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International Business in Japan

Abstract

Capitalist and mostly single family centered, Zaibatsu led to a static system with weak competitive forces resulting in what is known as ‘cordial oligopoly’. (Niciejewska, 2007, pg 17) Keiretsu networks on the other hand, with its cross stockholdings is more dynamic and provided a more competitive business economy that continued to drive the Japanese economy during the post war period. The high cohesion that existed between the participating firms in the vertical keiretsu resulted in production and operational efficiency that gave Japanese manufacturers significant advantages in international markets. The impact of information technology and the internet in particular enabled the western countries implement modular production strategies and improved value chain management with setting up of contracted production centers across the globe. The japans keiretsu firms struggled to fight the American companies that specialized in single core functions leading to what is known as the mega competition. Keiretsu networks are unsuitable under modern, globally competitive, and technologically advanced market conditions. There is definitely a shift towards a more western centric business organization.

Introduction

Japanese corporate governance has undergone a lot of change since the Meiji restoration in 1868. It was during this time that the industrial revolution flourished across the world. The Zaibatsu originated when the Meiji government sold out certain government undertakings to a select few private and influential families namely Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Yasuda and Sumitomo. These government controlled firms slowly developed into different industries that helped Japan grow economically strong. During this period Japan practiced a closed economic system and foreign technology was totally shunned except in areas concerning domestic development (Thorson & Whitney, 2003). The Zaibatsu which could be loosely translated as monopolies emerged as the corporate structure that underlined the Japanese economy from this time till the end of the Second World War. In particular, the Zaibatsu or the industrial and financial conglomeration of the Japanese empire controlled a large percentage of the national economy during the first few decades of the twentieth century. In the aftermath of the World war 11 and the occupation of Japan by American forces, the Zaibatsu system was broken down and this gave rise to what is what is known as the Keiretsu system which is nothing but a group of companies with cross shareholdings and preferential business practices. Though the American government was bent on totally destroying the protectionary policies that the Zaibatsu system represented and proceeded with the dissolution of many Zaibatsu such as Asano, Furukawa, Nakajima, etc they stopped short of complete dissolution owing to fear of the intrusion of China’s communist practices into Japan. The formation of Keiretsu was an attempt to democratize the Japanese economy and to eliminate the restrictive policies (Thorson & Whitney, 2003). A brief overview of the firm structures in the Keiretsu and flourishing of Japanese economy between 1950-90, and its implications to the current Japanese economy would be discussed in this paper.

Zaibatsu (Upto 1945)

As briefly mentioned above, the Zaibatsu promoted a strong monopoly with holding companies at the top of the pyramid controlling all the operations between the various enterprises within the pyramid. Holding companies typically enjoyed the majority of the stocks of these businesses and more than 50% of the overall stocks of all the small companies that constitute the Zaibatsu were owned by its members (Thorson & Whitney, 2003). Stock options were never sold out to any third parties not connected with the zaibatsu making it a totally closed economic structure. The Zaibatsu was in short, a government led economic drive with strategies as well as resources provided for by the government. Japan’s industrial growth witnessed a rapid upswing under the Zaibatsu system. Buoyed by it success at home, the Japanese government forced the Zaibatsu system in Korea when it colonized the country (Shim & Lee, 2008, pg 49).

The Zaibatsu enjoyed complete domination with Mitsui, Sumitomo and Mitsubishi, enjoying as much as 28% of the assets in Japanese companies by 1929. Just when the World War II was about to finish the Zaibatsu had 22.9% of the Japanese company stocks. Thus a handful of Japanese families had control over a vast majority of the Japanese enterprises under the Zaibatsu system. The structure of the Zaibatsu changed very quickly and soon there was intense diversification. For instance the single Mitsubishi Corporation rapidly diversified its business in to mining, shipping, insurance, trading, etc in a very short period of time and soon transformed into a holding company that was at the top of the Pyramid controlling a range of individual yet affiliated businesses. The Iwasaki family owned and controlled the entire business network of Mitsubishi (Lincoln & Shimotani, 2009).

Keiretsu

Keiretsu represents a cluster of enterprises that are linked to each other by way of cross shareholdings and preferential trading practices creating mutual interests in the business progress. Keiretsu are basically divided into two main types’ namely Vertical keiretsu and horizontal keiretsu. However there are also other keiretsu such as the distribution keiretsu that relate to the distribution networks of big manufacturers. For instance the distribution networks of Matsushita, Fuji Photo Film, etc come under the distribution Keiretsu (Shimotani, 1995). Keiretsu emerged as a protective response to the dissolution and distribution of the largely family owned stocks of the Zaibatsu. When hostile companies were taking over the zaibatsu firms the three main Zaibatsu leaders convened and arranged a solution of cross shareholding and preferential trading policies that enabled them to retain the overall control of the enterprises among themselves. For instance the Mitsui, Sumitomo and Mitsubishi zaibatsu formed this strategic pact of cross shareholdings to maintain their stronghold in the business. This is how the Keiretsu emerged from the Zaibatsu. Soon by the 1960’s a few big financial institutions in Japan such as Dai-Ichi Kangyo, Fuji and Sanwa joined with the Mitsubishi, Sumitomo and Mitsui to constitute what was popularly known as the six horizontal Keiretsu (Lincoln & Shimotani, 2009). Periodic meetings between the president’s council (shacho-kai) members and executive exchanges and cross share holdings formed the glue between these six Keiretsu. The horizontal Keiretsu is centered around a large bank.

On the other hand, the vertical Keiretsu are the large manufacturing companies and supply chain companies, the distributors etc. Unlike the Horizontal Keiretsu there is no president’s council in the vertical Keiretsu but the groups of suppliers of a manufacturing firm represent that role (Miwa and Ramsayer, 2006). Similar to the horizontal Keiretsu, the firms in the vertical keiretsu are also linked together by share holdings across firms and preferential business policies. In vertical Keiretsu there is improved knowledge sharing by way of business transfers including exchange of experts and technical staff members across the vertical network. Overall, vertical Keiretsu promotes improved cohesion among the network firms. In fact, the increased dependence of main firms on the supplier firms in the vertical Keiretsu even lead to large scale investments by these ancillary Japanese firms in US following the footsteps of the Japanese automobile manufacturing firms setting up their FDI in that Country (Banerji & Sambharya ,1996). In technology intensive industries of Japan vertical Keiretsu has greatly improved their international competitiveness by facilitating rapid knowledge sharing across the partnership firms. Empirical studies that measured the effects of such knowledge sharing across the firms in the vertical Keiretsu clearly suggest positive productive gains (Branstetter, 2000). One of the important advantages of the vertical keiretsu is the improved coordination between the suppliers and the assemblers. In the keiretsu automotive industries the suppliers receive plenty of support in products manufacturing , processing and people management. This is distinctly different from the US approach where the suppliers and the assembly line operate entirely independently. This model of operation facilitates both the parties as it helps to reduce the overall risk for either party. (Lincoln & Shimotani, 2009) Thus the Keiretsu improved knowledge transfer among the networked firms, improved productivity, reduced risk for the firms and gave the Japanese companies clear advantage in the international market.

Furthermore, Gerlach (2004), also notes that the Keiretsus were particularly important due to their one-set principle and networking. For instance, synergies were achieved in input and output, especially in the case of manufacturing. Centralized systems and departments were used in conducting basic support operations, which helped all subsidiaries in cost savings (Lincoln & Shimotani, 2009). Also, profit-trapping mechanisms were used in place, by distributing them effectively through subsidiaries (Lincoln & Shimotani, 2009). Cross shareholdings were also particularly important as it helped avoid takeovers, encouraged risk taking amongst companies, and had a long term outlook on strategy (Sturgeon, 2006). One of the important examples of the vertical Keiretsu is the Toyota group. In fact, Toyota has a unique distinction of being both a horizontal keiretsu as well as a vertical keiretsu. They key difference is that the massive size of the Toyota organization makes it possible to exist without being controlled by a central bank as is the case with horizontal keiretsu. Toyota with more than $72 billion in annual revenue has the financial might to stand for itself without the dependence of any major funding source. However, it is associated with the Mitsui group horizontally. Toyota is also widely diversified like a horizontal keiretsu company with its firms representing industries as varied as real estate, computer development, aircraft development, nonlife insurance, etc.

The disintegration of the Keiretsu (Why keiretsu failed?)

The keiretsu system started to decline slowly by the early nineties and one study by Gerlach (2004) that analyzed the cluster networking pattern of 257 Japanese organizations between 1978 and 1998 found clear evidence indicating this shift away from the Keiretsu. Analysis of cross shareholdings further confirmed the decline of the keiretsu structure (Lincoln & Shimotani, 2009). By the late nineties many major banks that were previously the core of the Horizontal keiretsu had already sold off major portions of their shares to international financial institutions (Ahmadjian and Robinson, 2001). Several Bank mergers further shook the keiretsu structure. Starting with the Mitsui and Taiyo-Kobe Bank merger in 1990 to the 1998 merger of Industrial Bank of Japan, Fuji and Dai-ichi Kangyo bank the largescale mergers of Japanese financial institutions led to consolidation of the related keiretsu firms (Lincoln & Shimotani, 2009).

Globalization and technological changes further led to the withering of the Keiretsu. The numbers of board of directors were reduced and many foreign personals took up the position. International investors further demanded the selling off of the stocks in supplier firms and other affiliate firms. Furthermore, the global shift towards modular production system and the production efficiency that it gave rise to, along with a degree of independence between the firms that are involved, kind of eroded the production line advantages that Japanese firms specialized in mass production under the keiretsu system had enjoyed for a long period. The growth of information technology and the adaptation of computer simulation technologies in production testing and experimentation and swift data exchange between the firms reduced the need for physical communication (which was key in Keiretsu) and drastically improved value chain management.(Sturgeon, 2006)

Modular production is propelled by ease of systems integration facilitated by information technology. By the 1990’s modular production system was already in place in the US electronic industry with its contract manufacturers spread across the globe. While the American firms capitalized on the internet enabled modular production systems and dominated the electronics industry and related computer hardware industry, Japanese electronics industry was still sticking to the ‘components plus products’ strategy. Cisco systems for instance enjoyed total domination in the network routers market enjoying as much as 80% of the market share while simply outsourcing its device production to contracted producers such as Solectron and Flextronics. Often the production centers are located in low cost regions such as China giving a distinct advantage for the modular production strategy. This contrast between the modular production strategies of the American firms and the in house ‘integrated production system’ of the Japanese keiretsu firms gave a clear advantage to the American firms. In other words, the Japanese keiretsu firms could not handle the ‘mega competition’ from the American firms which specialize in single core functions or narrow core competencies. The following figure 1 illustrates the loss suffered by the Japanese keiretsu electronic industries in the early years of the new millennium. (Sturgeon, 2006)

Another factor that accompanied global trade is the fluctuation of the exchange rates and its influence on the profit margin. Furthermore, the expansion into international markets and the associated transportation costs motivated many of Japan’s manufacturing firms to move their production facilities abroad as a cost effective solution. Though some suppliers too moved and invested in these new countries, in most cases the central firms such as Toyota started building trust and relationships with the local suppliers. Furthermore, changes in Japanese economic reforms including the Tax policies did not tolerate risk sharing measures as they used to before which clearly undermined one of the key Keiretsu principles.

Conclusion

The Large capitalist and mostly single family based zaibatsu companies flourished during the early twentieth century creating industrial monopolies that were closely controlled by the government. Zaibatsu led to what is known as a static system as most of the stocks are retained by the family that controls the business. Furthermore Zaibatsu promoted weak competition leading to what is known as ‘cordial oligopoly’.) Keiretsu on the other hand with its cross stockholdings is more dynamic and provided a more competitive business economy that continued to drive the Japanese economy during the post war period. The high cohesion that existed between the participating firms in the vertical keiretsu resulted in production and operational efficiency that gave Japanese manufacturers significant advantages in international markets. However, the Keiretsu principles of ‘preferential business’ affected foreign companies from entering the Japanese markets.

Globalization and increasing pressures from international organizations to sell off stocks in affiliated firms affected the cohesion that previously existed between the participating firms in the keiretsu network. Furthermore, the successful integration and mass production strategies of the keiretsu networks that helped Japanese manufacturing firms flourish were soon affected by the shift in global production strategies. Particularly, the concept of modular production where product design could be isolated from its manufacture and the shift towards outsourcing in the western world created a dent in the Japanese manufacturing sector which was still stuck with the ‘in house production’ policies. The impact of information technology and the internet in particular enabled the western countries implement modular production strategies and improved value chain management with setting up of contracted production centers across the globe. The japans keiretsu firms struggled to fight the American companies that specialized in single core functions leading to what is known as the mega competition. These fundamental shifts in organizational structure and strategies in the West have made the Keiretsu networks unsuitable under modern globally competitive and technologically advanced market conditions. There is definitely a shift towards a more western centric business organization.

Bibliography
Ahmadjian, Christina L and Patricia Robinson. (2001). Safety in Numbers: Downsizing and the New Political Economy of Structural Adjustment and Globalization, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Jae Seung Shim & Moosung lee, (2008), The Korean Economic System, Ashgate Publishing Ltd. England.
James R Lincoln & Mashiro Shimotani, (2009), Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper series, [online] University of California, viewed Mar 9th 2012,
Katharina Niciejewska, (2007) The Influence of Social networks in Japanese business. Keiretsu as a Japanese Network. Auflage , Germany.
Kunal Banerji PhD & Rakesh B Sambharya, (1996), Vertical Keiretsu and international market entry: The case of the Japanese automobile ancillary industry, Journal of international business studies. Vol 27, No 1.
Lee Branstetter (2000), Vertical Keiretsu and Knowledge Spillovers in Japanese Manufacturing: An Empirical assessment, Journal of Japanese and International Economies , Vol 14, Issue 2, pg 73-104
Miwa, Yoshiro and J. Mark Ramsayer. 2006. The Fable of the Keiretsu: Urban Legends of the Japanese Economy. University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Thayer Watkins, The Toyoto Group: The One and Only Horizontal and Vertical Keiretsu, [Online] San Jose State University, viewed Mar 9th 2012, <
Timothy J Sturgeon, (2006), Modular Productions Impact on Japan’s Electronic industry, MIT, IPC Working papers series. Viewed Mar 10th 2012,

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Modern history of JAPAN

Distinct features of constitution:

1.According to Meiji constitution, all political power is in the Emperor’s hand.

2.The principle that sovereignty resided in person of the Emperor, by virtue of his divine ancestry “unbroken for ages eternal”, rather than the people, No other have chance to take position

3.The Emperor, nominally at least, united within himself all three branches (executive and legislative and judiciary) of government, albeit subject to the “consent of the Imperial Diet”.

4.Sacred and inviolable”, a formula which was construed by hard-line monarchists to mean that emperor retained the right to withdraw the constitution, or to ignore its provisions.

5.The Emperor’s commands (including Imperial Ordinance, Edicts, Rescripts, etc) had no legal force within themselves, but required the signature of a “Minister of State”.

6.The Emperor also had the sole rights to make war, make peace, conclude treaties

Democracy in Meiji constitution.

People’s right

1. Freedom of speech, assembly and association

2. Privacy of correspondence

3. Private property

4. Freedom of movement

5. Freedom of religion

6. Right to be appointed to civil or military or any other public offices equally.

Moreover, according to constitution, the Emperor’s commands (including Imperial Ordinance, Edicts, Rescripts, etc) had no legal force within themselves, but required the signature of a “Minister of State”.

Depart from Democracy.

1 All political powers in the Emperor’s hand.

2 The Meiji Constitution was founded on the principle that sovereignty resided in person of the Emperor, by virtue of his divine ancestry “unbroken for ages eternal”, rather than the people

3 The Emperor, nominally at least, united within himself all three branches (executive and legislative and judiciary) of government,

4 Ministers of State were appointed by (and could be dismissed by) the Emperor alone, and not by the Prime Minister or the Diet.

5 The Emperor also had the sole rights to make war, make peace, conclude treaties

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Noh Theatre: Japanese Influence in American Theatre

The Japanese although is not a common ethnicity in the United States have their piece of influence in the entire American people. Their delicacies and arts have proliferated in our society as represented in major restaurants and business establishments promoting them. One way of looking at the degree of impact that they have on our community is through the appreciation of American thetare of the Japanese Noh theatre. The admiration to the latter may have led to the adoption of its certain techniques and props by the former.

Noh or N?gaku is a major form of classic Japanese musical drama. Noh has been slow and modified for several centuries beginning the  Tang Dynasty. It is interesting to learn that it influenced other dramatic forms such as Kabuki and Butoh. During the Meijing era, it was recognized as one of the three national forms of drama. The unique characteristic of Noh is that Noh actors and musicians never rehearse for performances together. Each actor, musician, and choral chanter practices his or her fundamental movements, songs, and dances independent of each other.

A senior director may guide them but again, separately. This gives the interactions of all the performers together greater importance. Noh exemplifies the traditional Japanese aesthetic of transience, called “ichi-go ichi-e”. The popular costume in Noh includes masks to be worn by the main actor called shite and his companions yet only when they belong to the following categories; old man, woman, youth, and supernatural being. The masks portray sculptural art in Japan and are made of wood.

A certain Ernest Fenoilosa, in 1916 had claimed that he was one of the two foreigners

who had ever been taught and practiced the techniques of the Japanese Noh theatre. The progression of its popularity might be slow but soon enough, Western scholars and artists have been swayed toward it due to its great grace, precision and discipline, and by its power to evoke the most poignant and the most sublime emotions.

A Noh performance seems truly to portray poetry in motion, as well as poetry in repose.[1] Books about Noh and translations of its plays have contributed to its entry into Western theatres. It is probably the ancient art forms that the audience has managed to look forward to in Noh performances. Now there is a group of American professional actors that can say it has also been initiated into the Noh:

…With the initiative of The Institute for Advanced Studies in the Theatre Arts in New York, in association with the Japan Society, two Noh actors came from Tokyo to the United States. Here, forthe first time in history, they directed non-Japanese actors

in a production of Ikkaku Sennin, a classical Noh play. The directors were Sadayo Kita, a sixteenth generation Noh performer from the Kita troupe of the Noh, Tokyo,

and his assistant, Akiyo Tomoeda, also of the Kita troupe… (Packard,____)

The actors have found it difficult to imitate the movements of the hands and feet of Japanese Noh performers. They found it challenging to preserve the tradition and ritual embedded behind every gesture and act. As Noh is considered the “immeasurable scripture”; it is a combination of song, dance, poetry, drama and religion, each performance is an act of ultimate control. It represents stoic patience of waiting for long periods of time on stage.

As soon as the American actors had completed their basic training in Noh movement, they were given authentic Noh costumes, colorful robes and wigs and masks. A stage was constructed out of white pine, built to the requirements of the Noh theatre but with consideration of the relatively larger built of the Americans. In relation to American theatre arts, Noh is relatively confined to strict movements while the other is free But the American actors claimed they have learned new interpretations and adopted the use of masks. While Noh is selfless, American theatre is egotistic.

To use the comment of Packard, one could truly say that this introduction of Noh in American theatre has produced a momentum and historic event, when he said, “The American theatre, with such a deep need for style and tradition, could acquire a great deal from the discipline and technique of the Japanese Noh theatre”.

Works Cited

Packard, William. “An Experiment in Noh.”

Sorgenfrei, Carol Fisher. “The State of Asian Theatre Studies in the American Academy.”

Theatre Survey. Vol. 47 No. 2 (2006).

www.wikipedia.com

 

 

[1] Packard, William. “An Experiment in Noh.” P. 60.

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Nepalese migration to Japan

Nepal is landlocked between India and China, situated between the Himalayas. With no industrialization worth the name, its mainstay is agriculture. Its major export is labor; most of the rural households have one family member abroad and expect the inward remittances from them month after month for their livelihood. The Nepali migration to Japan is governed by the Labor Act of 1985. The armed conflicts between the forces loyal to the King and Government and Nepal and the Maoist People’s War groups, have created a fear psychology in the Country and encouraged migration.

Historical & Structural contexts:

The majority of the Nepalese workers in Japan hail from ethnic group designated as ‘martial races’. They are popularly known as ‘Gurkha’ soldiers. They were an important segment of the Indian and British Army. In India, even now, they are the prominent part. Nepal has a long history of migration; Nepalese migrated to the city of Lahore and joined as soldiers in the army of Sikh Ruler, Ranjit Singh. The martial aspect has now taken the form of economic criteria with the fast advancement of the modern materialistic civilization consequent to the industrial and internet revolutions.

A new culture of emigration and remittance economy in rural Nepal has taken concrete shape. Migration is, mostly, an economic option now. From the cinders of the II World War, Japan’s industrial structure took an unprecedented leap. Manufacturing and construction industries created a vacuum consequent to shunning of the jobs by the Japanese workers. Economically distressed migrants from countries like Nepal, secure elevated wage levels, and that in turn accelerated the process of migration from Nepal. The subsequent living conditions, isolation, distress and discrimination added to their woes, but the offsetting factor was the financial rewards. As for the women immigrant workers, Japan’s share is 9%. Most of them work in the service sectors or as domestic helps.

Push –Pull factors:

Economic agents are responsible for the homogenous optimizing behavior as for various theories of migration. In contrast, “Lipton assumes heterogeneity of group behavior – rich persons optimize whereas poor persons are more reactive than proactive. Hence, the migratory decisions of the rural poor are more likely to be influenced by push factors while pull factors more likely apply to the rural rich.”(Asian, 2000…) To some extent the conditions obtaining in the migration scene in Nepal today in relation to Japan, gives credence to Lipton’s hypotheses as for migratory and remitting behavior of both poor and rich families. Socio-economic differentials are one of the important factors for migration determinants.

Globalization has worked wonders in all the segments related to human beings. For economies and individuals who possess mobile capital and knowledge, it has proved to be a boon. But the conditions of the less educated workers have remained the same, as their options are limited. The bargaining power of the employers is in tact, if anything it has increased because of their capacity to adopt latest technology, with less labor requirements, outsourcing and moving elsewhere. The labor migration, both short term and long term, to countries like Japan from Nepal has adverse effects on account of this development.

Network and social capital:

Indian sub-continent was the traditional destination for the migration of the Nepalese labor, but with the passage of Labor Act of 1985, countries like Japan became the much sought after destinations.  The trade unions also began to show interest in the welfare and working conditions of the overseas workers. “Foreign labor migration from Nepal is still largely a privately organized affair in which individuals make use of their own personal networks or make arrangements through a number of private, government-registered manpower or recruitment agencies.”(Seddon, 2005).

As for Southeast Asia, the popular destination at that time was Japan. Immigration then was not legal, the repatriation incidents occurred often, but the reward for the lucky ones who stayed on was high. The wages were 10 times the average wage in Nepal. The remittances from Japan to Nepal recorded a steep increase. This further kindled the curiosity and enthusiasm of the rural folks of Nepal, both men and women to migrate. “The implications of this situation are far-reaching for Nepal as a whole, for the structure and dynamics of regional and local economy and society, and — perhaps most of all — for households and individuals all over the country, both those directly involved in foreign labor migration and those left behind.”(Seddon, 2005)

Labor migration increases unity of the countries of sending and receiving migrants.

Migration serves useful purposes for both the countries. It is the twice-blessed concept. It blesses those who receive, and those who give. The reality behind this poetic comparison is that the two ethnic groups have to come to terms for a happy living. Legal citizenship is one thing. The actual assimilation and the willing acceptance from the local society is another thing. The development of commonality is a slow process. To oppress the minority and obliterate the differences is not a welcome procedure and the consequences will be bitter. History has enough examples of such disastrous failures. Historical conditions and the related racial stigma, will not get obliterated easily.

References Cited:

Article: ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL, 1999,2000..www.cicred.org/rdr/rdr_uni/revue101-102/101-101-102.html – 26k – Retrieved on October 2, 2007

Seddon, David-Article: Nepal’s Dependence on Exporting Labor, January 2005-Migration Information Source

www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=277 – 35k –  Retrieved on October 2, 2007

 

 

 

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Gift Giving in Japan

Anthrop 525 Term Paper Yi Min Yeng ( Leon ) Katherine Rupp began the study of Japan and Japanese when she was an undergraduate at Princeton University as noted in the Acknowledge portion of the book, Gift-Giving in Japan: Cash, Connections. Cosmologies. After that she had her graduated training in the University of Chicago funded by the National Science Foundation and the University itself, including one year of support from the Committee on Japanese Studies. Before the writing of this book, Katherine Rupp took twenty months of field work In Japan which is funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education.

She finally completed the manuscript of Gift-Giving in Japan as a postdoctoral associate of the Council on East Asian Studies at Yale University in the Anthropology Department (Rupp 2003). Much like Mauss, Katherine Rupp is interested in the cultural effect of the gift giving and exchanges in Japan. She too believes that there is a social and cosmic order, much like Marcel Mauss’s total social phenomenon that it influences people but is also shape by the individuals. She focuses on the content of gift giving considers historical changes in gift exchange practice and differences in giving among groups.

Like Mauss, provokes thought on our own practices of exchange, gift and otherwise (Citation). She spent eighteen months of intensive scientific field works in Tokyo metropolitan area and also short term research on other parts of Japan by interviewing experts such as authors of gift giving books, Buddhists and Shinto priests, departmental and funeral home employees, workers and different classes of families. All these because she seeks to understand multiple questions such as “Why do people give as much, as often, and in the particular ways that they do? Why do some people reject giving and receiving?

How do attitudes towards practice of giving relate to considerations of age, class, gender, geographic area, occupation, and religion? … In What ways can these study of gifts in Japan contribute to the field of gifts and exchange in anthropology? ” (Rupp 2003:2). Other than that, she conducted observational studies on festivals, election rallies, house building ritual and other kinds of ceremonies with gift giving integrated in it. Besides using comparative methods, the use of statistic is also incorporated such as recording the amount and value of gift received and purchased on different events.

She believes that the recent anthropological attention of the strong contrast between commodities and gifts are not distinctively unrelated but are interconnected (Rupp 2003:182). The Gift Giving in Japan can be separated into six chapters. The book first emphasized the importance of gift giving in various ways such as pointing out reasons and giving the enormous examples of gift giving. People in Japan feel obligated and burdened when they receives gifts, some even avoid visiting their hometown or decide not to enclose the information to people when they do.

Gift giving on the other hand is very crucial to the macroeconomic level as well as departmental stores earn most of their profits during ceremonial festivals throughout the years such as ‘gosekku’ the five seasonal celebrations, new year, Christmas eve and Valentine’s day (Rupp 2003:2,119). Rupp too focused on examples of gift giving such as wedding gifts and returns sent to Mrs. Ueda, Mr. Hoshino’s house building ceremonial gift and returns, Mr. Ishiyasama’s father’s funeral gifts and returns, Mr. Tanabe declination of gifts and lastly gift categorizing of “meaningless” gifts, travel gifts, and seasonal gifts from Mrs.

Inoue. All these examples raise questions of relationships, the level of gratitude, and the influence of class between giving and receiving that will be explained on further chapters (Rupp 2003:33). Second chapter focus on the question raised previously with the emphasize in strength of relationship, gratitude and hierarchy. The value of the gift varies with the strength of the relationship. At times of celebration, those who bring enormous gifts are usually close friends or relatives and those who hardly brought anything are superficial friends or unfamiliar relatives most of the time.

For example during the house building ceremony people that are Mr. Hoshino’s true friends gave more than his superficial friends. And that those who gave a higher value of gift in order to create stronger relationship can be precarious as sometimes it can distant one from the receiver causing a backfire (Rupp 2003:36). Secondly, gift value can increase enormously as a form of gratitude to show appreciation for the receiver. For example, Mr. Hoshino received a large sum of money during his house building ceremony from his cousin because his wife had been taking care of his mum (Rupp 2003:41).

Lastly, the social class of a person can influence the value of gifts. A person with a higher hierarchy is obligated to give a higher value of gift compared to a lower one. On the other hand, they are also able to receive higher value of gifts as well. During Mrs Ueda’s son’s wedding, his superior in the company who made the decision to hire him gave them a gift worth a hundred thousand yen which is compared to be higher than average, yet he received three hundred thousand yen in return as a form of gratitude also because of his superior ranking.

In order to understand and interpret the meaning of gifts it is crucial to understand the three main factors which are relationship, gratitude and hierarchies that influence the value of gift giving (Rupp 2003:50). Gifts are not only given in considering of value, as not all items with high values symbolize auspiciousness for certain events. Gift giving practices are implemented during life and seasonal cycle practices and are considered highly important.

These rites of passages vary in places and modern cities such as Tokyo considers these practices burdensome, old fashioned and irrelevant where else people in Warabi observed these practices for generations (Rupp 2003: 53). There are three important life cycles which are birth, marriage and death which all three will be given bowls of rice packed into a mound sphere shape symbolizing total consumption and breaking of relationship and it was considered inauspicious not to do it. For the birth of a child, it meant it means separation from the world of the dead.

A woman consumes bowls of rice symbolizing separation from her side of family and lastly the dead is separated from the live world when a bowl of rice is given to the deceased. But as time passes, history changes and most of the people do not implement some of these traditions and nor do they consider as inauspicious as before. Life cycle events are divided into happy and sad occasions. During happy occasion such as birth and marriage, bills should be new and shiny while facing up in an elaborately decorated envelope where else sad occasion such as death, bills given should be old and crumbled while facing down in another kind of envelope.

Also, certain colors and method of tying a knot are used in happy and sad occasion with different meanings. For example, black or white ‘musubikiri’ knots which are knots that cannot be undone are used for funerals and red, white or gold butterfly knots are used for marriage. Returned gifts too are carefully considered as it is inappropriate to return inauspicious gifts as different items symbolize different meanings (Rupp 2003: 59). Besides life cycles, most gifts in Japan are given in related to seasonal cycles with yearend and midyear gifts with the highest percentage also there are festivals such as ‘bon’, ‘Gosekku’, ‘Higan’.

Throughout the history, traditions in festivals have changed especially when the Meiji government changed most of the ritual to the worship of Shinto God in order to bolster State Shinto and the emperor’s position (Rupp 2003:123). The book then describes the auspicious decorates people put up for each traditional festivals such as the zigzag white flags during New Years and Carp banners during ‘Gosekku’ festival, and people send auspicious gifts such as long noodles during the New Year which symbolize one life’s will extend like the long noodles (Rupp 2003:117).

Other than that, gifts will be offered to the dead on ‘bon’ festival in the form of gratitude. Relatives will visit their families and company employees will visit their superiors during New Year and they will be given auspicious gifts or snacks such as the two rounded rice cakes similar to the rounded bowl rice thus reinforcing the hierarchy of their relationships (Rupp 2003: 122). Besides traditional seasonal festivals, Japan do celebrate Western holidays such as Christmas Eve, Valentine’s day, Father’s day and Mother’s day. Christmas Eve is quite unique in Japan as it is strongly associated with romance.

Heart shape decorations with bells will be decorated in the streets and young men are willing to pay over one hundred thousand yen for a date during Christmas Eve. Even though men think Valentine’s Day chocolate gift as absurd but at the same they would be secretly delighted if received. Yet these western festivals still requires return gifts similar to the traditional festivals. Interestingly enough, unlike traditional festiavals which benefits men more than women, western festivals are the only festivals that it is women who have the upper hand (Rupp 2003: 144-154).

The practice of gift giving has variations of attitudes and it “vary according to regions, occupations, education, class, family background, gender, religion, and personality” (Rupp 2003:155). For example, most funerals in Warabi region returns a fixed value of gift yet funerals in Tokyo returns records each received gift and returns the half value of it after forty nine days. Also, most people studied in Warabi region did receive higher education in the middle or lower class. They are straight forward and do not concern with politeness and will assume people from Tokyo are calculative concerned with ranking.

Other than that, it is an assumed social fact that women have perfect knowledge in gift giving and that they are responsible for the gift giving between their husbands or other households as well. If a women who was from another region married to a men in Tokyo and do not know the region’s practices, she would be sanctioned yet people would not fault the husband which could have told her. By giving gifts from women on behalf of their husband, it “softens” the gifts and saves face for men as it is unusual for men to offer gifts to the people who are superior over them (Rupp 2003:159-161).

Thus this type of gift giving system reinforced the hierarchy of men and women and the subordination of women below men. Besides hierarchy between men and women there are practices between other subordinates and superior such as tenant and landlord, patient and doctors. People send gifts to their land lord or doctors as a form of gratitude even though there is a contract between them which the tenant or patient has already fulfilled. Interestingly enough even though hospitals forbidden gifts for doctors, patients still send cash gift certificates from high ranked departmental stores to the doctors’ house.

It seems to be a bad custom according to Mrs. Inoue, yet everyone abides by it and they do not consider it as a bribe (Rupp 2003: 164). Even with people like Mr. Tanabe who declined a valuable live shrimp gift from his customer as he felt burdened are uncomfortable of calling these practices bribery (Rupp 2003: 166). Due to these norms, there is a rising of abuse of the system and forming an example of forced giving by doctors throughout Japan. There are cases that if no valued gifts are given to the doctors as a form of “gratitude”, the quality of the patient’s care will decrease dramatically.

In the conclusion of the book, Rupp emphasizes that the Western concept of gift and market cannot be in the same realm and should not be applied in Japanese culture. Rupp uses Mauss’s theory of reaching back into history to seek explanation and highlight that Western culture have once been like Japanese culture which when gifts are not separated from the realm of buying and selling (Rupp 2003: 181). Japan is a place that challenges the stereotype of Western capitalist societies which are characterized almost exclusively by the commodity form with the circulation of independent transaction as alienable objects.

Rupp brought up multiple reviews on Japan’s gift giving practices and evaluates those who critics it as irrelevant and misleading. Japan is a major capitalist society, yet gifts and commodities are not two different realms but entangled together. In Japan, calculation of value on an item might not always be related to the economic realm compared to the Western societies. She concludes that the practice of gift giving in Japan is not so much in relation to an individual level as it is the shaping and solidification of the social order, which then influences the individuals. Notes for review:

On gift giving guan xi : purpose of Gift giving is shifting from its original meaning. Nowadays coporate gift givings are mainly aimed for illicit payments, corruption and pursuit of self interest instead of the building of ‘guan xi’ which means relationship or even providing social solidarity in macro levels. Understanding gift giving in japan page 20 the practice of gift exchange encompasses a wide range of social and cultural implications. Many purposes are served, such as fulfilling a sense of obligation to return a favor, reciprocating a favor, cultivating rapport, and enhancing a willingness to share sad and happy occasions.

When the Japanese practice gift giving, they always have some reason why they wish to give a gift to another. A gift without reason is not acceptable For example, when one company in Japan wishes to do business with another company in Japan, a salesperson from the first company will visit the prospective client company and take a small gift, perhaps sweets or candy valued 1,000 yen The ‘Social Death’ of Unused Gifts: Surplus and Value in Contemporary Japan page 396 it is the sentimental value we attribute to things we have had a long-term relationship with that keeps us from disposing of them.

