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Rizal in Hong Kong

Rizal in Hong Kong 19 November 1891 In the evening Rizal arrived at Hong Kong. 26 November 1891 From Hong Kong Rizal sent to Manuel Camus in Singapore 20 copies of the Fili, 6of the Morga and 4 of the Noli. He gave Camus 25 percent commission for thebooks sold. 1 December 1891 He asked permission from his parents to join them in Manila in their sacrifices andat the same time, encouraged them to have a little endurance. He said: ” I havelearned of the exile of four townmates to Jolo and of the return of my brother toManila.

I have also learned that mother, Pangoy and Trining, have beensummoned again by the civil government. I am burning with desire to embraceyou. Patience, a little patience! Courage! ” 6 December 1891 Francisco Mercado, Paciano and his brother-in-law, Silvestre Ubaldo, escapedfrom the Philippines to avoid persecution, and arrived at Hong Kong to join him. 12 December 1891 In a letter sent to Maria, one of his sisters in the Philippines, Rizal broached hisplan of establishing a Filipino colony in North British Borneo. 17 December 1891

On this day Governor General Despujol, offering his services and cooperation forthe common good. He wanted to point to the latter the ills of country in order tohelp cure the wounds of mal-administration. 27 December 1891 An article was published in the La Epoca carrying false news about Rizal’s stay inthe Philippines and his influence among the natives. This article carries noauthor’s name and was believed to have been inspired by a Dominican friar. December 1891 Rizal was visited by an Augustinian friar in his house. The friar pulled his ears andwanted to attack him.

But Rizal stopped the intruder by twisting the latter’s hand. 25 January 1892 The duplicate of his diploma in Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery was issued bythe Ministry of Development in Madrid. 30 January 1892 In a letter, Juan Luna favorably endorsed Rizal’s plan of establishing a Filipinocolony in North Borneo. He wished Rizal luck and success in this project. January 1892 Everyday, after his medical practices in his clinic, he continued writing his thirdnovel. It treated exclusively about the Tagalog customs, usages, virtuesanddefects.

Meanwhile, his brother Paciano translated the Noli into Tagalog. 1 February 1892 Rizal paid thirty-five pesos (P35. 00) to D. Mallunko for the rent on the premisesof A-2 Rednaxela from January 1st to 31st. 6 February 1892 Rizal wrote a letter addressed to “My beloved friend” and signed it with the nameCabisa. 15 February 1892 The Hong Kong Telegraph published the letter of Rizal signed Philippines in whichhe denounced the vandalistic actions of the friar manager of the Dominicans indestroying the houses of those who refused to pay the exorbitant rentalsdemanded of them in Calamba. 23 February 1892

Rizal wrote a letter to Blumentritt in which he informed the latter of his plan of emigrating to Borneo where he could establish another Calamba free from theabuses of the friars and the civil guards. 2 March 1892 He visited Victoria Gaol in Hong Kong. Dr. Lorenzo Pereira Marquez who was thephysician of the state prison accompanied him. People met: josemariabasa, balbinomauricioImpression:Hong Kong is a small but very clean commercial city. Many Portuguese, Hindus,English, Chinese, and Jews live in it. There are also some Filipinos, the majority of whom being those who had been exiled to the Mariana Islands in 1872.

They arepoor, gentle, and timid. Formerly they were rich merchants, industrialists, andfinanciers. Only one is a republican and progressive; very suspicious. They willnot return to Manila; they fear the  phantoms . One is very sick and will die soon. He was a rich financier, not very well educated, but very rich, who married adissolute woman. It was his fault. Now he is poor, very poor. He left the country passing Hong Kong and was welcomed by Filipino residents,among them, Jose Maria Basa, Balbino Mauricio, and Manuel Yriarte, the son of the mayor of Laguna.

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Jose Rizal

Definition of Measurement Measurement is the process or the result of determining the ratio of a physical quantity, such as a length, time, temperature etc. , to a unit of measurement, such as the meter, second or degree Celsius. The science of measurement is called metrology. The English word measurement originates from the Latin mensura and the verb metiri through the Middle French mesure. Reference: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Measurement Measurement Quantities *Basic Fundamental

Quantity name/s| (Common) Quantity symbol/s| SI unit name| SI unit symbol| Dimension symbol| Length, width, height, depth| a, b, c, d, h, l, r, s, w, x, y, z| metre| m| [L]| Time| t| second| s| [T]| Mass| m| kilogram| kg| [M]| Temperature| T, ? | kelvin| K| [? ]| Amount of substance, number of moles| n| mole| mol| [N]| Electric current| i, I| ampere| A| [I]| Luminous intensity| Iv| candela| Cd| [J]| Plane angle| ? , ? , ? , ? , ? , ? | radian| rad| dimensionless| Solid angle| ? , ? | steradian| sr| dimensionless| Derived Quantities Space Common) Quantity name/s| (Common) Quantity symbol| SI unit| Dimension| (Spatial) position (vector)| r, R, a, d| m| [L]| Angular position, angle of rotation (can be treated as vector or scalar)| ? , ? | rad| dimensionless| Area, cross-section| A, S, ? | m2| [L]2| Vector area (Magnitude of surface area, directed normal totangential plane of surface)| | m2| [L]2| Volume| ? , V| m3| [L]3| Quantity| Typical symbols| Definition| Meaning, usage| Dimension| Quantity| q| q| Amount of a property| [q]| Rate of change of quantity, Time derivative| | | Rate of change of property with respect to time| [q] [T]? 1| Quantity spatial density| ? volume density (n = 3), ? = surface density (n = 2), ? = linear density (n = 1)No common symbol for n-space density, here ? n is used. | | Amount of property per unit n-space(length, area, volume or higher dimensions)| [q][L]-n| Specific quantity| qm| | Amount of property per unit mass| [q][L]-n| Molar quantity| qn| | Amount of property per mole of substance| [q][L]-n| Quantity gradient (if q is a scalar field. | | | Rate of change of property with respect to position| [q] [L]? 1| Spectral quantity (for EM waves)| qv, q? , q? | Two definitions are used, for frequency and wavelength: | Amount of property per unit wavelength or frequency. [q][L]? 1 (q? )[q][T] (q? )| Flux, flow (synonymous)| ? F, F| Two definitions are used;Transport mechanics, nuclear physics/particle physics: Vector field: | Flow of a property though a cross-section/surface boundary. | [q] [T]? 1 [L]? 2, [F] [L]2| Flux density| F| | Flow of a property though a cross-section/surface boundary per unit cross-section/surface area| [F]| Current| i, I| | Rate of flow of property through a crosssection/ surface boundary| [q] [T]? 1| Current density (sometimes called flux density in transport mechanics)| j, J| | Rate of flow of property per unit cross-section/surface area| [q] [T]? 1 [L]? | Reference: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Physical_quantity#General_derived_quantities http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Physical_quantity#Base_quantities System of Units Unit name| Unit symbol| Quantity| Definition (Incomplete)| Dimension symbol| metre| m| length| * Original (1793): 1? 10000000 of the meridian through Paris between the North Pole and the EquatorFG * Current (1983): The distance travelled by light in vacuum in 1? 299792458 of a second| L| kilogram[note 1]| kg| mass| * Original (1793): The grave was defined as being the weight [mass] of one cubic decimetre of pure water at its freezing point.

