays, although internet is good or convenient to us but we still have to beware of it because sometimes it will bring harms to us. There should be more government control of the Internet. Although the Internet has made that we might live a better life, it can be bad for us, unless it is properly controlled. SOURCES Grace Smith. (2007). More government control of the internet? Available: http://sky. geocities. jp/c1304015takeshi/C3_56. htm. Last accessed 17th July 2012. Nguyen Long Quoc. (2008). disadvantages of the Internet. Available:

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How Does Internet Marketing Communication Differ?

1) How does internet marketing communication differ from traditional marketing communication? Internet marketing differs significantly from conventional marketing communications because of the digital medium used for communications. The internet and other digital media such as digital television and mobile phones enable new forms of interaction and new models for information exchange. A useful summary of the difference between theses new media and traditional media has been developed by McDonalds and Wilson they describe the 6 I’s of the e-marketing mix.

The 6 I’s are useful since they highlight factors that apply to practical aspects of the internet marketing such as personalization direct response and marketing research but also strategic issues of industry restructuring and integrated channels communications. (Imran RT, 2010) * Interactivity (from push to pull) * Intelligence (market research) * Individualization (mass customization & personalization) * Integration (inbound & outbound communications) * Industry restructuring (intermediation, disintermediation) * Independence of location (global ubiquity)

Interactive marketing promotes a two way communication as compared to traditional marketing, which is usually ruled by one way communication. The difference between interactive marketing and traditional marketing are Push and pull marketing strategy. Traditional marketing strategies were based on a “push” methodology where managers were literally pushing the products onto the customers. (www. ctsocialmediaconsultant. com). Difference between internet marketing, particularly the Internet, is predominantly a ‘pull’ technology, the customer having initiated the visit to the web site.

This may lead to subsequent push activities, such as sending e-mails to people who have registered their interest on the site, but the initial communication is a pull event. (www2. accaglobal. com) Interactivity is a significant feature of the new media, allowing a long-term dialogue to develop between the customer and the supplier. In the context of the web site, this is likely to be through e-mails, providing the customer with information and special offers for their areas of specific interest.

To initiate this dialogue the web site must capture information such as e-mail address, name, age, gender and areas of interest. Example of AEC company site only collects such information for people who wish to view downloadable study material. This is too restrictive and it will probably exclude all the potential CPD customers. AEC needs to consider ways of making it easier and worthwhile for visitors to the site to register their details. There is no evidence of AEC contemplating the potential use of interactive digital TV or mobile phones to establish long-term dialogues with their customers. www2. accaglobal. com) Intelligence has also been a key feature of the internet marketing, allowing the relatively cheap collection of marketing research data about customers’ requirements. This is routinely available from web logs and these logs need to be viewed and analyzed using appropriate software. This type of analysis is rarely available in the traditional marketing. For example, AEC does not know how often their training course catalogue is accessed and which pages are looked at. It only knows which training courses are eventually bought.

With the internet marketing the company is able to see which services and products are accessed and also to measure how many of these are turned into actual sales. This conversion rate may be an important source of information. For example, why are certain web pages often visited but few sales result is it a problem with the web page? Is it a problem with the product? An understanding of visit patterns allows the organization to focus on particular products and services. This analysis should already be available to AEC but there is no evidence that it uses it or is even aware of it. www2. accaglobal. com) Internet marketing also permits the marketing to be individualized, geared to a particular market segment, company or individual person. In the context of AEC this individualization could be achieved in at least two ways to reflect clear market segmentation. AEC has recently won a contract to supply professional accountancy training to a global accounting company. All students working for this company will now be trained by AEC in one of its worldwide centers. At present this company and its students will be served hrough a generic web site. However, the flexibility of the new media means that a site could be developed specifically for this requirement. The whole site would be geared, and branded, towards the requirements of the global 21 accounting company. Information that is irrelevant to that customer, such as CPD, would not appear on the site. This individualized approach should strengthen the relationship with the customer. Similarly, individuals may have their own access customized as a result of the profile that they have entered.

So, for example, if they have already stated that they are currently sitting the professional stage of an examination scheme then only information relevant to that stage will be presented to them when they log in. This is an example of the principle of mass customization that was only available in a limited form in the traditional media. AEC does not exploit this at present, but uses a generic web site that looks and feels the same, whoever the user is. (www2. accaglobal. com) Finally, internet marketing provides independence of location allowing the company to move into geographical areas that would have been unreachable before.

The Internet effectively provides a worldwide market that is open 24 hours per day, seven days per week. It is difficult to think of any traditional marketing which would have permitted this global reach so cheaply. Furthermore, the web site might also omit the actual physical location of the company because there is no requirement for information to be physically sent to an address. It should also be impossible for the potential customer to gauge the size of the supplying company. AEC has exploited this to some extent as it serves a world-wide market from no clear geographical centre.

However, the absence of on-line course booking means that certain physical contact details have to be provided and these might undermine the global perspective. (www2. accaglobal. com) Online marketing integrates creative and technical aspects of the internet. One can put his presence online with interactivity having proper attention to their services and products. Online marketing is not just ‘having a website’ or ‘building a website’ or ‘promoting a website’. Online marketing is different from off-line marketing, following characteristics differentiate them:

One-to-one versus one-to-many One-to-one versus one-to-many approach, the targeted user is typically browsing the Internet on their own, and the marketing messages reach them personally. This can be very clearly seen in search marketing, where the users find advertisements targeted to specific keywords that the users asked for (www. homeimprovementsmarketing. com). In Traditional marketing, the medium allows for only one way communication. The same marketing content is used for suppliers as well as customers mostly.

On the other hand when the medium is internet, the model allows for many to many marketing communications. When internet is used as a medium, the customers and companies can interact with the medium directly as well as the other customers and companies. The customers can further add to the medium and be a part of the marketing. The communication using such a model is not just from sender to receiver but in all possible directions. Traditional push communications are one-to-many, from one company to many customers, often the same message to different segment and often poorly targeted.

With digital media one-to-same reaching a niche or micro-segment becomes more practical e-marketers can afford to tailor and target their message to different segment through providing different site content or e-mail for different audiences through mass customization and personalization. Potentially digital media provide a one-to-many communication from company to customer rather than one-to-many communication from company to customer that is traditional in marketing using the mass media, such as newspapers or television. (Chaffey, Johnston page 351) Customers can compare online

Internet marketing allows businesses as well as the customers to co create a highly effective network worldwide, and dramatically increase the client trafficking. Compared traditional marketing communication, the Internet marketing makes it easier for buyers to compare two items side-by-side (online-business-journey. com). Before making a purchase, today’s customers can get complete the detailed of product information, the products information are very details stated on the web as compared to the retail store, the salesperson will not remember all the details about the products.

It is easy for the customers to have the information on the internet. They do not need to go to the store just for searching for the product details. Inventory is the level of stocks, this is for the customers who just want to view the product, and they will not buy instantly. For the order status which means “active orders” are orders which you paid for, whether still in processing or previously sent out (support. chinavasion. com). This facility cannot be offered in offline marketing because in offline marketing the buyer would have to go to the shop and buy the things physically.

Online marketing saves unnecessary transport expenses and saves time too. (www. dwsmg. com) Get the feedback of your target market in a snap Another communication of internet marketing is that you can get the feedback of your target market in a snap. They can comment and ask questions about your post real quick. That way, you can communicate with your customers faster and the sooner that you convince them to purchase the product or service that you are promoting, the better. What is amazing about internet marketing is that it can be very interactive.

When you air a commercial, you need to conduct a survey to find out what your audience has to say about it. Online, it is so much simpler because you can skip the survey procedure and still get an honest feedback anyway. Never underestimate the marketing power of word of mouth. Traditionally, it was said to be even more effective than actually launching an advertisement. That is because people would rather hear a recommendation from a friend or someone who has used the product rather than an advertiser. www. techie-buzz. com) Demographics targeting versus behavioral targeting Off-line marketers typically segment their markets according to age group, sex, geography, and other general factors. Online marketers have the luxury of targeting by activity. This is a deeper form of targeting, since the advertiser knows that the target audience is people who do a certain activity instead of just expecting that a certain group of people will like their new product or service (www. homeimprovementsmarketing. com).

The internal characteristics of the internet marketing makes it very different from traditional marketing , for an example the information can be transferred easily, it can be addressed directly, constant availability, integration, flexibility, individuality, interactivity, all these factors that are inherent for internet marketing can be used by companies to shape customer relationships When the traditional marketing tools are used the flow of information is not easy and the customer as well as the companies have to follow some proper channels.

Consistency, validity and access to information are necessary in marketing which the traditional marketing channel often lacks (Sundas48, 2011) Since exposure, response and overall efficiency of Internet media is easy to track compared to traditional “off-line” media, through the use of web analytics for instance, Internet marketing can offer a greater sense of accountability for advertisers. Marketers and their clients are becoming aware of the need to measure the collaborative effects of marketing References Chaffey, Johnston, 2006.