However, my ? eldwork suggests that in Japan the propensity for not throwing things away is more affected by a feeling of duty than emotional attachment. The duty people felt towards objects is grounded in an awareness of the interrelatedness of human and nonhuman entities. In other words, things offer their service to people who, in return, should be thankful and treat objects respectfully Many people receive excessive quantities of these gifts because of the overall increase in af? ence since the economic growth of the 1970s that has led to an acceleration of the scale of the Japanese gift economy. Because the surplus of value embodied in unused gifts can only be recouped through sociality (Henderson, 2004), many tried to re-circulate their ‘unused goods’ through intimate, personal networks. These data thus question accounts that depict Japan as an hierarchical, formal society primarily grounded in ritualized gift exchange. GIFTS BRIBES AND GUAN XI page 399 Clearly guanxi can be used for instrumental purposes, and this usage is recog- nized by members of the society.

However, it is referred to as the art of guanxi, be- cause the style of exchange and the appropriateness of the performance are critical to its effectiveness. The style and manner of gift exchange is not optional; rather, it is fundamental to its operation. Although a relationship may be cultivated with in- strumental goals foremost in mind, the forms must be followed if the goals are to be achieved. The relationship must be presented as primary and the exchanges, useful though they may be, treated as only secondary.

If, instead, it becomes apparent that the relationship involves only material interest and is characterized by direct and immediate payment, the exchange is classified as one of bribery Gifts, bribes and solicitions: page 522 In traditional Chinese society, relationships, quanxi, are moderated and balanced by renqing, obligations of reciprocity (Hwang, 1987). A patient receiving service from a doctor may feel obligated by renqing to reciprocate with an informal payment or gift. Alternatively, patients who desire new or continuing care from a doctor may give a gift or payment as a way of ‘‘seeking relationship’’ (Lyckholm, 1998).

The rules of renqing dictate that if the keeper of a resource accepts a petitioner’s gift, he or she now has an obligation to provide a service (Hwang, 1987). The implementation of Taiwan’s system of national health insurance (NHI) in 1995, and the introduction of concepts of consumer rights into Taiwanese culture, created tension with the tradition of informal payments (Ensor & Savelyeva, 1998). The premises of NHI—that the health care system had an a priori obligation to provide care and that doctors’ fees would be set and paid by a third party—stood in sharp contrast to the premises of renqing.

This study examines how the meaning of informal payments (red envelopes), as an integral part of the doctor–patient relationship, evolved during the process of healthcare reform in Taiwan. The red envelopes discussed in this paper differ from traditional gift-giving. ‘Red envelopes,’ in the context of the doctor–patient relationship, imply the transfer of money or valuables from patients to doctors in return for an enhanced or improved medical encounter Dagang Write gift giving and mauss idea Good field world Then say about bribery Then conclude bribery is not same with gift giving. Why Conclusion

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Commodore Perry’s Journey to Japan

After the conclusion of the War of 1812 and prior to the Civil War, the United States Navy entered into a peacetime role. Initially, this role was to protect commerce trading in both inland and international waterways. However, that role was soon expanded upon with Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry’s journey to Japan. The journey had its immediate impact, including the signing of a comprehensive treaty that established trade relations with Japan and provided protection for sailors and their ships. Perry’s expedition also had the impact of serving as a precursor for the change in what the Navy’s responsibilities encompassed, which even carry on to the present day Navy. Commodore Perry left for Japan with the objectives of opening up Japanese ports to trade and ensuring American presence and protection in East Asia. These terms were outlined in “detailed instructions from the Secretary of the Navy John P. Kennedy, diplomatic instructions from the State Department, and a letter from President Millard Fillmore to the Emperor of Japan”2 that Perry carried with him on his voyage.

From beginning to end Perry’s voyage spanned nine months and was filled with trials and tribulations. The Japanese were initially turned off to the idea of Americans entering their country, and would not even let them step on land. Only twice did Perry and his squadron come ashore in the nine months prior to the signing of the official treaty. Most of the negotiations took place upon various ships in Perry’s control and the meetings were often difficult to coordinate.

Based on notes from Perry’s personal journal, these complications often lead to frustration and Perry was constantly considering employing “whole force” that he was granted to use if he deemed it necessary to achieve his goals. 3 However, this was ultimately unnecessary, and Perry did well to remind himself that his voyage was diplomatic and pacific in nature. The negotiations were an arduous process and Perry even left Japan returning later with twice as many ships, anticipating a struggle. This was unnecessary as the Japanese agreed to Perry’s desires and the “black ships” saw no combat.

With the agreement of the Japanese the Treaty of Kanagawa was drafted and subsequently signed on 31 March 1854. This treaty allowed for a U. S. consul to be created at Shimoda, and allowed access to the ports of Hakodate and Shimoda for the purpose of obtaining “wood, water, provisions, and coal, and other articles their necessities may require. ” The treaty also required that “whenever ships of the United States are thrown or wrecked on the coast of Japan, the Japanese vessels will assist them, and carry their crews to Shimoda. Thirdly, men staying in Shimoda and Hakodate, or any seamen shipwrecked shall be free and “shall not be subject to…restrictions and confinement. ”4Although there was not a formal agreement on trade in these open ports, Perry assumed correctly that with an American presence in port, trade would come naturally. 5 The initial impact of Perry’s expedition and the treaty with Japan gave the United States Navy many new roles and an international presence on the high seas. Japan had been a country focused on isolationism for centuries. This isolationism is mainly connected to the zeal of early missionaries who traveled to Japan.

The United States was able to avert this conflict in values by Commodore Perry’s outright statement to the Japanese leadership that the United States government “does not interfere with the religion of its own people, much less with that of other nations. ”6 Several attempts were made to open Japan to American trade, but all had failed. One such failure was that of Commodore James Biddle, which proved to be a complete embarrassment for the United States, as he made several mistakes in his conduct and on top of it all needed to be towed out of port by a Japanese ship. The fact that Commodore Perry was successful in his mission changed the status quo in regards to what the United States Navy could and could not do. Perry proved that the United States was capable of having a forward presence in foreign lands and was able to establish international trade in East Asia. The establishment of commercial relations with Japan furthered the Navy’s responsibility in protecting trade. Perry’s exploits also showed that diplomacy was a possible way for the United States to establish influence in other countries.

Thirdly, Perry and his “black ships” were the first sign of American deterrence. The fact that American ships were off the coast of Japan ready to attack an underprepared country made it very difficult for the Japanese to negotiate anything in their favor or make any tactical or strategic decisions to remove the threat of Perry’s force. The roles of the Navy that Commodore Perry established in the mid-nineteenth century are still prevalent in the present day.

The idea of the Navy as a protector of commerce (although established before Perry, he was instrumental in expanding the Navy’s prevalence in ensuring safe trade) continues into the present day. An example of this would be ships stationed in the Mediterranean Sea. This area, specifically around the Strait of Hormuz is crucial to trade in the Middle East. The presence of the United States Navy maintains a safe trading environment between the United States and its allies, and other countries in the region.

Commodore Perry also introduced the idea of deterrence, which is crucial in the operations of the Navy in today’s world. One example of American deterrence is the use of submarines, equipped with nuclear war heads and ballistic missiles, which are virtually invisible to our enemies. Perry also proved that diplomacy was a very potent way to establish influence in foreign countries and maintain a presence without force. This is also seen in the United States establishment of embassies in foreign countries and the use of diplomats to negotiate with foreign countries.

Commodore Perry’s expedition to Japan had a tremendous impact on the United States at the time it occurred, but it also had an everlasting impact on how the Navy operates and what roles and responsibilities it chooses to take on. Notes 1. Walworth, Arthur. Black ships off Japan; the story of Commodore Perry’s expedition 242. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1946. 2. Bradford, James C. Quarterdeck and bridge: two centuries of American naval leaders 115. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997. 3. Perry, Matthew Calbraith, and Roger Pineau.

The Japan Expedition, 1852-1854; the personal journal of Commodore Matthew C. Perry 157. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 4. Barrows, Edward Morley. The great commodore; the exploits of Matthew Calbraith Perry 365. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co, 1935. 5. Anderson, David. “Perry, Matthew Calbraith. “American National Biography Online Feb. 2000 (accessed October 2, 2012). 6. Walworth, Arthur. Black ships off Japan. 243. 7. Bradford, James C. Quarterdeck and Bridge. 113. Bibliography Anderson, David. “Perry, Matthew Calbraith. “American National Biography Online Feb. 000 (accessed October 2, 2012). Barrows, Edward Morley. The great commodore; the exploits of Matthew Calbraith Perry 365. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co, 1935. Bradford, James C. Quarterdeck and bridge: two centuries of American naval leaders. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1997. Perry, Matthew Calbraith, and Roger Pineau. The Japan Expedition, 1852-1854; the personal journal of Commodore Matthew C. Perry 157. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. Walworth, Arthur. Black ships off Japan; the story of Commodore Perry’s expedition. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1946.

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Japanese Kimono

The kimono is a traditional form of clothing worn by Japanese women and men. There are many different forms of Japanese kimono. The word kimono literally as known as “clothing”, and up until the mid 19th century it was the form of dress worn by everyone in Japan. Between 30 and 100 days after a child is born, the parents, siblings, and grandparents visit a shrine together to report the child’s birth. The baby is dressed in a white under-kimono. On top of that kimono, the baby wears a brightly coloured yuzen-dyed kimono if it is a girl, and a black kimono decorated with the family crest if it is a boy.

Another key event in a kid’s life is the SHICHI-GO-SAN(seven-five-three) Festival, which takes place in November. On this day, they are dressed in kimonos and parents will take their 5 years old boys and 7 or 3 years old girls to the local shrine to thanks the gods for keeping their children healthy and making them grow. Japanese women wear different kind of Kimono throughout the different stages in their life. When a young Japanese woman reach 20 years old, she is recognised as an adult.

Many parents buy the Furisode for their daughters to celebrate this vital point in a young woman’s life. Furisode is a formal kimono for single women, it is brightly colored and made of very fine quality silk. In the very modest Japanese society wearing a Furisode is a very obvious statement that the single woman is available for marriage. The major points of the furisode is the long sleeves and it will go right to the ground. When a Japanese woman marries, many parents buy their daughters another kimono call the houmongi.

The houmongi takes over the role the furisode played in the life when she was single. The houmongi is the married woman’s formal kimono. It will be wear when attending friend’s Japanese weddings or tea ceremonies while Tomesode is normally wear to a Japanese wedding ceremony of a close relative. Japanese will wear different colour of Kimonos that suit to the four seasons of the year. Pale colours such as light green are appropriate for spring, while cool colours such as lavender or dark blue are good for summer.

Today, the yukata is a casual light cotton kimono widely worn as a casual wear in Bon-Odori and summer festivals and attending for public occassions. The yukata is worn with a wider belt, which can be simply wrapped around the waist and tucked in at the end. For a more formal appearance, the yukata is worn with an obi belt, along with a matching geta (wooden sandals) and purse to complete the attire. The colour of autumn is imitate the hues of the turning leaves while winter is the season for strong colours like black and red.

Although kimonos are no longer everyday wear in Japan, people stil like to wear them at various times throughout the year. And when they do, they use the fabrics, colors, and a designs of their kimonos to express their love of the 4 seasons. The name yukata comes from the word ‘yu’ (bath) and ‘katabira’ (under clothing). In the Heian era (794-1185), court nobles wore linen ‘yukata’ which were draped loosely after taking a bath. The yukata was later also worn by Japanese warriors and by the Edo era (1600-1868), it was widely worn by the public when public bath became a popular recreation in Japan.

Furisode are mainly worn for major social functions such aswedding ceremonies or tea ceremonies until they get married. A Furisode normally costs around A$15,000 for the whole outfit which depends on the quality of the materials, design and workmanship. The second Monday in January is a public holiday called ‘Adult Day’ and many young women attend a ceremony wearing their Furisode kimono. The Mofuku is only worn to the funeral of a close relative. This kimono is all black. ‘Hadajuban’ is the first undergarment worn in the kimono attire. It is so named as it is worn next to the skin.

Note 1: As the kimono is cut in a straight pattern / shape, padding is often needed around the waist and/or bust. A padding similar to the one shown in the picture can be worn to fill / level off body curves. Please note that padding is worn underneath the ‘hadajuban’. Note 2: Over the ‘hadajuban’, a second undergarment called the ‘nagajuban’ is worn to add collar definition to the kimono. Please note that the ‘nagajuban’ is not worn with a casual kimono such as theyukata. In my past experience, I thought Kimono will only be worn during “Bon-Odori”, m

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Japanese Bribe Case Study

THE CASE OF THE JAPANESE BRIBE I. BACKGROUND OF THE CASE 1976: Former Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka was arrested on charges of taking bribes amounting to $1. 8 Million Dollars from Lockheed Aircraft Company. Tanaka’s secretary and several other government officials were arrested together with former Prime Minister Tanaka. Takeo Miki was ousted from office on suspicion of concealing Tanaka’s dealings with Lockheed Aircraft Company. In Holland, Prince Bernhard resigned from 300 government positions held for allegedly having received $1. Million in bribes from Lockheed Aircraft Company in connection with the purchase of 138 F-104 Starfighter Jets. In Italy, Giovanni Leone, the Italian President in 1970 together with Prime Ministers Aldo Moro and Mariano Rumor were also accused of accepting bribes from Lockheed in connection with the purchase of $100 Million worth of aircraft during the late 1960s. Scandinavia, South Africa, Turkey, Greece and Nigeria were also among the 15 countries in which Lockheed admitted to having handed out payments and that at least $202 Million in commissions were made by the company since 1970.

Lockheed started using bribes since 1958 in order to outsell Grumman Aircraft, a competitor, for the Japanese Air Force contract. As per his testimony, William Findley of Arthur Young & Co. the auditors for Lockheed, engaged the services of Yoshio Kodama to act as middleman between Lockheed and the Japanese Government in order to secure the government contract for the purchase of military aircrafts. Several bribes were made by the company to ensure the contract in its favour.

In 1972, Lockheed rehired Kodama as consultant to sell its aircraft to Japan. Lockheed was in dire need to sell its aircraft owing to a series of financial disasters, cost overruns, pushing the company to the brink of bankruptcy in 1970. A controversial loan guarantee awarded the company amounting to $250 Million helped the aircraft company in averting the bankruptcy. Lockheed President, Mr. Carl Kotchian anxiously anticipated making the sales since the company has not been making its projected sales of aircraft worldwide.

Mr. Kotchian believed that Japan is a largely-untapped market and if Lockheed penetrates the Japanese market, the company can generate $400 Million and thus, improve the company’s financial status and ensure the jobs of thousands of the firm’s employees. Kodama eventually succeeded in engineering a contract for Lockheed with the All Nippon Airways, beating McDonnell Douglas, its active competitor. For the sale, Kodama askes and received $9 Million as pay-off money from 1972 to 1975.

Allegedly, much of the money went to then Prime Minister Tanaka and other government officials for interceding with All Nippon Airways on behalf of Lockheed Aircraft Company. Mr. Kotchian admitted full knowledge about where the money was going and that he was persuaded by the assurance that in making the payoff, Lockheed was sure to get the contract with All Nippon Airways. Subsequently, Lockheed netted $1. 3 Billion from the contract. Mr.

Kotchian defended the payoff as “in keeping with Japanese business practices”, meaning that I order to do business in Japan, one has to make payoffs, further, Kotchian reiterated that the transaction did not violate any American Laws and that Lockheed needed to adjust to the existing “functioning systems” in order to be competitive and guarantee the jobs of thousands of its employees, as well as ensure continuing profitability. Otherwise, the company would be bankrupt and thousands will lose their jobs. In August 1975, after investigations conducted by the U. S.

Government, Lockheed admitted to making $22 Million in secret payoffs and in subsequent Senate investigations in 1976, the deals were made public, causing Japan to cancel the billion dollar contract with Lockheed. In 1979, Lockheed pleaded guilty to concealing the bribes by writing them off as “marketing costs”. Lockheed was not charged with bribery since the law took effect only in 1978. Mr. Kotchian was not indicted but was forced to resign from his office while in Japan, Kodama was arrested together with Tanaka. II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1. What were the moral and legal implications of the actions of the Lockheed management? . What is the effect of the transaction with respect to fair competition in business? III. AREAS OF CONSIDERATION 1. The need to ensure the profitability of the company. 2. The need to ensure the welfare and well-being of thousands of employees of the company. 3. The ethical and legal standpoint that binds entities in the conduct of their business. IV. ANALYSIS OF THE CASE The case revolves around several issues that confront today’s modern business practice/s; basically, every company aspires to achieve continuing growth and profitability as its major policy.

Secondly, the company as an organization is augmented and composed by people who are performing each of their respective tasks in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the firm. In the case of Lockheed Aircraft Company, there is a dire need to rebound from near bankruptcy and the means by which it can be achieved is to get hold of the contracts for the company to build and supply aircrafts to their intended buyers. The Japanese market offers a potential target for the aircraft company, much as the other companies are likewise aware of.

The airline and aircraft industry is a highly competitive industry. Each company needs to update its existing technology, requiring continuous investments in retooling and research. Such an activity requires continuous flow of funds considering the immense requirement for funding the expenditures. Should the company let up on continually improving its product and technology, the result would be disastrous for the company since competitors could easily overtake the company and its market. All of these predicaments compounded the financial woes of Lockheed Aircraft Company during the 70’s.

It is under this duress that management was forced to find a means by which the company can stay afloat, make profit and support its large workforce. The decision to make extraordinary means to ensure sales was at the moment, imperative for management. Using the argument that during those days, a business sub-culture existed in Japan, that is, that the company needed to abide by the “functioning system” to get the All Nippon Air Contract. In simple terms, payoffs are needed to facilitate the sale of the company’s aircraft to the Japanese airline company.

Ethically, a payoff to facilitate a contract at the expense of other competitors deviates from existing moral values that should govern the conduct of business. However, assuming that a system of patronage existed in Japan during the time; such a system constrained the management of Lockheed to use extraordinary means to go through channels as conduits to their intended client in order to seal the contract. Prior to investigations conducted and the subsequent admission of the company regarding the payoffs, landing the contract with All Nippon

Airways, did not only guarantee profits for Lockheed but also, a continuing support for its thousands of employees. V. CONCLUSION Based on the foregoing, it is established that Lockheed acted within the sphere of corporate culture prevalent of the times. From a business man’s point of view, the payoffs could indeed be classified as marketing costs since from the point of view of the company, the money that was used was partly in promotion of its product, by today’s standards. However, the crux of the problem was that those who received the payoffs were government officials who had control of the affairs of their country.

As such, these officials were in a position to exert undue influence on the airline company to purchase the aircraft from Lockheed. It is this undue influence that made the act unethical and from a legal standpoint, criminal in nature since, the resulting transaction is now a case of bribery on the part of Lockheed and extortion on the part of the government officials who received the payoff. As for Mr. Kotchian, I believe that as CEO of Lockheed Aircraft Company, he acted in the best interest of the company and for everyone who are immediately involved with the company (employees, technicians, management, etc. As CEO, he is tasked with ensuring a profitable direction for the company and provide a continuing means of livelihood for all those employed by the company. Likewise, it is his duty to ensure the competitiveness of the company. VI. RECOMMENDATION Despite the arguments of utilitarianism in this case, wherein the interest of the majority is deemed primordial over the interests of the few, I/We believe that Mr. Kotchian, in behalf of the management of Lockheed Aircraft Company acted within the bounds of corporate culture prevalent of the time.

Arguably, using ethics and morality as a gauge, I/We perceive that Lockheed and Mr. Kotchian were guilty of unfair competition as they undermined their competitors through the use undue influence instead of marketing a superior product. Although the immediate results could have benefitted all those concerned within the sphere of the company, the means by which it was achieved were tainted with fraud and the wilful distortion of facts (reporting payoffs as marketing costs), hence, providing the other stakeholders such as its investors and stockholders a false representation of the financial affairs of the company.

Although, bribery was not yet classified as corporate crime prior to 1978, the act of Lockheed Aircraft Company and Mr. Kotchian should be regarded as unethical, immoral and illegal; as well as promoting unfair competition with respect to other aircraft manufacturers in the industry. The decision of the Board of Directors to force the resignation of Mr. Kotchian as CEO of Lockheed Aircraft Company is deemed proper herein and the subsequent arrest of Mr. Kodama and former Prime Minister Tanaka is likewise appropriate under the circumstances.

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The Bento as a Culture in Japan

The bento as a culture in Japan ID NO. 12411099 Word count: 1075 It is very convenient that students who study in APU can go to convenience store buying bento as lunch or dinner. In fact, everyday there are so many people who are students or businessmen buying bento as their lunch when they have no time to eat lunch in resturant or made by hand. In some way, bento is a pretty important culture in Japan society. Bento first appeared in ancient period in Japan, which mostly stood for more wealthy class people. On the contrast, especially for the rural residents just took some rice balls when they went out do to something.

The rice balls were considered formed in Yayoi era of the late (about two centuries before and after), which has been had a very long history. The rice balls was called ” grip rice” (nigirimeshi), or “imperial Results” (omusubi) to the Edo period. From this point of view, we can know that bento has a long history in Japan, and it is a kind of special culture of Japanese. Lunch sale has become a highlight to attract customers to buy the bento in various large convenience stores, such as “7-11”, “Family-mart”, “Lawson”.

They use lots of ways showing their bento, and constantly develop the bento in new-types and new-tastes. According to the seasons change, they make the inexpensive bento but in good color, flavor, and taste. Japanese are usually accustomed to cold food, but in the winter they can use the microwave in the convenience store heating the bento by free. It shows that the Japanese people about the natural view. Japan is a seaboard country, they accept the most of food by the sea, so they have a highly respect to the sea. The price of bento is generally in the range from 450 yen to 700 yen.

The qualities of bento in lunch house and lunch share seems to be above the supermarkets and convenience stores, because the food is fresh, and probably also serves soup. Lunch of the forms from the wicker suitcase, bamboo baskets, exquisite lacquer box, aluminum lunch boxes has already evolved into today’s plastic or wood containers which are more convenient to take and heat. So why is bento so popular in Japan? Firstly, the bento stores are very popular. According to the survey, every province has almost 1000 bento stores in Japan. It indicates that the bento is a very important culture in Japan.

Secondly, the economics decides the popular degree of bento in Japan. Thirdly, It can keep the balance of nutrition in daily life. Especially it is convenient for the businessmen who face much pressure of working. In particular, in Japan, the businessmen who are working in Japanese company always have to work overtime up to night, they don’t have much time on meal, so the bento is convenient and important for them. Most of them can buy the bento in convenience stores, or the people who have already got married can take the bento which made by their wives.

Most of married men who take the bento from the family will feel a sense of happiness. It can deepen the relationship between husband and wife, promote the families getting more harmonious and happy. Lastly, bento has a power invaluable. Most of schools in Japan implement activity that called bento no hi. It is a activity that let children buy the ingredients of food what they want to cook, and then cook by themselves and the parents just only tell them how to cook. It also promote the interaction between parents and children.

In the school, the children will show their bento each other, and it let them know how hard cooking. It even promote that the part of children choose to research the diet or the work about the diet sell. From above all, it shows that the bento as a culture in Japan society how important. The bento has a close relationship with the Japanese culture and society. Food is full of the bento box indicates that a smart Japanese culture. Bridging culture is like a bento box that is full of so many things in a narrow space. It is not only the quantities of requirements, but also require the qualities.

Except the reduced consciousness reflect the reduced things, in society, the team spirit of Japanese people and the spirit of seriousness are as well as a kind of reflection of reduced consciousness. In other words, bridging culture is very important for Japanese people. The bento culture can be seem from the Japanese reduced consciousness. How about bento in my country? In China, in fact, there is not having so many different kinds of bento. Most of people choose to eat in resturant, family, or fast food. In some ways, fast food is seen as a kind of bento.

It has so many fast food stores in China, such as McDonald’s, KFC. Most Chinese students and young adults like eating these fast food. The most of fast food is cooked by fried, which is full of oil, fat, and salt. It is unhealth for body. If people eat it very much and very frequency, it will lead to caner even death. And the fast food is not fresh, in some ways, it maybe not very clean in the process of cooking. But why are so many people loving it in China? I think it is depends on the different country country has different diet culture. Japanese people love hanami in different seasons.

Especially they enjoy sakura in spring. And of course, they will take the bento with them, and they eat the bento with their families or friends in the trees while they enjoy sakura. This is a special culture in Japan. They feel it can release the stress in the daily life when they eating bento in the sakura trees. Above all of the contents, bento has a long history in Japan, bento gradually develops an art , and a kind of driving force. According to the development of bento, it shows that the development and change of Japan society clearly.

At the same time, it indicates that the outlook and attitude on life of Japanese people in nowadays. According to the bento, it make a close relationship between individual and society, and it make people know each other as well as. The bento culture is a backbone of Japanese culture, it is a impetus that promote the development in Japan. References: ?????????????? :??????? 2008 ?????????????? :???? ,2009 ?? (2010/3/10) ??????? (Wikipedia). http://ja. wikipedia. org/wiki. ?????????????? :???????? 2008.

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Comparing and Contrasting Japan and Vietnam

Social division, politics, culture 1. Body Paragraph: Social division throughout Japan and Vietnam were both structured from Chinese past times. In Japan, there was no caste system at first but it later flourished. Women were allowed to participate in military actions, but not own property or money. Throughout this time period women lost power. Koreans inter-married between ethnic groups which provided characteristics of Southeast Asia. Both of these countries were very similar to the Chinese in their social divisions because of trade.

Trade routes such as the Silk Road gave The Japanese and Vietnamese opportunities to “borrow” Chinese ideas. 2. Body Paragraph: State building, expansion, and conflict differed in Japan and Vietnam. The Vietnamese attended Chinese style schools and had a Chinese style military. Resistance to the Chinese influence led to division within Vietnam (North and South). Japan was ruled by an aristocracy. The Monks resisted the attempt to reconstruct imperial authorization.

Once the military gained control, the feudal system began. A civil war broke out between the peasant and upper class in Japan. This led to Japan being divided into over three hundred smaller kingdoms. As I mentioned already, Japan did not start out with a caste system, but this social division is what led to the outbreak or civil war. Without the division, Japan may not have broken up into small kingdoms. 3. Body Paragraph: The culture of Japan and Vietnam were also influenced by the Chinese.

The Japanese had a strict court system that was filled with gossip and emphasized the arts. The first novel was also developed. Power struggles within the country led to the establishment of the court system. In Vietnam, women enjoyed greater freedom and choice for dress. The architecture was very similar to the Chinese, and they enforced assimilation of people. The difference between Japan and Vietnam was that in Japan women never gained back the slight freedom they once had, whereas in Vietnam women gained more rights.

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MITI and the Japanese Miracle

The book “MITI and the Japanese Miracle” by Chalmers Johnson should be considered the classic of contemporary historical and economic studies because it significantly contributes the fields by examining and analyzing developmental states. In particular, Johnson discusses economic development strategies of East Asian country – Japan. Nowadays Japan’s economy is swiftly developing and in future Japan is very likely to achieve leading positions on the world scale.

Therefore, the author decided to provide detailed overview of Japan economic development – how undeveloped country managed to improve economic positions and become very influential. I think that book is very informative and analytic because the author doesn’t tend to be dry and technical. Actually, the book is a well-written and coherent novel. The book highlights past details with new expressiveness.

It is necessary to outline that Johnson depicts the discourse of Japanese economy in terms of mercantilism. Johnson states that the Japanese economy is labeled as mercantilist after anti-trade economies of Spain and Portugal have been attacked by Adam Smith. Thus, Johnson developed more exact political-economic model of capitalist development state.

Japanese economy was characterized by suppression of consumption, supervision of domestic industries, and funneling savings into business development. Johnson provides overview of the history of MITI stressing that it is central to political and economic history of Japan.  He argues that mercantilism seemed to be vanished long before the economics took shape. In other words, mercantilism can’t be defined as operating economic theory as it was simply pragmatic adaptation.

Mercantilism is claimed to anticipate and even to contradict market concepts and signals. The goal of mercantilism is to channel the resources to selected sectors pursuing the interests of elite groups and powerful figures. Apparently, mercantilism resulted in income discrimination. Johnson cites economists who state that mercantilism is nothing more than death of market efficiency.

Market should be more efficient that the wisdom of the state, Johnson assumes. Also mercantilism affects resource allocation leading to rent-seeking distortions. So, mercantilism is associated to do harm rather than to provide benefits for economic development and national wealth.

The author asserts that resource allocation shouldn’t be guided by the state because its role is to provide overall good and to respond adequately to market threats and opportunities. This kind of role is labeled as regulatory state. For example, Great Britain and the United States of America are regulatory state.

According to Johnson, the task of regulatory state is to set rule aimed at governing competition, investment opportunities, pricing policies, entries and exits, and many other market functions. This process is called economic regulation. It is noted that economic regulation should establish a framework for market operation and should respond to problems and failures of market.

Johnson examines Japan as developmental states and says that economic regulation in the country goes beyond the market maintenance. In developmental state the primary mission is to ensure long-term national welfare. The state is very likely to intervene actively into all economic and financial activities with the purpose of improving international competitiveness of the country. Japan is very bureaucratic state and economic and business readers don’t accept the strategies of laissez-faire, open markets, and free trade.

Japanese leaders viewed the mentioned concepts as protection of economically powerful and influential exporters. Therefore, Japan’s strategy as developmental state is to reject the extant hierarchy of competitive advantage, as far as high return sectors would ensure high growth rates. However, such sectors aren’t associated with developing countries. Also there is no need for developing countries to rest with labor-intensive industries and agriculture. As Chalmers Johnson claims, these sectors should be with low growth prospect or, in other words, they should be low value-added.

Developmental states should pay more attention to such strategy. Japanese government tends to utilize activist policies to promote and practice competitive advantage strategy. In this respect, developmental state is the result of neo-mercantilism and economic nationalism. Japan is also driven by such motive as the country refers to economic regulation to intensify and enhance technological development, as well as competitiveness of country’s leading industries, and capacity growth. Competitiveness is considered to be very essential for national economy.

The abovementioned models don’t reject the role of the state in economic activities. Nevertheless, they are different as far as they provide different perspectives on resource allocation. Neoclassical economists stress state efficiency, whereas the point of neo-mercantilism is state effectiveness. The author argues that there is no empirical criterion how to judge which model is valid because each model is supported by evidence.

Everything depends on the trends which are constantly changing. Johnson captured public attention and interest for its timing rather than for theoretical superiority. The author describes 1980s when economy has lost its effectiveness. Johnson writes that the United States also failed to compete decently both at the world and domestic markets. In that period the economies of developed and developing countries weren’t on the peak of success.

In those days states were interested in comparative advantage and competitiveness. Johnson claims both competitive advantage and competitiveness are rather effectiveness rather than efficiency. If economy is efficient, it may perform effectively at world and domestic markets. Japan was  a teacher rather than formidable competitor. That is why the book catches attention. Johnson appeared to be the only writer who discussed Japan’s economy in such terms. In his book Johnson challenges neoclassical economic theory.

References

Johnson, Ch. (2003). MITI and the Japanese Miracle: the Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925-1975. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

 

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P Japan Skii Case

P&G Japan: SK-II Globalization Case SK-II is a high-end skin care product, which has proven to be a success in the highly selective and competitive Japanese cosmetics market. It fits in the Japanese environment nicely. For starters, the wealthy Japanese society gives P&G a large market to target. Also, the uniquely sophisticated habits of Japanese women means they are more likely to accept the more complicated procedure required by SK-II. SK II involves six to eight steps, which is more than the number of steps of any other skin care products used in the rest of the world (1, p. ). Overall strategy of the of the organization Given this product’s success in Japan for 1999 ($150 million in sales), P&G is considering expanding its SK-II into a global brand. When doing this, management has to consider how the Japanese market compares to the other markets being proposed (China and Europe) as part of their international expansion. They should also do a thorough analysis of each of the markets being considered for this product, and an analysis of their competitors’ firm wide international strategy.

Because the Japanese market is very different from these other markets, the same level of success cannot be guaranteed. This includes the distribution channel and the supporting industries, e. g. , TV advertising is relatively cheaper in Japan than in Europe. Models and Theories P&G’s International Business-Level Strategy. Porter’s model suggests that international business-level strategies are usually grounded in one or more of these home-country factors (1, p. 274).

Based on Porters model, the firm’s strategy, structure, rivalry and demand conditions seem to be significant for P&G’s international business-level strategy. Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry: SK-II is the result of the combined ingenuity of P&G’s most talented technologists from its worldwide labs, as well as the specific expertise from a Japanese group. This combination worked well because it reflected the best of P&G’s consolidated R;D while catering specifically to the needs of the Japanese market (2, p. 8).

Being a global company headquartered in the U. S. makes it easier for P;G to bring its global talent to its home-country so that it can improve its R;D capabilities and thus have a competitive advantage. Having a pre-existing global structure may also make it easier to adapt this product to the needs of those other countries where P;G does business. When considering expanding the SK-II market, this competitive advantage should be considered. Demand conditions. The initial product opportunity for SK-II came about from U.

S / global demand for an improved facial cleansing product (2, p. 8). That spawned the creation of SK-II as well as other products developed to meet these needs. Because SK-II was developed in response to the demand conditions in Japan, it became a highly regarded cosmetics product and survived the ferocious competition in the Japanese market; thus proving to be a competitive advantage. Furthermore, having a certain amount of understanding of the emerging Asian economic powers, P;G realized that fashionable people in countries like Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, etc. closely follow the fashion trends in Japan. Therefore, by entering the Japanese market and securing a substantial level of market share, P;G could have also created further competitive advantage for entering those emerging Asian markets. This strategy may even prove true in the case of entering the Chinese market. However, one may argue that China is a poorer country, but the populations in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore are basically ethnically Chinese. Therefore, their habits should be much closer than that between Japanese and Chinese.

Hence, with the successful entry into the Hong Kong market, Taiwan markets can be used as a direct test of the level to which Chinese women will accept the demanding procedures of SK II (2, p. 6). P;G’s International Corporate-Level Strategy International Corporate-level strategy can be classified into three different types: multidomestic, global, or transnational (1, p. 277). November, 1999 was an interesting point of time for P;G because the firm’s corporate level strategy appears to be shifting from a multidomestic strategy to a transnational, or perhaps global, strategy.

This is being done through the O2005 initiative, and explains some of the struggles P;G may face trying to expand the SK-II product globally. As discussed in the case analysis, P;G was “in the midst of a bold but disruptive Organization 2005 restructuring program. As GBU’s took over profit responsibility historically held by P&G’s country-based organizations, management was still trying to negotiate their new working relationships. ” (2, p. 1) This quote explains P;G’s international corporate level strategy, both where it was, and where it’s trying to go.

A tell tale sign of a multidomestic corporate level strategy was for P;G to have profit responsibility held by their country-based organizations. A multidomestic strategy has strategic and operating decisions decentralized to each country to allow products to be tailored to each local market (1, p. 277). The opposite is true for a global corporate strategy. Under an international global corporate strategy, products are standardized across all markets and economies of scale are emphasized (1, p. 280). This was the direction P;G was headed in when GBU’s took over profit responsibility.