FG * Current (1889): The mass of the International Prototype Kilogram| M| second| s| time| * Original (Medieval): 1? 86400 of a day * Current (1967): The duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium 133 atom| T| ampere| A| electric current| * Original (1881): A tenth of the electromagnetic CGS unit of current. [The [CGS] emu unit of current is that current, flowing in an arc 1 cm long of a circle 1 cm in radius creates a field of one oersted at the centre. 37]]. IEC * Current (1946): The constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 m apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 x 10-7 newton per metre of length| I| kelvin| K| thermodynamic temperature| * Original (1743): The centigrade scale is obtained by assigning 0° to the freezing point of water and 100° to the boiling point of water. * Current (1967): The fraction 1/273. 16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water| ? mole| mol| amount of substance| * Original (1900): The molecular weight of a substance in mass grams. ICAW * Current (1967): The amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0. 012 kilogram of carbon 12. [note 2]| N| candela| cd| luminous intensity| * Original (1946):The value of the new candle is such that the brightness of the full radiator at the temperature of solidification of platinum is 60 new candles per square centimetre * Current (1979): The luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 ? 012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. | J| Reference: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/International_System_of_Units Scientific Notation Scientific notation (more commonly known as standard form) is a way of writing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form. Scientific notation has a number of useful properties and is commonly used in calculators and by scientists, mathematicians and engineers.

In scientific notation all numbers are written in the form of (a times ten raised to the power of b), where the exponent b is an integer, and the coefficient a is any real number (however, see normalized notation below), called the significand or mantissa. The term “mantissa” may cause confusion, however, because it can also refer to the fractional part of the common logarithm. If the number is negative then a minus sign precedes a (as in ordinary decimal notation). ————————————————-

Converting numbers Converting a number in these cases means to either convert the number into scientific notation form, convert it back into decimal form or to change the exponent part of the equation. None of these alter the actual number, only how it’s expressed. Decimal to scientific First, move the decimal separator point the required amount, n, to make the number’s value within a desired range, between 1 and 10 for normalized notation. If the decimal was moved to the left, append x 10n; to the right, x 10-n.

To represent the number 1,230,400 in normalized scientific notation, the decimal separator would be moved 6 digits to the left and x 106 appended, resulting in1. 2304? 106. The number -0. 004 0321 would have its decimal separator shifted 3 digits to the right instead of the left and yield ? 4. 0321? 10? 3 as a result. Scientific to decimal Converting a number from scientific notation to decimal notation, first remove the x 10n on the end, then shift the decimal separator n digits to the right (positive n) or left (negative n). The number1. 2304? 06 would have its decimal separator shifted 6 digits to the right and become 1 230 400, while ? 4. 0321? 10? 3 would have its decimal separator moved 3 digits to the left and be-0. 0040321. Exponential Conversion between different scientific notation representations of the same number with different exponential values is achieved by performing opposite operations of multiplication or division by a power of ten on the significand and an subtraction or addition of one on the exponent part. The decimal separator in the significand is shifted x places to the left (or right) and 1x is added to (subtracted from) the exponent, as shown below. . 234? 103 = 12. 34? 102 = 123. 4? 101 = 1234 Significant Figures The significant figures (also known as significant digits, and often shortened to sig figs) of a number are those digits that carry meaning contributing to its precision. This includes all digitsexcept: * leading and trailing zeros which are merely placeholders to indicate the scale of the number. * spurious digits introduced, for example, by calculations carried out to greater precision than that of the original data, or measurements reported to a greater precision than the equipment supports.

Inaccuracy of a measuring device does not affect the number of significant figures in a measurement made using that device, although it does affect the accuracy. A measurement made using a plastic ruler that has been left out in the sun or a beaker that unbeknownst to the technician has a few glass beads at the bottom has the same number of significant figures as a significantly different measurement of the same physical object made using an unaltered ruler or beaker. The number of significant figures reflects the device’s precision, but not its accuracy.

The basic concept of significant figures is often used in connection with rounding. Rounding to significant figures is a more general-purpose technique than rounding to n decimal places, since it handles numbers of different scales in a uniform way. For example, the population of a city might only be known to the nearest thousand and be stated as 52,000, while the population of a country might only be known to the nearest million and be stated as 52,000,000. The former might be in error by hundreds, and the latter might be in error by hundreds of thousands, but both have two significant figures (5 and 2).

This reflects the fact that the significance of the error (its likely size relative to the size of the quantity being measured) is the same in both cases. Computer representations of floating point numbers typically use a form of rounding to significant figures, but with binary numbers. The number of correct significant figures is closely related to the notion of relative error (which has the advantage of being a more accurate measure of precision, and is independent of the radix of the number system used).

The term “significant figures” can also refer to a crude form of error representation based around significant-digit rounding; for this use, see significance arithmetic. The rules for identifying significant figures when writing or interpreting numbers are as follows:  * All non-zero digits are considered significant. For example, 91 has two significant figures (9 and 1), while 123. 45 has five significant figures (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). * Zeros appearing anywhere between two non-zero digits are significant. Example: 101. 12 has five significant figures: 1, 0, 1, 1 and 2. Leading zeros are not significant. For example, 0. 00052 has two significant figures: 5 and 2. * Trailing zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant. For example, 12. 2300 has six significant figures: 1, 2, 2, 3, 0 and 0. The number 0. 000122300 still has only six significant figures (the zeros before the 1 are not significant). In addition, 120. 00 has five significant figures since it has three trailing zeros. This convention clarifies the precision of such numbers; for example, if a measurement precise to four decimal places (0. 001) is given as 12. 23 then it might be understood that only two decimal places of precision are available. Stating the result as 12. 2300 makes clear that it is precise to four decimal places (in this case, six significant figures). * The significance of trailing zeros in a number not containing a decimal point can be ambiguous. For example, it may not always be clear if a number like 1300 is precise to the nearest unit (and just happens coincidentally to be an exact multiple of a hundred) or if it is only shown to the nearest hundred due to rounding or uncertainty.