Internet marketing strategy, implementation and pratice 3th edition, Prentice Hall Difference Between Online and Offline Marketing, (2008), Available from: http://www. dwsmg. com/difference-between-online-and-offline-marketing. html [Accessed on 27 June 2011] Is Online Marketing More Effective for Organizations Today (page 22) by Sundas48, (2011) Available from: http://www. scribd. com/doc/54220673/18/Communication [Accessed on 27 June 2011] Professional Level – Essentials Module, Paper P3, (2008) Business Analysis Available from: http://www2. ccaglobal. com/pubs/students/acca/exams/p3/past_papers/p3_2008_jun_a. pdf (page 21) [Accessed on 27 June 2011] How does internet marketing communication differ from traditional marketing communication? By Imran, (2011), Available from: http://revolutionary-technologies. com/blog/web-marketing/how-does-internet-marketing-communication-differ-from-traditional-marketing-communication/ [Accessed on 23 June 2011] Internet Marketing, (2008), Available from: http://homeimprovementsmarketing. com/Internet-Marketing. tm [Accessed on 27 June 2011] Advantages And Disadvantages Of Shopping Online, (2011), Available from: http://online-business-journey. com/blog/internet/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-shopping-online/ [Accessed on 23June 2011] The Advantages of Internet Marketing Over Traditional Marketing by Guest, (2011), Available from: http://techie-buzz. com/discussions/internet-marketing-vs-tv-radio. html [Accessed on 21 June 2011] How is Interactive marketing Different from Traditional marketing? 2011), Available from: http://www. ctsocialmediaconsultant. com/ct-social-media-marketing/how-is-interactive-marketing-different-from-traditional-marketing [Accessed on 24 June 2011] What Does My Order Status Mean, (2010), Available from: http://support. chinavasion. com/index. php? _m=knowledgebase&_a=viewarticle&kbarticleid=127[Accessed on 19 June 2011] Is Online Marketing More Effective for Organizations Today (page 22) by Sundas48, (2011) http://www. scribd. com/doc/54220673/18/Communication

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Operating Systems on the Internet Pos/355

Operating Systems on the Internet An online operating system is an operating system that is run online. The online operating system runs on a server that is on the Web. According to the web site, www. thefreedictionary. com (2003) the definition of an operating system is, “Software designed to control the hardware of a specific data-processing system in order to allow users and application programs to make use of it. ” This applies to the online operating system, except that the operating system is available, online. There are many different operating systems n the internet that provide users the ability to access their data from anywhere in the world. An online operating system is also known as a Web operating system or Web OS. It is similar to a regular operating system but it is provided on the internet and allows users to access it from any Web browser. The are many different operating systems available on the internet, here are just a few; ICLOUD, GLIDE OS 3. 0, G. HO. ST, JOLICLOUD, and EYEOS. Many of the Web OS’s mentioned above provide the same type of benefits as an operating system, but it is done on the Web. For instance, the ICLOUD, created by Apple Inc. provides online file system and 50GB of online storage. According to the article written by Macworld Staff (2011), “In short, iCloud is a catchall phrase that covers Apple’s entire suite of wireless sync and backup services, which aim to keep you device-both iOS, and desktop computers running OS X Lion, Windows Vista, or Windows 7-on the same page, no matter which one you’re using at any given moment. ” The iCloud also provides direct access to the user iCloud from Windows Explorer. The Glide OS 3. 0 provides 10GB of online virtual disk space, office tools, Web site creators and file sharing. G. ho. t which stands for Global hosted operating system provides almost the same features as a physical desktop computer, but online. The users can use file storage, sharing, and collaboration. The Jolicloud is used for net books and compatible with Linux, Windows, and AIR. eyeOS is a cloud computing Web desktop that is used by one user or an organization. The account can be created on the eyeOS server and performs as a platform for web application. This is just a small example of the types of WebOS that is available online. Some of these online operating systems can function just like a personal computer operating system.

They provide the user the opportunity to store information on an online hard disk, create file management, use of utilities, saving and retrieving documents, and they are accessible where ever a company or individual can access the web. This makes it mobile and a great feature for those that rely on their portable devices, especially phones. On the go operating systems that are accessible on any device that supports Web browsing, what a great idea. Now, individuals can store their documents, pictures, music, and photos online, without having to use any storage space on their individual computers, work computers, laptops, or work computer’s.

Individuals and companies can also use their mobile devices and hook them up to printers or other computers. They can also sync their information via Wi-Fi or through Bluetooth, to their computers or portable devices. References Macworld. (2011, June 8). iCloud: what you need to know. Retrieved from http://www. macworld. com/article/1160380/icloud_what_you_need_to_know. html The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.. (2003). Operating System. Retrieved from http://www. thefreedictionary. com/operating+system

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Monitoring Internet Communication

The Internet has for many become a symbol of freedom – freedom of communication, human interaction, and flow of information. People all over the world can with ease submit their ideas and feelings to this virtual medium and retrieve from it the equally free ideas of other people. However, some claim that Internet communication does not have to be as free as it is. Instead, it needs to be monitored to prevent its usage as a medium for terrorist organisations, drug dealers, fraudsters, and other criminal or unlawful groupings.

Others point out that Internet is virtually the only way for people with oppressive regimes to access information that will present them with an objective picture of the outside world. While there are reasons for both points, free speech should take precedence in democratic nations, and therefore Internet monitoring is a harmful practice.

Such monitoring is in fact a violation of free speech, one of the inalienable human rights. Generations of thinkers and revolutionaries lost their lives for the triumph of democracy that is only possible with free speech as one of its cornerstones. If the American journalists, for instance, had been deprived of the right to criticise Presidents, senators, congressmen, and other political leaders, it is hard to imagine what the nation would have turned into.

Constant monitoring of political leaders is what gives the nation a chance to remain democratic. On the other hand, nations like China are banning certain websites to blind their citizens to what is going on in the rest of the world. This shows that freedom of speech is a hallmark of a democratic nation, and monitoring Internet communication violates these rights.

Giving an individual person the right to know constitutes the respect of the autonomy of an individual. A human being has the right to access information pertaining to different spheres of life and should not be restricted in this ability by the opinion of the few. Since, if Internet communication is to be monitored to ban, for instance, pornographic material, the question arises: who will be the people that will decide what is pornography and what is not?

The Ancient Greek statues could easily be termed inappropriate by some medieval priest. Putting access to information at the judgement of a few obscure individuals will make these people make decisions for all, and there is no guarantee that their judgement will help society make better choices.

A popular objection that without monitoring Internet content someone “might unknowingly visit a Web site with this material and cause him- or herself mental harm” does not seem valid either (Garlock, 1999). The problem is that Internet is like life in the sense that it encompasses a great deal of its variety and glory. You cannot shield yourself from harmful influences in life any more than you can on the Internet.

If someone is disgusted, for instance, by the site of the sick and the crippled, no one will remove them from streets just to please the person. Similarly, the Internet has to contain images and information about the outside world that reflects its diversity. Therefore, no one can isolate oneself from harmful influence on the Internet since they reflect real life.

Thus, monitoring Internet communication is hardly a valid idea. In the political realm, it will lead to restriction of freedom that can bring about the emergence of un-democratic regimes oppressing ill-informed citizens. On the other hand, giving people a free medium is one of the ways to save them from the state’s propaganda machine by letting them see alternative viewpoints. Monitoring is also a bad idea because it will put the individual at the mercy of a select group that will perform the monitoring in accordance with their own ideas and perceptions.

Finally, the idea of using Internet as a means of protecting people from undesirable content does not hold simply because no one can hide in a ‘hole’ from real life. The only option is to go to sites that you yourself think proper for you and avoid troublesome content. With respect to others, one can paraphrase Voltaire’s words: “I disapprove of what you post, but I will defend to the death your right to place it online”.

References

Garlock, A. (1999). Internet Censorship. Retrieved April 25, 2006

Wollstein, J. Freedom of Speech Under Siege. Retrieved April 25, 2006, from http://www.serendipity.li/cda/freespee.html

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Internet Has Done More Harm Than Good in the Society.

Yes. It had allowed a large amount of criminal,offensive and Discriminatory information to be easily accessed This sort of information would not usually be widely published via offline channels, but with the advent of the Internet it is very easily accessible by anyone like never before, and this is a dangerous president. This is dangerous as vulnerable people could easily be taken in and exploited if the discovered this material. It is quite often found that ‘lone-wolf’ terrorists, for example, have gotten their information and inspiration from the Internet.

The Internet has caused more problems than it has done good, because it has made people lazy, among other reasons. The Internet has made people lazy. They can pay their bills online and shop online, so they do not have to leave their homes. It has created problems through social networking sites, because people are spending all their time on them, instead of time with their family and friends. Also, these social networking sites have created problems for kids, because it gives people another avenue for bullying and harassing.

The Internet can be useful for information, but it has led to a whole new kind of criminal I believe the Internet is useful, but the very negative effects it has had on society far outweigh the usefulness. It now allows all kinds of criminals, from pedophiles to terrorists, the ability to accomplish their crimes easier and more efficiently. With the Internet, any pedophile can lure a child far easier and far quicker than in a real life situation. Violent criminals can stalk any prospective victims. The worst impact the Internet has had is it allows terrorist groups to be much more organized.

The information super-highway can do so much good, but until society figures out how to regulate it better, the negatives outweigh the positives. The internet has not brought real knowledge, per say I am beginning to see that the internet is neither good nor bad in itself but those who create videos and web pages are not required to be responsible in an academic sense. Often, statements can be made up and believed by many as real. But, are not really the case. Some research estimates that adults in the US spend about 13 hours and teens about 31 hours online each week. Yea, I don’t think this is good.

I don’t think 13 hours is bad, but 31?!?! That is too much time spent socializing online which takes away from socializing in person, family time, homework, etc. My friend is in law enforcement and she just had a seminar taught by a psychologist who was talking about the generations of people who are growing up with the internet and how more and more of them are lacking in major social skills because they are so used to communicating via the internet and not person-to-person. This lack of social skills can include lack of empathy, manners, etc On the flip side this has been a big problem.

Sometimes we are overly informed. Why go to a real doctor when you have WebMD (not serious here but I know people who use that website as their doctor). Additionally, the sources on the internet are not always the most reliable. Anyone can put information out there that is misleading, uneducated and biased/hate filled. I also think that it is leading to lack of social skills especially since you can now go online to find a date. No human interaction needed before hand, the computer will find your perfect mate. -it’s dangerous: cyber stalking, etc. it’s bad for us: people spend hours staring at the screen instead of outside. The result is eye strain, headaches, obesity… -spelling, grammar, etc. is ignored on the Internet and proper English is dying out. Science and technology have done more harm than good. There is no doubt that science and technology affected our lives. There are a lot of scientists who are working on different science and modern technology projects these days. However, with the new science and technology developments most people underestimate the damage it gives us.