In fact, this structure is very similar to a ‘worldwide product divisional structure’ which supports the use of a global strategy (1, p. 280). However, during the SK-II development through the expansion proposal, P;G’s international corporate strategy appears to be a transnational strategy, which combines aspects of the two aforementioned strategies. This is done in order to emphasize both local responsiveness and global integration and coordination. This is true with the SK II project. When the SK-II product was first created it was done so on a global level to meet a global demand.

The product was then localized for the Japanese market. For instance, separate marketing teams were used in the U. S. and in Japan to develop this product for each market (2, p. 8). By first creating one product to meet global demand rather than regional demand, P;G was able to achieve economies of scale and efficiencies by having one R;D team working on a product that would meet many regions needs. However, P;G then allowed each region some flexibility in how they marketed, priced, and distributed this product.

This was a big reason for SK-II’s success in Japan. It is apparent that P;G has adopted a transnational strategy. In line with the characteristics of that strategy, P;G is considering expanding a product proven to be successful in a demanding (Japanese) market in to other markets. By doing so, P;G will need to rely on aspects of a global strategy that uses a standardized product for the global market such that the competitive advantages in the home-country (Japan) can be leveraged out globally, thus achieving economies of scale.

P;G will also need to rely on aspects of a multidomestic strategy that pays great attention to various unique features of different markets. For the Greater China market and the European market, P;G will need to make an effort to fit into the local environment in order to achieve success in a different culture from Japan. In order for this transnational strategy to work for the SK-II expansion, the P;G corporate structure must have good communication and flexibility. Without that, a transnational strategy will not be as effective, and the SK-II expansion may not succeed.

Industry environmental analysis: Porter’s ‘The Five Forces of Competition’ Model Paolo de Cesare knew there were significant risks in his proposal to expand SK-II into China and Europe. This skin care line from P;G has been a huge success in Japan, a country where customers, distribution channels and competitors were different from those in most other countries. The Model of ‘The Five Forces of Competition’ helps describe the current situation of SK-II in Japan as well as analyze the Industry Environment in P;G’s target market for its skin care line.

This information can be used by P;G when deciding whether or not to launch SK-II in China and the United Kingdom. Japan: In this special market, where the world’s leading per capita consumers and highly sophisticated users of beauty products are, the threat of a new entrance seems to be very low. There exist entry barriers that make it difficult for new firms to enter this particular market. Among these barriers is the difficult access to the complex Japanese distribution system and the product differentiation of the very competitive companies that already share the market (3, p. 1).

Companies as Shiseido, Lion, Kao, and Kanebo compete for market share, suggesting that with few big players in a slow growing market there is strong rivalry (4, p. 1). Furthermore, the low switching costs of the skin care products makes easy for competitors to attract buyers from the rivals, thus enhancing the competition. The threat of substitute products for SK-II in Japan is high because of the high innovative capacity of P;G’s competitors, Kao and Lion (5, p. 1). These Japanese companies spend huge amounts in research and development to be on top of the technological challenge.

The bargaining power of the buyers is not the main factor to set the price, but competence for market share among competitors is. This lets customers have many options to choose from. Additionally, the bargaining power of suppliers doesn’t seem significant for this industry as well. China: Just the opposite of the Japanese market, the Chinese market has a high threat of new entrances. The Chinese prestige-beauty segment is growing fast, at 30% to 40% a year and is very attractive for new firms to enter. Almost all-major competitors are already there: Lancome, Shiseido, and Kao are examples of companies selling products in China (6, p. ). The intensity of rivalry among the competitors is still low, because this growing market reduces the pressure for firms to take customers from competitors. However, the threat of substitute products is high, because the big players in the Chinese market are mostly global firms, with high innovative capacity. The bargaining power of suppliers and buyers is low. Europe: Well-respected companies including Estee Lauder, Lancome, Clinique, Chanel and Dior crowd the field of high profile skin care products, resulting in high competence among existing competitors and a low threat of new entrances.

The brands’ prestige and the loyalty of their sophisticated and beauty-conscious customers are high entry barriers. As in Japan and China, the threat of substitutes is high because of the brand’s globalization, and the fact that those companies can easily legally imitate their competitor’s new products. The bargaining power of the buyers is high because of the multiple options they have to choose from. As in the previously described markets, the bargaining power of suppliers is not significant. Five forces vs. market table | Japan| China| United Kingdom|

Threat of new entrants| Low| High| Low| Bargaining Power of suppliers| Low| Low| Low| Bargaining Power of buyers| High| Low| High| Threat of substitute products| High| High| High| Intensity of rivalry among competitors| High| Low| High| The I/O and Resource Based Models of Above-Average Returns Regardless of what geographic market Proctor ; Gamble plan to enter with SK-II, they need to carefully observe and learn from those companies already in that market. They have to find out what it is that successful firms are doing to gain and maintain market share.

The I/O model of above-average returns dictates that firms in the same industry generally possess the same resources and pursue similar strategies in order to achieve high returns (1, p. 14). On the other hand, P;G has to utilize its own resources and capabilities which are not similar to competitors in the high-end cosmetics industry. This theory is based on the resource model of above-average returns. The resource model maintains that firms in an industry generally do not have similar resources and capabilities, and that a firm’s unique resources provide a competitive advantage (1, p. 6). The best strategy for P;G to pursue in taking SK-II to the global marketplace is to congruously use these two models. In Japan, where P;G had a large market share in this industry, they utilized their extensive technological resources and extensive research and development. While these resources were spread over the cosmetics industry (each firm has extensive research and development and technological resources), P;G had the advantage of being a large corporation with deeper pockets than many competitors.

With the decision of taking SK-II into the global marketplace looming, these two models serve as effective tools in determining which geographical markets SK-II can flourish. In some cases, as with the U. K. market, the application of these two models can reveal that it might be a better decision to enter a particular market. In the U. K. , many firms are fiercely competing for share in a saturated market. The firms’ resources and capabilities are spread thinly across the market. This makes it difficult to establish and maintain a competitive advantage. Contrary to the U. K. arketplace, the Chinese cosmetics market is still growing. P;G has the opportunity to leverage its own competitive advantages to enter this market with full force. While SK-II has little visibility outside of Japan (2, p. 6), P;G could use their Japanese market experience to develop an effective strategy for entering other markets such as China, Europe, and eventually the United States. They had established market share in Japan, but the other geographical markets consist of different environments and different competitors who possess different resources and capabilities.

As of 2004, P;G’s most recent challenge is entering the very competitive U. S. cosmetics market with SK-II. It is planned for release in America for February 2004, sold exclusively at Saks Fifth Avenue. Comparison to other organizations L’oreal Comparison. L’oreal has been one of P&G’s major global competitors in the cosmetics industry. L’oreal’s transnational strategy has led them to be the number one in (#1 what? ) the world. In 1994 P&G was number two but they have since dropped to number four.

Part of the reason for this has been L’oreal’s ability to capitalize in the international markets. L’oreal has steadily become the leader in cosmetics by their ability to adapt their products to the global market and achieve a high level of efficiency. L’oreal’s transnational strategy has allowed it to build a strong global structure while still leaving room for different adjustments that might be needed at a local level. For example, L’oreal’s ‘Free Hold’ line (a mousse) was originally priced on the high end of the market, targeted for a higher class of consumer.

Once it was realized that the market for their mousse products could be aimed at a younger or less affluent target, L’oreal released a studio line that was less expensive than the Free Hold line (7, p. 1). This example shows that L’oreal is willing to use different price levels in different regions or demographics. L’oreal has also adjusted its management structure by specific job function. For example, both U. S. and Europe have a VP of operations. This type of management allows for the businesses to implement necessary changes at the local level that might not be needed throughout the entire corporation.

These factors allow for the continued success that L’oreal has when using a transnational business strategy on an international level. Proctor and Gamble is trying to go in a different direction than L’oreal when trying to expand their international business. P&G mostly uses a global strategy where seven global business units that would take control and implement changes into the local businesses (2, p. 5). This approach uses the SBU’s to makes changes at the local level while still maintaining the best interest of the corporation.

With SK-II, P&G seems to be completing their transition from a transnational strategy to this global strategy. In a global strategy a company offers standardized products with strategies dictated from the main headquarters. This type of strategy produces less risk for P&G, but it also lowers the chance for potential growth by letting local markets dictate their own strategy. With a global strategy, a business does not take into consideration the local demand by adapting their products to the needs of the people in that area.

The global strategy essentially says that whatever the main company decides is best for the company no matter where it is located. (this is already mentioned above, and may be repetitive…also, no reference is made to the text where this was taken from) P&G has a different corporate structure than that of L’oreal based on their different business strategies. P&G has fewer managers that are in charge of the phases of business. For instance, P&G does not have multiple people holding the same positions in different countries where they do business.

This structure does not allow for as much adaptation to the regional needs of the consumers. Estee Lauder. The Estee Lauder Company prides itself on being one of the world’s leading manufacturers and marketers of quality skin care, makeup, fragrance and hair care products (9, p. 1). Under the Estee Lauder name there are many brands and line divisions including the self-titled Estee Lauder division. Similar to SK-II, Estee Lauder has a large international presence (SKII is still only in Japan.. at least at the time of the case…should this be changed to say P;G? and sells principally through limited distribution channels to compliment the images associated with its brands (10, p. 1). By using a combination of global and multidomestic strategy, Estee Lauder’s strategy is much like the previously mentioned “transnational strategy” (1, p. 282). There are several top level executives that have a large responsibility to global operations. For example, Patrick Bousquet-Chavanne is a Group President and is responsible for marketing, sales and financial direction of all brands within The Estee Lauder Companies in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and the Asia/Pacific region.

However, he has also established consolidated regional Product Development Centers in Paris and Tokyo (10, p. 1). The Estee Lauder Companies believe in a strong central philosophy typically found in organizations that use a global strategy but also show the willingness for ideas to come from all areas of the business. Their multiple research and development sites in New York, Belgium, Japan, Ontario, and Minnesota prove this (this just proves that headquarters has opened multiple centers for R;D…it doesn’t really prove that ‘decisions’ are made in regional areas of their business).

In order to keep their product responsiveness quick, Estee Lauder’s company website speaks of manufacturing sites in the U. S. , Belgium, Switzerland, the UK, and Canada. Estee Lauder has found a successful mix of upper-end cosmetic products with Estee Lauder and Clinique. While both products are priced with high-end cosmetics, they are differentiated enough to each bring in significant market share. From these results, The Estee Lauder Companies do well at mixing both a multidomestic and global strategy into a successful transnational strategy.

Current State of P;G Currently the CEO of P;G is A. G. Lafley, a 1969 graduate of Hamilton College (not Harvard), who was previously in charge of the Beauty Care GBU. Under Lafley’s leadership, P;G has drastically changed its corporate structure and focus. Within the last year or two, P;G has outsourced all of its back-office operations, including $3 billion worth of IT business outsourced to IBM (13, p. 1). This recent outsourcing trend also includes many of the Global Business Services (GBS) that were a major part of the corporate structure in 1999.

Now GBS’s like Finance and HR have been outsourced so that P;G can focus on concentrating on its core products and competencies (14, p. 1). According to its most recent annual report, P;G’s core competencies are ‘branding, innovation, and scale’, and this focus can be seen in the business decisions made by Lafley (11, p. 6). P;G’s corporate structure has gone through a restructuring that consists of more than just the reduction of unnecessary GBS’s. The international corporate strategy of P;G has clearly become transnational.

There are currently 5 GBU’s which work to provide speed to market, as well as centralized product control for P;G. The GBU’s work closely with seven Market Development Organizations (MDO’s) who work with the local customers and country business teams to develop the right product mix for over 160 countries that P;G does business. (11, pp. 5 – 7) The coordination between these two groups shows P;G’s focus on using a transnational strategy to become a profitable global business in the 21st century. Recommendations China: We recommend P;G enter the Chinese market.

As was previously discussed, the tremendous growth potential of this market is well worth the high import tariffs and government delays in the import process. If anything, these delays only further stress the importance of starting the process of entering China now, rather than later. There is also a risk of profit loss due to counterfeiting in China. However, because competition has already begun to enter the market, it is extremely important for P;G to also enter to take advantage of the increased growth rate while it exists. Europe: We recommend P;G do NOT enter the European market.

This market appears to already saturated, and growth in the region does not appear to be very strong. We are also concerned with the modest forecasted gains in relation to the expected losses incurred entering this market. P;G does not have expertise dealing with the perfumeries in Germany and France, and so we recommend that they look to acquire/partner with another company who has proven success in this region, should they decide to expand into these markets. Perhaps the recent acquisition of Wella could provide this kind of expertise.

With the mixed results from the testing done in the UK, we recommend P;G do some more subjective research in this area before deciding to expand the SK-II line here. Japan: We recommend P;G expand the SK-II product line in Japan. This is the home country for the SK-II line, and has already established a market for the product. While the slowing market growth and increased competition will result in companies having to fight for market share, SK-II’s proven success here should help this product line as it expands. A more plentiful SK-II product line may also help solidify its brand name as it expands to other countries.

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English – Japanese Dictionary

www. GetPedia. com *More than 150,000 articles in the search database *Learn how almost everything works English? japanese (dictionnaire) English? japanese Dictionary editions eBooksFrance www. ebooksfrance. com English? japanese Dictionary 1 English? japanese (dictionnaire) Adapted from : http://www. freedict. com/dictionary/index. html English? japanese Dictionary 2 English? japanese (dictionnaire) English? japanese Dictionary 3 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a : ato A? bomb : genshibakudan A? ombed : hibaku A? D converter : e? di? konba? ta? A? grade : koushu A B : kouotsu a (helping) hand : ippi a (photo)copy : kopi? a basin : hachi a bath : hitofuro a battle : issen a beat : ichijun a belle : komachi a bent back : nekoze a big deal : taishita a big haul : ichimoudajin a billionth of a second : nanosekando a biography : ichidaiki a birthstone : tanjouseki a bit : chitto, ichibuichirin, ichigou, chito a bite : hitokuchi English? japanese Dictionary 4 English? japanese (dictionnaire) blast : hitofuki a block signal : burokkusain a blot : naore a blow : ichida, hitoawa, ichigeki, hitouchi a boat : ichii, ichiyou a body : ichidan a bond : issatsu a book : issho a bother : sewayaki a bout : ikkai, issen, ichiban a bout (in sports : torikumi, torikumi a bow (salute : ichirei a bowl : hachi a bowl (of rice) : ichizen a bowl of rice : ippan a boy : ichinan a brace : hitotsugai a brake : bure? ki a branch (of flowers) : ichida a breath : hitoiki a breather : ikitsugi English? japanese Dictionary 5 English? japanese (dictionnaire) breathing spell : ikitsugi a broadside : isseishageki a Buddha : hotokesama a bunch : hitomatome, ichiwa, hitokurume a bundle : issoku, hitokakae, hitokurume, ichiwa, hitotaba a burst of anger : hitoare a capella : akapera a careless person : occhokochoi a casting net : toami a catch : mizuage a cause : ichiin a cavity : utsuro a center : senta? a century : isseiki a certain : shikaru a certain book : ippon a certain… : aru a chain : ichiren a change : idou a channel : channeru a character : ichijinbutsu, ichiji English? japanese Dictionary 6 English? japanese (dictionnaire) charge : ippatsu a charm : majinai a check : osae, chekku a child : isshi a child’s dice game : sugoroku a cinch to do : asameshimae a clean sweep : issou a close : shuumatsu a clue : tancho a cluster : ichida a co? operative : kyoudoukumiai a comic story (telling) : rakugo a command : ichimei a commercial : koma? sharu a communist : kyousanshugisha a company : ittai a complainant : sonin a complete set : isshiki a compound : gouseibutsu a consent : ichidaku a cooperative : seikatsukyoudoukumiai English? japanese Dictionary 7 English? japanese (dictionnaire) copse : hitomura a copy (of a photo) : ichiyou a corner : ichiguu, hitosumi a corpus luteum : outai a council : sanjikai, hyougiin a council (abbr) : hyou a couple : hitotsugai, kappuru a crease : oreme a crease (i. e. in trousers) : orime a criminal : kyoujoumochi a cross : juumonji a crowd : hitomure, hitomura, ichigun a crown : hachi a cry : hitokoe a cup of : ippai a current (of water) : issui a curse : noroi a cylinder : kitou a daimyo’s main Tokyo mansion : kamiyashiki a dance : hitosashi a day’s journey : ichinichiji English? japanese Dictionary 8 English? apanese (dictionnaire) a day or two : ichiryoujitsu a degenerate : henshitsusha a degree : icchuu a denomination : isshuu a design : zuan a determined purpose : ichinen a difference : rakusa a dimple : ekubo a direct unforked road : ipponmichi a disadvantage (defect : isshitsu a disgrace : naore a dish (of food) : hitosara a district : ikku a diviner : urayasan a document : issatsu a dose : ippuku a draft : hitokuchi a draw (in competition) : hikiwake a draw curtain : hikimaku a dream : ichimu a drink : inryou, ippai English? japanese Dictionary 9 English? japanese (dictionnaire) drop : issui, shitatari, itteki a drop (of water) : hitoshizuku a drop in activity : tenuki a drudge : gariben a drying agent : kansouzai a fall in price : nesagari a family : ichizoku, ikka, ikke a family get? together : ikkadanran a favourite book : aidokusho a feast : isseki a feint : feinto a fellow : yakara a few : ikutsuka a few days ago : sakinohi, senjitsu a few lines : ippitsu, hitofude a few words : ichigenhanku, ichigonhanku a few years ago : sakizaki, sennen a filler (i. e. time : tsunagi a find : horidashimono, moukemono a finger : isshi a flash : issen English? apanese Dictionary 10 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a fleeting thing : ichimu a flock : ichigun, hitomure a flower : hitohana a flowerpot : hachi a focus : pinto a fold : oreme, orime a Formosan : taiwanjin a fort : ichirui a fragment : ikko a frame : fure? mu a gain : hitokasegi a gamble : kake a game : ichiban, issen, ikkai a gang : ittai, ichidan a general : isshou a generation : ichidai, issei, isse, issei a glance : ichimoku, ichibetsu, ichiran a glimpse : ikken a gold quarter ryoo : ichibukin a good citizen : maningen a good deal : daibu English? apanese Dictionary 11 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a good time to quit : hikidoki a gouge : marunomi a grain : hitotsubu a grasp : hitotsukami a grind : gariben a group : hitokatamari, ichidan, ichigun, hitomure a guiding principle : ippon’yari a gunner : houshu a gust of wind : ichijin a guy who never gets the women : onnifujiyuu a habit (often a bad habit : kuse a hair : ippatsu a hair’s breadth : ippatsu a half : ippan a half? ear : ikki a handful : hitotsukami A Happy New Year! : gashou a harvest : saku a head (of cattle) : ittou a head (of water) : rakusa a help : tedasuke, ichijo English? japanese Dictionary 12 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a herd : hitomure, hitomura, ichigun a hit : meichuu, ichigeki a hollow : utsuro a home : ikka, ikke a horse load : ichida a hot? empered person : ikkokumono a house : ikka, ikke, ikken a household : ichizoku, ikka, ikke, ikko a huge woman : ooonna a hundred : issoku, hitotaba a Japanese (an old word for) : wajin a Japanese rake : gendzume a job : hitokasegi a joint : tsunagime, hitofushi a kick : hitokeri, isshuu a kidnapper : yuukaihannin a kind : tagui, isshu a la carte : arakaruto a la mode : aramo? do a lap : isshuu a large serving : oomori English? japanese Dictionary 13 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a laugh : isshou a law : ritsuryou, okite a leaf : ichiyou a lean on one’s ortgage : teitouken a letter : ichiji, karinotsukai, issho, karinofumi a level and inked string : junjou a life : ichimei a lifetime : issei, issei, isse, isshou, isshougai a light : akari a limb) : shibireru a line : ittou, ichigyou, hitosuki, issen, hitosuji a line (of mountains : tentei, tentetsu a lineage : ittou a link : tsunagime, ikkan a little : tashou, wazuka, usuusu, yaya, sukunai, nandaka a little (see chotto) : chokkura a little covetousness : shouyoku a little less than : tarazu a little more : imasukoshi a little short : sundzumari a little too short : suntarazu English? japanese Dictionary 14

English Japanese Dictionary

English? japanese (dictionnaire) a load : ikka a log bridge : ipponbashi a long? jointed bamboo : madake a long march : chouku a look : manazashi, ichibetsu, ichiran, ikken, ichimoku a loop : ru? pu a lot : daibu, renchuu, ikkaku, zutto, takusan, hitokurume a lump : ichigan, hitokatamari a lunge : tsuki A major : ichouchou a man of some importance : ichijinbutsu a mannerism : mannerizumu a mark : megurushi a married man : saitaisha a match : torikumi, torikumi a matter : ikken, ichijou a meal : ippan a meaning : ichigi a measure : shaku a meddlesome person : sewayaki a meditative pose : omoiire English? apanese Dictionary 15 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a meeting : yoriai a member : ichiin a merit : ittoku a method : itte a miniature : hinagata A minor : itanchou a minute : ikkoku, ippun a moan : umeki a model : gihyou a moment : issetsuna, ikkoku, isshun, isshunkan, sunbyou a moment ago : imagata a moment before : imahodo a monologue : hitorigoto a month or older : tsukiokure a mood : ippin’isshou a motion : dougi, mo? shon a mountain : issan, hitoyama a move (in game) : itte a mummy : miira a murder : koroshi, tasatsu a must? see : hikken English? japanese Dictionary 16 English? japanese (dictionnaire) must to buy : kawandearu a nap : hitoneiri, hitonemuri, issui a narrow strait : ichiitaisui a narwhal : ikkaku a negative : inga a new era : ichishinkingen a new method : ichikijiku a new month starts : tsukigawari a nook : hitosumi a novel : ninjoubon a number of days : hikazu, nissuu a one? act play : hitomakumono a one? knife carving : ittoubori a one? plate meal : ichijuuissai a one? stroke sketch : hitofudegaki a one? track mind : ippongi a one man show : hitorishibai a page : ichiyou a pair : hitotsugai a pair (footwear) : issoku a pair (of chopsticks) : ichizen English? japanese Dictionary 17 English? japanese (dictionnaire) pair (of screens) : issou a palanquin set with jewels : tamanokoshi a pardon : onsha a part : ippan, ittan, ichibubun, ichiyoku a part to play : hitoyaku a particular : shikaru a partnership : kyoudoukumiai a party : ittou, ittai, konpa, ichidan, ippa a party (of people) : yakara a pass : tsuki a passage in a discourse : hitokusari a passing acquaintance : ichimenshiki a patient : kanja a pause : hitoiki, ichidanraku, hitokiri a penny store : ichimon’akinai a period : hitokiri a period (in astronomy) : isshuuki a permit : kyokasho a person : ichiin a person given as a reference : sankounin a person made homeless by fire : ichiyakojiki English? japanese Dictionary 18 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a person who decides : kimete a personal view : ikkagen a phrase (verse : ikku a piece : ikko, ikko, ippen a piece of rope : hitosujinawa a pile : hitomori a pile (of something) : issan a pinch : pinchi a pinch (of something) : hitotsumami a pity : kinodoku, okinodoku a plain : kouya a plan : issaku, ichian, ikkei, mokuromi a plate : hitosara a plot : ichimotsu a poem : isshu a point : icchuu a poke : ichigeki a pool : mizutamari a posteriori : koutenteki, aposuteriori a pot : hachi a power (math) : bekijou, beki English? japanese Dictionary 19 English? japanese (dictionnaire) prim person : sumashiya a principle : ichiri, ichigi a priori : sententeki, apuriori a private individual : ichishijin, isshijin a private opinion : ikkagen a private person : ichikojin a program : mokuromi a project : mokuromi a puddle : mizutamari a puff : ippuku a purchase : kaitori a pursuer : otte a pursuing party : otte a quality : bingoomote a quarter : ikki, ippou a quick lunch : ichizenmeshiya a quick temper : seikyuu a quick wit : kiten a quiet (natural) setting : yuushu a quire (of paper) : ichijou a quotation : in’youbun, ichijou English? japanese Dictionary 20 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a ray (of hope) : ichidou a reactionary : handouka a ream (of paper) : ichiren a reason : ichigi, ichiri a region : ittai a rejection : isshuu, hitokeri a replacement : kawari a rest : hitoyasumi a retaken photograph : torinaoshi a retort : isshi a revolution : isshuu a riot : ikki a roar : ikkatsu a round : ichijun, ippatsu, hitomeguri, ikkai, hitomawari a row : ichiretsu, ichigyou a rowdy : akutare a rule : shaku a run : hitoppashiri, hitohashiri a run? batted? in hit (baseball) : taimuri? itto a sale (transaction) : kaitori a salver : ichijou English? japanese Dictionary 21 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a scale : shaku a scene : hitokoma a scene of carnage (bloodshed) : shuurajou a scheme : mokuromi a school : ippa a scoop : tokudane a screen : tsuitate a scroll : ippuku a seal affixed to a document : shouin a sealed document : ippuu a sealed letter : ippuu a second : sekando a secret : naishougoto a sect : ippa, isshuu a semimonthly : hangekkan a senior : jouchou, nenchousha a sense of humor : yu? moanokankaku a sentence : ichibun a series : ichiren a serious affair : ichidaiji a set : hitosoroe, hitosoroi English? japanese Dictionary 22