Various conventions exist to address this issue: * A bar may be placed over the last significant figure; any trailing zeros following this are insignificant. For example, 1300 has three significant figures (and hence indicates that the number is precise to the nearest ten). * The last significant figure of a number may be underlined; for example, “2000” has two significant figures. * A decimal point may be placed after the number; for example “100. ” indicates specifically that three significant figures are meant. * In the combination of a number and a unit of measurement the ambiguity can be voided by choosing a suitable unit prefix. For example, the number of significant figures in a mass specified as 1300 g is ambiguous, while in a mass of 13 h? g or 1. 3 kg it is not. Rounding Off Numbers Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing ? 23. 4476 with ? 23. 45, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression v2 with 1. 414. Rounding is often done on purpose to obtain a value that is easier to write and handle than the original.

It may be done also to indicate the accuracy of a computed number; for example, a quantity that was computed as 123,456 but is known to be accurate only to within a few hundred units is better stated as “about 123,500. ” On the other hand, rounding introduces some round-off error in the result. Rounding is almost unavoidable in many computations — especially when dividing two numbers in integer or fixed-point arithmetic; when computing mathematical functions such as square roots, logarithms, and sines; or when using a floating point representation with a fixed number of significant digits.

In a sequence of calculations, these rounding errors generally accumulate, and in certain ill-conditioned cases they may make the result meaningless. Accurate rounding of transcendental mathematical functions is difficult because the number of extra digits that need to be calculated to resolve whether to round up or down cannot be known in advance. This problem is known as “the table-maker’s dilemma”. Rounding has many similarities to the quantization that occurs when physical quantities must be encoded by numbers or digital signals. Typical rounding problems are pproximating an irrational number by a fraction, e. g. , ? by 22/7; approximating a fraction with periodic decimal expansion by a finite decimal fraction, e. g. , 5/3 by 1. 6667; replacing a rational number by a fraction with smaller numerator and denominator, e. g. , 3122/9417 by 1/3; replacing a fractional decimal number by one with fewer digits, e. g. , 2. 1784 dollars by 2. 18 dollars; replacing a decimal integer by an integer with more trailing zeros, e. g. , 23,217 people by 23,200 people; or, in general, replacing a value by a multiple of a specified amount, e. . , 27. 2 seconds by 30 seconds (a multiple of 15). Conversion of Units Process The process of conversion depends on the specific situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation, contract, Technical specifications or other published standards. Engineering judgment may include such factors as: * The precision and accuracy of measurement and the associated uncertainty of measurement * The statistical confidence interval or tolerance interval of the initial measurement * The number of significant figures of the measurement The intended use of the measurement including the engineering tolerances Some conversions from one system of units to another need to be exact, without increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is sometimes called soft conversion. It does not involve changing the physical configuration of the item being measured. By contrast, a hard conversion or an adaptive conversion may not be exactly equivalent. It changes the measurement to convenient and workable numbers and units in the new system. It sometimes involves a slightly different configuration, or size substitution, of the item.

Nominal values are sometimes allowed and used. Multiplication factors Conversion between units in the metric system can be discerned by their prefixes (for example, 1 kilogram = 1000 grams, 1 milligram = 0. 001 grams) and are thus not listed in this article. Exceptions are made if the unit is commonly known by another name (for example, 1 micron = 10? 6 metre). Table ordering Within each table, the units are listed alphabetically, and the SI units (base or derived) are highlighted. ————————————————- Tables of conversion factors

This article gives lists of conversion factors for each of a number of physical quantities, which are listed in the index. For each physical quantity, a number of different units (some only of historical interest) are shown and expressed in terms of the corresponding SI unit. Legend| Symbol| Definition| ?| exactly equal to| ?| approximately equal to| digits| indicates that digits repeat infinitely (e. g. 8. 294369 corresponds to 8. 294369369369369…)| (H)| of chiefly historical interest| ASSIGNMENT IN PHYSICS I-LEC Submitted by: Balagtas, Glen Paulo R. BS Marine Transportation-I Submitted to: Mrs. Elizabeth Gabriel Professor in Physics-Lec

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Jose Rizal’s Poem and Writings

Why did Rizal write the following poems and essays? * To the Philippine Youth. He wrote this to emphasize that the youth is the hope of our nation and that they should be educated to help in the progress of the country. He also included that Filipino should love their own mother tongue. * My First Inspiration. This was written by Rizal to teach us that our mother should be our first inspiration as our mother is the one who bear us and gives us the support from the very beginning.

Our mother is also our first teacher. * Love of Country. This was written by Rizal to remind us that we must love our own motherland and as Filipinos we should somehow sacrifice ourselves for our country. * A Remembrance for My Town. This was written by Rizal for us Filipinos to be reminded that we should not forget our fatherland where we came from and the cultures we are used to and values we are taught of. * Through Education, Our Motherland Receives Life.

Rizal wrote this to open our minds that as the Filipino acquires education, he can help the country in seeking freedom and improving the life of the Filipinos. * To the Flowers of Heidelberg. Rizal wrote this while he was in Heidelberg as they were having their tour, wherein the flowers blooming in Heidelberg reminds him of his garden in Calamba * My Retreat. This poem was written in account of Rizal’s mother’s request to revive his interest in writing poems.

Here, he portrayed how serene his life was while he is in exile. Rizal clearly expressed his acceptance of his fate and that justice will overcome in the end. * A Letter to Young Women of Malolos. This famous essay was written to commend the young women of Malolos for their courage to establish a school where they could learn Spanish despite the opposition of the parish priest Fr. Garcia.

This essay also contains Rizal’s ultimate desire which is for the Filipino women to have the same opportunity enjoyed by men in terms of education since education will unshackle the women. * My Last Farewell. This poem was written by Rizal showing his spirit of fairness and justice. This is his farewell to his native land which he gladly offers his life. In this poem, it depicts that he faced his death calmly for he was aware that he is going to a place where there are no claves and God reigns supreme.

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Rizal and the World at the Time

Jose Mercado “Rizal” lived in a time that had quite the background. Globally, slaves were getting freed, powers were rising, powers were declining. Locally, it was more oppression and religious brainwashing than progression. How could these events influence Rizal? Of course, being an individual of high intellect, how could he not? You have to imagine what Rizal could see and learn around him at that time. He was one of the few who were that of a well-to-do family.

This meant that he could attend school and receive education. He read books when he wanted, he learned history and philosophy, and many others that when combined with a brilliant mind, could see things more objectively without being clouded by passion. If he could take an objective stand on situations and yet as reflected in his works, be passionate about them, then that means that his passion is backed up by something objective. The whole world was entering a time that respected the rights of the human being.

Slaves were being freed and because of this, a lot of human rights laws were being made. At the same time, the world’s powers were expanding and decreasing at the same time. Locally, news of oppression spread. These things give you a good idea why Rizal took his stand against the rebellion as he did. The oppression around him was definitely not acceptable in the eyes of Rizal because human rights were being spread around the world by the intellectuals of North America and backed up by the actions of Russia.

But Rizal knew that the Philippines definitely cannot hold itself as a country yet. He’s a smart guy and with that he probably looked up the history of war and what was needed to have strength as a country. If one were to look at the circumstances of the country with just the country in your sights, you would have taken the route of a Katipunero and decided to wage war against the oppressors. Rizal didn’t. Why?