First of all, I would like to say, that with these new science and technical appliances people became to be lazy. They rarely go out to work on foot or by a bicycle. Now there are a lot of modern cars in the cities, which are said to be emitting less gas. But still their emitted gasses damage the environment, so to my mind, that is why pollution of our environment is increasing. Secondly, it seems to me, that technologies are throwing away our free time. For example, these new laptop computer or those touch-screen devices are full of entertaining programs, which are attracting people effectively.

Then people forget how to communicate with others in real life, not through international communication systems like “Skype” or “Facebook”. On the other hand, my opinion is that science and technology has far increased by the past few decades. New medical treatment, new computer technologies and other useful technical appliances are helping people to solve variety of problems more easily than it used to be. Overall, these new science and technology inventions harm not only our environment, but even us. So in my view, we should start thinking what technologies we use.

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Internet Influence on Youth in Egypt and the Arab World

? Internet influence on youth in Egypt and the Arab world The Executive Summary The internet is considered as one of the most important and the fastest access to information, and for knowing the latest evolutions in different fields; with a relatively low expense, by comparing it with the other traditional ways, as journals, books and magazines.

And with the worldwide increasing diffusion of the internet, and its uses, both, positive and negative, and the appearance of the e-crimes’ era; it became necessary to know the Arab world’s and the Arabic language’s portion from the internet uses, in terms of the number of users, and the bulk of the Arab content on this network, accompanied with the acquaintance of the mechanisms and the ways adopted by the international society, the Arab world, and Egypt in chasing the e-crime and confronting it.

This paper aims to discuss the extent of spread of the internet using in Egypt and the Arab world, besides the extent of the e-crimes ‘diffusion in the Egyptian society, and ways of confronting it, in the light of some Arab and foreign countries’ experiments, and also attempting to know the Egyptian youth and the parents’ opinions about the most important positives and negatives of using the internet, trying to put a conception on how can the society confront such negatives and internet crimes.

The study was able to know the positive sides for using the internet, which includes the allowance of information in different fields for internet users, and facilitating reading the world news, and communicating with others in non-traditional ways, through chat rooms ? or e-mail, or other modern ways, which was given by the internet to its users, in addition to the possibility of distance education and training, and also distance working through the internet, which broke the barriers between countries.

Despite the above-mentioned advantages of the internet, but it’s not void of – as any modernized technology- faults and negatives, which can be divided into absolute negatives, as using the internet in order to inroad upon others and libel them, and also stealing banks and money laundering crimes, and into relative negatives, which damages differ according to the habits of people and societies, and the prevailing norms in it, beside the extravagance in using the websites of songs, games and chatting, which kill time and isolate the individual from his social surrounding.

And about the widespread use of the internet in the Arab world, the study concluded that there is a gap in the proportion of internet users in the Arab world, by comparing it to the global level, where internet users in the Arab world are only 1. 4% of the total internet users in the world in 2005, while the Arab population is 5% of the world’s population.

In addition to that, the information content on the Internet does not represent more than 1% of the information content on the Internet. The Internet use in Egypt has started in nineties, and the number of users in 1996/1997 was about 75 thousand user. With the establishment of the Ministry of Communications and Information in 1999 and a result of the efforts made in this area, the number of internet users became 4. 4 million in 2004.

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Project Proposal on an Internet Cafe

1. Executive Summary Cheetahs’ Internet cafe With fast appreciation of technology amongst the people of Zimbabwe, an insatiable need for access to internet has spread out across all societies in Zimbabwe. This has seen mushrooming of internet cafes in different parts of the nation. It is this mismatch between vast demand for internet services and few players in the market that has attracted me into seeking lines of credit in order to fill in the gap.

Researches have arrived at a conclusion that implies that existing internet cafes are providing shoddy services; hence it is the prerogative of Cheetahs Internet cafe to provide quality services that clients deserve. To complement this, the cafe will provide, in addition to internet surfing, photocopying, printing, typing, laminating, scanning, graphic designs and software installations to make it a one stop shop. 1. 1 Objectives •Attain consistent profitability, thus laying the basis for sustainability. Create access to the information, learning opportunities, and communications media of the Internet, within the host community. •Grow community members’ familiarity with abstract computing and Internet concepts. •Give community members the opportunity to self-teach specialized skills such as academic research techniques, email and instant messaging, and usage of word processor and spreadsheet software. •Create a physical space for future development projects in the community. •Enrich communication between residents of Bulawayo and the South African diaspora by delivering access to affordable voice calls through Skype services. Generate sufficient revenue to allow physical expansion, offering the potential to replicate the same development objectives in surrounding areas. 1. 2Keys to success The internet cafe will be a great success because there are very few internet cafes which provide a one-stop shop,(exact number remains unknown) in the area and therefore the Cheetahs Cafe will have its own monopoly as far as provision of high profile service is concerned. 1. 3 Missions The mission of our internet-cafe is to make the internet available to a greater population.

In such a way that people will have access to all the sources which can be found on the internet. Thereby the cafe is supposed to be a place where people of all ages will come to enjoy the unique, upscale, educational, and innovative environment that the internet-cafe provides. 1. 4 Risks The main risks in establishing any business at all is always the demand. Will there be enough demand for my product, will there be enough interest in it? Won’t we go bankrupt due to lack of interest? These risks are also present in the soon to come internet cafe, the population may not be interested in spending money to go online.

Also, will the popularity of the internet sustain, in order for the people to maintain their interests in the internet and the internet cafe. And foremost, will there be a profit? 2 Company The internet-cafe which will be realized will offer the community of Bulawayo easy and affordable access to the internet. The internet-cafe will appeal to individuals of all ages and backgrounds. The instructional internet classes, and the staff that the internet-cafe provides, will appeal to the audience that does not associate themselves with the computer age.

This educational aspect will attract younger and elderly members of the community who are rapidly gaining interest in the unique resources that online communications have to offer. 2. 1 Company Ownership The company will be registered as a Private corporation, which requires a minimum of 3 directors and a maximum of 20. A colleague of mine, Farai Mazanhi who has a photocopier and a Printer will be the second Director after me and Prince Hwenjere who has the technical knowhow of running a cafe will be the third Director. 2. 2 Start-up Summary The projected initial (start-up) cash outflows: Cash outflow from purchasing equipment Desktops @ $400 each. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Till operating computer set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Furniture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial Printer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Photocopier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commercial scanner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash outflow from auxiliary services Software installations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Internet installations and router. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stationery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labor for setting up the shop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air conditioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marketing material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cash outflow from compliance Company registrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leasing premises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total cash outflow required to start the project. . . . . . . . . . . . $ 3 200 400 600 120 2 800 100 50 1 200 50 300 800 500 150 1 500 $ 7 220 2 900 1 650 11 770 2. 3 Company Locations and Facilities The site where the internet-cafe will be located was already decided before the making of this business plan. The location will be along Main street, Bulawayo CDB, between Stanbic bank and CBZ bank, Opposite Barclays bank. Currently the premises are leased to “The Bed shop” which is running a notice of 3 months from October, which makes it up to December.

Communications have already been done with the lessor and our application has been considered. A small space which fits office desk and a chair has been secured for a Commissioner of Oaths to sub-lease from at a noble monthly rental $100. Other than providing a subsidy to our monthly lease payments, Commissioner of Oaths will blend into our quest to provide a one-stop-shop. 3. Services Ultimately the internet-cafe will grant the customers access to the internet and World Wide Web. Other secondary services will include scanning, photocopying, typing, commissioner of oaths, printing and graphic designs . 1 Competitive comparison The direct competitors within the sphere of influence for Cheetahs cafe is Twitters cafe located at Bulawayo centre and Kwiknet, corner 5th and Main Street. Cheetahs’ cafe will have a better competitive leverage because it has “All services under one roof”. 3. 2 Service description The internet-cafe will provide its customers with full access to the Internet and common computer software and hardware. Some of the Internet and computing services available to the future internet-cafe customers are listed below: – Access to external email accounts. – Photocopying – Scanning. Access to printing. – Typing services and graphic designs. . 3. 3 Fulfilment The internet-cafe will obtain its computer hardware from local stores which can be found in or around Bulawayo, particular interest has been in First Pack. The installation of the internet will also be provided by the local resources and consideration has been granted to Liquid Communications. 3. 4 Technology The internet-cafe will be providing its customers with computers which will be up to date with today’s system requirements. Hp is the suggested brand for computers, scanner and Printer, Minolta is the brand for a photocopier.

The computers will be able to provide the customers with a variety of application to serve their needs. These applications will mainly be the mainly used ones which everyone will be familiar with such as Microsoft Office. 3. 5 Future services In the future the internet-cafe will be able to expand or improve its services. When expanding the needed amount of hardware should be purchased however what should be kept in mind is how far the internet cafe will be able to expand. The location may not be big enough to provide an excessive expansion of hardware.

The improvement of service however could be made possible by providing the customer with additional services. A drink- and/or snack machine could be purchased for satisfying the customer, which would attract more customers and which could make the current customers stay longer. Under consideration is also provision of services such as games and wireless internet services. 3. 6 Market segmentation Since our internet cafe is situated in the CBD of Bulawayo, The most preferred sector that Cheetahs cafe intend to serve is the working class. The cafe will take advantage of the offices and banks surrounding the cafe. . Strategy and Implementation Summary 4. 1 Attracting customers To attract the intended customers the internet-cafe will use the budget allocation of $500 to suspend a big metal banner at the upper front of the entry. Posters will cheaply using internal resources and abilities of the shop assistants to cut on costs. These posters could be placed around places where the adolescents would mainly be present such as Bulawayo centre, supermarkets, movie house and strategic streets. Places like game-halls and sports clubs would be perfect for advertising.