English? japanese (dictionnaire) a set (of people) : yakara a set of boxes : hitokasane a sexual orgy (X) : rankoupa? ti? a sharp (music) : ei a shed : uwaya a shock : hitoawa a shop : ten, shoppu a short period : icchou a short sleep : hitonemuri, issui a short story : issekiwa a short time : ichinichihenji, chotto a shout : hitokoe a sigh : tameiki a silver quarter ryoo : ichibugin a simple meal : ichijuuissai a single? family lineage : ikkei a single crop : ichimousaku a single letter : itteiji a single person : hitorimono a single seater : ichininnori a single standard : ippondate English? japanese Dictionary 23 English? japanese (dictionnaire) single stroke : ittou a single word : hitokoto, ichigen a sip : hitokuchi a sitting : isseki a slap in the face : binta a sleep : hitonemuri a slice : ippen, hitokire a slight : naigashiro a slight effort : ikkyoshuittousoku a slump : nakadarumi a slut : darashinai a small sum : isshihansen a smattering : namakajiri, katakoto a smile : isshou a smile or a frown : ippin’isshou a smoke : ippuku a social : konpa a soliloquy : hitorigoto a solitary cryptomeria tree : ipponsugi a solo : dokusou a span : ichiyubiatari English? japanese Dictionary 24 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a species : isshu a specific medicine : tokkouyaku a speech : isseki a spin : hitoppashiri, hitohashiri a spot (glimpse : ippan a spy : kanchou, kanja a squad : ittai a squall : hitoare a stab : sashikizu, tsuki a stammer : domori a stamp : inshi a statute : ritsuryou a step : hitoashi, ho, ippo, hitokiri a step forward : ippozenshin a stop : kugiri a stopgap measure : tsunagi a straight road : hitosujimichi a streak : ichijou a stride : ho a string : isshi a stroke : ichida, hitouchi English? japanese Dictionary 25 English? japanese (dictionnaire) stroke of the pen : hitofude a stuffed animal : hakusei a stutter : domori a suit : hitokasane, hitosoroe, hitosoroi a suitor : sonin a sum of money : nari a summary : ichiran a sword (blade) : ittou a talk : danwa a task : hitoshigoto a tea cloth : chakin a term : ikki a thing : ichimotsu, ichibutsu a thought : ikkou a thread (of connection) : ichimyaku a thrust : tsuki a time : ikkai, ichiji a tinge : ichimi a tool : kenzan a top : koma a topknot (hair style) : chonmage English? japanese Dictionary 26 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a touch : ichimi a touch of : ichimatsu a tray : ichijou a trifle : ichigou a trivial matter (id) : asameshimae a troupe : ichiza, ichidan a trust : kigyougoudou a tune : hitofushi a tune (melody : ikkyoku a turn : hitomawari, itten, hitomeguri a turn (i. e. at bat) : kawari a turning point : ichitenki, ittenki a twin : futago a variety : isshu a vein : ichimyaku a verse (e. g. n the Bible) : issetsu a very little bit : choppiri a very shy person : hanikamiya, tereya a virtue : ittoku a voice : hitokoe a vote : ippyou English? japanese Dictionary 27 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a wake : tsuya a ward : ikku a waste basket : kuzukago a wastepaper basket : kuzukago a watch stand : bandai a watcher’s seat : bandai a way : itto a weak point (to aim at) : tsukeme a wee bit : choppiri a week : isshuu a weight : osae a wheel : ichirin a while : chotto a whirl of hair on the head : tsumuji a whole day and night : icchuuya a word : ichigon, ichigonhanku, hitokoto, ichigenhanku a word (opinion : ichigi a word of great value : ichijisenkin a word or two : hitokotofutakoto a work : saku a written statement : koujougaki English? apanese Dictionary 28 English? japanese (dictionnaire) a year or two : ichiryounen a zone : ittai A. D. : kigen A. M. : gozen AA size (battery) : tansangata Aah! : yare aardvark (Orycteropus) : tsuchibuta abacus : soroban abalone : awabi abandon : haiki, mikiri abandoned (stray) cat : suteneko abandoned child : kiji, sutego, sutego abandoned mine : haikou abandoning : kikyaku abandoning (hope : dannen abandonment : kien, jibou, jiki, iki, houki, iki abandonment (rights : ifu abasement : shittsui abatement : gengaku, genka, keigen, shikkou abatis : sakamogi abattoir : tosatsujou, chikusatsuba English? japanese Dictionary 29 English? japanese (dictionnaire) bbe : shinpu abbey : daishuudouin, shuudouin abbot : daishuudouinchou, shuudouinchou, shuuinchou abbr : rassharu abbreviated form : tanshukukei abbreviation : ryakuji, shouhitsu, ryakushou, ryakugo, ryaku ABC : kouotsuhei ABC’s of.. : shoho abcess : dekimono abdication : taii abdomen : shitabara, fukubu, shitappara, shitahara, kafuku abdominal? support belt : chikaraobi abdominal chills : hiebara abdominal swelling : shimobukure abducted : sarawareta abduction : kouin, yuukai, rachisuru, yuukaihan Abelian group (math) : kakangun ABEND (ABnormal END) : ijoushuuryou aberration : shuusa abet : sendou abetting : sendou English? japanese Dictionary 30 English? japanese (dictionnaire) bhor : daikirai ability : udemae, shuwan, giryou, ginou, seinou, saiwan ability to wake up : neoki Abilympics : abirinpikku abject : hikutsu abjuration : sensei ablation : setsujo ablation shield (rocket) : yuujo ablative (gram) : dakkaku ablative shield (rocket) : youhatsu able : yuui able? bodied (an) : ganken able man : hatarakide, dekimono, dekibutsu able men left out of office : iken able official : nouri able person : hatarakite ABM : dandoudangeigekimisairu abnegation : kin’yoku abnormal : hentaiteki, namihazure, abuno? maru abnormal (an) : byouteki abnormal mentality : hentaishinri English? japanese Dictionary 31 English? japanese (dictionnaire) bnormal psychology : hentaishinrigaku abnormal sexuality : hentaiseiyoku abnormal underarm odor : wakiga abnormality : kikei, hentai, ijou, hentai, ijou aboard a warship : kanjou abode of demons : fukumaden abolish : daha abolition : haishi abolition and amalgamation : haigou abolitionist : zenpaironsha abominable : imawashii, nikui abominable snowman : yukiotoko, yajin aboriginal : banjin, genjuumin aboriginal (a? no) : dochaku aborigine : aborijini? aborigines : genmin, dojin, senjuuminzoku aborigines village : bansha abort : abo? to aborticide : datai abortion : jinkouryuuzan, chuuzetsu, datai, ryuuzan abortionist : dataii English? japanese Dictionary 32 English? japanese (dictionnaire) bortive (attempt : fuseikou abortive birth : ryuuzan abortive scheme : torou about : sokosoko, yaku, ooyoso, tsuite, abauto, oyoso, kei about? face : mawaremigi, ippen about (suf : goro about 10 p. m. : itsuya, otsuya about an hour : hantoki about medium : chuukurai, chuugurai about noon : hirugoro about the middle : nakagoro about the middle (of an era) : chuuyou about this time : imajibun, imagoro about to start out : degake about what time : itsujibun about when : itsugoro above : ue, zenki, chokujou above? mentioned : zenjutsu, zenki above? named (a? no) : zenkei above all : kotoni, nakandzuku, wakete, toriwake above average : shunbatsu English? japanese Dictionary 33 English? japanese (dictionnaire) bove ground : chijou above mentioned : joujutsu above mentioned (a? no) : jouki above the average : namihazure above the ceiling : tenjouura above the clouds : unjou Abraham : aburahamu abrasion : mamou, mametsu, surikizu, sakkashou abreast : heiretsu, heikou abridged translation : shouyaku abridgment : shouryaku abroad : zaigai, kaigai abrupt : niwaka, fui abrupt (an) : sotsuji, toutotsu abrupt (awkward) question : tsukanukoto abruptly : totsuzen, gazen, ikinari, hyouzen abscess : nouyou abscissa : yokojiku, ouzahyou, ousen abscondence : shissou, shisseki, shuppon, chikuden absconder : shupponsha absconding with money : kaitai English? japanese Dictionary 34 English? japanese (dictionnaire) bseilen (G) : apuzairen absence : rusu, fuzai, kesseki, fusan absence (from work) : kekkin absence from home : tagyou absence from school : kekka absent? minded : bon’yari absent? minded person : awatemono absent? mindedly : bouzen absent? mindedness : soushin, uwanosora absentee landlord : fuzaijinushi absentee voting : fuzaitouhyou absentmindedness : houshin absinthe : abusan absolute (an) : zettai absolute reality : shinnyo absolute safety : juuzen absolute secrecy : gokuhi absolute value : zettaichi absolute zero (temp. ) : reido absolutely : danjite, makotoni, danzen, tadatada absolutely every little bit : katappashikara English? japanese Dictionary 35 English? japanese (dictionnaire) absolutely not : tonda absoluteness : zettai absolutism : abusorixyu? tizumu absolutism (phil. : zettairon absorbent cotton : dasshimen absorption : sanmai, douka, sesshu, kyuuin, senshin, kyuushuu absorption (in something) : kyuukyuu abstain from voting : kiken abstention : fukanshou, fusanka abstinence : imi, kinshu, setsuyoku, kin’yoku abstinence syndrome : kindanshoujou abstract : chuushouteki, chuushutsu, mukei abstract (an) : chuushou abstract (of a paper) : abusutorakuto abstract art : chuushoubijutsu abstract number : fumeisuu abstraction : shashou, abusutorakushon abstruseness : inbi absurd : bakabakashii, okogamashii, mucha, tawainai, meppou absurd fear : kiyuu absurdity : okonosata, koutoumukei, fujouri, fudouri English? japanese Dictionary 36 English? japanese (dictionnaire) bsurdly : muyamini abundance : juuitsu, gyousan abundance (an) : yokei, houfu abundant : fundan abundant (an) : yutaka abundant harvest : housaku, houjuku abundantly : obitadashii abuse : goyou, reiba, ran’you, batou, hibou, akuhei, akkou abusive : kuchisaganai, kuchigitanai abusive language : bougen, nikumareguchi, dokuzetsu, akutai abusive remarks : bouhyou, mouhyou abutment : kadai abyss : shin’en, fuchi acacia : akashia academia : akademi? academic : akademikku academic background : gakureki academic centre : gakufu academic gossip : kijounokuuron academic meeting : gakkai academic or scientific world : gakkai English? japanese Dictionary 37 English? japanese (dictionnaire) academician : akademishan academicism : akademishizumu academism : akademizumu academy : akademi? , kanrin’in, gakuin, gakuen Acala : fudoumyouou Acalanatha Vidya? aja : fudoumyouou accelerando : achererando accelerant : sokushinzai accelerated motion : kasokuundou acceleration : sokushin, koushin, ruika, kasoku, kasokudo accelerator : akuserere? ta? accelerator (abbr) : akuseru accent : gochou, kyouon, akusento, yokuyou accent (of one’s speech) : namari accept : akuseputo acceptance : shouin, shinnin, ukeire, judaku, juri, shouchi acceptance (of truths) : shinju accepting a challenge : ousen accepting bribes : shuuwai accepting orders : juchuu access : akusesu English? japanese Dictionary 38 English? japanese (dictionnaire) access time : akusesutaimu access to courts : shusso accessing : akusesshingu accession : shoukei, keishou accessoiriste : akusesowarisuto accessories : buhin, komono accessory : tsukimono, tsukatari, futai, akusesari? fuzokuhin accessory case : komonoire accessory offense : futaihan accident : henji, jiko, saika, yakusai, kashitsu, saiyaku accident insurance : shougaihoken accidental : fuki, guuhatsu, furyo, fusoku, guuhatsuteki accidental death : henshi accidental fire : shikka accidental gun discharge : bouhatsu accidental resemblance : sorani, taninnosorani accidentally : hyotto, tamatama, futo accidents in line of duty : koumusaigai acclamation : kassai, kanko acclimate : junka accommodation : shuuyounouryoku, bengi, wakai, yuudzuu, tekiou English? japanese Dictionary 39 English? japanese (dictionnaire) accommodations : shuuyousetsubi accommodator : akomode? ta? ccomodation : shuuyou accompaniment : bansoubu, tsukimono, ainote, hayashi, aikata accompaniment (musical) : bansou accompany : douhan accompanying : tomo, doukou, gubu, doudou accomplice : katansha, dourui, kyouhansha, kyoubousha, ai, guru accomplices : ichirui accomplish : mattou accomplished : bakuga accomplished lady : keishuu accomplished villain : kyouyuu accomplishment : kantetsu, kansui, suikou accomplishments : gigei, geinou, gigei accord : ako? do, kyoushin according to : yoreba, yoruto according to circumstances : rinkiouhen accordingly : yotte, sokode accordion : ako? dion, tefuukin accordion door : ako? diondoa English? japanese Dictionary 40 English? japanese (dictionnaire) accordion pleats : ako? dionpuri? tsu account : kaikei, kiji, tsukedashi, akaunto account (e. g. bank) : kouza account book : choumen, choubo, daichou account of a (sports) game : kansenki accountability : akauntabiriti? ccountancy : kaikeigaku accountant : shukei, kanjougakari, kaikeikan, kaikei accountant (certified public) : kaikeishi accounting : keiri, akauntingu accounts payable : kaikakekin accounts receivable : urikakekin, mishuunyuukin accounts) : kuchisuu, kuchikazu accoutrements : busougu accrued : mishuu accrued expenses : miharaihiyou accumulate : chikuseki accumulation : shuuseki, chikuseki, shuushuu, ruiseki accumulator : akyu? mure? ta, akyumure? ta? , akyumure? ta accuracy : seido accurate : kuwashii, tekikaku, chimitsu English? japanese Dictionary 41 English? japanese (dictionnaire) accurate (an) : seikaku accurately : seiseito, seisei, kichinto accursed (a? o) : bachiatari accusation : kokuso, kouso, dangai accusative case (gram) : taikaku accused : hikokunin accuser : genkoku ace : e? su ace (tennis) : sa? bisue? su acetate : asete? to acetic acid : sakusan acetone : aseton acetylcholine : asechirukorin acetylene : asechiren ache : itami, itami achievement : kougyou, jiseki, tegara, gyouseki, tassei achievement test : achi? bumentotesuto, achi? bu achievements : jisseki, kouseki achiever of Nirvana : rakan Achilles tendon : akiresuken achoo! : hakushon English? japanese Dictionary 42 English? japanese (dictionnaire) achromatic : mushoku achromatic lens : akuromachikkurenzu achromatism : irokeshi acid : sui, suppai, san acid poisoning : sanchuudoku acidity : sando, sansei, sanmi acidosis : ashido? hisu acknowledge : shinnin, juryou acknowledge (ACK) : kouteioutou acknowledgement : shounin, ninchi, ryoushou, ryouto, kokuhaku acknowledgment : reijou, nintei acknowledgment (self? ) : jinin acme : kiwami acne : fukidemono, nikibi acolyte : jisou, jisai acorn : donguri acoustic : ako? sutikku, aku? sutikku acoustic guitar : ako? sutikkugita? acoustic sound : ako? sutikkusaundo acoustic(s) : onkyou acquaintance : kaonajimi, chikadzu, gozonji, shiriai, soushiki English? japanese Dictionary 43 English? japanese (dictionnaire) acquiesce : mokujuu acquiescence : shoudaku acquisition : kakutoku, shutoku, shuutoku acquittal : shakuhou, menzai, houmen, menso acre : e? ka? creage : tanbetsu acrimonious : shinratsu acrobat : akurobatto, kyokugeishi acrobatic : akurobachikku acrobatic feats : kyokugi acrobatics : kyokugei, karuwaza acronym : ryakugo acrophobia : koushokyoufushou acropolis : akuroporisu acrylic : akuriru acrylic acid : akurirusan acrylonitrile : akurironitoriru act : koui, shiwaza, waza, okonai, shoi, okonai, sakui act (in play) : tobari Act (law: the X Act) : hou act for another : daiben English? japanese Dictionary 44 English? japanese (dictionnaire) act of barbarity : bankou act of God : fukakouryoku act of grace : onten act of mercy : hitodasuke act of violence : boukou act on mutual agreement : shouchidzuku Act properly! : iikagennishinasai acting : shigusa, engi acting as agent : daikou acting as go? etween : kuchiire acting blindly : moudou, boudou acting chairman : karigichou acting consul : dairiryouji acting director : jimutoriatsukai acting impolitely : shikkei acting in concert : koou acting official : dainin acting president : karigichou acting smart : kuchihabattai actinic rays : kagakusen Actinidia polygama : matatabi English? japanese Dictionary 45 English? japanese (dictionnaire) actinium (Ac) : akuchiniumu action : shigusa, akushon, dousa, okonai, okonai, shiuchi action bar : akushonba? action before words : fugenjikkou action committee : jikkouiin action drama : akushondorama action integral (physics) : sayousekibun action picture : katsugeki action program : akushonpuroguramu action star : akushonsuta? action) (a? o) : fuseikou actions : fugyou activated charcoal : kasseitan activation : akutibe? shon active : noudouteki, kappatsu, akutibu, noudou, kassei active (an) : akutivu active defense : akuchibudifensu active duty : gen’eki active homing : akutibuho? mingu active immunity : noudoumen’eki active member : seiin English? japanese Dictionary 46 English? japanese (dictionnaire) active service : gen’eki active solar house : akutibuso? ra? hausu active sportswear : akutibusupo? tsuuea active voice : noudoutai active volcano : kakkazan activist : katsudousha, undouka activity : akutibiti, kakkyou, honsou, binsoku, hiyaku, ugoki actor : shu, yuu, dan’yuu, rei, haiyuu, akuta? hai, shou actor in a love scene : nimaime actress : haiyuu, joyuu, yakusha, akutoresu Acts of the Apostles : shitogyouden actual : akuchuaru actual circumstances : jitsujou actual condition : jissai actual demand : jitsuju actual expense : jippi actual measurements : jissoku actual place : genchi actual proof : jisshou actual results : jisseki actual size : gensun, gensundai English? japanese Dictionary 47 English? japanese (dictionnaire) actual spot : genba actual time : akuchuarutaimu actual work : shuurou, kadou actual work hours : jitsudoujikan actuality : akuchuariti? actually : genni, shinni acupuncture : hari, shinji, shinjutsu acupuncture and moxibustion : shinkyuu acute : sen’ei, setsu, setsujitsu, tsuusetsu acute (e. g. illness) : kyuusei acute angle : eikaku acutely : hishihishi acuteness : seppaku ad : ado ad? balloon : adobaru? n ad? hocracy : adohokurashi? ad campaign : adokyanpe? AD converter : anarogudejitaruhenkanki ad hoc : adohokku ad impact : adoinpakuto ad lib : adoribu English? japanese Dictionary 48 English? japanese (dictionnaire) ad man : adoman adagio : ada? jo Adam : adamu adamantine : kongou adaptability : yuudzuu, entenkatsudatsu, hentsuu adaptable : tekigou adaptation : sokuou, douka, junnou, tekiou, engi adaptation (of story : hon’an adaptation (of story) : kaisaku adapter : adaputa? , adaputa adaptive : adaputivu add : kasan add? on : adoon add? on module : adoonmoju? ru add? on telephone : adoondenwa add (something) : tsukekuwae add to : fukai add up : sekisan add water : kasui adder (spoken) : tashizanki adder (written) : kasanki English? japanese Dictionary 49 English? japanese (dictionnaire) ddiction : jouyouheki adding : konnyuu adding extra ingredients (med) : kayaku adding more tea : kuchija adding to one’s years : karei adding to the top : uwamori adding up : yosezan, gassan adding years : kanen addition : kazou, kuwaezan, kasan, tsukatari, yosezan, ka addition agent : tenkazai addition and subtraction : kagen addition to a building : zouchiku additional fees : tsuikaryoukin additional gain : yoroku additional income : fukushuunyuu additional post : kenkin, kenkan, kenmu additional printing : juuhan, zousatsu additional profits : yotoku additional ration : kahai additional rules : fusoku additional tax : fukazei English? japanese Dictionary 50 English? japanese (dictionnaire) dditional volume : bessatsu additionally : jizengo additive : tenkabutsu address : uwagaki, atena, ikisaki, juukyo, atesaki, kouen address (e. g. of house) : juusho address (on letter) : katagaki address (present) : genjuusho address book : juushoroku address to students : kunji addressed to (suf) : ate addressing : adoresshingu adductor muscle : kaibashira Adelaide : adere? do adenoid : adenoido, sen’you adenoids : hanatake, bijou Adenovirus : adenouirusu adept : sasuga adequacy : tekitou, gaisetsu adequate : tekisetsu adherence : koshuu, koshitsu adherence (to custom : bokushu English? japanese Dictionary 51 English? japanese (dictionnaire) dherence to : koudei adherence to the shogunate : sabaku adherent : teishi, shinto, aryuu, kyouto, shinja, shinpousha adhesion : gyouchakuryoku, shuujaku, yuchaku, kouchaku adhesive : secchakuzai adhesive mechanical tint : sukuri? nto? n adhesive plaster : bansoukou adhesive power : nenchakuryoku adiabatic (an) : dannetsuteki Adidas (brand name) : adidasu adjacent : kinsetsu, rinsetsu adjacent seas : kinkai adjacent units : rinsetsubutai adjectival noun : keiyoudoushi adjoin : rinsetsu, kinsetsu adjournment : teikai, kyuukai, sankai, enki adjudication : handan adjunct) words : fuzokugo adjust : ajasuto adjustment : denaoshi, chousei, seibi, shuusei, anbai, seigou adjutant : fukukan, fukkan English? japanese Dictionary 52 English? japanese (dictionnaire) dmeasure : sairyou admin : adomin administer : atsu administration : keisei, kirimori, un’ei, seifu, shisei, keiei Administration : gyouseifu administration : gyousei administration bureau : kanrikyoku administration of justice : shihou, shouri administrative official : jimukan, gyouseikan administrative reform : gyouseikaikaku administrative reform (abbr) : gyoukaku admirable : yukashii, appare admirable (an) : shushou admiral : shoukan, daishou, taishou, teitoku admiral (fleet) : gensui admiration : kantan, kantan, suuhai, eitan, keitou, sanka admiration devotion : shinpuku admiration (arch. : kanpuku admiration (vs : kanshin admiration of the powerful : jidaishisou admire : miageru English? japanese Dictionary 53 English? japanese (dictionnaire) dmirer : hikute, aidokusha admission : hennyuu, jinin, nyuusho, kanyuu, nyuukai, nyuujou admission? paid : yuuryou admission fee : bouchouryou, kanyuukin, nyuujouryou, nyuukaikin admission free : bouchoumuryou, bouchouzuii Admission Free : adomisshonfuri? admission gate : nyuujoumon admission tax : nyuujouzei admission ticket : bouchouken admission to the courtroom : nyuutei admittance : adomitansu admitting : shouchi admitting defeat : icchuuwoyusuru admixture : kyouzatsubutsu admonishment : kyoukai admonition : keikai, sekkan, kaikoku, kunkai ado : honeori adobe : ado? bi, tenjitsugawara adolescent : seishun Adonis : adonisu adopt : saiyou English? japanese Dictionary 54 English? japanese (dictionnaire) dopted child : youshi adopted daughter : youjo adopted parents : karioya adopted son? in? law : musumemuko adoption : shuuyou, sesshu, saitaku, youshiengumi adoption (e. g. motion : kaketsu adoption or rejection : saihi adoptive father : youfu adoptive mother : youbo adoration : aibo, reihai, suuhai, raihai, sanbi, shinsui adoring : shishuku ADP : jidoude? tashori adrenal glands : fukujin adrenalin : adorenarin adroit : josainai adsorb : kyuuchaku adsorption : kyuuchaku adulation : neiben, bennei adult : ichininmae, teinensha, seijin, otona, adaruto Adult’s Day (Jan 15) : seijinnohi adult? like : otonappoi English? japanese Dictionary 55 English? japanese (dictionnaire) adult age : seinen adult education : adarutoedyuke? hon adult shop : adarutoshoppu adulteration : konnyuu, mazemono, fujun adulterer : maotoko, uwakimono, kanpu adulteress : kanpu adultery : fugi, maotoko, furin, mittsuu, kongaiseikou adulthood : teinen advance : joutatsu, shinkou, joutou, shinshutsu, shingeki advance retreat : isshin’ittai advance (abbr) : bansu advance (in pay) : maegari advance base : zenshinkichi advance delivery : maewatashi advance for manuscript : kouryou advance guard : zen’ei, senjin, senpou advance income : agari advance notice : yokoku advance or retreat : shintai advance party : senpatsu, senpatsutai advance payment : maekin, yonou, maewatashi, sakigane, zennou English? japanese Dictionary 56 English? japanese (dictionnaire) dvance payments : maewatashikin advance sale : sakiuri, maeuri advance troops : senkenbutai, zenshinbutai advance(d) : adobansu advanced : koudo, koushou, adobansudo advanced (developed) country : senshinkoku advanced (old) age : kourei advanced age : rourei advanced level : joukyuu advanced maturity : koudoseichou advanced nations : senshinkoku advancement : shoukyuu, eitatsu, eishin, koujou advancing and retreating : shusshoshintai advancing part of a salary : uchigashi advancing to the first grade : nyuumaku advancing together : heishin advantage : myouri, adobante? ji, eki, yaku, riten, ri, bengi advantage disadvantage : sontoku advantage and disadvantage : son’eki advantage rule : adobante? jiru? ru advantageous : yuuri English? japanese Dictionary 57 English? japanese (dictionnaire) advantageous (an) : yuuri advantages and disadvantages : rigai, ichiriichigai advent : rairin, kourin Adventists : sairinha adventure : adobencha? , bouken, abanchu? u adventure story : boukenshousetsu adventurer : boukensha, yamashi adverb : fukushi adversary : hantaisha adverse : gyakkou adverse stock? market factors : akuzairyou adverse tide : gyakuryuu adverse wind : gyakufuu adversity : gyakkyou, shitsui advertisement : ado, adobataizumento, koukoku advertisement for a wife : kyuusaikoukoku advertising : adobataijingu advertising agency : koukokusha advertising sign : koukokutou advertising sponsor : koukokunushi advice : jogon, susume, jogen, kankoku, chuukoku, keikoku English? japanese Dictionary 58 English? japanese (dictionnaire) advisability : kahi advise : kan adviser : kankokusha, adobaiza? , jogensha, komon, jogonsha advisor : adovaiza? dvisory organ : shimonkikan advocacy : teishou, daigen, bengo, kosui, shoudou, shushou advocacy of war : shusen advocate : daigensha, ronsha, shuchousha, teishousha, hyoubou Adzuki bean mochi : botamochi aerial : kakuu aerial tram : ro? puuei aerial wiring : kasen aerobic dancing : earobikkudanshingu aerobicise : earobisaizu aerobics : earobikusu aerodynamics : earodainamikkusu Aeroflot : aerofuro? to aerogram : e? roguramu, eroguramu, earoguramu aerogramme : koukuushokan aeroplane : hikouki aerosol : earozoru, eazo? ru English? japanese Dictionary 59 English? japanese (dictionnaire) aesthetic : esutetikku aesthetic appreciation : shinbi aesthetic aversion : itekiken’o aesthetic sense : shinbigan aesthetic sentiment : gakai aestheticism : shinbishugi aestivation : nemui affable : hitonatsukkoi, aisonoii, hitonatsukoi, onga affair : kyoku, gi, afea, sata, shiromono, kotogara, jiken affairs : jibutsu, gyoumu affairs after ones death : kouji affairs of state : kokumu affect : sawaru affectation : kidori, tsukeyakiba, genki, kazarike, shouki affectation (an) : kiza affected : fushizen affected look : tsukurigao affected part : kanbu affected region : kyokubu affected smile : esewarai affection : onjou, aijou, aijaku, jiai, seikou, jouai English? japanese Dictionary 60 English? japanese (dictionnaire) ffectionate : yasashii, yasa affectionate elder brother : jikei affectionate father : jifu, jibo affectionate woman : yasaon’a affections : ren’ai affidavit : koukyousho, koujutsusho, kyoujutsusho, kuchigaki affiliate : boukei, kanyuusha affiliated : doukei, fuzoku affiliated companies : shimaigaisha affiliated company : kankeigaisha affiliated concern : douzokukaisha affiliated with : sanka affiliation : kamei affinity : yuen, shinwasei, enko, inseki, aishou, shinkinkan affirmation : koutei, kakunin, dangen affirmative : kouteiteki affix : fu affixing a seal : kahan affixing one’s seal : ouin afflatus : reikan affliction : kannan, nangi, kunou, risai English? japanese Dictionary 61

English? japanese (dictionnaire) affluence : yuufuku, yutori afflux : ryuunyuu afforestation : shokurin affray : ranzatsu affricative sound (ling) : hasatsuon Afghanistan : afuganisutan aflatoxin : afuratokishin afore? mentioned : zenjutsu aforesaid (a? no) : zenki aforethought : yobou Africa : afurika African daisy : ga? bera Afrikaans : afurika? nsu Afrikaner : afuka? na Afro : afuro Afro? Cuban rhythm : afurokyu? banrizumu Afro? hair : afurohea after : sugi, afuta? after? : jigo after? dinner speech : takujou after? effect : kouishou, yoha English? japanese Dictionary 62 English? japanese (dictionnaire) after? recording : afuta? reko? dingu after? have lotion : afuta? she? buro? shon after? ski : afuta? suki? after (a? no) : ato after (sales) service : afuta? sa? bisu after (taking) a bath (a? no) : yuagari after a long time (id) : hisashiburi after a meal : shokugo after all : sarani, senjitsumeruto, kekkyoku, yousuruni, douse after childbirth : sango after death : botsugo, botsugo, shigo after dinner : yuushokugo after graduation : sotsugyougo after noon : hirusugi after one’s death : nakiato after one out (in Baseball) : isshigo after recording (abbr) : afureko after school : houkago after tax : tedori after that : sonogo, sorekara after the rain : ameagari English? japanese Dictionary 63

English? japanese (dictionnaire) after the war : sensougo after this : korekara, igo after two outs : nishigo afterbirth : taiban, atozan, orimono, seigo afterbrain : enzui aftercare : afuta? kea aftereffects : yojin, yogo afterglow : zankou, yokou afterimage : zanzou afterlife : goshou aftermath : nibankari afternoon : gogo, afutanu? n, gogo, hirusugi afternoon dress : afutanu? ndoresu afternoon refreshment : oyatsu afternoon session (market) : goba afternoon shadow : afutanu? nshado? afterquake : yurikaeshi aftershock : yoshin, yurikaeshi aftertaste : atoaji afterward : sonogo afterwards : atode, nochihodo English? japanese Dictionary 64 English? apanese (dictionnaire) afterword : atogaki afterwords (a? no) : nochi again : mou, sai, aratamete, matashitemo, kotoatarashiku again (and again) : matamata again and again : nidosando, saisan, shibashiba against : agensuto, tai against one’s will : muriyari against wind : agensutouindo agape : akape? agar? agar : tengusa, kanten agate : shippou, menou agave (cactus? like plant) : ryuuzetsuran age : toshigoro, nendai, e? ji, jurei, nenrei, ichidai age? group : e? jiguru? pu age (of a young lady) : houki age (one’s) : yowai age 15 : shigaku age 16 (girl) : haka age 20 : teinen age 30 : jiritsu age 40 : shorou English? japanese Dictionary 65 English? apanese (dictionnaire) age 50 : chimei age 60 : jijun age 64 (man) : haka age difference : nenreisa age fifty : isoji age limit : teinen age of a tree : jurei age of decadence : mappou age of puberty : toshigoro age of the moon : getsurei age relationship : toshimawari age seventy : nanasoji, koki age shooter : e? jishu? ta? age sixty : musoji age thirty : misoji aged : furui aged 20 : jakkan aged 61 : kakou ageing : e? jingu ageism : e? jizumu agency : e? jenshi? , toritsugi, chuukai, dairiten, nakadachi English? japanese Dictionary 66 English? japanese (dictionnaire) agenda : kyougijikou, gidai, kaigijikou, nittei agent : dairigyousha, dairinin, e? ento, shuusennin, douin agent’s charge : assenryou ages : hitomukashi agglutination : kouchaku, yuugou agglutinative language : kouchakugo aggravation : juudaika, kachou, kajuu, gekika, akka aggregate : shuukei aggregate amount : souryou aggregation : shuusei aggression : shinryaku, kousei, shinnyuu, sanshoku aggressive : aguresshibu, shinryakuteki aggressive attitude : koushisei aggressive war : shinryakusensou aggressor : shinryakusha aggressor nation : shinryakukoku agile : binshou, subayai agility : binsoku aging : shorou, fuke, e? jingu agism : e? jizumu agitate : kakuhan, aoru English? japanese Dictionary 67 English? japanese (dictionnaire) gitation : ajite? shon, sendou, sendou, kakuhan, douran agitation (abbr) : aji agitation bill (abbr) : ajibira agitation for expulsion : haisekiundou agitator : ajite? ta? agnate : fukei AgNO3 (abbr) : shousangin agnostic : fukachiteki agnosticism : fukachiron ago : izenni, izen ago (suf) : zen agonist : kyougisha agonizing : kutou agony : nayami, junan, hanmon, kutsuu, kunou agony of separation : riku agoraphobia : agorafobia agree with : douchou agreeable : kokoroyoi, aisonoii, kaiteki agreed : ikketsu agreement : icchi, gitei, kyouteian, shoudaku, nattoku, gacchi agreement of minds : uraawase English? japanese Dictionary 68 English? japanese (dictionnaire) greement of wills : ishinosotsuu agribusiness : aguribijinesu agricultural : nora agricultural chemicals : nouyaku agricultural community : nouson agricultural cooperative : noukyou agricultural land : nouchi agricultural produce : nousanbutsu agricultural products : nousan agricultural soldiers : tondenhei agricultural species : saibaishu agriculture : nougyou, agurikarucha? , noukou, nou, nougaku agriculture industry : noukou agriculture and forestry : nourin agrippa : sakago ague : okan ah : ara Ah! : aa, yare ahead : maeni, sakini, aheddo, osakini ahead of time : hayameni AI : jinkouchinou English? japanese Dictionary 69 English? japanese (dictionnaire) aid : kyuujo, sewa, hosa, fujo, shien, kyuugo, kyuusai aide : fukukan, fukkan aide? de? amp : fukkan, fukukan aiding : josei AIDS : eizu aikido : aikidou aikido practitioner : aikidouka Aikido rear defence (MA) : ushirowaza Aikido seated defence (MA) : suwariwaza aikido world association : aikikai ailment : shikkan aim : shikou, mokuteki, shui, kokorogake, ate, kentou aim at : mokushi aim of attack : hokosaki aimed at foreigners : gaijinmuki aimless : manzen, atenonai aimless wandering : urouro aimlessly : burabura, hyouzen, dokotomonaku Ainu : ezo, ainu, ebisu air : tei, kuuki, ea, fuzei, kuuchuu, ea? , tenkuu air? conditioned : reiboukanbi English? japanese Dictionary 70 English? japanese (dictionnaire) air? conditioned car : reibousha air? conditioning : reibousouchi, reibou air? cooled (a? no) : kuureishiki air? cooling apparatus : reibousouchi air? to? air (a? no) : kuutaikuu air? to? surface (a? no) : kuutaichi air? to? urface missile : kuutaichimisairu air bag : eabaggu air battle : kuuchuusen air brake : eabure? ki air breathing engine : eaburi? jinguenjin air cargo : eaka? go air check : eachekku air cleaner : eakuri? na? air commodore : shoushou air compressor : eakonpuressa? air conditioner : eakon, eakondishona? air conditioning : kuukichousei, eakon, eakondishoningu air conditioning (abbr) : kuuchou air cooling : kuurei air curtain : eaka? ten English? japanese Dictionary 71 English? japanese (dictionnaire) air cushion : eakusshon air defense : boukuu air defense artillery : boukuuhou air dome : eado? mu air door : eadoa air drop : kuuchuutouka air duct : kidou Air Force : kuugun air force : eafo? su Air France : e? rufuransu air girl : eaga? u air gun : eagan air hole : kazeana, kazaana, kuukikou air hostess : eahosutesu air lane : kuuro air letter : koukuushokan air liaison officer : kuugunrenrakushoukou air mail : koukuubin, eame? ru air mass : kidan air mobile : kuuchuukidou air pad : eapaddo English? japanese Dictionary 72 English? japanese (dictionnaire) air pageant : eape? jento air people : eapi? puru air pocket : eapoketto, kuukikou, shinkuutai air pollution : taikiosen air pot : eapotto air pump : eaponpu air raid : kuushuu air rifle : earaifuru air right : earaito air service : easa? bisu air shoot : eashu? to air shuttle : eashatoru air sick : eashikku air strike : koukuukougeki air superiority : koukuuyuusei air terminal : eata? minaru air ticket : koukuuken air towel : eataoru air transport : kuuyu airborne : kuutei, eabo? airborne troops : kuuteibutai English? japanese Dictionary 73 English? japanese (dictionnaire) airbrush : eaburashi Airbus : eabasu aircraft : koukuuki aircraft carrier : koukuubokan aircraft) : unkou airhead : a? pa? , ahondara airily : hyouhyou airing of books : bakusho airline : koukuugaisha, earain airport : hikoujou, eapo? to, kuukou airport tax : eapo? totakkusu airship : hikousen airsick bag : eashikkubaggu airsickness : eashikkunesu airspace : kuukan airspace management : kuuikikanri airtight : kimitsu, mippei airtight chamber : kimitsushitsu airway : eauxe? airy : fuwafuwa Akasagarbha (bodhisattva) : kokuuzou English? japanese Dictionary 74 English? apanese (dictionnaire) Akasaka Prince Hotel (abbr) : akapuri akin : doukei Akutagawa Ryuunosuke (auth) : akutagawaryuunosuke Alabama : arabama alacrity : binkatsu alarm : keiteki, keihou, ara? mu, hijoushingou alarm? clock : mezamashidokei, mezamashi alarm bell : keishou alarm clock : mezamashitokei alarming : yuyushii alas : atara, attara alas! : sai, kana Alas! : aa Alaska : arasuka albatross : arubatorosu, shinten’ou, ahoudori Alberta : aruba? ta albino : arubino, hakukakotai albino fox : shirogitsune Albireo (aka Beta Cygni) : arubireo album : arubamu albumin : arubumin, ranpaku English? japanese Dictionary 75 English? japanese (dictionnaire) lchemy : ougonjutsu, renkinjutsu alcohol : aruko? ru, sake alcohol expenses : sakadai alcoholic addiction : inshuheki alcoholism : aruko? ruizonshou alcove : toko, aruko? bu, tokonoma Alcyone (star in Taurus : arushio? ne aldehyde : arudehido alert : taiki alexandrite : arekisandoraito algae : sourui, mo algebra : daisuugaku, daisuu algebraic expression : daisuushiki alginic acid : aruginsan Algol : arugoru algorithm : arugorizumu, enzantejun algorithmic : arugorizumikku alias : henmei, urana, karina, imyou, eiriasu, betsumyou alias (false name) : gimei alibi : fuzaishoumei, aribai alien : e? rian, takokujin, eirian, iseijin English? japanese Dictionary 76 English? japanese (dictionnaire) lien elements : ibunshi alien registration : gaikokujintouroku alien registration card : gaikokujintourokushoumeisho alien tax : nyuukokuzei alienation : rihan, sokaku aliens : iteki alighting : gesha, chakuriku alignment : rosen, shoujun, arainmento, douchou alike : tomoni alimony : fuyouryou alkali : arukari alkaline (an) : arukarisei alkaloid : arukaroido alkalosis : arukaro? shisu all : arankagiri, issai, bantan, sukkari, tomo, menmen all? A (student) : zenkou all? America : zenbei all? in? one : o? ruinwan all? night : o? runaito all? night Mah Jongg : tetsuman all? night vigil over a body : tsuya English? japanese Dictionary 77 English? japanese (dictionnaire) all? occasion dress : o? ruoke? jondoresu all? out : zenmenteki all? out war : zenmensonsou all? purpose : han’you, banninmuki, o? upa? pasu, bannou, mannou all? purpose flour : chuurikiko all? round : o? ruraundo all? round (market) advance : isseidaka all? round (market) decline : isseiyasu all? round player : o? ruraundopure? ya? all? season coat : o? rushi? zunko? to all? season dress : o? rushi? zundoresu all? season track : o? rushi? zuntorakku all? star cast : o? rusuta? kyasuto all? star game : o? rusuta? ge? mu all? wave (receiver) : o? ruue? bu all? wave receiver : zenpajushinki all? weather coat : o? ruueza? ko? to all? weather track : o? ruueza? torakku all? wool : junmou all (a? no) : kakuhan, zenpuku, hyappan all (an) : sokkuri English? japanese Dictionary 78

English? japanese (dictionnaire) all (not) : kanarazushimo all (of you) : ittou all (one has) : take all (pref) : ban, zen all (present) : manjou all acts : hyakkou all ages : roujaku, bandai, bansei, rounyaku, kokon, senko all altogether : gassai all animate creation : gunsei all around : manbennaku all at once : isseini, tachimachi, issei all at once (a? no) : totsuzen all at sea : gorimuchuu all back : o? rubakku all candidates : zenkouho all circumstances : bankyou all companies : kakusha all compositions : zenkyoku all concerned : ichidou all countries : bankoku all creation : banmotsu, ban’yuu, banbutsu, banshou English? japanese Dictionary 79

English? japanese (dictionnaire) all creatures : issaishujou all day : shuujitsu all day and night : ichinichiichiya all days : zenjitsu all doors closed : happoufusagari all efforts : souryoku all Europe : zen’ou all evils : hyakuhei all eyes : juumoku, shuumoku all generations : mandai, yorozuyo all goods : zenpin all guarantee : o? rugyaranti? all hands : zen’in all health and happiness : banpuku, manpuku all heaven : zenten all Hokkaido : zendou all houses : banko all items : shinazoroe all kinds (of food) : hyakumi all kinds of : moromoro, hyappan all kinds of animals : hyakujuu English? japanese Dictionary 80 English? japanese (dictionnaire) ll kinds of goods : hyakka all kinds of malicious gossip : akkouzougon all kinds of sicknesses : manbyou all kinds of trees : kigi all lands : zenchi all lines : zensen all locations (abbr) : o? ruroke all mail : zenbin all means : bansaku, hyakkei all members : souzei all members (unanimity) : zen’in all nations : banpou all nature : banshou all night : shuuya, hitoyo, hitoya, tetsuya, yomosugara, yojuu all night through : ichiyajuu, hitoyajuu all night vigil : yoakashi, tetsuya All Nippon Airlines : zennikkuu all obstacles : hyakunan, banshou all of a sudden : dashinuke, totsujo, gazen, ikinari all of us : ichidou all one’s ability : zennouryoku English? japanese Dictionary 81 English? japanese (dictionnaire) all one’s power : zenryoku all or nothing : o? uoanashingu all over : oteage, manbennaku all over the country : kunijuu, zenkokutsutsuuraura, tsutsuuraura all over the house : kachuu all over the island : touchuu all over town : boukan all parts : kakubu all pass : o? rupasu all people : banmin, banjin, bannin all phases : kakumen all places : bankyou all prefectures : kakuken all present : ichidou all ranks : kisen all right : daijoubu, yoroshii, shimeta, o? rai, junchou, yoshi all right! : yoshi all risks : o? rurisukusu all sects : kakuha all shook up : orooro all sides : happou, hachimen English? japanese Dictionary 82 English? japanese (dictionnaire) all sorts : kakushu all sorts of trouble : hyakunan all square : o? usukuea all the armies : bangun all the banks (of a river) : zengan all the citizens of the city : zenshimin all the daimyos : sanbyakushokou all the houses (in town) : zenko all the inhabitants : zenjuumin all the more : ichidan, kaette, wakete, kyaku, issou, naosara all the officials : hyakkan all the people : choumin all the peoples : zenminshuu all the rest : zenpyou all the time : nirokujichuu, itsudemo all the universe : banshou all the way : moroni, harubaru all things : banmotsu, banbutsu, ban’yuu, banpan all this week : konshuuchuu all through : buttooshini all through life : isshougai, isshou English? japanese Dictionary 83 English? japanese (dictionnaire) ll tickets : zenseki all times and places : kokontouzai all together : ikkatsu all varieties of flowers : hyakka all year round : nenbyakunenjuu, ichinenjuu, nengaranenjuu all you can drink (id) : nomihoudai all you can eat (id) : tabehoudai Allah : ara? allegation : moushitate allegiance : kyoujun allegory : guuwa, aregori? , hiyu, fuuyu allegretto : areguretto allegro : areguro allergy : arerugi? allergy to pollen : kafunshou alleviation of fever : genetsu alley : roji, uratoori, yokochou, uradoori alley cat : noraneko alley house : uraya alleyway : roji alliance : rengou, engumi English? japanese Dictionary 84 English? japanese (dictionnaire)