This is because he had the circumstances of the whole world to back up his ideals. He was influenced by the events globally and not just locally. He was an intellectual who was influenced by the works during and before his time. He thought of the welfare of the country in the long run and not just the shortest way out. It’s too bad he had to die as he did. He definitely would have come up with a revolution that would have put the Philippines in a better state than it is now.

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Elias and Simoun as Revolutionary Characters

The Filipino’s national hero, Jose Rizal, had written two famous novels which are the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. The compelling part of these novels compared to the regular novels we have nowadays is all the symbols that depicted the Philippines’ society in Rizal’s time. One of the symbols that he used is his characters. Each character represented a real person in society and through these it can be analyzed if that character represented a social cancer in the society. Most of the characters in the novels did represent the sickness that was happening in the society.

An example of this is Dona Victorina who was a fat Filipina who always wore jewels and married a Spanish man. She represents the Filipinos who aspire to become a Spaniard to leave behind any trace of Filipino in them and then boasts to everyone about her by marrying a Spanish man. There are many characters that are like this which are people with low esteem and then falling to the traps of the Spaniards. Of course, not all the people are like this. There are those who love the Philippines and their nationality that they fight for this.

Rizal has represented these people in the characters of Ibarra, Elias, Simoun and Basilio. However, between these characters, they also represented two types of people. Elias and Simoun are reflections of the revolutionists that wanted radical change while Ibarra and Basilio represented the reformists. It was a common misconception that Rizal represented himself as one of these characters but when analyzed carefully, these characters represented his views to the revolution and the reformation. He keeps arguing the pros and cons of each side and then in the end, we would know which one he chose is better.

Elias and Simoun were the two great revolutionists in Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo respectively. They have a lot of similarities but also many differences. Both of them suffered greatly from the oppressions of the Spaniards which is the reason why they have become revolutionists and wanted independence of the country. In Elias’ case, he was a poor lowly man who was not able to have a good education but through hardships, his mind was sharpened and he saw the social injustices around him especially the injustice experienced by his family.

His family were killed by the Spaniards but he did not seek revenge and vengeance. He did not want to be ill driven by revenge as his purpose but he still believed that violence was the only way to which the Philippines will have independence. He was a very optimistic person who trusts in Ibarra, God, government, in everything except the civil guards and the friars. He is a man who hates and persecutes the wicked. He saves those who are being persecuted and vindicates the vicious, lazy Filipinos in the novel.

Rizal has made Elias a very compelling character of revolutionists but in the end he changes the views of Elias. Elias who at first was a strong believer of the revolution and argued that armed struggle will be the only means to set the Philippines free changed his mind in the end that the revolution will be a failure and so many Filipinos will just lose their lives. This was a much unexpected change of events in the novel because a very strong-willed person suddenly changes his views about the revolution.

It is later realized that a missing chapter about Salome and Elias was the reason why this has happened. In the end, the strong revolutionist became weak but he still believed in Ibarra and so he sacrificed himself so that he can live with a dream that Ibarra would be the turning key to the Philippines’ independence. Elias believed that there will be no light or education if there is no liberty. Crisostomo Ibarra had the opposite view from Elias’, Ibarra believed that there will be no liberty if there is no light.

On the other hand, Simoun was also a character who became a victim of the colonial system. His father was killed by the friars and his sweetheart Maria Clara would leave him to become a sister in the convent because of a dark secret. Unlike Elias, Simoun was driven with revenge against the Spaniards who have taken Maria Clara away from him. He became a radical revolutionist so that he will take Maria Clara from her captors. Simoun’s purpose of revolting was a selfish and personal reason which will become one of the reasons why he will fail as explained by the priest in the end.

Simoun was still a very rich man like Ibarra so he was very influential to the people. He was also very active as a revolutionist wherein he dared kill all the high friars and military officials in his house. However, this plan failed because Basilio hindered this from happening. Simoun still believed that the Filipinos need to have good education to be worthy for having independence. He believes that to become a nation, both the politics and education need to be changed.

Still, like Elias, Rizal also killed by killing himself with poison because he has lost all hope that he would ever succeed. The difference from Elias and Simoun’s revolution is the objective and condition into which the revolution was made. For Elias, the revolution should not have any personal objective however Simoun’s participation in the revolution was driven by the personal objective of rescuing Maria Clara. The failure of Simoun in saving Maria Clara also contradicts the condition of Elias for a revolution which is careful planning.

The similiraty lies on the manner of how the revolution should be executed which is through bloodshed and war. Through these two characters, it can be seen that there are great revolutionists in the society. They have also argued their sides well. However, Rizal was not in favour for the revolution and that is why he had killed them in his novels which are to say that he was trying to tell the revolutionists of his time that the revolution will become a lost cause because this would only drive them mad and a lot of people would be killed.

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Rizal’s Life

When the book starts, Ibarra is returning to the Philippines after a 7 year absence, and he is reunited with his lover, Maria Clara. He also learns the details of his father’s death, which was caused by one of his father’s political opponents in his home town of Binondo, Manila. Father Damaso is one of the religious/political figures in Binondo who dislikes Ibarra’s dad. By accusing Ibarra’s dad of being a heretic, and by using the death of a local student to make him look bad, Father Damaso turned the community against Ibarra’s dad, and had him thrown in jail where he got sick and died.

Ibarra’s father was disgraced further when his body was thrown into the lake while workers were transporting him between burial sites. After learning about the atrocities committed against his father, Ibarra does not seek revenge, but instead decides to build a school, which was something his father had always planned to do. By building the school, Juan Crisostomo Ibarra shows that he is genuinely concerned about the education and welfare of the Filipino people, because he puts the political squabbling aside in order to help the community.

Ibarra is nearly assassinated at the school’s opening celebrations, but he is saved by a man named Elias. After the assassination attempt, Ibarra is thrown into jail for a crime that he did not commit. Elias again assists Ibarra by helping him escape from prison. As they are absconding in a boat, Ibarra hides under some leaves. Elias jumps into the water in an attempt to fool the guards, but his plan fails and he is shot by the guards and left for dead. Since the guards think that they shot Ibarra, they cease their pursuit of the boat he is hiding on, and he escapes unharmed. Reflection

Base on my reflection the book Noli Me Tangre is about the problems and injustices experienced by the fictional character, Juan Crisostomo Ibarra. All of the problems he experiences are brought about by corrupt officials in the Spanish government of his home town. And he revenge because for the death of his father. Insights One of Jose Rizal’s goals in writing the story was to bring attention to the corruption present in the Spanish controlled government of the Philippines. Noli Me Tangre exposed corruption, created widespread controversy, and gave native Filipinos a sense of unity.