Another way of attracting the customer is to advertise in the local newspaper. By advertising in the local newspaper the households would get notice of the new internet-cafe. This would result in attracting the parents of the adolescents and the middle-aged inhabitants of Bulawayo residents who frequent town. These ways of advertising will be stopped after two years. This is because over such a period of time most inhabitants will have noticed the internet cafe and/or heard about it. 4. 2 SWOT analysis This section will focus on the SWOT analysis.

The SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. SWOT is an abbreviation for: Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats. Strengths The strength that the internet-cafe will have is its dominant position in the local internet availability, strategic location and one-stop shop facility. Secondly, the internet-cafe should have strength in staying up-to-date with the latest computer software. By keeping the hardware updated with the needed software the customers will enjoy working with the computers.

Staying updated with the newest software is also a cheap ‘investment’ which again would benefit to the success of the internet-cafe Weaknesses Besides the strengths each company/business has its weaknesses. Weakness can lead to a decrease of a company’s success and development. The weakness of an internet-cafe in general is the risk of virus infection and uneven availability of internet. Staying updated with the latest hardware is not only an expensive investment it is an investment which does not sincerely pays off its prices immediately. Over a period of years such an investment should be needed however it remains expensive.

Opportunities As any other organization an internet-cafe has its opportunities. Having certain opportunities offers an organization a possibility to expand their turnover. An opportunity of an internet-cafe is that the global population which is requiring access to the World Wide Web is slowly increasing. This increase of internet users should offer the internet-cafe a chance to expand the business. Another opportunity from which the internet-cafe might benefit is the possibility of a rising demand in the market. This raise would be the outcome of the growing popularity under the inhabitants.

Once one is familiar with the World Wide Web one may introduce his or her social environment to the internet. Thereby the popularity of the internet will keep on growing and finally this will reflect in an increasing number of customers for the internet-cafe. Threats One of the threats the cafe will face is the continuous accessibility to internet by the general populace through smart phones. Stiff competition also forces prices down. However this has been cushioned against through diversity of the portfolio. Failure of one service will be evened out by the boom of other services. 5. Staff complement

An internet-cafe itself does not require a lot of employees. The employees should have at least 5 O’ Levels, be computer literate and A ‘Level would be an added advantage. 5. 1 Personnel plan The internet-cafe requires just a handful of employees in order to function. In total the internet-cafe will count a staff of a least 3 persons. One will be the till operator, his duties would be to accept payments for all services to be rendered and making payments for operational expenses. The second would be photocopying and binding; the third will be doing graphic designs and printing. Personnel plan Monthly salary

Till operator$ 200. 00 Graphic designer$160. 00 Photocopy assistant$150. 00 TOTAL $510. 00 6. Financial plan The following sections lay out the details of the financial plan for the future years. 6. 1 Start-up funding The internet cafe seeks to secure a loan of $11 770 to be precise from the bank according to the initial cash flow statement above marked 2. 2. Repayment Plan The management of Cheetahs’ internet cafe pledges to repay the loan in a space of two years. The repayments will be made on a month-to month basis. Assuming an interest of 10% per annum, monthly repayment amount would thus be estimated at $668.

Proposed security I, being one of the directors will pledge the title deeds for a house which is valued at $15 000. The details of which are as follows: Stand no. 4875 Budiriro 4 Harare ?If need be, the title deeds shall be provided upon request 6. 2 Projected profit and loss YEAR 1YEAR 2 Sales51 00065 000 Add rent income from sub-leasing 1 200 1 200 Expenses(32 679)(34 809) Salaries(6 120)(6 120) Marketing ( 500)( 300) Machinery and equipment maintenance( 600)( 450) Internet subscriptions(12 000)(14 000) Rent(9 600)(9 600) Transport costs(720)( 720) Stationery(1 020)(1 500)

Loan interest @ 18% p. a(2 119)(2 119) Net Profit before tax and after interest19 52131 391 Less tax(2 928)(5489) Net Profit after interest and tax16 95325 902 Cheetahs Internet cafe 6. 3Statement of the Financial Position for two years YEAR1YEAR 2 $$ Non-Current Assets Computers3 2003 200 Photocopier2 8002 800 Printer120 120 Furniture600 600 Commercial scanner100 100 TOTAL 6 8206 820 Current Assets Bank24 00024 000 Cash422 1 582 Debtors100 300 31 34240 702 Equity and Liabilities Loan [email protected]%13 889 – Profit for the year16 95325 902 Owner’s equity14 000

Current Liabilities Creditors 500800 31 34240 702 A CASH FLOW STATEMENT FOR CHEETAHS’ INTERNET CAFE FOR TWO YEARS Cash inflow from operating activities Cash received from sales Receipts from Debtors Payments to creditors Payment of expenses Cash flow from investing activities Purchase of equipment Sale of machinery Cash flow from financing activities Loan Interest payment Net cash flow Beginning cash balance Ending cash balance Year 1 14 771 50 900 100 (500) (35 729) (6 800) – 11 770 (2 119) 24 422 – 24 422 Year 2 29 391 64 700 300 (800) (34 809) – – – (4 238) 25 153 24 422 49 575

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Free Essays

Internet: The New Drug of Choice

Internet! The New Drug of Choice It is difficult in these modern times to find anyone who doesn’t use the Internet. I am not speaking of North Americans (but mainly N. Americans), but the rest of the world is quickly catching up. China already has more users than Canada and the US put together. According to Internet World Stats (2012), China has 538 million online frequenters and 82. 5% of the Korean population use the Internet. Korea’s penetration rate is third with England leading the way at 84% and Germany at 83%.

Canada doesn’t have a big enough population to make a dent in the number of people using the Internet, but 81% of Canadians do use it, which was a higher penetration percentage than the US at 78. 3%. Currently only 41% of China is using the Internet, once their economy improves and more people get connected, China is likely to take over the Internet. North Americans might need to start learning Chinese to get their daily news. With so many people online I started to wonder; is it safe for us to be using the Internet?

Before I delve deeper I wanted to point out that because I am also a frequent Internet user, this question also pertains to me, so I decided that it only made sense to write this report in the first person. When I decided to start researching about if the Internet is safe for us, it seemed to me that the best place to research about the Internet would be online. I typed in web browser “Is the Internet bad for us? ” and “Does the Internet make us crazy? ” I was shocked at the number of results that popped up. It took some sifting through to find what I needed. It seems that the biggest concern about the Internet is “online addiction”.

Some people might think it is the pornography or some of the other content or even the technology itself, but these only factor into the big picture of addiction. After a little research I realized that my true question wasn’t “is the Internet bad for us”, but the real questions are “why is Internet addiction bad? ” The Internet is not bad, it has some many advantages over other media and it so very useful in our lives. The Internet and video games help increase choice reaction time, spatial skills, scientific problem solving skills, multitasking abilities and intelligence (Greenfield, Brannon, and Lohr, 1996).

The elderly use the Internet to keep their brains stimulated by using it to gain information and keep in contact with family. Actually everyone is doing that, not just the elderly. The Internet is like drinking wine, if not in moderation, it can be harmful for us, but in moderation the Internet can produce a wonderful experience. However, also like wine or any alcohol, the Internet can become an addiction. In fact addiction has become so bad that in China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea (Cafferty, 2012) treatment centers have been established to help people with online addiction.

Near may home in the city of Nagoya, the Futoko Shien Center received 327 individual requests for consultation for online game addiction from the beginning of this year. (Doi, 2012) That is only in one city in one country. China seems to be one of the worst places I have found in my research. It has become so bad that boot camps have developed to help young help rid their problem. Wired. com featured a story in 2010 about a boot camp in China, “The Qihang camp promised to cure children of so-called Internet addiction, an ailment that has grown into one of China’s most feared public health hazards. (Stewart, 2010) And according to Scientific American online, “as much as 14 percent of urban youth there—some 24 million kids—fit the bill as Internet addicts, according to the China Youth Internet Association. ” (Mosher, 2011) I myself have noticed that I am slowly using the Internet more since I bought a smartphone last year. I would say I am an addict and I definitely don’t want to counseling, but I am starting to worry. So why do some people think the Internet addiction is a bad thing if it stimulates the brain and creates intelligence and multitasking abilities, Dr.

Grohol director on the Mental Health Net, makes a good point “I don’t see how they can see the Internet as a disorder, but not look at a bookworm who reads 10 hours a day and not say he’s a book addict. ” (Brown, 1997) The criticism the Internet receives in not a new phenomenon, Psychologists have been studying the effects of the Internet for almost 20 years. And in the last 20 years Internet use has sky rocketed, meaning effects and studies have increased as well. Psychiatrist Kimberly Young of Saint Bonaventure University in New York State, even designed a self- assessment test in 1998 because of Internet addiction concerns.

Numerous studies have linked excessive online use to depression, poor school performance, increased irritability and more impulsiveness to go online. ” (Mosher, 2011) One problem is that people are losing sleep because they get lost in the Internet for hours upon hours and turn into zombies as they deprive their brains and bodies of fuel and rest. Recently in the Japanese newspaper, The Daily Yomiuri a report about online addiction stated “A 19-year-old vocational school student recalled how one morning, he woke up at 6 a. . on a sofa, still clutching his mobile phone. “Damn it! I was probably asleep for two hours,” he said. Then he leaped up from the sofa and began fiddling with the phone again. Sometimes he was so preoccupied with the games that he forgot to sleep, he said. ” (Doi, 2012) One such documented case in Taiwan, a boy ended up in the Asylum after his iPhone usage reached 24 hours a day. (Dokoupil, 2012) At first I thought that that must be a rare case. But more and more cases like this are being uncovered all over the world.