Alliance : araiansu alliance : renmei, doumei, gattai, renritsu, doumei allied armies : doumeigun allied political party : yuutou allies : kyoushoukoku alligator : arige? ta? , waniguchi, wani alliteration : touin alloc : arokku allocate : aroke? to allocation : waritsuke, kakudzuke, wariate, aroke? shon, bun’yo allophone (ling) : ion allot : warifuru allotment : kappu, waritsuke, wariate, wariategaku, wappu allotrope : dousotai allowance : yoyuu, tegokoro, shiokuri, kyuuyo, fuyo, kousa allowance for : kagen alloy : goukin allspice : o? rusupaisu allurement : yuuwaku alluring : kowakuteki alluvial : chuuseki English? japanese Dictionary 85 English? apanese (dictionnaire) alluvial period : chuusekiki, chuusekisei alluvial soil : chuusekido alluvial stratum : chuusekisou alluvium : chuusekisou ally : mikata, yokoku ally (of another nation) : doumeikoku alma mater : bokou, shusshinkou alma mater clique : gakubatsu almanac : arumanakku, koyomi almighty : zennou, o? rumaiti? almighty (a? no) : bannou almond : hentou, a? mondo almond oil : hentouyu almost : mazu, ayauku, hobo, hakkubu, kubu, arakata almost all : ookata alms : gouriki, hodokoshimono almsgiving : kisha aloe : aroe aloes? wood perfume : kyara aloes wood : kyara aloha : aroha English? japanese Dictionary 86 English? japanese (dictionnaire) loha shirt : arohashatsu alone : tandokude, tanshin, hitoribocchi, hitori, hitoride along : nitsuite, sotte along (the wall) (suf) : dzutaini along railway line (a? no) : ensen along the east coast : touganzoini along the eastern seashore : touganzoini along the north coast : hokuganzoini along the river : kawazoi along the southern coast : nanganzoini aloof : tsuntsun aloof from the world : hyouhyou aloofness : kokou alpaca : arupaka alpha : arufa alphabet : arufabetto alphabetical order : e? bi? shi? jun alphanumeric character : eisuuji Alphard (aka Alpha Hydra) : arufarudo alpine : arupain, kouzan alpine flower : e? deruwaisu English? japanese Dictionary 87 English? japanese (dictionnaire) lpinism : arupinizumu alpinist : arupinisuto alps : arupusu already : sudeni, mohaya, kanegane, mou, senkoku, kanete already acquired : kitoku already known : kichi already proved : shoumeizumi also : mata, yappari, yahari, nimo altar : saidan, kumotsudai altar boy : jisha altar of sacrifice : so alteration : kawari, kae, hen’i, kaisei, henkou, henzou, henka alternate : tagaichigai, kougo, orutaneito, hitotsuoki, kawari alternate interior angles : sakkaku alternate plan : daian alternately : tokkaehikkae, kawaribankoni, kawarugawaru alternating? current winding : bunmaki alternating current : kouryuu alternation : koutai, tagaichigai alternative : takuitsuteki, nishasen’itsu, o? ruta? natibu alternative plan : jizensaku English? japanese Dictionary 88 English? japanese (dictionnaire) alternative school : o? ruta? natibusuku? ru alternative space : o? ruta? natibusupe? u alternatively : nishatakuitsu although : tatoe, noni, tatoi altitude : koudo altitude sickness : koushobyou, kouzanbyou alto : aruto altogether : sokkuri, zenbu, awasete, issaigassai, kotogotoku altruism : aitashugi, hakuaishugi, taai altruistic : rita alumina : arumina aluminium : aruminiumu, arumi aluminium and sicilicum alloy : shirumin aluminium foil : arumihoiru aluminium sash : arumisasshi aluminum (Al) : aruminiumu, arumi alumni : dousousei alumni meeting : dousoukai alumnus : dousousei, kouyuu, shusshinsha, sotsugyousei alveolus : haihou, shisou always : tsuneni, tsunedzune, fudan, kirinashi, itsudemo English? japanese Dictionary 89 English? japanese (dictionnaire) always (not) : kanarazushimo always a fool (id) : bakahashinanakyanaoranai always hitting the bull’s? ye : hyappatsuhyakuchuu always saying the wrong thing : nenjuushitsugen Alzheimer disease : arutsuhaima? byou am : gozen Amadeus : amadeusu amalgam : amarugamu amalgamation : heigou, gouhei, gappei, goudou amanuensis : daishonin, daisho, daihitsu amassing of wealth : chikuzai amateur : amachua, shirouto, mongaikan amateur (abbr) : ama amateur word (in art) : tonosamashigoto amateurism : amachuarizumu amateurism (in art) : tonosamagei amazement : ikkyou amazing : kyoutendouchi, odorokubeki, sugoi Amazon : amazon ambassador : anbasada? , taishi ambassador plenipotentiary : zenkentaishi English? japanese Dictionary 90 English? japanese (dictionnaire) amber : anba? kohaku amber (colour) : kohakuiro amber colour : bekkouiro ambidextrous (person) : ryoutekiki ambience : anbiansu, fun’iki ambiguous : mourou, futokuyouryou, magirawashii, ayafuya ambition : haki, houfu, taimou, yabou, koujoushin, iyoku ambitious person : yashinka ambitious undertaking : yuuto ambivalence : anbibarensu, aizouheison ambulance : anbaransu, kyuukyuusha ambulance helicopter : kyuukyuuherikoputa? ambush : senpuku, fusezei, fukuzei, yougeki, mukaeutsu ambush attack : geigeki ameboid movement : ame? baundou AMeDAS : amedasu amen : a? men, namu amender : shuuseisha amendment : kaisei, shuusei amenity : ameniti? , kaitekisa America : beikoku, amerika English? japanese Dictionary 91 English? japanese (dictionnaire) America’s Cup race : amerikazukappure? u American : amerikan American? Soviet : beiso American coffee : amerikanko? hi? American English (lang) : beigo American football : amerikanfuttobo? ru American football (abbr) : amefuto American Indian : hokubeidojin American League : amerikanri? gu American league (abbr) : ariggu American of Japanese descent : nikkeibeijin American person : amerikajin American plan : amerikanpuran American rugby (abbr) : ameragu American sign language : amesuran American submarine : porarisu American vulgarity : beizoku Americanism : amerikanizumu Americanize : amerikanaizu americium (Am) : amerishiumu Ameslan : amesuran English? japanese Dictionary 92 English? japanese (dictionnaire) methyst : amejisuto, ameshisuto, murasakisuishou amiability : hitozuki amiable : hitonatsukoi, onryou, aisonoii, hitonatsukkoi amicable : yuukouteki Amida Buddha’s original vow : hongan amidst : uchini amino acid : aminosan Amitabha (Budd. deity) : amida amity : shuukou, yuukou ammonia : anmonia ammonite : anmonaito ammonite (traditional name) : kikuishi ammunition : dan’yaku amnesia : kenboushou amnesty : amunesuti, onsha, taisha, tokusha Amnesty International : amunesutiinta? nashonaru amoeba : ame? ba Amoghasiddhi : fukuujouju among (them) : nakaniha among other things : nakandzuku among rocks : iwama English? japanese Dictionary 93 English? japanese (dictionnaire) morous : tajou, iroppoi amorous glance : irome amorous man : bikachou amorphous : amorufasu amortization : shoukan, shoukyaku amount : teido, bunryou, ryou, taka, kagaku amount allotted : buntangaku amount invested or contributed : shukkingaku amount of business : jimuryou amount of consumption : shouhiryou amount of drinking : insuiryou amount of inventory : shouhinzaidaka amount of investment : shusshigaku amount of money : kingaku amount of rainfall : kouuryou amount of sugar : toubun amount of tax : zeigaku amount of work : koutei amount or sum (of money) : gaku amount received : shuunougaku amount sold : uriage English? japanese Dictionary 94 English? japanese (dictionnaire) mount used : shiyouryou amp : anpu ampere : anpea amperometer : denryuukei amphetamine : anfetamin amphibian (an) : ryousei amphibian plane : ryouyouki amphibious (a? no) : suirikuryouyou amphibious animal : ryouseidoubutsu ample : tappuri amplification : engi amplification (elec) : zoufuku amplifier : anpurifaia amplitude (of vibration) : shinpuku ampoule : anpuru amputation : setsudan amputee : setsudankanja Amsterdam : amusuterudamu Amtrak : amutorakku amulet : mayoke, gofu amusement : goraku, ikkyou, amyu? zumento English? japanese Dictionary 95 English? japanese (dictionnaire) amusement center : amyu? zumentosenta? amusement of the company : zakyou amusement park : yuuenchi amusement program : gorakubangumi amusement quarters : sakariba amusing : okashii, omoshiroi, omoshiro amylase : amira? e an “expose” (in a magazine) : suppanuki an abductor : yuukaihannin an abortive : oroshigusuri an accuser : sonin an act : shiuchi an age : issei an American : beikokujin an antique : koki an armful : hitokakae an army : ichigun an arrow : isshi an art : ichigei an article : ichimotsu an auspicious event : kichiji, kitsuji English? japanese Dictionary 96 English? japanese (dictionnaire) an auspicious occasion! : omedetou an authority : kyohaku an eccentric : kawarimono an edition : ippan an effort : hitoiki an elder : jouchou an elder brother : sonkei an empty dream : issuinoyume an enclosure : ippuu an end : shuumatsu, kugiri an exchange transaction : kawari an expert : honshoku an expression : kuchimawashi an extra : omake an honest man : maningen an idea : issaku, ichian an immediate definite deal : hitokuchiakinai an imperial hearing : joubun an important office : ichiyaku an inch ahead : issunsaki an incident : ichigi English? japanese Dictionary 97 English? apanese (dictionnaire) an incurve : naikyokkyuu an individual : kotai, ichikojin an inferior : ressha an informant : sonin an ingredient : ichimi an instance : ichirei an instant : ikkoku, issetsuna, isshunkan, isshun an insurrection : ikki an iron : noshi an isolated house : ikken’ya an item : ikkou, ippin, hitotsugaki, ikken an office : ichiyaku an official : ri an old ceremonial garb : kamishimo an only child : hitorikko, hitotsubudane, hitorigo, isshi an only daughter : hitorimusume an only son : hitorimusuko an opinion : ichikenshiki an orange : orenji an ordinary method : hitosujinawa an ordinary person : ippanjin English? japanese Dictionary 98

English? japanese (dictionnaire) an overnight march : ippakukougun an RBI hit : taimuri? hitto an ultranationalist : ikkokumono an unbroken view : ichibou an upstart : narikin an) : kanpuku, kanshin, adeyaka ANA : zennikkuu anabolism : doukasayou anachronism : jidaisakugo, anakuronizumu anachronism (abbr) : anakuro anaconda : uwabami anaesthesia : masui anagram : anaguramu anal (col) (X) : ketsunoana anal fistula : jirou, kireji analects : goroku analgesic : chintsuuyaku analgesic (an) : chintsuusei analog : anarogu analog computer : anarogukonpyu? ta? analog computer (abbr) : anakon English? japanese Dictionary 99 English? japanese (dictionnaire) nalog digital (abbr) : anadeji analog digital converter : anarogudejitaruhenkanki analog speedometer : anarogusupi? dome? ta? analogous : ruiji analogue : anarogu analogy : ruisui, ruihi, anaroji? , souji analyser : anaraiza? analysis : anarishisu, bunkai, bunseki, kaiseki analysis table : bunsekihyou analyst : anarisuto analytical : bunkaiteki analytical chemistry : bunsekikagaku analyticity (physics) : kaisekisei analytics : bunsekigaku analyzer : anaraiza anamnesis : kioushou Anaphylaxie (G) : anafirakishi? anarchism : ana? kizumu anarchism (doctrine of) : museifushugi anarchist : ana? kisuto anarchy : museifu, ana? ki? English? japanese Dictionary 100 English? japanese (dictionnaire) nathema : hamon, anatema anatomy

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Meiji Japan, Colonialism and Beyond

The most influential aspects that would come out of Japan’s war with China, (the First Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895) and the war with Russia (Russo-Japanese War 1904 – 1905) did not occur during the wars themselves, but rather in the years following the conflicts. These wars were, essentially, the precursors to the Imperial Japan of World War Two infamy.

The First Sino-Japanese War showed Japan that the reforms and modernizations of the Mieji Restoration were working as opposed to China’s Self Strengthening Movement that had been a domestic failure. “War was…declared on 1st August 1894, and although foreign observers had predicted an easy victory for the more massive Chinese forces, the Japanese had done a more successful job of modernizing, and they were better equipped and prepared.

Japanese troops scored quick and overwhelming victories on both land and sea.”1  This war also established a relationship with western nations that resulted in tremendous improvements in Japan’s military. So profound were this improvements that Japan would later wage a successful war of for the “rights” to imperial interests against Russia that had a far superior military.

In a way, Japan’s involvement in these wars did show the nation had developed similarities with Western nations beyond simply modernizing domestically in social and industrial terms. The foreign policy of Japan began to mimic the least desirable aspect of all of Western Europe’s foreign policy. This area of foreign policy was an emphasis on imperialism and colonization.

The classical tradition of imperialism and colonization involved superior

powered military incursions into other countries in order to conquer the nation,

subjugate the people and strip the indigenous natural resources from the conquered nations. Winning the wars with China and Russia help set the stage for the coming of an Imperial Japan that would wage a massive war in the Pacific Seas during World War Two.

By 1895 Japan was beginning to see the fruits of their labor as the defeat of China in several wars and the annexation of Taiwan brought Japan political recognition from many European countries.  Recognition from the European countries meant an escape from many of the treaties that had been forced upon Japan in the 1870’s, and an alliance with England in 1902.  Japan had finally won the respect of the developed world as a military power; however, they were still viewed as an inferior culture and were not afforded the same courtesies as predominantly Anglo-Saxon nations.2

With the war with China, Japan established a foothold as a colonizing empire as it would claim Korea as the prize for its expansion. With Russia, the victory was even more complex. In the part of the world where Japan resides, the bulk of the colonial incursions and wars were bought between eastern nations and western nations as well as eastern nations vs. other eastern nations.

Japan’s victory against Russia marked the first time an eastern power defeated a western power in a war, the shockwaves of which reverberated throughout the world. Japan’s standing had greatly increased while Russia’s standing was greatly diminished. For Russia, the loss was yet another link in the chain of events that would lead to the Bolshevik Revolution and for Japan, the second link in the chain (a second victorious war) that would lead to Japan’s brutal World War Two imperialist fantasies was solidified.

Imperial powers are amoral, but they are not suicidal. That is, it is rare that imperial expansions are undertaken against strong or powerful nations. Japan’s wins in the First Sino-Japanese War and the Japanese-Russian War were important in the sense that, for lack of a better explanation, saw Japan gain valuable experience in the art of waging war. Furthermore, they established to the world that they were a viable, major power. More importantly, internally, the wins provided feedback to the rulers that Japan’s military strategies worked and that their army and navy was indeed formidable. The seeds were planted with these victories that laid the foundation for even further expansions that would result in the World War Two’s War in the Pacific.

Imperialist nations to not launch wars that they feel they are going to lose. In terms of colonizing, a loss would be self-defeating and a drain of the nation. A successful colonization incursion eventually pays for itself by way of the colonized nation providing wealth in terms of losing the rewards of its natural resources. The victories in the wars with China and Russia emboldened Japan to have faith enough in itself to join the Axis powers.

The expansion of the military from its victories against China and Russia lead to an immorality that would yield biological war in China and forced starvation in the Philippines. The mere fact that Japan attacked a superpower the size of the United States speaks volumes for the confidence Japan had in its military prowess.

On the surface, these two wars Japan was involved with were seemingly successful and expanded Japan’s colonial interests and ambitions, but ultimately, the wars proved disastrous as they were step towards Japan’s downfall World War Two only brought Japan defeat, humiliation and devastation via the Atomic Bomb.

Works Cited

Anon., “Imperial Japan”, available , Internet, accessed 05 November 2006.

Russo-Japanese War Research Society, “Forerunners, The Sino-Japanese War”, available from http://www.russojapanesewar.com/phila-2.html, Internet, accessed 05 November 2006.

National Clearinghouse for U.S.-Japan Studies, “Japan’s Imperial Family”, available from http://www.indiana.edu/~japan/iguides/imperial.html, Internet, accessed 05 November 2006.

1 Russo-Japanese War Research Society, “Forerunners, The Sino-Japanese War”, available from  http://www.russojapanesewar.com/phila-2.html, Internet, accessed 05 November 2006.
2 Anon., “Imperial Japan”, available from http://filebox.vt.edu/users/jearnol2/ MeijiRestoration/imperial_japan.htm, Internet, accessed 05 November 2006.

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Japan and Capitalism

Japan: Capitalism and the Economic Miracle The global triumph of capitalism was the most important historical issue of the nineteenth century. It was the triumph of a kind of society that believed in the fact that economic development was based on competitive private enterprise and the success of buying as much as possible from the market.

It was considered that an economy resting on the solid foundations of the middle class, would not only create a world of properly distributed wealth, but also it would educate people, develop reasoning and increase human opportunity. Summarizing, a world of continuous and rapid material and moral development. The few obstacles that remained in the path of this development would rapidly be solved or overcome. The history of this period is characterized by a massive breakthrough in the global economy of industrial capitalism.

Certain regions of the world beyond capitalism were put under pressure by the capitalist countries who tried to gain insight in their economies by opening new markets, these regions were forced to choose between a determined resistance towards capitalism in accordance to their traditions and ways of life or a modernization process which would bring different cultural changes. Given this logic, Japan was during the mid-nineteenth century under pressure from the foreign powers and the crisis of their system based on the Shoguns.

This situation led to Japan, to carry out a complete transformation process (economic, political and social) known as the Meiji Restoration, which marked the starting point of modern Japanese society. The introduction of the United States in the Pacific finally brought Japan to the center of Western attempts to “open” their markets. Direct resistance was impossible, the weak attempts to organize had already be shown. The simple diplomatic concessions were no more than a temporary expedient.

Already in 1853-1854, Commodore Perry, from the United States Navy had forced them to open certain ports through the regular method of naval threatening. In 1862 the British, bombed the city of Kagoshima with complete impunity in retaliation for the murder of an Englishman by the Japanese. The presence of Western forces was, at this point, a legitimate fact of the everyday Japanese life. Finally in 1868 the Meiji Restoration was proclaimed, the Restoration based itself on the transfer of state power from the Shogun to the Emperor.

This started a political, economic and social process that, after ten years of turmoil and provincial agrarian revolts led to the modernization of the state and national unity. Due to these facts the Meiji Restoration is considered the starting point of modern Japanese society. To carry out the task of “modernization” economic resources were anxiously needed in order to master the noble’s resistance, to suppress revolts and upheavals of provincial farmers, to compensate land owners, to protect, to promote the industry and to install state manufacturing complexes.

It was also important to modernize and equalize the state, the military and the bureaucratic system. Due to the limited development of industrial capital, the new government was forced to seek financial resources within the land, based on property taxes. But, in order to adapt to the changing needs of the state, these charges became tax money. These financial arrangements, established by the government of the restoration were the starting point of the land reforms.

As for the early development of capitalism, the Japanese case marked clear differences with respect to what Western Europe had already experienced. In the West the state centralized manufacturing were disappearing during the bourgeois revolution, while in Japan state factories developed across the country, based on the steel market. Cloth factories and their machinery were quickly upgraded through a process known as industrial revolution “from above”, which is based on the help of the state to upgrade the existing industry.

The number of state factories kept rising and peaked in the decade of the 1870-1880. After the 1880s, these companies protected by the government were then exposed to public auction and were then bought by the capitalists monopoly, some of these industries grew as rich as Mitsui or Mitsubishi, who maintained close contact with the state. The Japanese revolution, allowed the development of commercial activity and usurer capital of the old type, in order to avoid the abolishment of the feudal relations of land property, and to assure the freedom and autonomy of the independent peasantry and small craftsmen.

Although the classic capitalistic revolution involved the change from commercial capital to industrial capital, the Japanese revolution followed another path. In Japan the industrial revolution as well as the transformation of commercial capital into industrial capital came about under the monopoly of the rich capitalists, which showed the main difference from that of Western European capitalism. It is clear that this particular structure was determined by the agricultural and the feudal systems of land property, which ensured the survival and multiplication of feudal relations of production within the Japanese agriculture.

Revolutionary activists recognized that in order to carry out their purpose of saving the country, they required a process of systematic Westernization. By 1868 many had had contact with foreigners, some had even traveled abroad, people then began to recognize that conservation involved transformation. The driving force that moved Japan towards this transformation was its pursuit to become more Western. It looked like the West clearly had the secret of success and therefore Japan had to imitate it at all costs. Taking a set of values ?? nd institutions of another society and implementing it into the Japanese society was a surprising, traumatic, and problematic attempt. However this attempt could not be done in a superficial and poorly controlled way, especially in a society which was profoundly different from the West. Many began with a strong passion for the West and anything that came from across them. For some people, the renovation seemed to imply the abandonment of all that was Japanese, as they considered that all the past was barbaric and out of date.

The proposals reached even to the renewal of the Japanese race, considered genetically inferior, and was began to be improved through interbreeding with the Western “superior race”, these suggestions were based on Western theories of racism and social Darwinism, they really found support at the higher and wealthy Japanese classes. Certain styles of life, such as clothing or food, were less adopted than the technological or architectural styles and ideas from the West. Westernization here raised a major dilemma, unlike what had happened prior with the adoption of Chinese elements by the Japanese.

Since “all the Western” was not as simple and as coherent, it was a whole complex of institutions and ideas which in many cases were opposite to the traditional Japanese culture. In practice, the Japanese chose the British model, which naturally served as guide towards the development of the railroad, the telegraph, textiles, and many other methods of business. France inspired the legal reform and set the basis for the military reform. Universities based themselves on the German and American examples, as well as primary education, agricultural innovations and mailing systems.

In 1875-1876 over five hundred foreign workers were employed, this number rose to three thousand by the 1890s. However choosing between the different political and ideological aspects was not that easy. Japan was politically against the liberal bourgeois systems of Britain and France. Liberalism was naturally opposed to the absolutist state, which was adopted in Japan after the Restoration. In turn, Westernization also was based on the adoptions of ideas, including Christianity which the Japanese people did not relate to.

After some time, a strong systemic reaction against Westernization and the liberal model began to rise within the country. This reaction manifested itself in the constitution of 1889, mostly because of a neotraditionalist reaction which virtually invented the Shinto, a new religion based on the worship of the emperor. At this time the combination of selective neotraditionalism and modernization kept rising and was creating and giving shape to the new system. However, there was tension between those who believed that Westernization meant a complete revolution and those who believed that it was the key to economic progress.

Beyond these internal contradictions, Japan carried out an incredible process of modernization that made it a formidable modern power, setting them apart from the rest of the Asian countries. At this time it was hard to imagine that, after half a century, Japan would be a great power capable of defeating their European counterparts in an armed confrontation. After the Restoration, the Meiji government had the task of fulfilling two main goals. On the one hand, they had to decide on whether or not to strengthen the army, in other words, to develop a military that allowed Japan to face the West.

This decision marked the beginning of a disaster, as it is an important aspect to explain the origin of the conflicts that led to Japan to participate in the Second World War. The second goal of the Meiji policy dealt with economic development. The decisions taken in this field would undoubtedly be the most successful and enduring aspects of the Revolution. The war left Japan with major problems: over ten million unemployed, many demobilized former combatants, widespread destruction of homes and industrial plants, rising inflation, etc. Material losses were estimated to be at over a quarter of the national wealth.

However, not all consequences were adverse. Unemployment meant that there was a lot of “labor” ready to use, the war had also raised the level of technology and production capacity of heavy industry in the field of iron, steel, machinery and chemicals. In addition to making use of these advantages, Japan had the United States behind their back. At first, the American aid was aimed towards achieving national self-sufficiency, taking measures to stop inflation (the Dodge plan 1949), coupled with substantial injections of capital and advanced technology.

Another important event that had a direct impact on the Japanese movement towards capitalism was the Korean War. This war led the U. S. to invest twenty-three billion dollars in military spending. The occupation forces ordered every closed arm factory in Japan to be put into service, in full production, representing a major incentive for the Japanese production. In turn, the United States boosted the Japanese trade, especially in Southeast Asia, where treaties were signed ordering Japan to provide different articles and services to countries that had previously been occupied.

None of this would have been possible without a regeneration of the Japanese industry itself. From 1946, Japan started to create a series of economic, financial and banking institutions in order to stimulate economic recovery. The Council of Economic Stimulation was created with the mission of coordinating production and economic growth, and the Reconstruction Bank which had to channel capital to certain industries to achieve the stimulation. Following this, in 1948, the Economic Stabilization Board was formed, aiming to rise production levels, the following year the Ministry of International Trade and Industry was established.

These institutions, along with the contribution from the United States, had laid the foundation on which the splendid building of Japanese economic development would later be later erected. Several factors contributed to this along with a consistent policy of official support. The world’s economy had entered a period of expansion, the Japanese industry enjoyed good relations between companies, facilitating the movement of employees to different industries and to higher productivity jobs, making it to be the key to further economic development.

Other factors were; the United States transfer of technology to Japan, social changes such as land reform and the development of trade unions, which contributed to the improvement of the distribution of income and an expansion of the domestic market. With these stimuli the Japanese industry quickly recovered and was then beginning to expand. In the 1960s, the Japanese economy was dominated by a relatively small number of large-scale manufacturing firms such as Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Fuji and Sumtono, every one of which had at least seventy different affiliates.

Besides these groups there were several companies that offered relatively new products such as electronics and automobiles. Including many of what today are worldwide firms such as Hitachi, Toyota, or Nissan. Because of the control from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), they all enjoyed certain protection against foreign competition, while at the same time they were competing for a position in the domestic market, in order to avoid national monopolies.

Another feature at this time was the development of products that needed advanced technology and heavy capital investment; this included industries such as steel and petrochemicals, consumer goods, cameras, televisions, boats, motorcycles and of course, cars. Japan was then becoming one of the largest producers of boats, cameras, televisions and cars in the world. In 1970, just over 30% of exports went to the United States, about 15% to Western Europe and more than 15% to Southeast Asia, where the main buyers were Hong Kong, Thailand, Philippines and Singapore.

As 1973 finished the oil crisis began, resulting in the worldwide economic changes that ended the Japanese phase of exceptionally rapid economic growth. As a country dependent on oil, Japan experienced a huge increase in their import bills and a general rise on their prices. Rising oil prices had their biggest impact on high users of energy such as the steel industry and petrochemical industries which were once the center of the “Japanese economic miracle”. On the other hand, the global recession caused a fall in foreign demand for products such as boats, machinery and tools.

When these changes began to take place, politicians from the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry decided to reorient the industry: moving away from the manufacturing of products that heavily relied on imported raw materials and focusing (especially through technological innovations) on the new technologies that reflected higher and newer principles. This category included the automotive industry, by 1980 Japan produced more cars than the United States, the computer industry also suffered a major development.

Balance between trade imports and exports in Japan had a surplus for twenty years, which allowed substantial capital outflows in the long run. After some years and because of this Japan became one of the major creditor countries in the world. By the late 1987, Japanese investment abroad had reached a profit of twenty-three billion dollars. United States was the country where most of the investments were made, six hundred Japanese factories were based on American soil, about a hundred of which were electronics, automobiles or any other kind of technological machinery.

The Meiji Restoration marked the beginning of modern Japanese society, introducing a process of modernization in a western manner. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the global triumph of capitalism, and the ideas and beliefs that seemed to legitimize it, were moving certain regions of the world (apart from the west) towards this new set of ideas. Resistance to outside pressure did never occur, and modernization presented itself as the only means towards conservation and tradition.

For a hundred years, the conflict on whether to live by an Asian fashion or by modern Western fashion was a constant theme of Japanese society. The first move towards modernization took place during the Meiji Revolution: Westernization was the driving force for the transformation of Japan, since the West had the key to success and therefore, the rest had to imitate them. Almost every event that took place since 1945, seemed to strengthen the trend towards modern Parliamentary Democracy; the government bureaucratic structure, trade unions, the education system, etc.

Everything had its origin in European and American culture and was imitated later on by other countries. Same happened in all aspects of daily life: buses and trains, offices and factories, television, newspaper, clothing, even food. On the other hand, I need to say that the code of ethics is still largely Confucian. Nor should we ignore religion as a link with tradition because, after the war, there has been a considerable rise of new religious movements, most of whom claim to have traditional backgrounds. These phenomena are not something “modern”, and certainly not Western.

However, it may now make sense not to identify the Japanese as “Asians”. Much of the Japanese culture and tradition traces its origins to cultures outside of Japan, but these different habits had been so completely assimilated over time that had become in fact Japanese. It is in this sense why Japan cannot completely be defined as having an Asian identity; neither can it be framed within the set of traits defined by the West. Japan must be understood as a society with their own characteristics which constitute a nation economically and culturally unique.

Bibliography: Gerlach, Michael L.. Alliance capitalism the social organization of Japanese business. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. Print. Marshall, Byron K.. Capitalism and nationalism in prewar Japan; the ideology of the business elite, 1868-1941. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1967. Print. Sakakibara, Eisuke. Beyond capitalism: the Japanese model of market economics. Lanham, MD: University Press Of America, 1993. Print. “Shinto (religion) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia. ” Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia.

Web. 28 March. 2011. <http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/540856/Shinto>. Tavares, Maria da Conceicao, Ernani Teixeira Filho, y Leonardo Burlamaqui. Japon: un caso ejemplar de capitalismo organizado. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL, Comision Economica rica Latina y el Caribe, 1993. Print. Meiji Restoration (Japanese history) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia. ” Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. <http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/373305/Meiji-Restoration>. “Meiji Restoration/Revolution in Japan. San Jose State University – Powering Silicon Valley. Web. 2 Apr. 2011. <http://www. sjsu. edu/faculty/watkins/meiji. htm>. ——————————————– [ 2 ]. “Meiji Restoration/Revolution in Japan. ” San Jose State University – Powering Silicon Valley. Web. 2 Apr. 2011. . [ 3 ]. Tavares, Maria da Conceicao, Ernani Teixeira Filho, y Leonardo Burlamaqui. Japon: un caso ejemplar de capitalismo organizado. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL, Comision Economica rica Latina y el Caribe, 1993. Print. [ 4 ]. Gerlach, Michael L..

Alliance capitalism the social organization of Japanese business. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. Print. [ 5 ]. Marshall, Byron K.. Capitalism and nationalism in prewar Japan; the ideology of the business elite, 1868-1941. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1967. Print. [ 6 ]. Marshall, Byron K.. Capitalism and nationalism in prewar Japan; the ideology of the business elite, 1868-1941. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 1967. Print. [ 7 ]. Tavares, Maria da Conceicao, Ernani Teixeira Filho, y Leonardo Burlamaqui.

Japon: un caso ejemplar de capitalismo organizado. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL, Comision Economica rica Latina y el Caribe, 1993. Print. [ 8 ]. “Shinto (religion) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia. ” Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 28 March. 2011. . [ 9 ]. Sakakibara, Eisuke. Beyond capitalism: the Japanese model of market economics. Lanham, MD: University Press Of America, 1993. Print. [ 10 ]. “Meiji Restoration (Japanese history) — Britannica Online Encyclopedia. ” Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 1 Apr. 2011.

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Ethics in Asia: a Study of Several Ethical Issues in Japan

Understanding Business Ethics in Asia: A Study of Several Ethical Issues in Japan, Indonesia and Mongolia Anggita Putri, Nasa Lkhagvasuren, Takashi Ushijima Brigham Young University International business ethics has been an issue researched and understood by companies, government entities, NGOs, and other institutions worldwide. Understanding business ethics becomes more important as entities understand the significance of cultural values in different countries.

De George (1997) describes that as business is going global and cultural values are becoming more evident, it is “more urgent for agreement on common values that make world trade and commerce possible without any party feeling or being exploited”. This agreement on common values has been achieved on some scale and level; however, in many parts of the world, cultural values and circumstances usually still hold more weight in the decision process. This paper addresses several ethical values in three representative Asian countries: Japan, Indonesia, and Mongolia.

The three countries are located in three different parts of Asia with difference in economy, social, and culture values. Therefore, each country has its own unique way of approaching and overcoming ethical issues. For each of the different issues, we will provide background information and history and then we will discuss and develop the issue. First, the paper will address Nabakari-Kanrishoku (Nominal Manager) which is an ethical issue in the workplace in Japan. Second, the paper will discuss gratification giving in local and national government which is a prevalent ethical issue in Indonesia.

Last, the paper will talk about the development of ethical standards in Mongolia. The conclusion of the paper will summarize the importance of understanding cultural aspects while implementing ethical standards in different countries, and discuss a few ethical theories that will help frame the ethical issues discussed. Japan Background Information Since the birth of the idea of Capitalism, a conflict of interests has existed between employers and employees. In general, employers’ genuine best nterest is to maximize their profits; whereas, the employees’ interests are to receive wages out of the least work hours. However, without regulations, laws, or rules, historically, the conflict has tended to favor the employers. Therefore, working long hours has been one major ethical issue in workplaces all over the world, especially in capitalistic countries. Nabakari-Kanrishoku (nominal manager)-hereinafter referred to as NK- is a unique phenomenon in Japanese society which represents the working-long-hours ethical issue in Japan.

Labor Standard Act (hereinafter referred to as LSA) prohibits that working hours exceed 40 hours per week unless (1) the agreement exists between the employer and the employee and approved by municipalities (Article 36) or (2) the employer pays overtime rate to the employee (Article 37). Ethical Issues in Workplace in Japan: Nabakari-Kanrishoku (Nominal Manager) The dilemma exists between employers and employees under recession. Employers have to make sure their business runs appropriately and generates a sufficient amount of profits.

In the case of a recession, employers/companies have to cut costs significantly because increase of revenue is rarely expected. In general, the large amount of expenditure is labor costs; therefore, cut labor costs, such as layoffs, increase the workload of each employee. However, the increase of workload often causes overtime work for each employee and the increase of overtime premium adversely affects the cut labor costs (Mizuno, 2012). Therefore, employers/companies have to face the dilemma of how extensive their cut labor costs will be while also dealing with the increase in employee workload and overtime work.

Responding to such a dilemma, NK emerged in the Japanese business society as a loophole of LSA when Japan started experiencing recession in the 1990s. LSA states that management representatives are not subjected to the work-hour regulation ratified by LSA article 32, which stipulates 40working-hours per week as a legal ceiling of weekly working-hours (Article 41). Therefore, some employers/companies promote and consider managers as management representatives to avoid the weekly working-hours regulation in order to have them overwork without an overtime premium.

Those management representatives are often not credited with any authorization or allowance for the position. The media sarcastically began to call these management representatives “Nabakari-Kanrishoku” (nominal managers). Unethical Consequences of Nabakari-Kanrishoku The major reason why NK is an ethical issue is that employers/companies tend to force NK to overwork. LSA is set up for balancing employer and employee interests to protect employees’ health and human rights. Then, the relationship between employers and employees tends to favor the employers side without LSA regulation because of its power balance.