Even until now there still a corruption that we experiencing resulting of difficulty and poverty in life and in our country. Hope that there might a solution of this corrupt country. El Filibusterismo Simoun, a mysterious and powerful jeweller who is in good graces with the Captain General plots a coup d’ etat against the Spanish colonial government. He secretly abets the abuses committed against the natives in the hope of stirring them to rise up in revolt. To weaken the regime, he encourages corruption, using his immense wealth to foment injustice and provoke massive unrest.

Unknown to all, Simoun is Juan Crisostomo Ibarra, a man who had been wrongfully accused of rebellion and condemned in a plot instigated by his enemies including a friar who had unchaste feelings for his fiancee, Maria Clara. Everybody thought Ibarra had been killed as a fugitive, but in truth he had escaped, enriched himself abroad and has returned to the Islands to avenge himself. He plans to take Maria Clara who, believing Ibarra is dead, had entered the convent. In the course of his plans, Simoun comes into contact with young idealistic Filipinos whom he wants to enlist to his cause.

One of these is Basilio, one of the few who know his secret. He had been adopted by Kapitan Tiyago, a wealthy landowner and father of Maria Clara. Basilio is about to graduate as doctor of medicine and plans to marry Huli, his childhood sweetheart. Huli is the daughter of Kabesang Tales, a homesteader who had been dispossessed of his lands by the friars. Turned outlaw, Kabesang Tales and other victims of injustice have been enlisted by Simoun in his plan to overthrow the government.

Another student, Isagani, dreams of a progressive future for his country but his fiancee, Paulita, who shares his aunt Dona Victorina’s prejudices against the natives, is not interested in them. Simoun’s plot is aborted when he learns that Maria Clara had died at the convent. Student leaders who have been advocating the opening of an academy for the teaching of the Spanish language hold a party where they lampoon the friars. The next day, posters are found encouraging sedition, and those suspected of involvement are arrested, including Basilio. His foster father having died, obody intercedes for him, while the rich and influential are released.

Meanwhile, Huli is killed in the church after she had sought the help of the parish priest for the release of Basilio. Due to this tragedy, her grandfather, Tandang Selo, joins the outlaws. Embittered by Maria Clara’s death, Simoun plans another coup to be staged at the wedding reception for Paulita, who has been engaged to another man: top government officials including the Captain general who are to attend would be blown away, the house being planted with explosives which will be detonated by a a device hidden in the lamp given as gift by Simoun to the newlyweds.

Basilio, who has been released and now wants to take revenge is ordered by Simoun to lead in the uprising. At the appointed hour, the guests are terrified upon reading a note signed by Juan Crisostomo Ibarra; his signature is recognized by Father Salvi, the friar who lusted after Maria Clara. Before the lamp could explode, Isagani, who has been warned by Basilio about the plot, barges in and throws the lamp into the river. Isagani escapes. The uprising again fails to take off, and the armed followersof Simoun, deprived of leadership or devoid of vision, resort to banditry.

The lawlessness that reigns in the countrysides leads to harsh measures by the government in its efforts to show it is in control. The plot at the wedding is finally traced to Simoun who escapes into a house near the ocean. After taking poison, he confesses to father Florentino, a Filipino priest, who tells him: “What is the use of independence if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow? ” After the death of Simoun, Father Florentino throws his treasure into the sea.

Free Essays

Jose Rizal: the Portal of Hope from the Past

Considered as the national hero of our country, Dr. Jose Rizal played a significant role in our history. He was known as one of the most prominent writers of his time. Among his famous works were the novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. These notable stories gave way for his nationalistic thoughts which became the wick of the long revolts in the past. He believed on the power of pen in contrast to Bonifacio’s view. His death made us face a reality that undeniably tells us the deplorable image of our nation.

But do you think he succeeded in opening the eyes of each Filipino? Of course, he did. His works, legendary writings and exemplary lifestyle formed who he was and became to be. Most people live similarly in that they progress through stages of life that ultimately make them who they are. Rizal inspired all the Filipinos to fight for their own freedom. But sadly, most of what he contributed was just left behind and taken for granted.

Everyone searches for different pleasures in life, whether it is money, power, fame, knowledge, peace, understanding of self, or just the thrill of adventure whatever it takes. Somehow, we are already forgetting the roots of our valued land. For instance, the crimes are becoming widespread. Due to our fears, we neglect the importance of seeking for truth and justice. We let others decide for ourselves. We do not have anymore the will to struggle for righteousness. As long as we live, we opt to stay away from scenarios involving critical thinking and vital decision-making.

So did Rizal’s existence made sense? Appreciation is where we all need to start. Now that we’re aware of how essential his works are, we must open our eyes and make changes. Let us show our deep love and concern for this hero of democracy. In fighting for what we think is right, we are opening the portals of hope from the past. We eagerly face the future with valor and optimism. And we indeed show this great person of yesterday that we still value what he valiantly fought for us.

Free Essays

National Hero of Philippines: Jose Rizal

1. My dad always tells me that behind every great man is a greater family. Maybe what he meant was no one could be great in life without the help of his family or without his family along with him. This was concretely shown in Rizal’s life. Being the great man that he is, Rizal was brought up by his parents very well that he became almost excellent and great in all that he did.

Way back in my elementary days, we were asked what we would like to be when we grow up. I answered, “My dad is a great, smart and handsome accountant and I wanna be just like him.” I believed that what we turn out to be is patterned on our parents, how we are brought up by them and how our family supports us in what we do. In Rizal’s case, his abilities, I believe, came from his parents. His skills in literature particularly in poems and his skill in speaking Spanish came from the upbringing he got from his mother, Teodora Alonso and his skills in philosophy came from his father, Francisco Mercado.

I admire Rizal’s parents because even if they were part of the principalia, they lived simply and taught their children to live humbly. They exercised their children to be good-mannered, respectful to everyone, disciplined and God-fearing. They were strict to their children and they, just like any other parents, disciplined their children physically because they believed in the saying “Spare the rod and spoil the child”. They also taught Rizal and his siblings to love God above all.

This was concretely shown in their practice of attending mass every day, praying the angelus at home and praying the rosary before going to sleep at night. However, being strict and very religious persons that they are, they let their kids have time for playing. All of that taught Rizal to balance everything in his life, to have time for studying, for God, for him and for his family but still manage to have fun once in a while.

Based from my experience, I know a lot of people who have very unsupportive family or came from a broken family and who is now unsuccessful in life. All I’m saying is, Rizal would not be what he became if it were not because of the help of his family, especially, his parents.

2. “Sandali lang ha, mag-aaral lang ako sa Rizal para maging accountant ako…” This, I always say, to whomever I am talking to before studying for this subject. Most often, I wonder, what does the Rizal course have to do with my chosen college course, accountancy? Rizal was not an accountant. So why study this? As we started our journey through this course, little by little, I began to understand why we have Rizal in our curriculum. For one reason, it is a law to have a Rizal subject in all the courses of all universities. So, just by this reason, we have no way out from studying this course.