Just recently in American news Jason Russell became famous twice; the first time was for his amazing documentary he aired on YouTube called “Kony 2012” which was one of the most viral movies to hit the web “clocking more than 70 million views in less than a week. ” (Dokoupil, 2012) He then became famous again after having a nervous breakdown and marching through the streets naked and talking to himself rampantly. Before putting the document online Jason was not an excessive user of the Internet, but after his video went viral, he couldn’t get enough of his new found addiction.

In the first four days after his successful video premiere he only slept 2 hours, which is a probable cause to his breakdown. I personally have never stayed up that long, but I do feel quite bizarre after being online for 10 hours. I have been warned since I was a child that lack of sleep will deter my performance at school, work and even sports. But of course most of humans don’t spend days at a time online without sleeping. Most normal humans have jobs, although many of our jobs involve the Internet these days, and still manage our daily lives of chores and eating and sleeping.

But I wasn’t surprised to find out that most people including myself, I think especially those with smartphones, check their email and social sites more often than we realize. Dr. Larry Rosen, professor and past Chair of Psychology at California State University, surveyed 750 people, a spread of teens and adults and detailed their tech habits, their feelings about those habits, and “their scores on a series of standard tests of psychiatric disorders. He found that most respondents, with the exception of those over the age of 50, check text messages, email or their social network “all the time” or “every 15 minutes. More worryingly, he also found that those who spent more time online had more “compulsive personality traits. ” (Dokoupil, 2012) Without being aware of it, we above the “digital divide” are becoming compulsive, needy little onliners. People constantly feel the need to check their Internet for updates on our social sites, email, tweeters and blogs. I myself don’t blog or tweet, which I can say cuts some of my time on the net down to a little more of a sane time. It is amazing how quickly my friends reply to any and all emails and social site updates.

It is almost as if the message jumped out of their phone and into their eye while they were driving to work. People have become so connected that the Internet has become a distraction and to some, the most important thing in their lives. The author of “Is the Internet driving us mad? ” in Newsweek magazine claims that regardless of age, most people send or receive about 400 texts a month. The average teenager processes about 3700 texts a month. Also many of these same people, two thirds, sense their phone vibrating in their pockets when in fact it is not.

Researchers call it “phantom-vibration syndrome. ” It is evident that we have become dependent on the Internet that we drool in anticipation waiting for a message or call or any kind of update to fulfill our hourly or for some minutely dose of feeling wanted and or accepted. I myself have felt the “phantom-vibration” a few times, but I don’t think enough to warrant it as a syndrome. I have been witnessing the dependency for the Internet on an everyday basis as everyone around me; mostly younger people seem to always have a reason to have their smartphone out.

At school, older kids are sending messages to each during class time and even when sitting together on their free time. It seems that the Internet provides better conversation than their friends sitting across from them. I cannot say that I am not innocent from this same intervention and have been known to hope online at while waiting for friends to buy their ice cream or something of that nature. We are so dependent on the Internet, not only individually, but also a group. Hurricane Sandy, a terrifying hurricane, hit New York causing more than 150 fatalities.

In the November 3rd issue of Newsweek’s online magazine released a feature about the Heroes of the Hurricane. One of the reports was of the “Heroes” who guarded and protected an Internet hub, considered to be very important to the world, because it is “one of the fastest connections between world financial centers; it maintains Internet connectivity for en­tire regions of the country. ” (Keller, 2012) I remember about years ago reading reports that the Internet caused depression and loneliness. I think that depression can be triggered by so many things, especially in those who more prone to depressive feelings.

As for the loneliness factor, I always believed that the Internet was addictive because it replaced feelings of loneliness because people are more connected to more people. It is true that it reduces face-to-face interaction, but it increases interaction with people. Researchers have found that “internet use was associated with increased well-being and social involvement. ” (Kraut, 2002) Because of the Internet I socialize more with people who are not within close distance which makes me feel happier that I can keep in touch with them. I probably have a better relationship with my mother than I did when I lived at home and before smartphones.

During the Tohoku earthquakes and Fukushima crisis in 2011 the internet help people all over Japan talk to each other and others from abroad; the whole country might have felt lonely or separated from the rest of the world if it weren’t for the Internet. So what cause these emotional and mental changes in people who absorb themselves with the Internet too much. Besides Internet is just like reading books, watching television and listening to the radio in one package. In recent reports, it has been revealed that “brain scans hint excessive time online is tied to stark physical changes in the brain” (Mosher, 2011).

These physical changes caused by the over stimulation of the parts of the brain that deal with attention, multitasking, spatial awareness etc. are extracting from the parts of other parts of the brain. Dave Mosher describes the latest findings in his online report with Scientific America’s online magazine. One set of images focused on gray matter at the brain’s wrinkled surface, or cortex, where processing of speech, memory, motor control, emotion, sensory and other information occurs. The researchers discovered several small regions in online addicts’ brains shrunk, in some cases as much as a 10 to 20 percent.

The affected regions included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and parts of the cerebellum. What’s more, the longer the addiction’s duration, the more pronounced the tissue reduction. The study’s authors suggest this shrinkage could lead to negative effects, such as reduced inhibition of inappropriate behavior and diminished goal orientation. But imaging neuroscientist Karl Friston of University College London, who helped pioneer the VBM technique, says gray matter shrinkage is not necessarily a bad thing. The effect is quite extreme, but it’s not surprising when you think of the brain as a muscle,” says Friston, who was not involved in the study. “Our brains grow wildly until our early teens, then we start pruning and toning areas to work more efficiently. So these areas may just be relevant to being a good online gamer, and were optimized for that. ” Although we can alter our brains through practice like the rest of our body, we still need to have the will power to make these changes. Maybe for many online addicts, the morphing of their intelligence to certain cortex might be rewarding for them.

But it is evident that for many of us who need to work and have face-to-face conversations and have proper behaviour, need to reduce our Internet time. I personally want to keep the “grey matter” of my brain from shrinking because it is accountable for dealing with speech, memory, motor control, emotion, sensory, and other information. (Dokoupil, 2012) We know that exercise is good for our bodies’; it has been pounded into us since we were little children. Eat healthy food, exercise 3 times a week, stay away from sugars etc. , has been taught to us by media, teachers and parents.

Now we need to exercise our brains as well. The Internet is one form of exercising certain parts, but we need to exercise all parts of our body. Think about how ridiculous someone would look if they only spent their time pumping iron to make their only their shoulders really big and barely did any movement to strengthen their legs. That person would look like a balloon with the string tied to the bottom being their legs. Not only would that person look silly, but probably would fall over when then tried to walk. That is similar with what is slowly happening to our brains with the more time we spend on the Internet.

Internet addiction is causing too much exercise on only one part of our brain and not enough on the other. With more and more reports stressing the problems of Internet addiction, depression, compulsive behaviour, sleep deprivation and lack of memory; it is difficult to ignore the issue. Obviously scorning the Internet is not the solution, since it isn’t the Internet’s fault; it is the lack of control that we humans possess to control our desire for social acceptance, informational and visual stimuli, and the speed of which we can retrieve these desires.

I am sure if the Internet was as slow as it was in 1995, this topic would be moot. But now the evidence is clear and people need help, just like there is help for alcoholics and drugoholics. All users of the Internet, there are few that aren’t users; need to use the Internet sparingly or at least with some control. Limit the amount of time spent on the Internet, especially consistent hours, the brain needs a rest. To help the grey matter in our brains it is important to involve ourselves in face-to-face conversation for speech. Exercise is also important as it always has to maintain motor control.

Memory is one of the most important issues dealing with grey matter; playing trivia games or not being dependant on the auto phonebook in our phone is a great way to improve memory. Once I am finished this report will go outside and try to not use the Internet for at least the weekend, not even on my smartphone. Internet addiction is a serious issue that hopefully in the future psychologists and the public will get a better at dealing with. References Bercovici. J. , (July 10. 2012) We’re All Internet Addicts, And We’re All Screwed, Says Newsweek. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. orbes. com/sites/jeffbercovici/2012/07/10/were-all-internet-addicts-and-were-all-screwed-says-newsweek/ Brown, J. (1997). BS detector: “Internet addiction” meme gets media high. Communications Study 421: Being Online. Gackenbach, J. (Phd. ). Athabasca University, 2006 (pp. 101). Carlson, B. , (June 5, 2010). Nicholas Carr on the ‘Superficial’ Webby Mind. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. theatlantic. com/entertainment/archive/2010/06/nicholas-carr-on-the-superficial-webby-mind/57610/ Cohill, A. , (December 31, 2004). Is the Internet good or bad for us?

Design Nine. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. designnine. com/news/content/internet-good-or-bad-us Doi, H. , (Oct. 17, 2012) Online gaming addictions growing more serious. Daily Yomuiri Online. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. yomiuri. co. jp/dy/national/T121016001977. htm Dokoupil, T. , (July 9, 2012). Is the Web Driving Us Mad? Newsweek Magazine. Retrieved November 10, 2012 from website: http://www. thedailybeast. com/newsweek/2012/07/08/is-the-internet-making-us-crazy-what-the-new-research-says. html Greenfield, P. , Brannon, C. and Lohr, D.

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Library vs. Internet

COMPUTERIZED LIBRARY SYSTEM: Foreign Study Chapter I Project Overview Introduction Nowadays, in a highly technological society, human productivity is made more efficient through the development of electronic gadgets. Now, with the advent of such modernization in education, one way to globalize the process of research is to realize that technology is advancing at an incredibly fast pace. Computers are not confined to being used for entertainment but its role in education is also vast. Library is derived from the old French term “librairie” which means “a collection of books. ” Reading materials in school are stored in libraries.