NK is not protected by the LSA weekly working-hour regulation, so they are highly likely to overwork. The research conducted by JILPT (Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training) indicates that most managers (60. 2 percent of department chief and 53. 4 percent of department head) feel their workload cannot be accomplished within their given working-hours (40 hours per week) so overwork is unavoidable (Ogura, 2009). NK’s overwork often leads to two types of unethical consequences. One is that employers/companies do not pay an adequate amount of wages to employees who are NK and overworked.

The other is that overworking NK’s damages their health and causes them to be non-workable. Both types of unethical consequences are exposed by the lawsuit of McDonald Japan in 2008. Mr. Hiroshi Takano, former store manager of the McDonald Kousaka Branch, overworked for 136 hours in a month at maximum and worked 63 days in a row (Yashiro, 2009). Even though he had worked many hours as a store manager, he did not receive a premium and his wages ended up on the same level as his subordinate’s wages, who received overtime premium every month (Yashiro, 2009).

After being overworked, he was diagnosed with an asymptomatic cerebral infarction due to overwork and lack of sleep. Under such condition, employees cannot have a healthy, balanced life. The lack of healthy, balanced life then leads to negative impacts on their performance in the workplace; therefore, employers/companies must avoid utilizing NK as their labor cost cut strategy in ethical and business management terms. When working at a Japanese Bar, Murasaki, one employee was obviously an NK.

He was expected to work and run the bar even if there were enough employees to operate. He always overworked and rarely took a day off. He ended up quitting his job when he fell sick due to overwork, and the bar experienced a tough situation after he quit. Murasaki’s unethical management not only damaged one employee, but also its business administration. Indonesia Background Information Similar to any other developing country, corruption is a prevalent ethical issue in Indonesia. Corruption takes many forms and is practiced in all levels of government.

Because Indonesia is a country with many islands with over 30 provinces, corruption is more common in some areas than in others. Srinivasan (2012) argued that there are two major categories of ethical issues: societal, that consists of widespread corruption and weak legal enforcement systems, and organizational, that consists “of creating corporate cultures within organizations that breeds ethical conduct”. Both of these categories have happened in government institutions throughout Indonesia.

Some major changes that the Indonesian government has made are: replacing employees, especially government institution managers that are guilty of corruption, changing the internal system and procedures of the institution, and encouraging citizens to help institution managers and staff to avoid corruption. One form of corruption that is very common in Indonesia is called gratification. Gratification in Local and National Government in Indonesia After the democratic revolution in 1998, Indonesia faced several presidential changes.

When the current president was elected, he formed a national committee of corruption eradication (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi or KPK) to eliminate corruption from all levels of government. Since it was formed, the committee has been able to identify and investigate corruption cases from top managers in the government. In 2010, the committee also did a survey to assess public sector integrity on a local and national level. The committee specifically focused on gratification cases using these indicators: the monetary value of gratification, as well as the time, the meaning , and the purpose of gratification giving.

The committee found that among 50 government institutions on both the national and local level that were surveyed, 24 of them have a lower integrity rate than the appointed standard integrity rate for the survey. Most institutions out of the 24 surveyed were at the local level. The giving of gratification happens when citizens pay extra fees to the institution’s staff other than the established fees to quicken and complete their documentation process or to obtain certain permits so that they don’t have to wait in line or to wait for a few days.

The research also found that gratification often happens at the beginning of the documentation process. Gratification frequently occurs when obtaining citizenship cards and building permits. For example, if a certain company wants to obtain a building permit, a representative of the company would give extra money to one of the staffs that process the document to either make sure that building permit is ready within one day or to not disqualify the company if it misses some required papers.

The committee also discovered that the working environment of institutions has an effect on whether citizens are likely to be involved in gratification giving. The committee argued that uncomfortable service environments and incomplete information cause citizens to be reluctant in processing their documents. This possibly creates external procedures by using a middle-man or giving gratification money to the institution’s staff. Overcoming the Issue

De George (1997) quoted these sentences from the Wall Street Journal: “In May 1996, the United States proposed that the “World Trade Organization (WTO) outlaw bribery on government projects. In reply, the Indonesian Trade and Industry Minister Tunky Ariwibowo said: “We do not have common standards on issues like corruption… Any effort to relate them to trade will be detrimental to the functioning of the WTO in the future’ (Wall Street Journal 6 May 1996: A14)”. As a comment to that reply, an editorial writer from the Wall Street Journal wrote a column entitled “Is Corruption an Asian Virtue? Corruption is clearly not an Asian virtue. De George continued to say that “both the Wall Street Journal’s question and the statement by the Indonesian Minister exemplify deep misunderstandings and differences between the two, and between the groups they represent”. It is clearly difficult to pinpoint what kind of ethical values should be the same for every country because there are different factors that contribute to the development of the economy and society of a country. In the research done by the national committee of corruption eradication, 56 percent of citizens believes that gratification is not acceptable.

However, many of the citizens do not fully understand the meaning of gratification, the ethical consequences of the issue, and are not assertive enough in stopping the practice. Most citizens agree that gratification is illegal and that it is something which needs to be eliminated in order to create a system that is fair and effective for every citizen. Therefore, trainings and campaigns are needed for both the government institutions and the citizens in order for each group to support the discontinuation of gratification giving. Mongolia Background Information Mongolia is a landlocked country with a population of three million people.

Mongolia was under strong Russian and Soviet influence; therefore, Mongolian politics followed the same patterns as the Soviet politics of the time. After the breakdown of communist regimes in Eastern Europe in late 1989, Mongolia saw its own democratic revolution in early 1990, which led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and a transition to market economy. The growth of the economy attracted more attention from foreign investors, whose interest in investing in the country has recently skyrocketed due to the discovery of rich minerals in MongoliaEthical dilemmas in the work field did not become a big issue until 1990.

It was difficult for a lot of Mongolians to adapt to changes in the work field because people were used to being told what they should do at work. The Development of Ethical Standards in Mongolia As in any other country, gaining a deeper understanding of the Mongolian attitude towards business ethics depends to a large extent on knowledge of the local market condition and historical background. According to IMF, The Mongolian economy is growing rapidly from 9% to 14. 4%. With continuing economic progress and interest growth from foreign investors, business ethics are likely to increase in importance.

Because some actions may be considered moral in one culture and viewed unethical in another, it is important to understand the ethical values of other countries. Choi & Zuzaan (2011) in Journal of Applied Ethics conducted a survey that identified the action and behavior of role models as a principal influence on unethical behavior in Mongolia. The result of the survey indicated that 45. 6 percent of the respondents said that unethical practices exist in their industry and 25. percent of the respondents wanted to eliminate cheating customers, dishonesty in making or keeping a contract, miscellaneous unfair competitive practices, and dishonest advertising. Giving of gifts, gratuities, and briberies are very common in Mongolian business practice, but 10. 7 percent of the survey respondents want to eliminate this unethical practice. Most international comparison agencies indicate that Mongolian companies make less effort in instilling ethical practices in their employees than in other Asian firms. However, the majority of managers in Mongolia (60. 8 percent) think their companies make an effort to some extent.

The survey results show that nearly half of the companies rely on a code of ethics and do not think that companies put enough effort into building ethical values in their organizations. If companies can put more effort into building ethical values in their organizations, they will be more successful in implementing their organization’s ethical values and feel more responsible to local communities. It is not uncommon for business managers to experience conflicts between their personal ethical beliefs and the interest of their companies. Almost half of company managers have experienced this type of conflict in their career.

More than half of the managers responded that they would act depending on the situation. One of the main reasons managers make unethical decisions is often related to personal financial needs. As the Mongolian economy continues to develop, this is expected to diminish. Looking to the Future How is today’s level of ethical standards in Mongolia compare to ten years ago? Half of the respondent managers said that it has gotten better. For example, before the 1990’s transition period, it was common for Mongolian children to drop out of school in order to help their parents herd privatized livestock.

Helping parents with livestock was given greater importance than education because it helped families accumulate wealth. Conversely, 90 percentof the total populations are high school or university graduates today. The transition resulted in making education more important in society and introducing ethics in school. Hopefully this gradual development will lead to a higher business ethic in society in the long run. Because Mongolia is a developing country, the country will continue to struggle with ethical values in the business field.

However, Mongolians have already started to practice codes of ethics and training employees in ethics. Old, Mongolian tradition, the remaining tradition of the Soviet period, and the transitional process influences how Mongolians view their personal and business ethics. As the Mongolian economy grows and progresses, an increase in building ethical value will also come along with all the other practices. Conclusion Ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and social contracts can also play into the decision making process. For example, the bribery case in Indonesia can relate to disclosure decision criteria.

Think about if those that have been involved in bribery think twice before doing so and ask a question whether this decision will affect image and reputation if it goes public. They may have avoided giving gratification money and would encourage others not to do so. Take another example, what if the nominal managers use the dignity decision criteria? They may not force their employees to work long hours because it would mean treating the employees as a mean to an end in themselves, not just as a means. As discussed above, three different Asian countries presented different ethical issues.

Nominal Manager may be a prevalent ethical issue in Japan but it may not be in Mongolia. Gratification giving is very common in Indonesia but it may not be in Japan. De George (1997) argued that each economy is a combination of the country’s political system and cultural values. Consequently, ethical justifications differ from country to country. He further gave an example of Confucian values, which include “co-operation over competition; community over the individual; paternalism over the market; long-term over shortterm interests; harmony over conflict; and loyalty, harmony and respect over their opposites”.

These values could appropriately explain the transition in countries that uphold those values and why some countries, especially in Asia, view some ethical issues differently than other countries References Choi, T. , & Zuzaan, B. (2011). Business Ethics in Emerging Markets: Evidence from Mongolia. Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 1:89-120. De George, R. T. (1997). Ethics, Corruption, and Doing Business in Asia. The Asia Pacific Journal of Economics & Business 1. 1: 39-52, 114. Direktorat Penelitian dan Pengembangan. (2011).

Integritas Sektor Publik Indonesia Tahun 2010: Fakta Korupsi Dalam Layanan Publik [Public Sector Integrity of Indonesia Year 2012: Corruption Facts in Public Sector]. Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi [Committee of Corruption Eradication]. Health, Labour, and Welfare Ministry of Japan. (n. d. ). Soumusho Hourei Deta Teikyou Shisutemu [Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry of Japan’s Legal Data Providing System]. Retrieved 10 18, 2012, from Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry of Japan: http://law. e-gov. go. jp/htmldata/S22/S22HO049. html Mizuno, Y. (2012, 1 10).

Roudou Jikan House no Kadai to Kaikaku no Houkousei [The working-hour legal problems and the direction of the restructure]. RIETI Discussion Paper Series, 1-11. Ogura, K. (2009). Kanrishoku no Roudoujikan to Gyoumuryou no Oosa [The Amount of Managers’ working-hours and Workload]. Nihon Roudou Kenkyu Zasshi [Japan Labour Research Journal], 73-87. Srinivasan, Vasanthi. (2011). Business Ethics in South and South East Asia. Journal of Business Ethics: 73-81. Yashiro, A. (2009). Naze Nabakari Kanrishoku ga Umareru no ka? [Why nominal managers emerged? ]. Nihon Roudou Kenkyu Zasshi [Japan Labour Research Journal], 38-41.

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Japan

Japan is about the same size as California. Japan is made up of many islands. The four largest islands in Japan are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku. Japan forms an arc in the Pacific Ocean. Japans total area is about 378,000 square kilometers. About 75% of Japans land is mountains. Japans highest mountain is Mount Fuji at 3776 meters. Japan has several volcanic regions and 80 volcanoes are considered active. Mount Fuji hasn’t erupted since 1707 and is considered capable of erupting again in our lifetime. To the east of Japan is the Pacific Ocean and to the west is the Sea of Japan.

Being in the middle of these two bodies of water has its advantages. Japan has a great abundance of fish! The climate in Japan varies from region to region. Japan has four distinct seasons. Spring months are March, April, and May. Summer months are June, July, and August. Autumn months are September, October, and November. Winter months are December, January, and February. Summer is hot and humid and during the winter it snows a lot on the Sea of Japan side and it is dry on the Pacific side. Japans rainy season lasts about 40 days from the months of June and July.

August to October is the typhoon season in Japan. In April, May, and November, temperatures are mild, and there is not so much rain in most parts of Japan. History They have been people living on the island of Japan for more than 30,000 years. To be able to eat they hunted deer, bears, and fish. They also, gathered nuts and berries. The main artifacts that were left behind were pots. They were marked with cords and/or ropes. Jomon means cork-marked. During the Jomon era the people in Japan learned new ideas and technologies from coming in contact with China and Korea.

They learned how to farm rice. They also learned how to make toots and weapons. This is called the Yayoi era. During the era, groups of families begin to struggle for power in the Yamato Plain. The plain lies southeast of modern Kyoto. One of the extended family groups started to dominate the others and soon name itself Japans imperial household. The head of the imperial house whose name was Kotoku became emperor in 645. Japanese beliefs were depended on for the imperial family to justify its claim to authority. The family descended from Amaterasu, the Japanese Sun Goddess.

In 974, which is known as the Heian era, the imperial household moved to a new city called Heian-kyo. Only men were allowed to rule during the Heian era. The city Heian-kyo was the center of Japanese government and nobility for 400 years. In the 700’s they had the “Creation of private estates. ” What these properties were used for is so landowners wouldn’t get taxed. In the 1100’s they had the rise of the shogun. Two large military clans, the Taira and the Minamoto, fought for power. The Minamoto clan eventually won in the 1180’s.

They began to take over land from private land owners. During the Tokugawa era, the Tokugawa took over 75% of Japan. In the 1600’s Japan was now home to five groups of foreigners: Portuguese, Spanish, English, Dutch, and Chinese. The Tokugawa thought Christianity was an outsider religion and did not support and that is why they did not agree with the foreigners. They eventually expelled the foreigners from Japan in the 1630’s. Japan had now put an end to centuries of war and was now closed off from the rest of the world. In 1853, contact with the west ended in direct changes.

In 1867, they restored the emperor to his throne and made Japan known as a well securitized, dangerous, and competitive world. After defeating China in war, Japan assumed control over Taiwan in 1895. Korea fell under Japanese control in 1910 following a brutal war between Japan and Russia in 1905. In 1939 World War II began, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on Dec. 7, 1941. They also bombed U. S. bases which began a war between the Japanese and America. Japan surrendered on August 14th, they had agreed to end the war. Culture Japan has a population of about 126 million.

Japan is a wealthy and extremely safe country. The official language of Japan is Japanese. Many Japanese can also speak English to an extent. At almost all their meals the Japanese drink tea and eat rice. In Japan fish is most used for meals. The two most major religions that are practiced in Japan are Shinto and Buddhism. Japanese society imposes strong expectations on women and men. Women are expected to marry in their 20’s, and take on the role of a house mom. They play a strong role in raising their children. Japanese are very strict about education.

Students must attend 9 years of school then attend a University. Students who attend a University have a better rate of getting a good job than the others. Japan has a rich literary heritage. The country’s literature mostly deals with the quality of human life and never-ending flowing time. Japanese families enjoy one of the highest income levels in the world, and their assets and savings are one of the worlds largest. Japan’s economy is one of the largest in the world. Japan’s manufactured products range from tiny computer components to giant oceangoing ships.

The most important manufactured products include cars and trucks, electronic products, and communications and data processing equipment. Japan has a wide variety of minerals, but supplies of most are too small to satisfy the nation’s needs. Japan imports large quantities of coal, copper, iron ore, and petroleum. The chief mining products include coal, copper, gold, lead, nickel, and silver. Japan has a modern transportation system, including airports, highways, railroads, and coastal shipping. Japan has thriving publishing and broadcasting industries. The nation has about 120 daily newspapers.

Japan is a country of drinkers. There are a few rituals of drinking. First, you never pour yourself a drink. A word you’ll hear often when drinking is “Kampai,” it means cheers in Japanese. The most popular sport in Japan is baseball. It was brought to Japan in 1873 by a US teacher. Other sports in Japan are Football which is known as Soccer in America, Sumo Wrestling, and Speed Boat Racing. The Geisha in Japan have been symbols of Japan ever since the reopening of contacts with the West in the mid-nineteenth century. The Geishas were there to be the entertainment in the mid-18th century.

Japanese Holidays On January 15th of every year Japan celebrate “Coming of Age Day. ” All of the people who have celebrated 20th birthdays in the previous year get together and celebrate. Each February 3rd in Japan is known as Setsubun. The word Setsubun means separation of seasons. It marks the beginning of the “Eve of Springs. ” The Doll’s Festival, or Girl’s festival, is celebrated on March 3rd. Originally, the holiday was a simple seasonal event especially in rural areas. It took place a month later after the pleasantly warm spring season had begun.

For this reason the occasion was sometimes called The Peach Blossom Festival. To celebrate girls growth and good health, dolls dressed in Heian period costumes are displayed on a tiered stand. These dolls represent the Emperor and Empress, their noble court ladies in waiting and ministers. On March 20th they celebrate Vernal Equinox Day. Vernal Equinox is one of the most traditional Japanese National Holidays. They celebrate Heisei emperor’s birthday on December 23rd. Government Japan has a government that is guided by the rules and principles of a Constitutional Monarchy and a Parliamentary Government.

The government of Japan has the features and characteristic that a parliamentary government should possess. On the other had the constitutional monarchic system that Japan has as an integral part of its government, has added a unique characteristic to its administrative system. Japan government is democratic and is ruled by the parliament. Japan parliament is known as Diet. Diet again has two houses. These two houses are House of Representatives and House of Councilors. In the cabinet, there is the prime minister with others elected members from different states. Together they administer the executive branch of the government.

There are five main political parties in the Diet. These are, Liberal Democratic party, Democratic Party of Japan, New Clean Government Party, Japan Communist Party and Social Democratic Party. The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. Since World War II, office has appointed by the Japanese Diet and by convention is the leader of the majority party which has usually been the Liberal Democratic Party. To be precise, according to the Constitution, the emperor appoints the Prime Minister among members of the Diet regarding the advice from the Diet.

Because of the fractionized and consensus nature of Japanese politics, the Prime Minister has very little power. His position as President of the majority party involves negotiation with party faction leaders, and legislation is usually initiated and reviewed by party committees rather than by the cabinet. Furthermore, substantial power is actually wielded by the Japanese civil service over which the Prime minister has little control. The current Prime Minister of Japan is Naoto Kan. The first ever Prime Minister of Japan was Hirobumi Ito.

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Why Did the Japanese Take over Manchuria?

There are a few reasons why the Japanese chose to take over Manchuria. One reason is that the Japanese had owed a rail line and had claimed that the Chinese had sabotaged the railway; this was called the Mukden incident. The Japanese then sent in their own troops to Manchuria and claimed that they had acted in self defence and were just resolving that issue.

Another reason is that the Japanese had suffered from the great depression and was seeking a way to overcome the depression by expanding its empire, the Japanese was at the time being run by the military and therefore was building up its army and therefore the Japanese invaded Manchuria to show how powerful their military was.

Finally, Japan felt they needed to take over Manchuria was because Manchuria had much raw materials and by making Manchuria part of Japan they would have an unlimited supply of resources that there country was in need of and they will be able to expand their economy and therefore Japan wouldn’t be in such an economical crisis. The League of Nations had responded by sending over some officers to asses which country was the aggressor although it was thought from beginning that Japan was the aggressive country.

The league took a long time to respond and we see that the league wasn’t as powerful as before, as when they did impose economical sanctions Japan had not listened. Japan carried on with their invasion and the League was powerless to stop them as they had no army to stop them with. Another reason the League didn’t stop them was as they were a powerful country and we see that the league only sorted out successful disputes when dealing with countries that didn’t have much power.

As well as that, Britain and France were also suffering from the great depression and focused on restoring their countries problems rather than sorting out disputes. Japan was also far away from Europe so the league didn’t feel as responsible to deal with the affairs that were not in Europe. One main reason the league was unsuccessful was because the Japanese had left the League of Nations when the League instructed them to leave and the League was then left powerless against them.

The Leagues response indicated that they were weak in forcing a strong country to listen to them and as well the League was falling apart as all the major countries involved in the League were more interested to restore their country after the great depression than actually invest in the League and force its sanctions. The League was also powerless as when they had imposed economical sanctions it didn’t really destroy the country’s economy as Russia and the USA were not part of the league and as they were powerful countries their not being part of the League reflected on the Leagues ability to enforce these sanctions.

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Korea and Japan

By the end of 19th and the beginning 20th century nationalist agenda of Korean intellectuals was built around the “civilization and enlightenment” tenet. The sweeping pace of European penetration made Koreans aware of their backwardness. Redemption of the past and reformation of the present was a primary aim of Korean intellectuals, which grouped in publicists’ coteries and promulgated a Gospel of “Civilization and Enlightenment.” Touted as universal and praised by the writers who dominated public opinion the nationalistic reform project was shaped and started to exert mighty influence upon virtually every stratum of society. Unrivaled by any other distinct opinion the newspapers and magazines’ writers pushed the country towards “Civilization”.

The early calamity and unrest was an indication of the power crisis in Korea. The peasant upraise of 1894 almost overthrew the King’s authority (p. 25) and inspired subsequent massive Kabo reform program (p. 30,104). Frailty of King’s power and imminent intrusion of China troops made Japan promptly assume the Liberating role. The tone of Kabo reform and the prominent political figures bore a Japanese touch. The young politics engaged in reforms were Koreans who recently fled to Japan and returned on the wave of national revivalism. The outcome of Sino-Japanese war evidenced Japanese industrial and military superiority and underscored the “new knowledge” assosiated with West exclusively in the past and Japan and West presently. (p.57)

Though journalists and intellectuals did not endorse the internal mutiny and emphasized a deliberative and civilized passage to the aim, the symptoms of the crisis may only contribute to the credibility of the much-professed “Civilization and Enlightenment” tenet. The internal issues occupied the most of the papers’ space. Self-abasement and derision on the deep rooted Korean parochialism made the agenda of the day. In general, it was the pundits of the nation that revealed the vices of Korean individuals. “The people were the basis of national power.” (p. 39) “Family was juxtaposed with nation, the former being the source of superstition and the latter associated with “civilization and enlightenment.” (p. 40).

The undividuals were building blocks of the nation. Korean intellectuals deemed progress and enlightenment to be within their reach. The nations, in their turn, became the units of globalized world, sharing the common trajectory and destined for further Enlightenment and development. The atmosphere of alien, European presence inside Korea would only incite their country’s progress. Notably, the concept of social Darwinism, inherent with modern science, was not endorsed by Korean authors. Instead, they pursuited the model of Idealistic Globalization with themselves as men “of this internationalized age” (p. 42) speaking for the nation.

The “selfstrengthening logic” penetrated the intire spectrum of nationalist press which in effect was but “the cacophonous voice of intellectuals committed to “Civilization and Enlightenment”(p.46). Korean newspapers prior to 1905 were rather popular but almost always in straitened conditions. (p.51) Nevertheless, they “brought together leading government officials with its nonofficial members.” (p.49). “Reimagining of the nation away from the conceptual framework” inherited from the early regime as well as from spatial network with China in the center was new nationalist agenda.

To detach from Chinese origin and return to own culture meant to vindicate the national grace. “To be sure, writers did differ in their representations of China as barbarous. But in a press that, despite divergent political stances, uniformly defined its mandate as enlightening the people, these difference were mainly a matter of tone.” (p. 59). At the time, China seemed to lose all of its past cultural significance and turned to “the laughing stock of the world.”.

The revering of the foreign and the loss of national dignity was ascribed to early Chinese culture’s intrusion which, in the terms of social reformism, might only mean the call for cultural purification as a mean of attaining national purity. The language issues were the first to be addressed. “As the “new knowledge” intruded into Korea along with the guns and capital of the imperialist powers, the privileged relationship between knowledge and characters was increasingly challenged.” (p. 66) The influence of Chinese patronage was cut off by the hand of King which vested into the yellow robes of emperors in October 1897, thus undermining the exclusiveness of title which belong only to China and Japan ruler. (p. 74).

Nevertheless, the cultural approximity and the feeling of shared destiny called for East countries’ alliance against the West. Though China was dethroned, the newly emerged category of the West pooled Chinese positive features along side with those of Japan and Korea.   “According to the logic of decentering the “Middle Kingdom,” what was Chinese, and thus rejected, was in this fashion subsumed into the category of the East, to which these Korean authors could still lay claim.” (p. 82). “The three countries of our yellow race are mutually dependent, like an axle and cart or lips and teeth.” (p. 89).

The regional identity was based on the intrinsic fears of the West civilization. The threat of Russians which will subdue Korea was exploited by Japanese. (p.92). “The dilemma for the editors was how to reconcile this historic vision of an East-West struggle with the contemporary reality that it was a fellow Eastern nation that presented the most immediate threat to their sovereignty” was never surmounted.

The vivid symbol of the fire which engulfed the neighborhood and, incited by the severe winds of the Western imperialism, tends to spill into the bordering areas instigated a perception of the common cause and inseparability of China, Korea and Japan. (p. 90) Gradually, Korea turned into a colonized country by its protector. The production of national knowledge was compromised by Japanese censors activity. The information and literature tended to be of Japanese origin. The translated works were available only in Japan.

The intellectual dependency became possible because “both structured their respective political projects around “civilization and enlightenment.” and the overlapping of strategies only emphisezed the affinity Korean and Japanese reform agenda. (p.105) Some go on denouncing Japanese achievements and the righteousness of the fact that Japan  sided with the civilized countries of the West. The most defied profile was a cultural authencicity of Japan and did not give in to colonialists powers. “The material civilization of Japan, which it boasts leads the East, all came with the arrival of Western ships. And what Japan boasts to the world as its own unique culture was all once imported from our country.” (p.109).

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Korean and japanese cinema

Introduction

The emergence of the Japanese film industry could be dated back to the year 1898 through the emergence of the silent films whereas the Korean film’s that the Koreans produced started since the year 1919 (Paquet, 2007)… This essay would then focus on Korean directors’ usage of women to elicit political and social implications. Firstly, these depictions could intensify the changing roles of the women in Korean society and secondly, it could elicit reactions from both the female and male audience. In the hopes of further deepening these implications, a view on Japanese women would also be used as a comparison.

Korean view on women in society and the Director’s perspective on leading ladies

From the Confucian ideal of a woman is depicted through the main role of women is to be prepared in becoming a wife and a mother (Paik, 1998). Nowadays, Korean women are entering the working sphere of the country whereas before it was limited to the male species. The directors then would like to highlight the women in a movie especially when the societal changes are much concerned with the women of the society. These depictions could bring forth the reactions from both the female and male viewers.

An example on the changing view of women’s role in society is through the film, ‘YMCA Yagudan’ or ‘YMCA Baseball Team’ where the leading lady’s character is depicted to be modernized and she had a major influence on the leading man.

Japanese view on women in society and the implication on societal changes resembling the Koreans’ changes and the director’s depiction for these changes

Like the Korean women, Japanese women are confined to what is known to be the private sphere. The duties then lie on the men’s shoulders to provide for the family. The Japanese view on women then gradually changed by using what is known to be the private sphere or domain where women belongs to a more public domain and become a way to see that the private sphere in the form of the household is matriarchal in nature (Friedman, 1992).

It could be seen in the Japanese film, Hotaro no haka’ or ‘Grave of the Fireflies’ that the male main character had the burden to provide for his sister, the female main character. Nonetheless, the changing role on women in Japan then could be seen through the changes that the two siblings had to undergo in order to survive and breaking free from the usual connotation of the family structure would be a leeway for the changes to be realized (Jubei, 1995). In a way, both the sibling depicts the changes in societal perspectives by escaping the society imposition of what they ought to do. The sister along with the brother’s pride became the motivations in running away.

Conclusion

What could be inferred from all these claims is that the leading lady’s role in a film could be a way to see the social changes and the political stands. In a Korean film, it could elicit reactions from both the women and men. Another reason is that highlighting the women predicament in a film could make the audience see the societal changes in women’s role.

References

Friedman, S. (1992). Women in Japanese Society: Their changing Roles.   Retrieved August 27, 2007, from http://www2.gol.com/users/friedman/writings/p1.html

Jubei, Y. S. (1995). Hotaro no Haka (Grave of the Fireflies).   Retrieved August 24, 2007, from http://www2.hawaii.edu/~dfukushi/Hotaru.html

Paik, Y.-J. (1998). Women’s Development and Information on Women in Korea.   Retrieved August 24, 2007, from http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla64/112-122e.htm

Paquet, D. (2007). A Short History of Korean Film.   Retrieved August 27, 2007, from http://www.koreanfilm.org/history.html

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How Far Was the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905?

How far was the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, responsible for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution? The Russo- Japanese War, although an important rationale for the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution , was caused by many other problems which made a foundation for the War as well as the Revolution. Due to the War the economy suffered, adding on to the problems that Russia was already facing from a lack of preceding modernization, making this very important as the majority were affected causing them to revolt.

Furthermore, Russia lost against Japan in the War portraying the Tsar as weaker compared to how he was already viewed by the population, making this another very important factor as the Russians felt they needed a stronger leader and in distress turned to extremist political parties. In addition another important factor is, the extremist parties in particular, felt that the autocratic rule of the Tsar was causing Russia to suffer, seeing that the people were not being heard resulting in them gaining extremist views and rebel.

The Russo- Japanese War was a short term factor, which was only partly responsible for the outbreak of the Revolution. The Russian military lost miserably to the Japanese and this was a huge blow to the Russians as due to censorship, they had always conceived the Japanese to be inferior and weaker, making them certain that they would win. The defeat was seen as national humiliation, helping to cause unrest towards the Government and making the Tsar look weak, giving encouragement to the revolutionaries.

In addition the overall cost of the War was very high, meaning that the already suffering Russian economy was plummeted further into trouble resulting in the tarnishing of the state finances made by Witte. However, it mainly helped to prolong the Revolution as many of the events of the war took place after the Revolution had begun. Long before the Russo-Japanese War had begun, Russia was still facing Economic turbulences and this is one of the main contributors to the outbreak of the Revolution.

A revolt by the Peasants who were discontent due to only small individual plots for each family being distributed and bad harvests meant that there was massive industrial growth, resulting in an economy boom and building expectations of a better life for peasants . An industrial ‘slump’ caused social discontent of economic misfortune as Russian peasants and workers forced the uncertainty of poverty and poor living conditions. This caused major resentment to the Tsar both in industry and agriculture with his social and economic regime.

In addition, due to Russia being backwards, even under Witte the Russian economy had failed to reach or exceed the output in production of goods as the other Great Powers although being the largest continuous land Empire. The low production in goods meant that Russia’s trade also suffered. The overall state of the economy meant many problems which were causing much unrest such as poor living conditions were left unresolved and the resentment towards the Tsar continued to grow. Russia was under autocratic rule and this is also one of the main contributors to the outbreak of the 1905 Revolution.

Autocratic rule was disliked by many as many people believed that under the Autocratic rule Russia was suffering and there needed to be a change in the way the country was led in order for the country to progress. This caused many political groups to gain extremist views. The extremist groups such as the Social Revolutionaries became very popular as they wanted to give political power to the peasants, who made up 80% of the total population and solving their problems would mean that the whole of Russia would benefit greatly.

This shows that the groups were becoming more organized and strategic in the way they worked as they were targeting the biggest problems, in addition in order to gain publicity and get their message and views across, political groups were responsible for over 2000 assassinations which included the Interior Minister, Plehve and the Tsars Uncle, Grand Duke Sergei, the Governor of Moscow.

Furthermore, the demand for political reform continued growing as just like the Russian economy, Russian politics was also backwards and unlike other European states, Russia had elected bodies being the Zemstva, instead of an elected national parliament. This meant that the Russian population had no say in how the country was run which angered many and in turn meant that they supported extremist political groups in an attempt to force political change. Alexander ii’s reforms were also partly responsible for the outbreak of the War.

Although the Emancipation of Serfs Act was passed in 1861,the peasants were still not completely free as they could not leave their villages without permission from the elders. The fact that they also had to pay redemption payments for 49 years added to their animosity towards the Tsar. In addition, landowners had to sell their land to the Government, meaning that they were in great debt and like the peasants their resentment towards the Tsar continued to grow. Due to Russia’s economical state many of these problems continued to grow as did the resentment.

The weaknesses of Nicholas ii, although not as important as the other factors such as economic and political, also influenced the outbreak of the Revolution. As Russia was under autocratic rule, the majority needed to be under his control. This was very hard for Nicholas as he was very shy and timid, not qualities the Russians admired in their leader. His image was also affected by events such as the Russo-Japanese War as the result meant that Russia’s pride was damaged. Bloody Sunday also affected how he was viewed by his Country as he had been accused on turning against his own people.

It was also said that he had no political knowledge, which many people blamed for Russia’s turbulences. Therefore people saw him unfit to rule. Bloody Sunday was only minutely responsible for the outbreak of the Revolution as it was merely a spark. Although it was only a short term cause it had a damaging effects that angered many. Although the Tsar was not present at the time it still harmed his popularity as he was no longer the ‘Little Father’ who was on their side and would listen to them if they petitioned.

He had destroyed the trust causing them to revolt. In conclusion, the Russo- Japanese War, although important as it highlighted and added to many of the issues already present in Russia, was merely a factor that prolonged the Revolution. The most important factors were the Economical and Political, as they showed Russia’s latent issues whereas the War made people more aware. The Russo- Japanese War itself was a problem that helped merely to prolong a revolution that would have occurred even without it.

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Panasonic and Japan’s Changing Culture

Case #2; Panasonic and Japan’s Changing Culture 1. Some of the drivers of the cultural changes in the 1990’s with Panasonic were that Japan’s generation of workers, starting with the generation born in the 1960’s, did not wholly believe in being a “salaryman” and working for a company from when they start until when they retire. After many years, in the 1990’s Japan entered an economic slump that lasted the majority of the 1990’s.

Only a few companies at first started to lay off employees and go back on their promises of employment until retirement because the older their workers, although they worked hard, also were less efficient than younger workers were. As the younger generations saw this happening they concluded that loyalty to both the company and workers would not be reciprocated anymore and became less harder working than previous. This undermined the traditional culture in Japan of the central bargains of housing and retirement packages for an employees hard work and loyalty. 2.

Japan’s businesses in the future have to operate with more than one plan when they hire workers to effectively. In 1999 Panasonic gave recruits three different choices when they were signed on in employment. They could continue with being given housing, go free to company social events, and buy cheaper services from banks, while also receiving a two year salary bonus when they retired. They could choose to forgo the retirement bonus, while keeping the company housing and be given a higher salary, or they could forgo the retirement bonus and any subsidized services but would be given an even higher salary.

In addition to the changes in hiring, companies needed employees to be more risk taking and needed to encourage individuality which is something that was not very prevalent in Japan. Without employees taking risks, companies would suffer and that is what happened to Panasonic as they were forced to close thirty factories, and cut 13,000 jobs while selling “huge amounts of assets”. 3. Japanese culture in the 1950’s-1980’s benefited Panasonic greatly because of how after the World War II defeat, Japan was humiliated and it seemed fair that they would be taken care of if they worked hard for their company.

For Panasonic this was a great thing because employees worked extremely hard for the greater good of Panasonic and Panasonic responded by giving the employees “blessings” of company housing, and free social events. 4. With Panasonic cutting 15,000 employees and closing another additional 27 plants, Panasonic is trying to achieve a lower overhead cost in operation and also is trying to find out who their best workers are so that they are not kept down when they should be promoted.