But talking as a Filipino, I believe that we have to study Rizal because if we reflect, what we really know about Rizal are only the 2 novels he made which were Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, that he died because what he wrote were all against the Spaniards and that he is our national hero. But what we do not know is that Rizal is just an ordinary person like us before all that happen and like what Mr. Ungriano said, I believe that there is always a Rizal in every Filipino and I hope to find that Rizal in me with the help of this course.

Rizal’s life, thoughts, ideas, works, principles and convictions are very influential to people’s life. Taking the case of the late Ninoy Aquino into consideration, I believed that he was greatly influenced by Rizal. That’s one example of his influence of his heroism. In this course, we will see how Rizal influenced many Filipinos by his childhood, by how he was brought up by his parents, by how he was as a student, by how well he did in college, etc.

My personal reason why I am interested in studying him is to know why, of all our heroes, he became our national hero. I have been insisting all my life that Andres Bonifacio should be our national hero, because in the first place, he was the one who fought the Spaniards sword-to-sword and he was the one who gathered all Filipino to go against the Spaniards. But there was a point in Bonifacio’s life that I missed. He never won any battle and he surrendered to the Spaniards. Even Aguinaldo, our 1st president, surrendered to the Americans. In the other hand, Rizal, who used only his pen, which was said as a weapon mightier than the sword, in fighting for freedom, never surrendered from a fight even in the last moments in his life.

Lastly, studying Rizal’s life and works is a way of saying thank you to him for all his sacrifices and deep sense of nationalism that greatly contributed and led to our country’s freedom. Maybe one thing that we should really work on is our love for our country and who knows, someone in our generation might be the next Rizal. As what I have said, Rizal is just an ordinary person, but the most extraordinary of all his kind.

Free Essays

Student Satisfaction in Jose Rizal University

Introduction Students’ opinions about all aspects of academic life are now sought by educational institutions worldwide, generally, in the form of a satisfaction feedback questionnaire. It is this student satisfaction survey, within the context of student satisfaction in JRU Jose Rizal University. In the Philippines, Higher Education (HE) students were considered to be the “primary customers” of a University ,even before they were liable for the payment of “up-front” tuition fees. Students are the direct recipients of the service provided.

As if to confirm this status of the “student as customer”, the Commision on Higher Education (CHED) has introduced a National Student Survey. This survey is aimed at first year students to seek their views on a number of aspects of teaching, assessment and support provided by their university and its courses. The results will ultimately be used by the school to produce league tables of university performance. The position of a university in any league tables will impact ultimately on its image.

Image has a strong impact on the retention of current students and the attraction of potential students. Indeed recruitment and retention of students has been moved to the top of most universities’ agendas by CHED due to their desire to increase the JRU student population in line with Government targets. Poor retention rates may have adverse funding consequences for University . This paper takes the view that student satisfaction, retention and recruitment are closely linked.

Thus student satisfaction has become an extremely important issue for universities and their management. The aim is to try to maximise student satisfaction, minimise dissatisfaction and therefore retain students and so improve the institutions performance across a number of league tables. Taking these criticisms into consideration the questionnaire used in the satisfaction survey asked only for perceptions of performance of a range of service aspects (as well as importance) but did not aim to collect data associated with expectations.

Indeed, the survey questionnaire was designed around the concept of the service-product bundle. This concept is discussed in the next section. The service-product bundle The outcome of service delivery is a tangible product, and a “bundle” of goods and services as the product offering . The service-product bundle refers to the inseparable offering of many goods and services including what Jose Rizal University has to offer its students. This bundle consists of three elements: (1) the physical or facilitating goods; 2) the sensual service provided – the explicit service; and (3) the psychological service – the implicit service. For a university the facilitating goods include the lectures and tutorials, presentation slides, supplementary handout documents/materials and the recommended module text. It also includes the physical facilities such as the lecture theatres and tutorial rooms and their level of furnishing, decoration, lighting and layout as well as ancillary services such as catering and recreational amenities.

The explicit service includes the knowledge levels of staff, staff teaching ability, the consistency of teaching quality irrespective of personnel, ease of making appointments with staff, the level of difficulty of the subject content and the workload. The implicit service includes the treatment of students by staff, including friendliness and approachability, concern shown if the student has a problem, respect for feelings and opinions, availability of staff, capability and competence of staff.

It also includes the ability of the university’s environment to make the student feel comfortable, the sense of competence, confidence and professionalism conveyed by the ambience in lectures and tutorials, feeling that the student’s best interest is being served and a feeling that rewards are consistent with the effort put into course works /examinations. All of the above are based on students’ perceptions of the various parts of the service and the data is usually collected via some form of feedback questionnaire.

Why collect student feedback? (1) to provide auditable evidence that students have had the opportunity to pass comment on their courses and that such information is used to bring about improvements; (2) to encourage student reflection on their learning; (3) to allow institutions to benchmark and to provide indicators that will contribute to the reputation of the university in the marketplace; and (4) to provide students with an opportunity to express their level of satisfaction with their academic experience.

The last bullet point as the rationale behind the survey undertaken for the particular research project described in this paper. Keeping customers satisfied is what leads to customer loyalty. Research conducted by Jones and Sasser Jr (1995) into thirty organisations from five different markets found that where customers have choices the link between satisfaction and loyalty is linear; as satisfaction rises, so too does loyalty. However, in markets where competition was intense they found a difference between the loyalty of satisfied and completely satisfied customers.

Put simply, if satisfaction is ranked on a 1-5 scale from completely dissatisfied to completely satisfied, the 4’s – though satisfied – were six times more likely to defect than the 5’s. Customer loyalty manifests itself in many forms of customer behavior. Jones and Sasser Jr (1995) grouped ways of measuring loyalty into three main categories: (1) intent to re-purchase; (2) primary behaviour – organisations have access to information on various transactions at the customer level and can track five categories that show actual customer re-purchasing behaviour; viz, recency, frequency, amount, retention, and longevity; and 3) secondary behaviour – e. g. customer referrals, endorsements and spreading the word are all extremely important forms of consumer behaviour for an organisation. Translating this into university services, this covers intent to study at a higher level within the same institution, how frequently and recently a student used ancillary services, such as the library, catering and IT services, and lastly the willingness to recommend the institution to friends, neighbours and fellow employees. Issues impacting on student satisfaction Price et al. 2003) recently reported on the impact of facilities on undergraduate student choice of university. They surveyed a number of universities over two years in order to determine students’ reasons for selecting a particular university. The average results for the two years were fairly similar – the top eight reasons being; it had the right course, availability of computers, quality of library facilities, good teaching reputation, availability of “quiet” areas, availability of areas for self-study, quality of public transport in the town/city and a friendly attitude towards students.