Library is a place in which books and related materials are kept for use but not for sale. It is also organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution or a private individual. In addition, it is a place in which we get information in any format and from many sources. The librarian has to keep the room neat so that it is conducive for learning. The librarian is also the person who is liable for monitoring all the books that are borrowed and returned by the borrowers. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Computerized-Library-System-427957. html Local Studies About Library System- A Sample Thesis

Library systems, comparisons and contrasts. For the children of today, going to the library, searching through the card catalogue to look for books on topics they need to research on is quite archaic! However, many of us still remember how time consuming this was. The kids of today certainly have it easy. Imagine getting all the information you need with one-click of your mouse!?! An integrated library system (ILS), also known as a library management system (LMS), is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and patrons who have borrowed.

An ILS usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for patrons, one for staff). Most ILSes separate software functions into discrete programs called modules, each of them integrated with a unified interface. Examples of modules might include: §  acquisitions (ordering, receiving, and invoicing materials) §  cataloging (classifying and indexing materials) §  circulation (lending materials to patrons and receiving them back) §  serials (tracking magazine and newspaper holdings) §  the OPAC (public interface for users)

Each patron and item has a unique ID in the database that allows the ILS to track its activity. Larger libraries use an ILS to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials. Smaller libraries, such as those in private homes or non-profit organizations (like churches or synagogues, for instance), often forgo the expense and maintenance required to run an ILS, and instead use a library computer system. (Wikipedia) Automation of the catalog saves the labor involved in re-sorting the card catalog, keeping it up-to-date with respect to the collection, etc.

Other tasks which are now automated include checking-out and checking-in books, generating statistics and reports, acquisitions and subscriptions, indexing journal articles and linking to them, as well as tracking interlibrary loans. Since the late 1980s, windowing systems and multi-tasking have allowed the integration of business functions. Instead of having to open up separate applications, library staff could now use a single application with multiple functional modules.

As the Internet grew, ILS vendors offered more functionality related to computer networks. As of 2009 major ILS systems offer web-based portals where library users can log in to view their account, renew their books, and authenticate themselves for access to online databases. (Wikipedia) In recent years some libraries have turned to major open source ILSs such as Koha and Evergreen. Common reasons noted were to avoid vendor lock in, avoid license fees, and participate in software development. Librarytechnology. rg does an annual survey of over 1,500 libraries and noted in 2008 2%[3] of those surveyed used open source ILS, in 2009 the number increased to 8%[4] and in 2010(most recent year available) 12%[5] of the libraries polled had adopted open source ILSs. (Wikipedia) Read more: http://ivythesis. typepad. com/term_paper_topics/2011/06/local-studies-about-library-system-a-sample-thesis. html#ixzz2DsPW4UYZ http://ivythesis. typepad. com/term_paper_topics/2011/06/local-studies-about-library-system-a-sample-thesis. html Library: foreign literature

The network libraries now have autonomous library systems (TINLIB version 280 of IME) with reciprocal access to each others catalogs via the PHnet. Training on site and in UK has been provided by IME to the staff of the network. Staff expertise on the use of all the modules of TINLIB running on UNIX has been brought to a level where the staff can now confidently train others and maintain the system. Online support via the Internet is also provided by IME upon request. The choice of a common library system was decided by the technical committee of the network libraries to have a uniform platform, training programs, import profiles, etc. cross the network and for ease in establishing a user group/systems administration group. TINLIB was chosen because it met the systems specifications prepared by the technical working group, and had favorable references from users. Additional features which gave it an edge over other systems is its utilization of hypertext techniques, client-server architecture, and ability to import and export data from any of the databases existing in the network libraries. The library directors and heads are under tremendous pressure to continue and expand the networked services.

Four of the services which need to be implemented immediately are:       1) the creation of a union catalog for books, audio-visual, serials and Filipiniana articles and researches;       2) access to CD-ROM abstracts and indexes and full text journals and references from any site on the network, subject to copyright and licensing agreement with suppliers and publishers;       3) development of networking navigation tools and training programs; and       4) building of sufficient monetary resources and/or commitment of university officials to allocating sufficient funds for the maintenance of the network. ) transforming the College of Science library into a National Science Library and Information Center to widen the scope of its services http://www. studymode. com/essays/Library-Foreign-Literature-906068. html

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Summary of Journal “International Marketing Tool: the Internet”

Article Title: “International Marketing Tooll: The Internet” Journal Title: Industrial Management And Data Systems Date/Issue: 1998, Vol. 98 Issue 6, 253 – 261. Authors: Fred Palumbo, Paul Herbig Summarized by: Emre Avsar Major goal of this article is to provide to understanding what marketers consider when adopting marketing decisions to the Internet. The Internet provides to organizations least expensive and original tools for advertising, taking and placing orders and communicating with their customers worldwide.

Even if, the Internet can make marketers dreams come true, it can cause harmful consequences for firms which are not aware of the challenges that the Internet creates. Marketers should make decisions having regard to, international price, increase of competition, cultural differences, telecommunication infrastructure, credit cards use worldwide, etc. The Internet is composed of millions of networks connected on a global scale.

Those networks provide services which are communicating with one another or to find any information all over the world. The services which provided by the Internet are e-mail, mailing list, newsgroup, cybermall, etc. Companies should decide to how they use the Internet as a marketing tool. When companies deciding that, they should pay attention to international price, global branding, territory, channel conflict, international distribution, organizational structure, increase of competition, means of payment.

The Internet gives a more global view, this global availability generate several new challenges such as: Cultural aspects ( language, images, colors) , privacy, concorship, security, international law, intellectual property, global branding, international distribution, intellectual property, etc. The Internet provides many resources for all firms, particularly for small and medium sized organizations, searching for a market for their products and services globally.

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Credibility and Impact

The internet has allowed American’s to be able to gather information from the comfort of their own home. The internet has reshaped the political landscape because the internet spreades information fast, so they can react fast. The availability of information on the internet has affected how people view politicans and politics as a whole. The internet enables americans who want to be more involved in political process. The internet benefits politicans directly, their are alot of tools politicans can use to communicate with voters: email, blog, twitter, podcast. Politics have changed due to the internet is now lightning speed.

They can react quickly to whats happening in the world. The internet could enables bloggers and commenteres to be salacious, rude and vulgar. But overall the internet allows politicans to see much more deeply into American psyche. Internet allows people to feeling through blogs just like if they was in a town hall meeting face to face. Conclusion: I never have used the internet has a great source but after doing research for the Senator I have more faith in our internet just have to double check your sources. I Hope you can start to access the web more on topics you would like to learn about.

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Dangers of the Internet

Many people view the internet as an ultimate resource for anything they desire. The people who say that the internet is a brilliant invention for the best have reasons backing up their idea. For example, Sherry Turkle writes about such ideas explaining how the internet is an excellent tool for the better in her essay, “Can You Hear Me Now? ” Turkle believes strongly that the invention of the internet is an innovation for the better and emphasizes to her readers how important it is in everyone’s lives nowadays.

On the other hand, some believe exactly the opposite of Turkle’s invalid inquisition that the internet is a tool that is most definitely not for the greater good. The internet is a major promoter of violence and bad habits, it allows abusers to reach people that do not want to be reached and it opens many of us up to identity theft and malware viruses. The internet is an extremely risky device that many of the common users take for granted due to the lack of knowledge of its dangers.

With the great power that the internet provides comes great responsibility that its users must also provide. Just like many other things, there are people who lack such responsibility and use the internet with bad intentions. Influencing Violence The first point of discussion pertaining to the harmfulness of the World Wide Web is that it is a great promoter of violence and bad habits. Users are free to roam to any type of website they please, whether it is a game site, social networking site, forum site and etcetera.

The internet has no restrictions as to what people put on websites and web pages. Much like violence in video games, the internet can influence violence towards its users as well. Michele L. Ybarra speaks about the amount that children are influenced by the violent website on the internet today in her essay “Linkages Between Internet and Other Media Violence With Seriously Violent Behavior by Youth,” which was published in the “Official Journal Of The American Academy Of Pediatrics. ” The internet is a host to many violent games and violent based websites alike.

About 97% of the youth ages 12-18 are using online communications and have online access (Ybarra 929). With this many kids on the internet they can browse and view hate pages which discriminate against people or they can come across violent related web pages as well (Ybarra 930). With this increased exposure to these websites, causes an increase in violent behavior among our youth. Ybarra and her team conducted a study of 10-15 year old children and the effects of the different sources of violent media on their real habits.

The results showed substantial results of increased violent behavior among the group that was associated with the violent media (Ybarra 933). Results reported that the violent behaviors included shooting or stabbing, aggravated assault, robbery and sexual assault (Ybarra 933). Among the many types of media that was studied such as: music, video games, television and the internet, the type of media that was the most influential was the internet (Ybarra 933).

Ybarra goes to show her readers that most of all websites used included killing, fighting and shooting which in correlation contributed to the stimulus of the children’s anger level, having delinquent friends, and substance use such as drugs and alcohol (933). The monitoring of what our children view on the internet is crucial towards their health and well being, without monitoring our children are prone to be influenced by immoral and violence behaviors. Reaching Those Who do Not Want to be Reached

Another harmful risk that the internet so willfully provides is the dangers of domestic violence and child predators. The internet allows predators and violent domestic partners to access people and children on a wide scale with the click of a mouse. The various social networking sites that the internet provides is practically like a database for people to access whoever they want. Although children and the victims of domestic violence do not want to be reached by predators and violent spouses, it is easy for these terrible people to reach them without their own consent.

As I myself say, the internet is “Stalking made easy. ” In her article, “Friend Request or Foe,” Laurie L. Baughman persuades her audience of the dangers and risks pertaining to internet stalking, mainly pertaining to domestic violence. Baughman is a senior attorney at the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence, thus giving her the right to speak about the topic. Facebook itself has over 400 million active viewers, and it considered the most popular online social networking sight for adults and children alike (Baughman 933).