By quickly responding to the recession, it showed a change in Panasonic’s company policies and shows that they might be moving even further away from company subsidized housing and to make employees become harder workers not because they know that they cannot be fired, but that they can be fired, at any time. If Panasonic implements these changes quickly, they will receive a lot of backlash from all those displaced employees and if they did it like this it would truly symbolize how Panasonic has changed into a company that is becoming westernized and is only concerned with how the company does and not their employees.

If the changes take years to implement, although it would greatly affect the profitability of the company, it would give employees chances to adapt to changes of no longer being employed and give them chances to be hired in another company. By making changes slowly, Panasonic would be able to claim that it still wished to use the old way of never cutting jobs but it could not do it in this economy and had to do so to survive. 5.

The Panasonic case teaches me that there is a fine line between societal culture and business success and sometimes you have to be able to choose between the two to realize which is more important to you. To some companies, such as Panasonic, trying hard to keep with the societal culture becomes too much of a strain for a company to bear so they are forced to adapt and realize that business success is more important that having all your workers love you. It may not be the type of business practice that gives you the best reputation but it will give you the greatest profit margins.

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Tom from Canada vs Hoshi from Japan

Culture affects every aspect of a human life. It is also very important while making a managerial decision. The case presented in chapter 5 proves that being born in the Western or Japanese culture determines a lot our attitude to decision-making with all its consequences. According to the information included in the case, Tom is a Canadian manager, who makes decision on his own, without consulting in with his team. He presents very individualistic attitude. It is completely different as far as we consider Hoshi’s way of making decisions.

He, on the other hand, spent a lot of time convincing people working with him to agree to the new inventory-control system. Hoshi is a collectivist-manager. Another significant difference between the two managers is that Tom was task-oriented and counted for a quick and positive result of his decision, for an achievement and maybe a promotion, without taking into consideration implications that it might have on his employees. Unlike the Canadian manager, Hoshi paid more attention to the fact how his co-workers will get used to working with the new system.

Joint decision making in the Japanese subsidiary had a severe implications for the performance. Unfortunately, it also turned out that just informing subordinates is not effective either. Each of the managers driven by attitudes characteristic of their cultural scripts and they did what they thought was the best for their subsidiaries. However, what would work best is a mix of these two. Tom and Hoshi would get better results if their had found a middle solution before making the final decision and introducing the new system.

Tom should not have done the task rush. After being informed, employees were surprised and not really convinced about the idea. This fact should have already attract the manager’s attention so that he hires a coach just in the beginning. If the Tom’s behaviour was any more collectivist, perhaps he would not trust only his own knowledge but would also ask other competent people of his subsidiary on their opinion. Furthermore, Tom did not care enough about his team, he did not really notice the moment just before key employees handed in their resignations.

As a result, as being too sure of the fact that what he does is right, he could not react properly while it was essential. Rational decision-making cannot be successful as long as we do not include the indispensable human factor. In my opinion, Hoshi’s biggest mistake was waiting for the consensus. It is obvious that the Japanese culture is much more collectivist that the Western one, nevertheless the role of the manager should always be the same – taking care of his/her subordinates on one hand and making final decisions in the right time on the other.

Having consensus as a priority, Hoshi forgot about the task to do and he did not realize when the change was really important for the further operating of the subsidiary. He should have been the person, who despite discussion and egalitarism, regarding people’s and company’s needs do his job. Moreover, he should have also met Mr. Bortolo expectations, it means introducing the system in the reasonable time. The CEO of the company understood characteristics and culture differences and gave the managers choice.

But it seems to me that Hoshi overstrained the possibility given and it led him to a failure. To sum up, both managers made some mistakes caused by their cultural scripts. Rush decision making as well as really slow decision making resulted in huge losses for the subsidiaries and for the company as a whole. If Tom and Hoshi exchanged their views, attitudes before and mix them, learnt something from each other, they could be both successful and satisfied with the results they could present.

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Female Mill Workers in England and Japan

Ariana Delgado History, B Mr. Carmer March 24, 2013 Comparing Workers in England and Japan The Industrial Revolution was the greatest transforming event in human history. Big factors in the revolution were the human figures. Such as exhausted laborers pouring molten steel or the eight year old child working with a bottling machine. But the main focus will be the women and young girls in the textile industry of England and Japan. Most spinning and weaving for the textile industry were done in homes and small shops but a big change in human history was when process of spinning and weaving were moved to factories and done by machine.

Because women and young girls have such nimble fingers they were perfect for operating the machines since they required special skills. In England the textile revolution began around 1760 and a series of inventions changed the way cloth was made in England. Many of the inventions were replacing hand weaving and spinning and moved to the factories. As textile manufactures went from the home to the factory, so did thousands of English women. In Japan the revolution began in 1868 when a teen-age emperor, Mutsuhito took over a new power in Japanese government.

The goal was to make Japan an equal to western nations. To accomplish this, they began to invest in coal mines, textile mills, shipyards and many others. Technology for the investments already existed it was more of a question of seeking out advice. This is when European experts were invited to Japan to advise the Japanese on how to establish industry. In conclusion, European and Japanese female mill workers were very similar and critical to the rise in power. Some examples of differences between female mill workers are wage, age and working conditions.

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Comparison Between Japan and America in Education

Every country perceives the importance of education. Any country that keeps their people uneducated or does not help to educate cannot make them as a responsible person. America and Japan both feel very strongly about education and that they need to have well educated people. Both of these countries have educational systems that are similar in some ways and yet very different in other ways. In order to understand the education between the two countries, it is useful to compare the system of the failure, school uniform, and entrance examination.

First of all, there is a difference from the system of the failure between Japan and America. America adopts the system of the failure from the elementary school. When the teacher decides that the student should take the grade again because of his or her inadequate understanding for the class, the student must take the same curriculum. On the other hand, Japan does not adopt the system from the elementary school. The system is used from the high school. In Japan, the compulsory education is from the elementary school to the junior high school.

Inside the period, the system of failure is not applied. In the case of the failure in Japan, thirty percent is the deadline in each test. In the system of the failure of the two countries, the primary education and the secondary education are completely different. However, from the higher education, the system is the same. Not only the system of failure, but also the school uniform is another difference. In Japan, almost all students wear the school uniform every day from elementary school to high school.

It’s good for students themselves because they do not need to worry about their cloths every day. Their parents also do not care about the cost of the cloths. In contrast, almost all students in America do not wear the school uniform. Some private schools adopt the school uniform, but it is rare to see the uniform in America. As for the school uniform, there is no similarity. Furthermore, there are the difference and similarity in the entrance examination.

In Japan, a lot of universities depend on the written test to measure the student’s academic ability. On the other hand, in America, many universities make a point of the student’s character. The essay is one of the good ways to make students express their own opinions. Although Japanese universities adopt the written test in the entrance examination, many high schools use the creative tests in the entrance examination to measure the students’ character. One of the good examples is the interview.

Interviewer can know their character soon. Similarly, American schools use the telephone interview. In the entrance examination, there are the same ways and difference ways in the two countries. Although there are many similarities and differences between the educational systems of Japan and America, it is hard to declare that one is better than the other. It is useful to compare the educational system of the failure, school uniform, and entrance examination to understand the education between Japan and America.

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Adolf Hitler and Japanese Canadians War

WWII ESSAY TOPICS Please Note: You need to form an historical research question for your topic. The answer to your question is your thesis statement 1. How and why was Germany allowed to annex Austria and the Sudetenland? Was there any justification for Britain and France’s policy of appeasement? 2. Discuss the role that Italy played in World War II. How did the nation become involved in the conflict? How did its participation affect the direction of the war and Germany’s fortunes? 3. Discuss the issues surrounding the United States’ decision to use atomic bombs against Japan.

What motives were behind this action, and what arguments have been made against it? 4. Explain how the situation in Europe immediately following the fall of Germany led directly to the Cold War. In your opinion, should the Western Allies have acted to oppose Soviet domination of Eastern Europe? 5. Consider the role of technology during World War II. Did it fundamentally affect the outcome of the war? If so, how? If not, why not? 6. Compare the roles of Germany and Japan during World War II. Generally speaking, were their aggressions fundamentally similar or fundamentally different? . Explain Germany’s mistakes in Russia and the ways in which they affected the outcome of the war. 8. Why did the British government give in to German demands regarding Czechoslovakia in 1938, but took a relatively firmer stand over Poland in 1939? 9. Compare Soviet and British policies toward Poland between 1943 and 1945, focusing on both aims and outcomes. 10. Did the nature of German rearmament between 1935 and 1939 support the view that Hitler was planning for a Blitzkrieg war? 11. Asses and explain whether the internment of Japanese Canadians justified during World War Two? 2. Discuss the major differences between how the allies treated Germany after World War Two with World War One and how it may have been better. 13. Compare the strategic significance of the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Britain. 14. Discuss Blittzkrieg and the importance of this tactic during World War Two. 15. Assess and explain the role of women during WWII and compare them to WWI. 16. The Second World War had consequences for European society and the world at large that were every bit as profound as the changes wrought by World War I.

Assess these consequences as they became evident in 1945 as the war ended as well as for the years following from the standpoint of physical losses (casualties, refugees, infrastructure, etc. ) as well as the political and territorial settlements in Europe and the world at large. 17. To what extent were the German’s people responsible for Hitler/ Holocaust. 18. Compare WWI to WWII, identifying similarities in the causes, development, and outcomes of the wars. Other topics to consider Appeasement (WLM King) Isolationism

The Treaty of Versailles The League of Nations (failure of) Dieppe D-Day (Juno Beach) Liberation of Holland Dunkirk (evacuation of) Battle of Britain Battle of the Atlantic Role of Technology / Canadian war production Anti-Semitism in Canada Internment of Japanese Canadians War on the homefront – War production / Changing role of women TOPIC LIST Blitzkreig The Battle of the Atlantic Women’s Royal Canadian Naval Service (Wrens) Lebensraum The Brtsh Commonwealth Air Training Plan Canadian Women’s Auxiliary Airforce

Occupation of the Rhineland Camp X The Munich Pact Cdn Women’s Army Corps D-Day The Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact The Battle for Normandy Canadian War Brides Dunkirk Treaty of Versailles The Royal Cdn Air Force Wm. L. Mackenzie King War on the Homefront War Propaganda The Home Front General Guy Simonds Canada and the Italian Campaign Conscription The Scheldt Estuary The Internment of Japanese Canadians Liberation of the Netherlands Canada and Hong Kong Juno Beach The Battle of the Atlantic VE Day Dieppe Verrieres Ridge

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Japanese Readings

Japanese I, 3rd Edition Notes on Japanese Culture and Communication The objective of Pimsleur’s Japanese I, Third Edition is to introduce you to the language and culture of Japan primarily through your ears, and only secondarily through your eyes. This approach is based upon the fact that more than 95 percent of our lives is spent in listening and talking, and less than 5 percent in reading and writing. The most effective and productive way to begin acquiring these necessary communication skills is by actually working with the “language in use,” as demonstrated by native speakers of the language being learned.

Efficiency is greatly increased when what you learn first are the most-frequently-used structures and daily life vocabulary, so that you practice with the practical tools you require every day. This carefully selected “core-language” allows the tutor to keep you focused entirely on essential language. This is self-motivating because you will begin to use it immediately and successfully. Language and culture are so closely intertwined that learning them separately can make you literally “culturally-deprived,” that is, unable to produce appropriate and meaningful language.

For this reason you must carefully notice the different ways the Japanese “act” in the various situations you will experience as you proceed through the units of this course. Being sensitive to “who is doing what to whom, and why,” is what you have learned to do almost unconsciously in your native tongue – you will attain this same sense of “awareness” as you gain proficiency in your new language. This implicit instruction will come from the lessons, as you learn to identify the intonation and melody of the speakers.

This Booklet will provide additional explicit instruction to further confirm what you have learned. The Notes have also been recorded on the last CD? cassette. Acquiring the culture, “the map of the territory,” is like acquiring the terminology of a subject: it enables you to operate as a fellow member in that society. Your success in working with native speakers of Japanese will depend to some extent upon how sensitive you become to the accumulated heritage that is Japanese. Unit 1 umimasen In this unit, you have learned sumimasen for “Excuse me. ” You will find yourself using and hearing this expression quite often in your interactions with the Japanese. sumimasen is used for several purposes. It is often used to express the speaker’s sincere and polite attitude toward others. However, Japanese people use this expression to convey not only “Excuse me,” but also “I’m sorry,” and even “Thank you. ” You will hear them say sumimasen to attract someone’s attention when initiating a conversation, as was demonstrated in the Unit.

You might also hear this expression from someone who mistakenly steps on your foot in a crowded train and wishes to apologize. It is a very useful expression in a wide range of social contexts. Word Order You noticed in this unit that the Japanese word order is very different from what you are accustomed to in English. Such words as masu, masen, and masu ka – which determine whether the speaker is making a statement, negating or asking something – come at the end of a sentence. You need to, therefore, listen to the speaker all the way through to the end of the sentence to find out the speaker’s intention.

This may be confusing to you at first, but as you become skillful, you will be able to use this sentence structure to your advantage, as you can carefully sense the listener’s feeling while you speak. You can then decide on the overall tone of your message by modifying the ending accordingly. Unit 2 Expressions of Modesty and Deference in Japanese Communication In this unit you heard a person expressing modesty when receiving a compliment from another person on his ability to speak Japanese.

When someone compliments the Japanese on good work, nice clothes, a beautiful house, a wonderful dinner, etc. , it is customary for them to downplay their abilities, possessions, etc. While negating a compliment may be considered a sign of lack of confidence or even insincerity in some cultures, the Japanese frequently use it as an expression of modesty and deference in daily communication. As a case in point, consider this conversation: “That was a wonderful meal! You are a great cook, suzuki san. ” “Oh, no. I only followed a recipe. Anybody can cook. ” “I certainly can’t.

Could you teach me? ” “Can I teach? Oh, no. You cook far better than I can. I’m the one who needs to take lessons from you. Suzuki may be seen as too modest by American standards, but this is socially acceptable behavior in Japan. This humility is only seen as avoiding appearing to be arrogant or conceited. ~ ne In this unit you also heard ne at the end of sentences, as in nihongo ga wakarimasu ne. It is roughly equivalent to the English “isn’t it? ” “aren’t you? ” “don’t you? ” etc. The use of ne shows that the speaker expects the listener to agree with him or her.

You will hear this used frequently in Japanese; in fact, some people may end virtually every sentence with ne. Living in a more collectivistic society than the U. S. , the Japanese value being aligned with and maintaining harmonious relationships with others. The frequent use of ne illustrates their desire to avoid creating any potential for conflict or disagreement with one another. Unit 3 Omission of Subjects Japanese speakers often rely on the listener’s ability to understand their real intention from what appears to be subtle and evasive verbal and nonverbal signals.

Being able to leave some things unsaid so that the other can read between the lines is an important skill in Japanese communication. A person who explains things in great detail is considered legalistic and is often frowned upon. The frequent omission of subjects is one example of this ambiguous and seemingly incomplete form of Japanese communication. This style of speech may frustrate foreign learners of Japanese at first. but after a while it will become natural. The Japanese language has several words for “you. ” The one to use depends upon the speaker’s relationship with the person being spoken to.

Among these are the common anata, which was introduced in this unit, the informal anta, the formal kimi (often used by a superior to address his or her junior), and omae, used only by male speakers. However, you will often hear people address one another without using any of these, simply leaving “you” to be understood. Domo domo is used to emphasize your politeness, as in domo arigato gozaimasu. It is used for a variety of purposes: to indicate “indeed” and “very much” as in this unit, to show the speaker’s suspicious feeling as in domo okashii, “I have a doubt about it,” or to mean “by any means. Japanese speakers are very fond of using domo in many contexts. Although in formal, “correct” speech, domo should be followed by a word that it modifies, Japanese speakers often use it alone. You will often hear them say domo, domo when they greet each other. Unit 4 Questions Phrased with a Negative When speaking to Japanese speakers and phrasing a question with a negative such as “Aren’t you tired? ” or “Isn’t it hot today? ” you will find that they will sometimes reverse “yes” and “no. ” For example, when asked “Aren’t you Japanese? they will answer “No,” meaning “I am Japanese. ” Since being able to read another person’s implications and behaving accordingly is an important social skill in Japan, when asked “Aren’t you Japanese? ” mane Japanese people will assume that you must be thinking he or she is not Japanese. In response to this assumption, they will deny, by saying “No. ” meaning, “No, you are wrong, I am indeed Japanese. ” That is why, in the conversation the person said iie, yoku hanasemasu (“No, you can speak well”) in response to demo, mada jozu ja arimasen (“But I can’t speak well yet”).

In this unit, you heard the names of two places in Tokyo: Ueno and Shinjuku. These are both very busy districts, since they are the hubs of major railroad and subway lines, serving millions of people every day who travel to, from, and around the Tokyo metropolitan area. There are numerous national and private railroad companies and some fifteen subway lines in Tokyo, and they are still being further developed. The complex subway lines make it quite challenging for international travelers, and sometimes the local residents as well, to figure out the best way to travel to their destinations.

You may sometimes get an uncertain response or no response at all when you ask passers-by in downtown Tokyo for directions. The public transportation system in Japan is generally well developed, but in order to take full advantage of it, you need to first memorize the names of major- cities and towns that will help orient you to the right directions and the best method of transportation. Unit 5 Language of Social Levels, Age, Position, and Deference The complex rules governing status in Japan play an important role in the expressions used in various social situations.

In this unit, you have learned how to ask a person whether he or she wants to eat or drink: tabemasu ka? and nomimasu ka? These expressions are used when there is no need for the speaker to show deference, that is, between friends, family members, and colleagues. If. however, a native Japanese speaker is in a lower position than the hearer, he or she must carefully choose the most appropriate level of politeness. O tabe ni nari masu ka? is more polite than tabemasu ka? and o meshiagari ni nari masu ka? is far more polite.

A great variety of expressions are available. depending on the degree of courtesy needed. As a non-native speaker of Japanese, however, you are seldom, if ever, expected to be able to use these expressions, but you will hear them used, so it is good to be aware of them. nanika In this unit you heard nanika, a very commonly used word and a convenient expression. It is equivalent to “something” in English. You can use it for a variety of purposes: seeking a person’s opinion, stating yours, and making your statement evasive.

It can be followed by an adjective and an infinitive: for example, nanika tsumetai nomimono (something cold to drink). Or it can be used alone as in the expression you heard in this unit; hai nanika? (Yes, something you wish to ask’? ) You will hear many native Japanese speakers pronounce it nanka which is informal and casual, often used between friends and people of an equal status. Unit 6 Particles When speaking English with non-native speakers, you can usually guess their fluency by their familiarity with idiomatic expressions.

For example, when someone says, “John is engaged with Beth” instead of “engaged to” you can guess that the person is not a native speaker of English. The same is true of the Japanese language. There are many one-syllable words or particles that you need to be able to use properly in order to convey your ideas accurately to the listener. wa, ga, de, ni, mo, ka, no, and to are some examples of these particles. wa is often used to indicate that the preceding words are the main topic of a sentence: for example, watashi wa nihonjin desu. ga is often used the same way, as in, nihongo ga jozu desu. e indicates a place, as in anata no tokoro de. ni is equivalent to the English “at” when accompanied by a word indicating time, as in ni ji ni, “at two o’clock. ” mo is “also,” as in anata mo – “you too. ” ka is put at the end of a sentence to make it a question. no is possessive, as in anata no nihongo (your Japanese). to is approximately equivalent to “with” in English, as in anato to tabetai desu – “(1) want to eat with you. ” Though they may he confusing at times, learning to use these particles properly will greatly contribute to your fluency in Japanese. Unit 7

Cognates and “Borrowed English Loan Words” No language is free from words borrowed from other languages, and Japanese is no exception. Many English words have been adopted in Japanese, although the Japanese often pronounce them so differently that English speakers can hardly recognize that they were originally English. resutoran and biiru illustrate this point. You need to pronounce these and other words with English origins as the Japanese do, so that you can make yourself understood. Often, the Japanese have changed not only the pronunciation, but also the form and meanings of these originally English words.

Japanese speakers often prefer to shorten or abbreviate loan words: for example, waapuro for “word processor,” pasokon for “personal computer,” and terebi for “television. ” There are as well some English words used in Japanese whose meanings have changed to a greater or lesser extent. For example, there are many apartment complexes that are called “mansions” in Japan, usually referring to condominiums. You may find a pair of socks marked “free size,” which really means “one size fits all. ” In a restaurant, you may be served mikkusu sando, or “mixed sandwiches. “Mixed” in this context means “assorted,” and you will find various kinds of sandwiches on one plate. Unit 8 Addressing People You may have noticed in the units that the Japanese people use family names to address each other. The use of first names is usually limited to family members and close friends. The polite san is added to a family name and this can be used to address virtually anyone: male and female, young and old, strangers and acquaintances alike. Occasionally it may be attached to one’s first name.

Japanese rarely address one another without attaching some kind of title to the end of the person’s name, and san is by far the most common. If they feel close to you, they may call you, for instance, “Mary san,” or “Dave san,” equivalent to “Miss Mary” or “Mr. Dave,” as a sign of friendly courtesy. When referring to yourself, however. you would never use san. This is a polite title, used only when referring to others. Counting Things You have learned ni for the number “two” in this unit. By the time you complete the course, you will have learned many more numbers.

You will find counting in Japanese is easy, no matter how large the number may be. You will need to know large numbers, as 1,000, 20,000, 100,000 and maybe more. The value of one American dollar has fluctuated between 80 and 140 yen in the last ten years, and thus prices will usually appear as large numbers. For example, it costs 700 to 1,000 yen to buy lunch, 330 yen to buy a bottle of beer, 600 yen to take a cab for the first mile, and 2,000 to 3,000 yen to take a bus from the New Tokyo International Airport to downtown Tokyo.

Another important thing to remember when counting things in Japanese is that there are a wide variety of words used as “counters” that must accompany the numbers. The “counter” you use will vary, depending largely on the shape of the material you are counting. In this unit, for example, you have learned ni hon for “two bottles. ” hon is the “counter” for long things, such as bottles, trees, poles, pencils, hair, etc. “One bottle,” however, is not ichi hon, but ippon. “Three bottles” is san bon, and “six bottles” is roppon.

Although the pronunciation of hon may appear to change without any logical consistency, it has simply been adjusted for easier pronunciation. Several other “counters” you may find useful are mai, used for flat material such as paper, cloth, and plates, and dai, used for many kinds of machinery including computers, cars, and heavy industrial equipment. ken is used to count houses and shops. People are counted as nin, though one person and two persons are exceptions and counted as hitori and futari, respectively. Starting with three people you can say san nin, yo nin, go nin, etc. Unit 9 Meals of a Day

Japanese does not have unique names for each meal such as “breakfast,” “lunch,” and “dinner. ” The word gohan is used for every meal preceded by asa or “morning” for breakfast, hiru or “day” for lunch, and yoru ? yuu or “evening” for dinner. Gohan alone means rice, so it is used to refer to a meal or rice, depending upon the context. You will find that many Japanese people these days do not eat rice with every meal. They often have coffee and toast with butter, margarine, and various kinds of jelly for breakfast, while the traditional Japanese style breakfast consists of a bowl of rice, fish, eggs, sea weed, and miso (soy bean paste) soup.

For lunch noodles made from buckwheat (soba), and flour (udon) or spaghetti are popular. Many American fast food chains are also popular, especially among young people. The Japanese dinner consists of rice, fish, meat, and vegetables. As is commonly known, the Japanese consume more fish than average Americans. Circumlocution In this unit, you heard a man and a woman trying to agree on the time to meet for a drink, and making alternative suggestions. This provides useful practice.

In reality, however, you will find the Japanese people to be much more subtle when they must express a negative response. Concerned with saving face, the Japanese resort to a variety of verbal and nonverbal communication strategies, and avoid directly saying “no” whenever they can. One common way to turn down a proposal is to remain silent. When you do not receive an immediate response to an offer, then the chances are that the person does not want to accept it, but at the same time does not want to offend you or make you feel had. A long delay in responding may be another form of refusal.

In Japan, unless you are speaking with someone you know very well and a mutual trust exists, you will rarely hear a straight answer given to a difficult question, especially when that answer involves some kind of refusal. How do you reach that level? It will take some time, but if you are sensitive to another culture quite different from yours, and have a positive attitude toward adapting to it, you will be able to acquire the communication skills necessary to establish, maintain, and develop trusting relationships with the local people. Unit 10

Levels of Politeness The Japanese language has complex rules concerning the levels of politeness and deference necessary in different social situations. Throughout the course, you have learned how to speak on the “polite” level appropriate in virtually any situation you are likely to encounter in Japan. As you listen to conversations between Japanese friends, you may hear more informal expressions. For example, instead of asking nan ji desu ka? for “What time is it? ” they might simply ask, nan ji? “What time? ” Another example is wakatta for “understood” rather than wakarimashita.

The Japanese language has many ways for the speakers to differentiate between formal and informal expressions in daily conversations. When you visit Japan and listen to a conversation between two friends, you may be discouraged at first as you find many unfamiliar expressions exchanged, but this happens when you learn any foreign language. The expressions that you have learned in this course will serve as a strong basis for understanding the Japanese people, and given that basis, you will be able to develop your listening comprehension as well as the ability to select the appropriate words for each different situation.

The level of politeness used throughout the course is suitable in conversation with any Japanese speaker. Unit 11 chotto… In this unit you heard Ms. Tanaka say ichi ji wa chotto… and konban wa chotto… in response to suggestions to have lunch at one o’clock and to have dinner tonight. chotto means “a little” and therefore these responses can only be translated as “One o’clock is a little,” and “Tonight is a little,” respectively. Even though the expressions may be regarded as unfinished in English, Japanese speakers often use chotto when they wish to indicate their hesitation, refusal, and confusion.

Japanese in general are tentative and indirect in their communication, and the word chotto is very convenient in helping them express their modesty. Even when a proposal submitted by a subordinate needs substantial improvement, for example, the superior may say “mo chotto” (a little more), indicating that the subordinate needs to work on it before the proposal can be accepted. When you hear this word, be aware that it can cover various degrees, and it may not literally mean just “a little. ” masen ka? When inviting a person to do something, you have a range of forms in English to express various degrees of politeness.

The Japanese show their deference toward the listener by changing how they end a sentence. In this unit you learned how you can invite a person to have lunch and dinner with you. You could directly ask the person whether he or she will have lunch with you by saying, watashi to hirugohan o tabemasu ka? For native Japanese speakers, however, this expression, literally translated as “Do you have lunch with me? ” is far too direct and even offensive and would not be used in actual conversations. The “request” is more than likely to be turned down. Asking the same question in a negative form, watashi to hirugohan o tabemasen ka? onsiderably softens the tone, and it will probably make the listener feel more comfortable either accepting or declining the offer. This is equivalent to “Why don’t you …? ” and “Won’t you …? ” in English. Unit 12 Yen: Japanese Currency The yen is the unit of Japanese currency, and its value against the U. S. dollar has appreciated in the last few decades. Until the early 1970’s the exchange rate was fixed at one US dollar to 360 yen, but it has been fluctuating and one US dollar is now worth about 120 to 140 yen. Although in writing it is symbolized as “yen,” its pronunciation is more like en.

There are four notes: 10,000 yen, 5,000 yen, 2,000 yen, and 1,000 yen that are of different sizes and colors. The 2,000 yen notes were issued in commemoration of the year 2000 but they have not been circulated very widely. Also there are six kinds of coins: 500 yen, 100 yen, 50 yen, 10 yen, 5 yen, and l yen. While Americans in general carry little cash and use credit cards and checks instead, the Japanese tend to pay cash when they go shopping. You will find many kinds of vending machines that sell a wide range of things, from soft drinks to train tickets. Some of he machines accept 10,000 yen notes and give change in both paper money and coins. Using a Telephone in Japan Communicating on the phone in a foreign country is always a challenge. You now know that “hello” is moshi moshi in Japanese, literally meaning “I speak, I speak. ” You can say moshi moshi both when you answer the phone and make a call to someone. It has been used ever since the telephone was introduced in Japan. It costs 10 yen to make a local call. You will seldom see people in Japan using coins when they use public telephones. Instead they use pre-paid telephone cards that can be purchased from vending machines.

The pre-paid cards cost either 500 yen or 1,000 yen, worth 50 and 100 local calls, respectively, and they can be used for any local, as well as long distance and overseas calls. A great majority of the Japanese people own cellular phones today, which has largely replaced the need for public phones altogether. Many Japanese use their mobile phones as a primary means of communication to send and receive e-mails, check the weather, make plane reservations, purchase tickets, etc. , since a great amount of information is made available through mobile phone network systems.

You will notice many Japanese busy talking on their individual phones, checking e-mail on small display screens, and punching in information on hand-held Palm Pilots®. Unit 13 Counting in Japanese Knowing how to count is important in order to function properly in any language. You must be able to count so that you can understand the prices of goods you want to buy, services that you wish to use, make plane reservations, and so on. Now that you have learned to count from one to ten and started to work on numbers above ten, the rest will be quite easy.

Just as long as you know the first ten numbers, you can make any number up to 99, simply by combining them. In this unit you have learned 14, 15, and 16. They were simply made up of ten and four, ten and five, ten and six, respectively. You can continue to count in the same way up to 19. Then 20 is a combination of two and ten, that is, ni ju. You may guess that the same rule is applied to every number after 20. 21 is ni ju ichi, or “two ten one. ” Though you will only be introduced to a few new numbers in any unit, when you understand the rule you will be eady for large numbers, and you will indeed encounter them on your initial entry to Japan. Good-bye sayonara has become widely known as “goodbye forever” through the movies, TV dramas, and other media. It may indeed imply in some contexts that the person using this expression has no intention of seeing the other person ever again. It can, however, be readily used to say “good-bye” when you will be seeing the person in the near future. jaa mata is an expression equivalent to “See you. ” It is a fairly informal way of ending a conversation, and of expressing your intention to see the person again. aa, atode, literally meaning “then later,” implies to Japanese speakers that the speaker is expecting to see the other person again on the same day, whereas English speakers may not when they say, “See you later. ” You may want to be careful of this difference. Unit 14 takusan, sukoshi There is no clear and explicit difference between singular and plural forms of nouns in Japanese. In English, most words need an “s” or “es” at the end to indicate plurals, but most Japanese words do not change. Whether the nouns are countable or uncountable, you can use takusan for “a lot of” and sukoshi for “a little” or “a few. For example, “one beer” is biiru ippon, “two beers” is biiru nihon, and `’many beers” is biiru takusan. “I have a lot of money” is watashi wa okane o takusan motte imasu, and “I have a little money” is watashi wa okane o sukoshi motte imasu. The word sukoshi has a variety of functions in daily conversations. It not only stands alone to mean a small quantity, but you can also say watashi wa nihongo o sukoshi hanashimasu, meaning “I speak a little Japanese,” sukoshi hoshii desu, “I want a little,” or even, sukoshi ososugimas, “It’s a little too late. Drinks Japanese, just like Americans and Europeans, enjoy drinking when they dine. Many business meetings are followed by or even conducted during dinners and drinking parties. In these social occasions, people establish personal relationships with one another as they discuss more casually their individual feelings. Beer is by far the most popular alcoholic drink, but most alcoholic drinks such as wine, whiskey, bourbon, brandy, gin, vodka, and rum are also available. Japanese sake, made from rice, is also popular, and it is served either cold or warm.

Shochu, or distilled liquor made from a variety of grains such as wheat, rice, and sometimes potatoes, is also a popular drink among Japanese. If you do not care for an alcoholic drink, you can of course ask for any soft drink you are used to. In addition to most soft drinks available in America and Europe, cold oolong tea (Chinese tea) is served in most places. In general, hot Japanese green tea is served free of charge in most restaurants. Unit 15 itte kimasu The conversation in this unit began with a lady saying itte kimasu. It literally means, “I am going” or “I am leaving. When Japanese go somewhere, they usually say it to those they are leaving behind. In response, the person who is staying usually says itte rasshai, literally meaning, “Please go. ” Of course they use this expression to wish the person a good trip. When people come home they say tadaima, or “I’ve just come home,” to which others respond by saying okaerinasai, meaning, “Welcome back. ” These sets of greetings are exchanged when people go in and out of the house and are very common among the Japanese; you are sure to hear them when staying in a Japanese home.

As a short-term visitor from a foreign country you are not expected to say these greetings, but if you do, your efforts will surely be appreciated. Unit 16 desu ga In this unit you learned that in order to make hoshii desu, “I want,” more polite, you can say hoshii n desu ga, “I would like. ” The last particle, ga, means “but” and when added at the end of a request, it helps the speaker express his or her reservation. The person who ends a request with ga indicates that “While I wish it could be done, I would understand even if it cannot be done. This is just another instance that demonstrates the Japanese value on modesty. It is also a sign of their desire to depend upon others’ benevolence, which is known as amae. One’s ability to depend on others as well as respond to others’ call for dependence is an important social ability. You will also hear desu kedo, essentially the same as and even more polite than desu ga. Unit 17 kyo wa nani o shimasu ka? You learned earlier that wa is used for emphasis or comparison. In Unit 14 and the present unit you have practiced using several words that indicate time, such as today and this evening, followed by wa.

Here, this means “as for. ” You will also notice that in Japanese the words or phrases that indicate time are usually placed in the beginning of a sentence, unlike in English where these words are normally at the end. You may notice when a Japanese person speaks to you in English, she or he may habitually begin a sentence with time, such as, “Yesterday, I went to see my friend. ” “Today, what would you like to do? ” When you speak Japanese, it is often desirable to begin a sentence with a word or phrase indicating time. Unit 18 shujin, goshujin ? anai, okusan When Japanese people introduce their spouses, they do not introduce them by their names. While English-speaking people will introduce their spouses, saying, “This is my wife, Mary” or “This is my husband, Bill,” when Mr. Sato introduces his wife to you, he will say simply kanai desu, or kore wa watashi no kanai (tsuma) desu, “This is my wife. ” When Mrs. Sato wants to introduce her husband to you, she will probably say shujin desu, or kore wa watashi no shujin (otto) desu, “This is my husband. ” You may be surprised when you find the meanings of kanai and shujin. anai literally means “inside the house,” and shujin means “master. ” Since kanai and shujin refer to one’s spouse in a modest manner, you will never use them for another person’s spouse. For “your husband” you simply add go for politeness to shujin, and say goshujin, or anata no goshujin. “Your wife” is anata no okusan, or simply, okusan. Here we have a different word, okusan, which means “a person deep inside (the house). ” Coming from the North American culture where equality between the two sexes is a serious concern, you may be astonished to see that Japanese women are still treated as a minority or a weaker sex.

Role differentiation with regard to sex is more distinct in Japan than in the United States. The society is changing, however, influenced by the global concern for racial, sexual, and religious equality and is importing and incorporating some new policies. You will find many men now referring to their wives as tsuma, and women to their husbands as otto, much more neutral terms than kanai and shujin. Interestingly, however, there is no word to replace okusan when referring to your conversational partner’s wife.