Clearly, students’ perceptions of a university’s facilities are one of the main influences on their decision to enrol. Coles (2002) found that student satisfaction is decreased when class sizes are larger in earlier cohorts, and when students are taking compulsory core modules rather than optional modules. The quality of any of the service encounters, or “moments of truth” (Carlzon, 1989) experienced by customers forms part of their overall impression of the whole service provided, (Dale, 2003) and by implication, their impression of the organisation itself.

As Deming (1982) commented, most people form their opinions based on the people that they see, and they are either dissatisfied or delighted, or some other point on the continuum in between. In order to deliver high quality services to students, universities must manage every aspect of the student’s interaction with all of their service offerings and in particular those involving its people. Services are delivered to people by people, and the moments of truth can make or break a university’s image (Banwet and Datta, 2003).

In order to deliver total student satisfaction, all employees of a university should Ad here to the principles of quality customer service, whether they be front-line contact staff involved in teaching or administration, or non-contact staff in management or administrative roles (Gold, 2001; Low, 2000, cited in Banwet and Datta, 2003). In a recent survey conducted with 310 all male Saudi Arabian students attending the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Sohail and Shaikh (2004) found that “contact personnel” was the most influencing factor in student’s evaluation of service quality.

However, physical environment, layout, lighting, classrooms, appearance of buildings and grounds and the overall cleanliness also significantly contributed to students’ concepts of service quality. Galloway (1998) studied the role of the faculty administration office in one UK University on student perceptions of service quality. He found that it impacted directly on students and influenced their perceptions of the quality of the whole institution. The office performance also had a direct impact on academic and technical staff within the faculty.

These front-line staff in their turn had a direct impact on students, potential students and other clients. The main predictors of quality for students were found to be: . office has a professional appearance; . staff dress smartly; . never too busy to help; and . opening hours are personally convenient. Banwet and Datta (2003) believed that satisfied customers are loyal, and that satisfied students were likely to attend another lecture delivered by the same lecturer or opt for another module or course taught by her/him.

In their survey of 168 students who attended four lectures delivered by the same lecturer, covering perceived service quality, importance and post-visit intentions, they found that students placed more importance on the outcome of the lecture (knowledge and skills gained, availability of class notes and reading material, coverage and depth of the lecture and teacher’s feedback on assessed work) than any other dimension.

This supports the findings of Schneider and Bowen (1995) who deduced that the quality of the core service influences the overall quality of the service perception. For universities the core service delivery method is still the lecture. Overall Banwet and Datta (2003) found that students’ intentions to re-attend or recommend lectures was dependent on their perceptions of quality and the satisfaction they got from attending previous lectures. This is supported by the research of Hill et al. (2003) who utilised focus groups to determine what quality education meant to students.

The most important theme was the quality of the lecturer including classroom delivery, feedback to students during the session and on assignments, and the relationship with students in the classroom. Research by Tam (2002) to measure the impact of Higher Education (HE) on student’s academic, social and personal growth at a Hong Kong university found that as a result of their university experience students had changed intellectually, socially, emotionally and culturally. This growth was evidenced as students progressed from one year to another as their university career developed.

Is this also the case with student’ perceptions of service quality and satisfaction? A number of researchers have suggested that this might indeed be the case (Hill, 1995; O’Neil, 2003) although obtaining valid and reliable data to support such a stance is difficult. This study aims to determine if there are differences in those aspects of a university service that students consider important, as well as their satisfaction levels, associated with their year/level of study, i. e. first, second and third. Methodology

A quantitative survey was designed to elicit student satisfaction levels across the University’s service offerings. The questionnaire consisted of __ questions informed by previous research studies and subdivided into the various categories of the service product bundle including, lecture and tutorial facilities, ancillary facilities, the facilitating goods, the explicit service and the implicit service. At the end students were asked for their overall satisfaction rating and whether they would recommend the University to a prospective student.

The satisfaction questions were preceded by a series of demographic questions that would allow the sample population to be segmented. These included, interalia, questions regarding gender, age, level of study, mode of study and country of origin. Participation in the survey was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The length and complexity of the questionnaire was influenced, in part, by the balance between the quest for data and getting students to complete the survey. The questionnaire was piloted among 100 undergraduate volunteers.

The length of time it took them to complete the survey was noted and at the end they were asked for any comments regarding the validity and reliability of individual questions. They were also asked if there was anything “missing” from the questionnaire. Based on the feedback received a number of questions were amended and the design of the questionnaire altered slightly. It took on average 12 minutes to complete the questionnaire. In order to get as large and representative a sample as possible, we conduct survey question in first year student in all courses in were targeted.

Staff teaching these modules were approached and permission sought to utilise for a few minuetes of their lecture time in order to explain the rationale behind the survey and to persuade students to complete the survey in class. Generally this “personal touch” was successful in eliciting a good response. Over the course of the two weeks the survey was undertaken, only one person refused to complete the questionnaire. Researchers are divided as to whether or not determinants of satisfaction should be weighted by their importance because different attributes may be of unequal importance to different people.

In this study both satisfaction and importance were measured. There is no such thing as the perfect rating scale. However, some produce more reliable and valid results than others. Devlin et al. (1993) determined that a good rating scale should have, inter alia, the following characteristics: . minimal response bias; . discriminating power; . ease of administration; and . ease of use by respondents. In order to accommodate these characteristics, the rating scale contained five points with well-spaced anchor points representing the possible range of opinions about the service.

The scale contained a neutral category and the negative categories were presented first (to the left). Thus, undergraduates were required to respond utilising a 5-point Likert scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is very unsatisfactory, 2 is unsatisfactory, 3 is neutral (neither satisfactory or unsatisfactory), 4 is satisfactory and 5 is very satisfactory. This type of scale provides a common basis for responses to items concerned with different aspects of the University experience.

The importance that students place on each criteria was measured utilising a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 is very unimportant, 2 is unimportant, 3 is neutral (neither important or unimportant) 4 is important and 5 is very important. Respondents were asked to tick the box next to the number that represented their opinion on each item. A sample of 865 students from a total within the Faculty of 3800 was surveyed. The questionnaires were analysed using SPSS v. 11 and Quadrant Analysis conducted in order to determine those areas perceived as being the least satisfactory with the greatest importance rating.

Finally, respondent focus groups were assembled to discuss some of the issues that required more in-depth analysis and which, due to constraints of space and time, were not explicitly asked about in the original survey. Results A total of — questionnaires were returned, although not all had complete data sets. Table I details the demographic mix of the respondents. Based on all student responses, the most important (i. e. list of the top ten starting from the highest value) and least important (i. e. ist of the bottom ten starting from the lowest value) aspects of the University service are shown in Table II. As can be seen from Table II the most important areas of the University services are those associated with learning and teaching. Interestingly, given the recommendations of a Government White Paper (HEFCE et al. , 2003) that from 2006 all newly recruited university teaching staff should obtain a teaching qualification that incorporates agreed professional standards, the most important aspect of the service is the teaching ability of staff, closely followed by their subject expertise.