Baughman also points out that Facebook users in total upload approximately three billion photos every month and the average user spends about 55 minutes a day on the site (934-935). With such astronomical numbers like these, this introduces a whole new type of stalking based violence that was once again introduced by the internet. To start, pertaining to the issue of domestic violence, which is the major topic that Baughman discusses in her essay. She feels that it is an extremely dangerous asset that the internet has brought upon society.

Baughman asserts in her essay “…Internet users who are victims of domestic violence may be vulnerable to further abuse or may experience harassment or stalking through these social networking mediums” (935). This quote offers a brief summary of the topic that Baughman is most concerned about in her essay, which will be addressed below. Domestic violence is defined as abusive behavior in a relationship to gain or maintain power, all of which can be done by actions or threats (Baughman 936).

To show how much of a problem domestic violence has become; Baughman uses the quote “An estimated 1. million women are victims of physical assault each year” (936). With the amount of people attached to the internet today, many domestic assaults root from internet stalking. These social networking website were people post pictures and information about themselves has become a source of vulnerability of victims of domestic violence (Baughman 940). For example, many of us post pictures and personal information on Facebook, but what many do not know is that there can be bad people that we do not want seeing this information looking at it as well.

Many of you may be familiar with the quote from Spiderman “With great power comes great responsibility,” this is much like the quote from Baughman’s essay when she states “Using technology is like a super power: you can use it for bad and you can use it for good” (940). This quote from Baughman’s piece stresses her concern of how much power comes from the internet and how people can use this power by means of harming other people. With this power that the internet has given to anybody who uses it, comes people who use it by means of stalking.

The term cyber-stalking came directly from the invention of the internet and it is defined as behavior that constitutes “computer” based harassment (Baughman 940-941). Such stalkers do things such as: monitoring other people’s email, sending email threats or insults, disrupting email communication, using others email identity and using the internet to get personal information (Baughman 941). Although many may see all of these as an invasion of privacy, with the power the internet has given us, most of them are very simple to do and done quite often.

In her essay Baughman shows her readers how cyber-stalking often leads to physical staking (941). With the small amount of difficulty that cyber-stalking is, often an abusive partner uses it to maintain power and control over their victim (Baughman 941). All of the above ways discussed, pertaining cyber-stalking can allow an abuser to access their victim through the internet, even if the victim has set up an internet protection, which will be discussed in the next topic (Baughman 941).

Baughman uses an example of such harassment through emails in her essay; she tells us a story of how an abusive husband sent 1,500 pages of threatening emails to his ex-wife even when she had a restraining order placed on him (944). To sum up Baughman’s essay, due to social networking sights allowing individuals to freely post photos, comments, and other personal information, the internet acts as a personal information super-highway that is easily reached by abusers (965). A simple search of a persons name can bring up very personal information that abusers can easily access (Baughman 965).

In sum, social networking sights and the internet are tools for communication, blogging, picture sharing and now vengeance by abusers. Roam at your own risk (Baughman 953). Nobody, including domestic partner are safe when on the internet. The next point of discussion relating to how abusers can access people who do not want to be reached is the issue of child predators on the internet. The author L. Alvin Malesky, Jr. , PhD in the Department of Psychology writes his essay “Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offender in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors Over the Internet,” in correlation to this topic.

Most sex offenders know their victims before even meeting it them, they become acquainted through the internet (Malesky 24). As discussed previously in Baughman’s essay, this task of becoming acquainted with anyone you want is relatively easy with the amount of social networking websites today. Predators tend to disguise themselves as another teenager and lie about their identity, the internet provides them with ideal cover that can fool even the smartest of children (Malesky 24). In his essay Malesky affirms “Chat rooms were the most frequently used component of the Internet to identify and contact potential victims” (26).

When a child that talks about sex in anyway on the internet, it is found appealing by pedophiles and is often the reason why pedophiles go after a specific child (Malesky 27). This warning given by Malesky shows her readers how every little thing you say, post or do on the internet can be viewed by these disturbing people and can possibly make you their next target. These sex offenders patrol the virtual world in hopes to find a victim and eventually meet with them in person. People are free to surf the web, the type of people that lean towards an attraction to children are also free to do as they please.

The internet give minors vulnerability to people who wish to do them harms (Malesky 30). In conclusion to his topic Malesky tells warns his readers that children should not post anything sexual on the internet or talk to people you do not know, you never know who may be looking or listening (Malesky 30)! Children are put in harms way while online, thus in sum urging how unsafe the internet really is. Cyber-Crime Lastly, the internet itself has brought forth a new type of crime everywhere in the world.

The term cyber-crime refers to crime that takes place from a computer through the internet. These cyber-criminals can steal your identity, take your personal information and even give your computer a virus without ever leaving their computer desk. The root cause of this new crime is directly due to the invention of the internet. As was previously stated, the internet is a tool that requires responsibility.

Criminals take no such responsibility when performing illegal cyber-crime related acts. Nobody is safe when they are on the internet with the growing amount of yber-criminals today. Kit Burden discusses the issue of the increasing problem of cyber-criminals in her essay, “Internet crime; Cyber Crime – A new breed of criminal? ” which was published in “Science Direct” (College Edition). Burden starts out her essay by showing her readers that 43% of Americans recognize cyber-crime as a problem (2). These types of crime have been introduced to the world thanks to the invention of the World Wide Web. The first example of a cyber criminal I would like to point out is the increasingly more and more common hacker.

Hackers use technology to gain unauthorized access to private computer systems, which is mostly for the purpose of retrieving confidential information such as credit card number and internet passwords (Burden 3). If the hacker has used a computer for functions with intent of retrieving other peoples information and date, this is considered illegal based off the Computer Misuse Act in 1990 (Burden 4). A hacker can obtain the most confidential of information on your computer, for example they can take your credit card information and use it as their own.

Hackers may also go onto company website and alter what their information reads for terms such as of political leads and malicious intent such as cyber terrorism (Burden 4). Secondly, with the increasing threat of hackers, there is also an increasing threat of credit card fraud. These two go hand in hand with each other because hackers much of the time aim to receive others credit card information illegally by hacking. Burden points out that there is an estimated four billion dollars lost to credit card fraud each year and fifty percent of that money lost comes from online credit card fraud/hacking (9).

Burden also points out how vastly internet related commerce is growing, therefore so will the amount of money lost to credit card fraud due to the increasing dangers posed by hackers (9). Along with credit card information, we must not forget that hackers can steal information such as accounts that you have set up online, which can hold your payment information and use them as well, the same goes for your email account. Lastly, on top of all that hackers can install malicious software onto your personal computer without you knowing.

Viruses are embedded within files which you may think to be real; however they can be completely the opposite and trick you into downloading a virus. Most of the time, if one clicks on the virus itself it will download without you even noticing. Viruses can do whatever the maker of the virus wants them too. Viruses such as a key logger are planted on a computer and it will show the hacker who made the viruses every key you input into the computer. For example, if you type in your credit card information, the hacker will now be able to view it.

The famous ‘Love Bug’ virus was released two years ago and single handedly completely shut down and paralyzed over 100 million computers (Burden 5). Because viruses can be spread to many users at a very fast pace and often can not be erased, they are looked down upon by the government and are taken extreme legal action against (Burden 6). Conclusion In conclusion, one has learned a great amount about the internet and the harm that it can bring. The internet puts a great amount of power into the hands of anyone who decides to use it, a power that should not be tampered with and often is by its abusers.

Many reasons validate the inquisition that the internet is not a resource for the greater good but it is a tool that can and frequently is used for promoting violence and bad habits, allowing abusers to reach people that do not want to be reached and lastly, it opens many of us up to identity theft and malware viruses. We must all think twice about using the internet and if we do hopefully now we will take extra precautions especially when giving the power to roam the web to our children. The internet is an extremely dangerous place and we must not forget, nobody is safe when they are on the internet!

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Activity Analysis

Cost: The price depends on what kind of computer is bought and what type of internet is purchased. A computer can range anywhere from $400. 00 to $1000. 00 and high speed internet usually costs around $20. 00 a month. For this activity an HP computer is being used which costs $429. 99 and high speed internet for $20. 00 a month. Overall cost for one year: $669. 99. Preparation: Must have an email account, know the email address of the person the email is going to, and buy a computer and the internet. Time: 35 min-10 minutes to find email address of the friend and 25 minutes for composing an email.

Space Needs or setting required: Indoor, computer desk with computer equipment, well lit area, and an the size of the area does not matter as long as a computer desk and chair can fit. Activity Qualities: Teens, young adults, and adults may find this task meaningful. This task would also be meaningful to businessmen. This activity may not be not enjoyable for the late baby boomers. Occupation: Social participation such as engaging in communication with friends and family. Leisure interest such as relaxation and feeling of involvement by communicating with others.

Supervision: None Precautions: Those with visual impairments, cognitive delays, and proper fine motor control may experience difficulty when performing this task and will need supervision to provide verbal step by step procedures. Contradictions: Not appropriate for those with complete blindness and a major cognitive delay. May not be appropriate for those with profound deficits of gross and fine motor control. Motor Skills: Sensory awareness required. Sensory processing including visual acuity, visual stability, vestibular functions, proprioceptive functions, touch functions, and pressure awareness.

Neuromusculoskeletal related functions include joint mobility, joint stability, muscle power, muscle tone, muscle endurance, motor reflexes, and control of voluntary and involuntary movements. Motor skills that are needed for this task are gross, fine, crossing the midline, bilateral integration, and praxis. Also postural control and alignment are important for this task. Process Skills: For this task, attention span, memory, and perception are needed. Also, thought, sequencing, prioritizing, creating, multitasking, and judging are used for this activity.

Communication/interaction skills: Interests, self-concept, role performance, social contact, perceive, influence, and relation to others are important to this task. Displaying and perceiving emotions are important to relate to others. Self-control, interpersonal skills, and self-expression are also needed. ADL/IADL Performance Areas: The fine motor skills of sending an email can be helpful in feeding, eating, dressing, bathing, personal device care, and personal hygiene. The cognitive skills of this activity can also help with personal device care and personal hygiene.