The original meanings of these terms however, are being lost, and they are only titles that people continue to use without any derogatory connotation. Unit 19 hajimemashite ? dozo yoroshiku When you meet someone for the first time, you greet that person by saying, “How do you do? ” “Pleased to meet you,” or something similar. Many Japanese people say hajimemashite, or dozo yoroshiku. Literally, hajimemashite means “(I am meeting you) for the first time,” and it has come to be used as an initial greeting remark. dozo yoroshiku is a more implicit expression with a wide latitude of ossible interpretations, depending on the context, the nature of the relationship that is about to develop, etc. It literally means “Please be good to me” and it symbolizes the value that many Japanese people place on mutual dependency known as amae. Just as with many other expressions used as social lubricants such as, “Let’s get together sometime,” “Drop in when you are in the neighborhood,” the real function of dozo yoroshiku is to make the initial encounter between people go smoothly. Unit 20 hitori, futari, san nin When you count a number of people in Japanese, you use regular numbers except for “one” and “two. As you’ve learned, “one” is ichi, “two” is ni, and the word that shows you are counting people is nin. The Japanese perceive that it would be awkward to say ichi nin, and ni nin, so they use an old way of counting instead. “One person” is hitori, “two persons,” futari. The rest is easy and regular: san nin, yo nin, go nin, roku nin, shichi nin, and so on. Also notice that when you want to say “eleven persons” and “twelve persons,” you say ju ichi nin and ju ni nin instead of ju hitori and ju futari. otoko no ko, onna no ko You have learned otoko no ko and onna no ko for a boy and a girl.

Notice that in Japanese there are no special words such as “boys” and “girls. ” Rather, you say literally, “a male child,” and a “female child. ” You can use these words for all ages from newborn babies to children in high school and sometimes even in college. An important cultural difference you may notice if you spend some time living in Japan is that Japanese children are generally more dependent on their parents than their U. S. counterparts are, and that they frequently appear to be less mature. Parental support for children is usually continued through, and often beyond, college.

You would not find it awkward, therefore, to call a twenty-two-year-old male college graduate otoko no ko. You may often hear Japanese refer to their children as ookii otoko no ko, chiisai onnna no ko, etc. They literally mean “a big boy” and “a small girl,” respectively, and the Japanese may be actually talking about the size of their children, or they may be calling a grown-up boy ookii otoko no ko and a very young girl chiisai onna no ko. The context will determine the meaning. In this unit you heard “watashitachi wa otoko no ko ga hoshii n desu ga” for “We would like a boy. Japanese, like many other Asians, are more particular about the sex of their children than people in many Western countries. While it has become legally accepted for a married couple to use two separate last names, both the husband’s and the wife’s, it is still predominantly the husband’s last name that is kept. Family business has been traditionally handed down to the oldest male child in the family. Many parents, therefore, would like to have at least one boy when they have children. Unit 21 otearai, toire Just as you can find many words in English that indicate a lavatory, you will come across a variety of expressions in Japanese.

In this unit you have learned two of them: otearai and toire. otearai literally means “a place to wash hands” and is equivalent to “washroom” or “bathroom” in English. toire is an imported version of “toilet,” and it is very commonly used. Japanese also use keshoushitu, roughly equivalent to “powder room. ” The most direct and straight expression of benjo, equivalent to lavatory, is rarely used in daily conversations. An interesting discovery you may make in a Japanese home is that the toilet and the bath are in separate rooms, unlike in the U. S. where you most often find both in one room.

In Japan, a toilet and a bath are regarded as facilities that perform very different functions. a, so desu ka? “Ah so” is an expression stereotypically associated with Japanese in many old U. S. films, and it is commonly known to Americans as an utterance that Japanese make frequently. While the Japanese may not use it as often as it is depicted in the films, it is indeed an appropriate expression to show your surprise at an unexpected finding or to confirm the response to your inquiry. Remember to make it into a polite form by adding desu ka at the end when you say it to a person to whom you need to show respect. Ah, so” without desu ka is perfectly appropriate between friends. Unit 22 kodomo, kodomo san In the conversation the woman asked, nan nin kodomo san ga imasu ka? and the man said, futari kodomo ga imasu. When you talk about someone else’s family members, you show your respect by adding san at the end. The san is equivalent to Mr. , Mrs. , and Miss. When you talk about your own family members, on the other hand, you never use san. This is an example of Japanese humanrelationship-centered communication, and it serves to maintain smooth and harmonious personal ties in Japanese society.

The Japanese manner of expressing politeness is complicated by their notion of modesty. They show their deference to others by not only symbolically heightening the other’s status, but also by lowering their own. You may often hear the Japanese speak ill of their own family members. A mother may say, for example, “My son is dumb, and he’s doing so poorly in school. Your son seems really smart and you have nothing to worry about. I am embarrassed. ” The other person will, of course, respond by saying something like, “Please stop joking.

My son only spends a lot of time in his room, pretending to study so hard. But I have no idea what he is doing. Maybe he’s listening to his stereo, or reading comic books. ” The two mothers clearly do not mean what they say to each other. While such an interaction may appear to be overly condescending and insincere to people from the U. S. culture, it is an important aspect of social interaction in Japan. You, as a non-native speaker, are not expected to play the complex social game, but an awareness will contribute greatly to your comfort in and appreciation of the culture.

Unit 23 Weights and Measures You have learned to ask for some gas for your car and also to talk about distance. Whenever you travel to a foreign country, you are likely to come across different perceptions of weights, distances, heights, volumes, etc. If you are visiting Japan for a short period of time as a tourist, these differences may not affect you very much, but if you are to stay there for an extensive period of time, engaging in business as well as social conversations, you will find some knowledge concerning the Japanese system quite useful.

Even when the Japanese speak to you in English, they will still use the system to which they are accustomed. Here are some examples to show you how the U. S. weights translate to their Japanese counterparts. One foot is about 30 centimeters, and an inch is about 2. 5 centimeters. If you are 6 feet tall, then you are 180 centimeters tall, and if you are 5 feet 6 inches, then you are about 165 centimeters. One pound is about 0. 45 kilograms, which means that if you weigh 100 pounds, that is about 45 kilograms, and 150 pounds translates into 67. 5 kilograms.

When you visit a grocery store, you will find various things priced by 100 grams. A steak, for instance, may be 600 yen for 100 grams, which is roughly equivalent to $22 to $27 per pound, depending on the exchange rate. One gallon of gas, another expensive item in Japan, is roughly equal to 3. 8 liters. One liter ranges from 90 yen to 110 yen depending on the kind and place where you get it, and it translates into $2. 70 to $3. 35 per gallon. Finally, the road signs that tell you the distance to your destination and also the traffic signs indicating speed limits are all in kilometers.

One mile is approximately 1. 6 kilometers, and thus 40 kilometers per hour, which is a common city speed limit, is 25 miles per hour. Again, as a foreign visitor you may not need to know all of these, but if you can get used to them, it will facilitate your daily activities. Unit 24 Getting Around in Japan The high price of gas in Japan has been mentioned. If you drive while in Japan, it could be quite challenging for you, as well as it is for local residents. The Japanese must go to a special driving school to obtain a driver’s license and the average fee is over $2,000.

The number of skills that are necessary to get around in crowded cities accounts for the high fee. You should apply for an international driver’s license prior to your departure for Japan. You must remember that the Japanese drive on the left side of the road, as the British do. Because of the limited space, parking is a problem in big cities and it is also quite expensive, so you may want to think twice before driving in Japan. Public transportation, on the other hand, is well developed and very convenient for both local trips and long distance traveling.

You may enjoy a Shinkansen bullet train ride across the country from Aomori, the northern tip of Honshu (the largest island) all the way through Tokyo, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka, to Fukuoka, the largest city on the island of Kyushu, the southernmost major island. Air traffic has been developed quite extensively, and as a result air fares have become reasonable in recent years. The major airports are located in Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Fukuoka, and Okinawa. Unit 25 Oo kei As you have learned, the Japanese have borrowed many words from English: gasorin for “gasoline,” depaato for a “department store,” etc.

O. K. has become a universally recognized expression, and it is no exception in Japan. You will hear many Japanese use oo kei to indicate that everything is all right, or to ask you whether something is all right with you. You will also notice that they may accompany the verbal utterance of oo kei with a nonverbal sign, index finger bent to touch the thumb to form a “zero. ” That same sign is also used to indicate money in Japan. Store Hours In the conversation in this unit, the man said that the department store may be closed because it is late.

While he may have said it so the lady would not go shopping, it is important to know when the Japanese department stores are open as they do not always keep the same store hours as those in the U. S. They usually open at 10:00 AM and close around 6:30 PM on regular business days, including weekends. Unlike some stores in the U. S. , many Japanese department stores and small shops are open on Sundays. In fact, the stores are most crowded on Sundays. Each department store, however, has designated one weekday as a day off, usually Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday.

You will find the Japanese stores extremely crowded with people during two main giftgiving seasons every year: mid to late July and December. During these seasons, most stores stay open till 8:00 or 9:00 PM. Unit 26 ni, san In this unit you learned ni, san nichi for “a few days. ” The ni, san, literally meaning “two (or) three,” can be used in combination with many other words: ni, san nin (“a few people”), biiru ni, san bon (“a few beers”), and ni, san shukan (“a few weeks”). We have repeatedly stressed ambiguity and indirectness as features of Japanese communication, and ni, san is just another example.

Even when the speaker knows precisely how many people he or she is talking about, the expression ni, san nin may be used. Although the expression literally indicates only two or three as possibilities, four or even five are not completely excluded. To respond to the question, “How many beers did you have last night? ” a Japanese person may say ni, san bon, while he might, in fact, have had five or six. The range of possibilities included in ni, san is wider than that of “a few. ” Taxis in Japan You have learned another English word that is commonly used in Japanese: takushii.

Taxis are readily available in most cities, and even in fairly small towns. You can flag one down on the street or phone for a pick-up. Most taxis, both company-owned and privately-operated, are connected by radio. They are clean, safe, and convenient. The fares vary, depending on the city you are in. They are slightly more expensive in large cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, and Osaka than in smaller places such as Hiroshima, Fukuoka, and Sapporo. You do not need to tip the driver, but simply pay the fare displayed on the machine by the driver’s seat.

An interesting discovery you will make is that the rear passenger door opens and closes automatically. Just as long as you can clearly tell the driver where you wish to go, or show a map and point to your destination, you will get there safely and rapidly by taxi. Unit 27 hyaku Now that you have learned hyaku, one hundred, you can go all the way up to 999 by simply combining the numbers you already know. One hundred is hyaku, so one hundred five is hyaku go. One hundred ten is hyaku ju. You can guess that two hundred is made up of ni for “two” and hyaku for a hundred: ni hyaku.

The rest is easy except that the pronunciation of hyaku varies slightly depending on what number it follows. Three hundred is san byaku, six hundred is roppyaku, and eight hundred is happyaku. It is quite easy to count in Japanese, and it is also important that you know how to say large numbers, as they are frequently used in daily interchange. Unit 28 jaa In any spoken language you can find interjections which are used frequently, but which have no specific meanings. Some examples in English are “well, ah, uh, um. ” jaa is a good Japanese example.

It can be used in a variety of situations and gives the speaker a chance to think carefully about what he or she is about to say, to take a turn to speak, etc. In the present unit, it was introduced as being equivalent to “well then. ” You can use it when you wish to say “See you later” to a friend. You can also say jaa when you ask a series of questions. For example. “biiru o nomimasu ka? ” “iie, nomimasen. ” “jaa, osake o nomimasu ka? ” How naturally you use these interjections may be a good indicator of your mastery of the language you are learning.

Unit 29 masu, mashita, masen As stated before, Japanese word order is quite different from English. In English, the general meaning of a sentence is made clear early in the sentence. You can figure out whether something is happening now, will happen in the future, has already happened, or did not happen at all, by listening to the first part of a sentence. The Japanese language, on the other hand, places the important words toward the end of a sentence. The difference among masu, mashita, and masen is very small, and they come in the very end of a sentence.

Such an attribute of the Japanese language may require your extra attention, and you need to be careful not to jump to conclusions until you hear the entire sentence. Unit 30 Continuing Success Throughout Japanese I, Third Edition you have learned many essential elements of the Japanese language. Practicing what you have learned in the thirty units will assure you successful initial encounters with the Japanese people. We hope you will keep up with your daily practice and further build upon your vocabulary.

One additional aspect of competency that you will find useful and important is your sensitivity to cross-cultural differences in values, thought patterns, space and time orientations, mannerisms, etc. You can also continue to build on your communication skills by proceeding on to Japanese II. Introduction to Reading Japanese When you visit a foreign country such as Japan, where the language sounds very different, and the appearance of the written language does not even remotely resemble what you are used to, you may naturally find yourself somewhat intimidated.

Just imagining the difficulty you may face in learning how to read and write can be discouraging. Mastering reading and writing Japanese is indeed an extremely long and complex process, and even many native speakers have not completed the learning process. In this course you are learning spoken Japanese. While a knowledge of the orthographic form of Japanese will be useful when visiting Japan, it is not necessary to acquire speech. In the following notes, however, some basic and important knowledge of written Japanese will be introduced.

Once you understand the essentials that underlie written Japanese, you will find that reading in the language is much easier and less intimidating than you may have anticipated. Kanji, the Chinese Characters Kanji is the “pictorial” writing the Japanese borrowed from the Chinese. Each Kanji character represents an object or idea, and in written Japanese these objects and ideas combine in various ways to form new words and phrases. The pronunciation of each character varies depending on the context, and some Kanji have up to four or five different ways to be pronounced.

One is required to be able to recognize and understand some 3,000 Kanji characters to achieve functional literacy in the Japanese language. It won’t be necessary, however, to be able to pronounce the Kanji characters, and you will certainly not need 3,000, but it will be rather convenient to get the general meaning of a basic core of some 50 characters which you will see in such public places as airports, train stations. on street signs, and on restaurant menus. As an example of Kanji, we will introduce you here to a few that are typical of the pictorial Kanji characters.

To get you started with reading Japanese, here is the character for “up” or “on. ” Notice that it looks as if the whole character points upward: This character pointing down means “down” or ‘”under. ” When put together, these two characters form a Japanese word, meaning up and down. The word is used to indicate not only the physical upward and downward directions, but also a social relationship with a status difference. Here is another character, which means a “tree. Can you see how the image of a tree was transformed into the Kanji character? And here is the character for a “mountain. ” Many characters are made up of two or more parts: hen (or the left-hand radical) and tsukuri (or the right-hand radical). The Kanji for “tree” can serve as a hen, and it may be used to form such words? characters as “woods,” or a “forest. ” woods forest Here is a more complex character combining three parts: mountain, up, and down. Put together as one word, “mountain,” “up,” and “down” mean a “mountain pass” or a “peak. “

When you can recognize some 50 basic Japanese Kanji characters, the rest will be fairly easy, as you will probably be able to guess what a new character may mean just by looking at it and identifying the component parts. The first step is to get rid of your anxiety about reading Japanese: take the time to become familiar with the fundamental patterns used to make up the Japanese Kanji characters. Katakana and Hiragana The Kanji system adopted from Chinese is the basic Japanese written system, but whereas the Chinese language uses only pictorial characters, Japanese uses two other types of writing systems in addition to Kanji.

They are Katakana and Hiragana. These are two different sets of “letters” representing Japanese sounds. Each letter represents either a vowel sound or a consonant plus a vowel, for example, ka, ki, ku, ke, ko, etc. The Japanese Hiragana and Katakana are both lined up in the same way. The vowels go: a, i, u, e, o. The consonants k, s, t, n, h, m, y, r, w are placed before the vowels. You can memorize the order of Hiragana and Katakana in much the same way you memorized how the alphabet goes from A to Z. There are 46 Hiragana and Katakana symbols, as shown on the chart on the next page.

Each block contains the transliterated phonetic representation of the character, followed by the Hiragana and then by the Katakana (in parentheses). Katakana is the writing system used for Japanese ? English cognates, i. e. , for words adopted from English into Japanese. You will find it particularly useful to learn Katakana, as you may need to read and write your name from time to time. Foreign and new words are spelled using Katakana, so you will see words such as “restaurant,” “hotel,” “golf,” “gasoline,” and many others in Katakana. Here is what they look like in combination: estaurant hotel golf gasoline Hiragana is the writing system comprised of letters used to represent grammatical endings and features that Chinese does not have. Unlike Kanji, in which a symbol represents a concept or an idea, in both the Hiragana and Katakana systems of Japanese, there is a connection between the symbol on the paper and the spoken word, and each letter is pronounced in only one way regardless of the context. Before Japanese children learn how to write the complex Kanji characters, they learn how to write Hiragana and they use it for every word.

To illustrate, yama or “mountain” can be written in three different ways, in Kanji, Katakana, or Hiragana. However, since it is not a foreign word, it would rarely, if ever, be written in Katakana. mountain Kanji mountain Katakana mountain Hiragana While it is possible to use the phonetic Hiragana and Katakana scripts to represent almost any Japanese word, it is usually considered more appropriate to use the Kanji characters whenever possible, using the phonetic scripts only to represent foreign words (Katakana) or features unique to Japanese (Hiragana).

Books and Signs Most westerners are accustomed to reading books starting from the front and reading each line left to right, starting from the top of the page. In books and traditional writing, however, Japanese is written in columns, top to bottom starting on the right side of a page. The books appear to open “backwards” to English speakers, as the “front” of a Japanese book is the “back” of an English text. However, in signs, menus, and books in which some English words are used, such as academic papers, Japanese is now often written from left to right. Visitors to Japan are fortunate in that

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Japanese Dining Etiquette

Japanese Dining Etiquette Remembering your correct manners is very important in Japan, especially concerning the area of dining etiquettes. This applies especially to foreigners, who should try to remember at least the most basic rules… In Japanese meals, it is customary to say ‘itadakimasu’ (‘I gratefully receive’) before your meal, and ‘gochisama deshita’ (‘thank you for the meal’) after you have finished. These traditional phrases are to show your appreciation for the meal, especially when someone cooks for you.

The best way to start your meal is with a sip of soup. Then you should eat a little bit of each dish, in a ‘rotation’, until you finish all the dishes at about the same time. Do NOT complete one dish of food before moving onto the next. Remember that if you are eating from communal dishes, it is considered an important etiquette to pick up the food using the opposite end of your chopsticks, or serving chopsticks if any are provided. Do not start drinking until everyone at the table is served, and do not pour any drinks for yourself.

This should only be done by others, and naturally, it is also your responsibility to periodically check your friends’ cups and fill them up if they are empty, too. NEVER stick chopsticks into rice standing up, as this is how rice is offered to the dead. If you haven’t already heard, it is perfectly acceptable to slurp your noodles in Japan, as people say it tastes better, and it also shows you are enjoying your meal. Remember that it is considered very rude to burp, blow your nose at the table, and talk about unappetizing topics.

Lastly, remember to finish every little grain of rice in your bowl or plate, as rice is considered very precious. Also this shows the chef you appreciate his/her food very much. It is also considered polite to return all plates and dishes back to their original positions, and to place chopsticks back in their paper slips or holders. Bibliography http://www. japan-guide. com/e/e2005. html http://www. suite101. com/content/eating-japanese-dos-and-donts-a31496 http://www. japanesefood101. com/index. php/category/dining-etiquette/

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Japan Invades China (1931-37)

Japan invades China (1931-37) Japan’s main objectives of invading China in 1931 were to destroy communism and poses control over neighboring areas on the Asian continent. It was believed such a control was necessary to be able to issue possible military threats and inquire the natural resources needed to insure Japan’s economic independence. “By defeating Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, Japan acquired possession of Russia’s Liaodong Peninsula Leasehold, which she renamed the Kwantung Leased Territory, and the South Manchurian Railroad” (BJorge, 2011).

After Korea was captured in 1910, Manchuria was filled with mineral wealth, gorgeous farmland, and potential value as a defensive Korea from both China and Russia. In the 1920s, many of the Kwantung army believed Japan should take over Manchuria just like they did in Korea. Plotting began to conquer Manchuria with direct military action which led to the first invasions of China in the 1930s. (BJorge, 2011) The plan was made to be easy; a railroad on the Southern side of Mukden was made to explode to give the Kwantung an excuse to attack the nearby Manchurian army stations and the storage of weapons in the city.

Once that was complete, the Kwantung army was easily expandable until all of Manchuria was captured. The government officials of Tokyo tried to stop the plot, but the Kwantung army attacked before the warning was issued. The bomb was set off on September 18, 1931 and the Kwantung army started moving into action. (BJorge, 2011) China turned to the League of Nations for support. At the time, the nationalist government did not want a war with Japan and either did the Japanese government and therefore ordered the Kwantung army to fall back and negotiate a reasonable solution.

But the Kwantung army refused and continued attacking other cities and ended up sending troops into Manchuria. The Kwantung army was very powerful because of their popularly Japanese citizens. Even though it was unacceptable for the Kwantung army to disobey, the separation of Manchuria from China would be in Japan’s favor. (BJorge, 2011) In May 1935, Japan’s Tinainjin fort demanded all Guomindang military units and officers to leave the Hebei state. Jiang Jieshi was still dedicated to his goal of destroying his communist enemies. Japan, it seemed, was well on the way to achieving her goal of separating north China from Nanjing government administration” (BJorge, 2011). In October 1935, the Japanese prime minster wanted China to accept Manchukuo to join with Japan to build up north China’s economy. This proposal was seen as impossible for the reason of the anti-Japanese anger in China. The anger forced Jiang to end his anti-communist cause. (BJorge, 2011) On the night of July 7, 1937, some Chinese fired shells where the Japanese troops were planning at the Marco Polo Bridge, which is about ten miles from Beijing.

Japanese thought a missing soldier was caught by the Chinese and the Japanese officer ordered a search. On July 8, when his requested was denied, he bombed the city. Chinese tried to attack the Japanese but failed. Several days later, five divisions were made in Japan by the Japanese War Ministry, four divisions were sent to southern Hebei, and the Japanese troops from Manchuria attacked northern China. Then on July 19, an agreement was signed, by the Chinese general Song Zheyan, to withdraw troops from Wanping. Six days later a fight broke out close to the Marco Polo Bridge and Japanese troops detained the bridge.

On July 28, the Chinese evacuated to save themselves before it was too late, while Japanese forces captured Tianjin two days later. That was the day Jiang decided that he will lead Japan and fight to finish the operation until the end. (Beck, 2007) On August 11, Jiang Jieshi moved 80,000 men into Shanghai. China tried to air force bomb the Japanese warships, but ended up missing and killing hundreds of civilians in Shanghai. At the end of August the Chinese forces tried to fight and attack the Japanese in Shanghai, but were unsuccessful and turned back to the defensive side in September and October.

The Chinese lost 250,000 soldiers compared to 40,000 Japanese soldiers. In November, thanks to French priest Jacquinot de Bessage, some Chinese civilians were given a place to live after losing their home. (Beck, 2007) The Shanxi capital Taiyuan fell on November 9. In late September, the Communists won at Pingxingguan successfully killing about 500 Japanese and gained a hundred equipment trucks. They would have retrieved more, but the remaining Japanese destroyed their equipment and committed suicide. Beck, 2007) The Japanese broke through enemy lines in Shanghai and Chinese began withdrawing toward Nanjing on November 11. Jiang felt the world was on his side, even though the League of Nations did not take any action, and the signing of the non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union had no impact. But Japan was well on their way of completing their mission; the forces took over Beijing in September, Shijiazhuang in October, Taiyuan in November, Qingdao in August, and Jinan in December. (Beck, 2007) The former warlord Tang Shengzhi was ordered to hold Nanjing.

The Japanese were promising the civilians to treat them well as their follow Chinese soldiers were killing and robbing people to take everything they could to escape. Jiang refused to stop fighting and the Japanese began bombing on December 10. Before the Japanese army arrived, half of the population had already left Nanjing. “The Presbyterian missionary W. Plumer Mills had learned of Bessage’s neutral zone, and the Americans and Europeans organized a safety zone that included Nanjing University, Ginling Women’s Arts and Science College, the American embassy, and Chinese government buildings” (Beck, 2007).

On November 22, the International Committee was made for the Nanjing Safety Zone. Three days later Adolf Hitler was asked to negotiate with the Japanese government to respect the neutral zone for the noncombatants. After all of that was settled, the Japanese continued their bombing to the military targets. More than one hundred thousand people were protected in the Safety Zone. (Beck, 2007) On December 12, Tang Shengzhi abandoned Nanjing and the Japanese troops entered the city the next day.

For the seven weeks after that they killed about 30,000 Chinese soldiers, thrashed most of the civilians not in the safety zone, and burned most of the city. Between 20,000 and 80,000 women were raped or taken as slaves. It was estimated more than 200,000 Chinese civilians were exterminated by Japanese soldiers in Nanjing after the war. The Japanese dragged and murdered some of the ex-soldiers in the Safety Zone. “Jiang and Yan Xishan approved the Communist base in the Jin-Cha-Ji border region on January 22, 1938, but that was the first and last Communist base behind enemy lines that the Nationalists recognized” (Beck, 2007).

The outcome of this invasion was terrible on China as the Chinese’s soldiers tried to fight to survive but were weaken and about 30 million Chinese civilians were forced to leave their homes and live in regions of their country unfamiliar to them as immigrants. Japan believed the invasion was going to be quick and easy, but they found themselves stuck in an unexpected marsh as China refused to surrender and the invasion turned into the beginning of the second Sino-Japanese War. Since it was too late to escape this battle, Japan reacted to the outbreak of war in Europe, which in time led them to attack the United States.

With this action, Japan made China become part of World War II and with the defeat, Japan was forced to give up everything they gained in China since 1931. With the result of the war, the Japanese failed their main objective for the reason that the communist’s strength grew greater than it ever was. This marked the end of Japanese expansion. Reference List Beck, S. (2007). China at war 1937-1949. Retrieved from http://www. san. beck. org/21-5-ChinaatWar1937-49. html Benton, G. (2012). The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino–Japanese War of 1937-1945. China Journal, (67), 189-191.

BJORGE, G. J. (2011, November 13). China, invasion of (1931, 1937–1945). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1002/9781444338232. wbeow112/pdf Burrell, R. S. (2011). The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945. Naval History, 25(2), 78. Cho, A. (2011). In a Sea of Bitterness: Refugees During the Sino-Japanese War. Library Journal, 136(15), 88 Falk, S. (2011). Varied Fare. Army Magazine, 61(6), 73-74. Farrell, B. P. (2011). Book Review: The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937—1945.

Edited by Mark Peattie, Edward Drea and Hans van de Ven. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 2011. xxv+614 pp. US$65 hbk. ISBN 978 0 .. War In History, 18(4), 566-568. doi:10. 1177/09683445110180040809 Historical Boys’ Clothing. (2005, February 05). Second sino-japanese war: Japanese invasion of china (1937-45)). Retrieved from http://histclo. com/essay/war/ww2/camp/pac/china/w2c-inv. html History Learning Site. (n. d. ). The japan. Retrieved from http://www. historylearningsite. co. uk/china_war. htm Wikipedia. (n. d. ). Second sino-japanese war. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Second_Sino-Japanese_War

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Theodore Roosevelt’s the Threat of Japan

Document: Theodore Roosevelt: The Threat of Japan, 1909 [At Mt. Holyoke] Introduction: For my history assignment, I chose the document “Theodore Roosevelt’s The Threat of Japan”. After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, modernization took place, bringing Japan to the height of power equivalent to a western power after defeating both China and Russia. United States was maintaining its policy of isolationism but was slowly transitioning to self interest imperialism, keeping control over countries with economic benefit such as open door policy with China.

A summary of this article would be Roosevelt’s changing ideas of how US should change their foreign policy with regard to the dynamic change in the balance of world powers in 1909. My essay shall first examine the supporting points of the documents including the credibility of the source, reasons why Japan is a threat and immigration problems. Opposing points to mention would be that the document may be affect by the mentality of white’s men supremacy. All things considered, I largely agree with the source and President Roosevelt’s analysis of Japan as a threat.

Paragraph 1: Credibility of source The document is a primary source, written by Theodore Roosevelt himself at the point of time to Senator Knox, giving original evidence in light to our argument. I have two considerations with regard to the source’s credibility, the credentials of the author and the timeliness of the events. Theodore Roosevelt as the 26th president of the United States, have he assumed positions at the city, state, and federal levels before elected as president and was also awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

As he has a reputation to uphold alongside his prestigious titles, there is less likeliness of him to be bias in his reports. The documented concerns give factual material in line with the events happening at that point of time. It is true that “Japan has formidable military power” and “considered themselves to be on a full equality” after their victory in the Russo-Japanese war in 1904-1905. There was also an immigration problem of Japanese “flocking by the hundred thousand into the US” and California legislature threatens to pass 17 anti-Japanese measures in 1909. As the ource is based on much concrete evidence as cross referenced with the timeline of events, I can claim that this document is credible to a large extent. Paragraph 2: Japan as a threat At the start of the 20th century, Japan came to be pictured as a political menace against United States, and her immigrants had been seen as a threat to American institution and economic security. Her victory in the Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War forced Roosevelt to see Japan as an equal. Meiji restoration where Japan combined Western advances with their own traditional values subsequently adopting modernization and military conscription.

They view themselves as being encroached by foreigners under the unequal treaty system of the United States thus justifying Japan’s expansionistic intents. Examples would be Japan forcing its way through the Northeast China through the ownership of South Manchurian railway and formal control of Manchuria inherited from Russia. In the event of Portsmouth Treaty and the renewal of the Anglo-Japanese alliance in 1905, Japan used this chance to claim interest in Korea. Roosevelt acknowledged Japan’s military capabilities and is cautious when dealing with them.

His famous “Big Stick Diplomacy” can be seen as he uses the concept of speaking softly, engaging in peaceful negotiation while having a “big stick”, a strong military. This is evident in the statement “treat Japan courteously that she will not be offended more than necessary” and constantly emphasizing the need of “keeping the Navy at the highest point of efficiency. ” Roosevelt stressed harshly upon the need that the Navy needs to be strong in order to firstly keep Japan at bay through deterrence theory and secondly able to win wars if the need ever arise to.

This shows that Roosevelt took Japan as a menace very seriously, and has placed in effect, measures that prevent the threat from manifesting. Paragraph 3: Japan’s immigration problems Since the opening of Japan from its self imposed seclusion policy in 1854, scholars have studied aboard to acquire Western teachings. The immigration problem manifested once Japanese started immigrating to Hawaii, Canada and US motivated by economic gains and evasion of military services. In the year 1900 alone, 12000 Japanese entered United States and by 1910 the population trebled to a total of 72,517.

Although this bought a solution to their demand of cheap labour, another set of problems arise in the form of economic, racial and anti-Japanese agitation. Examples included would be San Francisco School Board implemented segregation of education school between Japanese and American children, and “California legislature passing offensive legislation aiming at Japanese”. This background knowledge is coherent in identifying the social problems such as a “race problem and contest” is forecasted if nothing is done to keep them out.

He understands that his people will not permit the Japanese to come in “as citizens and will not tolerate their presences. ” US experienced widespread anti-Japanese sentiments and this is supported from evidence that Roosevelt received insults such as “an unpatriotic President, who united with aliens to break down the civilization of his own countrymen” by San Francisco Chronicle when he decided to back Japan up against segregation measures by other nations.

However Roosevelt’s reasons was that he did not wish to create tension and friction between the relations of two countries and hope to continue with their peaceful diplomatic attempts to prevent any possibility of war. In essence, despite the anti-Japanese agitation of the people with their measures in place, Roosevelt found it hard to openly support them as he hopes to continue their mutual corresponding efforts in diplomacy and restrain from any form of conflict. Paragraph 4: White Men’s Supremacy

An uncertainty would be that Roosevelt may be slightly bias due to the prevalent widespread ideology of “White men’s supremacy” at that point of time. In the height of imperialism, the poem of “The White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling bought about feelings of superiority and condescending view over the less developed countries mainly Asia. The Whites have the obligation to rule over the indigenous population through colonialization and civilizing mission to educate them. The relationship between US and Japan was marked with tensions with regard to economic and commercial interest over Asia.

Roosevelt may view Japan in a negative light such as an aggressor because he felt that only US has a legitimate rule and control over China, unlike an inferior Asian country like Japan However in Roosevelt’s analysis, the rest of the US has a different impression of Japan. He claims that “the moment everything is smooth and pleasant, there will be a clamor for a stoppage in the building up of the navy. ” It can be inferred from Roosevelt that US is easily conceited and once they are in their comfort zone, they will forgot how big a threat Japan possess. Conclusion:

In context to what we have learnt so far, it is most relevant to our lecture 6 of “Culture of High Imperialism – Japan”. Through the evaluation of this document, we have seen that Western power, US, have acknowledged the might of an Asian country, Japan. There have been a change in the balance of global power at that point of time and “White Men Supremacy” ideology was tested as Japan defeat Russia and China. United State’s President Roosevelt was forced to recognize “the whole question of our dealings with the Orient is certain to grow in importance” and there was a drastic change of perception of the social construct of the world.

He highlighted Japan as a threat of interest and territory in Asia as well as creation of an immigrant problem of racial contest in Hawaii and parts of US. Roosevelt gave solutions such as “Big Stick Diplomacy” of building up the Navy and keeping it strong to deter Japan from attacking them. He stressed that Senator Knox should not lower his guard during moments of peace and overlook the job of keeping the Navy in its highest point of efficiency as well as controlling the emigration rate of Japanese into US.

I have tested the source’s credibility and found it to be largely reliable and largely agree that Japan was a threat to US in the early 1900s and Roosevelt was correct to identify them as one and implement solutions to counter their aggression. 1496 words Bibliography Chitoshi Yananga, Japan Since Perry (Achron Books; Hamden, Connecticut, 1966) David Cody, The growth of the British Empire, Associate Professor of English, (Hartwick College Paragraph 4) 1988 Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia et al.. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures.

Vol. C. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 2009. Mark Canada; The Ready Reference Handbook (49b) Martin, Gary. “Speak Softly And Carry a Big Stick” ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Mark Canada; The Ready Reference Handbook (49b) http://www. uncp. edu/home/canada/work/markport/best/evaluate. htm (Janaury 2001) [ 2 ]. Chitoshi Yananga, Japan Since Perry (Achron Books; Hamden, Connecticut, 1966), 439 [ 3 ]. Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia et al.. The Making of the West, Peoples and Cultures. Vol. C. 3rd ed.

Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 2009. 712-13. [ 4 ]. Chitoshi Yananga, Japan Since Perry (Achron Books; Hamden, Connecticut, 1966), 334 [ 5 ]. Chitoshi Yananga, Japan Since Perry (Achron Books; Hamden, Connecticut, 1966), 333 [ 6 ]. Martin, Gary. “Speak Softly And Carry a Big Stick” [ 8 ]. Chitoshi Yananga, Japan Since Perry (Achron Books; Hamden, Connecticut, 1966), 429 [ 9 ]. Chitoshi Yananga, Japan Since Perry (Achron Books; Hamden, Connecticut, 1966), 437 [ 10 ]. David Cody, The growth of the British Empire, Associate Professor of English, (Hartwick College Paragraph 4) 1988