This activity can also help with communication management by using the communication skills needed to send an email. Work/education performance areas: This activity can be helpful for those seeking employment and job performance. Being able to send an email will enable a person to better their career by sending professional emails. It will also help with job performance by using cognitive, gross, and fine motor control needed to send an email. Leisure/play/social participation areas: This activity can be continued as a leisure activity and can enhance play exploration and participation.

It can enhance play by meeting new people and exploring new interests. It can also better social participation by exchanging information with friends and family. Continuous communication with people will improve social skills. Adaptation: Potential for adaptation is very good. May use raised or enlarged keys on the keyboard for those with a visual impairment and low sensory integration. May also increase the zoom on internet pages so a person can see a larger image. With someone who has limited ROM, a wireless keyboard would work best.

This way the person can set the keyboard on lap. The mouse can be adapted by enlarging it and adding different texture for the right and left click. This way, the person is aware of the different sides. Grading: Adding wrist weights to hands will improve arm strength. Placing the keyboard and mouse further from the person will encourage reach while sitting. Using a therapy ball instead of a chair will encourage concentration and attention span. Making the keys on the keyboard smaller and the mouse smaller will enhance fine motor control.

Disabilities: Those with mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and personality disorder would benefit from this activity by improving social skills and having someone they can talk to. Those with strokes, MS, autism, and rheumatoid arthritis would benefit from this activity which would improve social, cognitive, and fine motor control skills. Goal: Within the OT treatment session, the patient will be able to type 100 words within 10 minutes.

Habits: This activity can influence habits by Environmental Aspects: Sending an E-mail can influence cultural context because for most it is common to use the computer and is the America is beginning to use the internet for sending mail instead of the post office. For personal context, this activity is mainly used by teens, adults, and middle adulthood. For Temporal context, this activity influences it because cards such as, holiday cards, sympathy cards, wedding invitations, and birthday cards are being sent through email. This activity influences virtual context because it is using the internet. It influences social context because it is a quick and easy way to exchange information.

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Banner advertising on the internet

The growth of cyberspace and the internet has not only created a new marketplace for vendors of all sorts where they can sell their items but has also created another area where advertising agencies can market goods.  Cyberspace is an infinite space and for advertisers, this provides infinite “advertising space” as well.  The only constraints on any person seeking to advertise on the internet are money and well, literally, page space (although some argue that a single page can be expanded into Herculean proportions.

Banner advertisements are currently one of the most dominant forms of advertising online.  While banner advertisements were a very effective and useful advertising tool when it first started out due to the high click-through rate (CTR) which was the basis for banner advertisements, these banner advertisements have experienced a decline in popularity because of the loss of its novelty and because of other forms of internet advertising.  This has resulted in the decrease in the banner rates that websites and advertisers charge.

It is this decrease in the cost of utilizing banner advertisements which has prompted this study on the effectiveness of banner advertising on the internet.  Before discussing the effectiveness of banners, a brief discussion on the pros and cons of banner advertising is necessary to be able to proper analyze its effectiveness cost-wise and also the market range that it is able to target and the demographics of the captured market.

The greatest criticisms against banner advertising arise from the fact that there is no accurate way to measure the effectiveness of the banners in measuring the actual impact on the market or on the web page visitors.  There has been no study which has sufficiently shown the relationship between the advertising exposure and the actual purchasing in relation to the banner advertisements.

While there have been proposals to use exposure based metrics or “impressions”, “difficulties in measuring online impressions precisely have caused much dissatisfaction among managers, resulting in a reluctance to commit funds to banner advertising (Hoffman and Novak 2000). “  The current method being employed is the “click through” method but this has also been discounted as ineffectual because “click through” merely measures the number of visits one makes and does not really reflect the proportion of visits which translate into final purchases.

Another negative aspect of banner advertising is the recent “banner blindness” which is a usability phenomenon in which a website visitor completely overlooks and ignores any banner styled information (Benway and Lane 1998).  While there are studies to support the fact that this has been caused by the over exposure of website visitors to banners during its peak and thus the unconscious reaction to completely ignore them, this can also be caused by differences between connection speeds and overloaded servers that fail to load the graphics on websites properly.

These two aspects are the main arguments against the effectiveness of banner advertising on the internet.  Now that the negative side of this argument has been considered, it is now important to asses the other aspect which are the positive arguments for banner advertising.

The positive arguments for banner advertising fall mainly under two categories: cost-effectiveness and access to a larger consumer base.  The cost-effectiveness of banner advertising is based on the recent decrease in the cost of launching a banner campaign on the internet.  Banner advertising presents a relatively acceptable return on investments given the below-average ad rates and above-average response rates of website viewers.

Because the internet has huge potential for building customer relationships, measurability and speed, the proposition of paying an adequate fee in return for a great potential benefit and increase in market visibility and profitability means that banner campaigns on the internet present a viable alternative for any company looking to cut down on costs while not necessarily resulting to losses in profit margins.

The last factor that must be considered is the overall effectiveness of banners in reaching markets and creating awareness for the particular product or brand that is being advertised.  Recent studies have shown that the more interactivity that is created by the banners, the higher the “click-through” rates and the deeper the involvement consumers will have with the brand.  Cryptic messages have also been shown to increase click-through by 18% while offering of free goods or services improves click-through significantly.  What these figures and studies show is that banner advertising can be an effective means (cost and market reach) of conducting a successful marketing campaign.

In conclusion, while it remains true that there is no efficient method by which to accurately correlate the number of visits or “click throughs” that a website visitor may have to the increase in sales or market exposure of a certain product, the recent decrease in costs of implementing a banner ad campaign on the internet definitely make it a very interesting alternative to consider.  It must be remembered that there are other methods by which to increase the visibility and appeal of banners to conform to the tastes of website viewers despite the emergence of the “banner blindness” phenomenon.

Given the relatively low cost of launching a banner campaign on the internet, the wide consumer market base that becomes accessible through such medium and the potential benefits of a successful banner campaign, it is therefore highly advisable for any company to engage in banner advertising.

References:

Benway, P. and Lane, D. “Banner Blindness: Web Searchers Often Miss Obvious Links,”1998

Hoffman, D. and T. Novak (2000), “When Exposure-Based Advertising Stops Making Sense (and What CDNOW Did about It),” working paper, Owen Graduate School of Management, Vanderbilt University.

 

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Marketing Strategy & Practice of cable and internet industry

Comcast is a telecommunications company based in the United States. Currently Comcast is the country’s’ leading cable television network provider as well as being the country’s second largest provider of broadband internet services. In analyzing this paper, I will look at the current trends in the telecommunications industry within the United States. In addition to this, I will also look at some of the current developments and or drawbacks giving special reference to Comcast as a single firm.

INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER:

Internet service providers are business organizations whose core business is providing business firms, organizations as well as private individuals with internet related services. In addition to this internet service, providers also provide a range of other services including domain registration, web hosting, collocation as well as internet transit.

CABLE TELEVISION:

Cable television is a technology that involves providing television services to wishing consumers using radio signals transmitted through coaxial cables or in recent times through optical fibers. In addition to this, these cables are sometimes used for providing broadband internet services, radio programming as well as a range of other services

MARKETING STRATEGY:

A marketing strategy is a business process that allows organizations or businesses to optimize sales as well as acquire competitive advantage over its competitors by finding the greatest opportunities of channeling the organizations limited resources.

INTRODUCTION:

Comcast Corporation has tried to find its market share within the United States telecommunications industry. In doing this, the company has tried to apply bleeding edge technologies in order to be ahead of its competitors like time Warner and Verizon. In doing this the company has company has initiated a mix of the best marketing strategy as well as market research.

ANALYSIS:

By the year 2006 the telecommunications industry on a global perspective was estimated to be worth more than $3 billion dollars. Within the United States alone, the sector is one of the largest employers with more than one million employees as of the year 2006.
Within the United States, there are estimates that subscribers will grow to about 4 billion by the year2011. In addition to this, current trends within the sector involve mergers and multiple acquisitions that have made the industry one of the most competitive. In addition, cross-border ownership of business enterprises has become the norm.

Among these mergers and acquisitions is the take over of MCI by giant Verizon Corporation. In addition, the industry is one of the fastest growing within the market. The industry is also the most interrelated with all the other sectors of the economy.

Regardless of its remarkable growth, the industry is faced with a discreet problem from the wireless internet service providers. The growth of wireless internet and telephony has been one of the major troubles for the broadband technologies.

On a firm-based perspective, there is stiff competition within the industry. To improve on market share every company uses its own strategy. However, in any industry there are four core elements of marketing strategy. These four elements are strategies that involve the product, pricing, promotion, and distribution. All firms within the industry seem to employ a different mix of the four elements in order to achieve its growth or industry projections.

In this field, companies like Comcast have adopted technologies like video on demand in order to improve their competitive edge. In addition to this, companies like Verizon have increased their capital base and they are becoming some of the core competitors to Comcast.

CONCLUSION:

The telecommunications industry has come to be a major source of revenue for many economies. The industry is behind much growth that is being experienced within the East Asian newly industrialized countries like Singapore and Malaysia. The role of the industry in the development of many countries cannot be overlooked.

REFERENCES:

Edward F. McQuarrie. (2005). the Market Research Toolbox: A Concise Guide for Beginners. London: Sage Publications.

Ian, Chaston. (1999). New Marketing Strategies: Evolving Flexible Processes to Fit Market Circumstance. London: Sage Publications

James Higgins. (1994). the Management Challenge. New York: Macmillan

Rogers, M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations, (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

Sunny, Crouch. &Matthew, Housden. (2003). Marketing Research for Managers. Amsterdam:

Elsevier.