The consistency of teaching quality irrespective of the teacher is also considered by the respondents as important, recognising that teaching quality can be variable. The students also recognise the importance of the lecture and tutorial, which is not surprising given that for most universities that is still the core service offering and is very much linked to the teaching ability and subject knowledge of staff. Teaching and learning support materials were Table 1. 1 Demographic mix of respondents GenderMale Female46 54 NationalityHome(Filipino)

International89 4 Mode of StudyFull-time Part-time sandwich Level of studyLevel1 Level2 Level3 Note: Sandwich students are those whose program of study includes a year in industry Table 2. 2 Most important and least important aspects of service RatingMost ImportantLeast important 1Teaching ability of staffDecoration in lecture facilities 2Subject expertise of staffVending machines 3IT facilitiesDecoration in tutorial rooms 4LecturesFurnishings in lecture facilities 5Supplementary lecture materialsRecreational facilities TutorialsAvailability of parking 7Consistency of teaching quality irrespective of teacherThe layout of tutorial/seminar rooms 8White boardThe layout of lecture facilities 9The Learning Resources CentreThe on-campus catering facilities 10The approachability of teaching staffThe quality of pastoral support Note: Blackboard is a virtual learning environment that students can access off and on campus also ranked highly, particularly supplementary handout materials and the use of Blackboard for enhancing student learning.

These are mostly associated with the explicit service delivered to the students and the facilitating goods. With regard to facilities, students have ranked the importance of IT facilities very highly, reflecting the usefulness of connection to the Internet for research purposes and software packages for producing high quality word-processed documentation for coursework assignments and dissertations. This links well with the high ranking of the Learning Resource Centre where IT facilities can be accessed and books and journals ourced in “hard” copy or electronic copy. Table II also shows those areas of the service that students find relatively unimportant. These are mostly associated with the lecture and tutorial facilities and the ancillary services, for example, layout and decoration of lecture and tutorial facilities, catering facilities and vending machines. A further analysis was undertaken to determine whether different segments of the respondent population had similar or different rankings of the University services’ attributes with regard to importance and unimportance.

With regard to mode of study, Table III shows the rankings for students studying full-time with the University. Whilst acknowledging the fact that 80 per cent of the sample population is full time students, the rankings of those service aspects considered most important are very similar to those for the sample population as a whole, the only difference being that “supplementary tutorial materials” replaces “approachability of staff”.

Once again the majority of aspects considered least important are associated with the facilities and ancillary services When the views of Part-time students are considered, a number of interesting differences in their priorities are worthy of discussion. Table IV shows the rankings of service aspects for part time students. The IT facilities drops from third to tenth in their importance rankings, perhaps indicative of the fact that they have access to IT facilities at work and/or at home, thus rendering it less important relative to other aspects of service.

Blackboard (a virtual learning environment that allows teaching staff to make learning and other material available via the internet), on the other hand rises from 10th to 7th in importance indicating its usefulness as a teaching aid for students who do not attend the University on a daily basis and who may miss classes due to work or family commitments. Interestingly, the “helpfulness of technical staff” is considered unimportant, again reflecting their access to such help at work or a greater level of expertise on their part through working with IT on a daily basis. RankingMost importantLeast important Teaching ability of staffDecoration in lecture facilities 2Subject expertise of staffDecoration in tutorial rooms 3IT facilitiesVending machines 4LecturesFurnishing in tutorials 5TutorialsFurnishing in lectures 6Supplementary lecture materialsAvailability of parking 7Consistency of teaching quality irrespective of teacherRecreational facilities 8The Learning Resources CentreThe layout of tutorial/seminar rooms 9Supplementary tutorial materialsThe on-campus catering facilities 10BlackboardThe layout of lecture facilities Table III. Most important and least important service aspects for full-time students RatingMost importantLeast important Teaching ability of staffRecreational facilities 2Subject expertise of staffVending machines 3Consistency of teaching quality irrespective of teacherDecoration in lecture facilities 4Teaching and learning equipment in lecturesFurnishings in lecture facilities 5The Learning Resources CentreDecoration in tutorial rooms 6LecturesQuality of pastoral support 7BlackboardThe on-campus catering facilities 8Supplementary lecture materialsThe layout of tutorial/seminar rooms 9Supplementary tutorial materialsHelpfulness of technical staff 10IT facilitiesThe lecture facilities overall

Free Essays

Jose Rizal

Write a reflection paper tracing the development of Rizal as a reformist who began to work for changes in his country using: a) one (1) work from Rizal As A Reformist b) the Noli Me Tangere Show also the significance of these works on Filipino society today and how it can change today’s trends. Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa by Dr. Jose P. Rizal (keyword: love of country) Rizal’s Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa was written in 1882 when Rizal was 21 years old.

Rizal was away in Spain for only a month, which may have inspired him to write this literature because he misses his homeland. This work of Rizal is a very significant work of Rizal as a reformist because it expresses his dear love for his native land. As he wrote this literature and felt his love for his country, he builds the foundation of him being a reformist because of the drive to fight for change. Through Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa, Rizal realizes how much he loves his country and that it has fallen into the wrong governance and that this needs to be changed.

Through the lines “Maging anuman nga ang kalagayan natin, ay nararapat nating mahalin siya at walang ibang bagay na dapat naisin tayo kundi ang kagalingan niya (referring to Philippines)” Rizal explicitly reveals his love for the country and expresses the importance to love and work for the betterment of our homeland. It can also be seen in these lines that even if he is out of the country studying, he will do his part as a Filipino to fight for the rights of every Filipino.

Today, this work of Rizal may serve as a reminder for all the people in this country that being a Filipino calls for a duty to serve our native land and fellow citizens. If though Rizal’s work, Filipinos realize their duty as a citizen and love for their country, the Philippines would be a better place to live in and it would be easy to manipulate the society towards a progressive nation. Noli Me Tangere by Dr. Jose P. Rizal Rizal’s well-known novel entitled Noli Me Tangere is one of his works that clearly expresses Rizal as a reformist.

Rizal finished his first novel when he was at the age of 26 years old. The hero was penniless, good thanks to his friend Maximo Viola who supported him and shouldered the publication of this novel, the reason why we have a copy in our hands. In this novel, Rizal conveys his belief that education is very important and is an effective tool for reform in the country. Rizal was very brave to depict the issues in the Philippines such as corruption and oppression through the characters and storyline in his novel.

The Noli Me Tangere was a very expressive move of Rizal to start the campaign for liberal reform for the country. In this book, Rizal shares his personal experiences at the harsh hands of the Spaniards, as well as experiences shared by his loved ones. Rizal’s brave soul to publish a novel containing these experiences and lessons, encourages Filipinos to be continuous is learning as he did. It again, boils down to his belief that education will strengthen one’s principles in life and even open your world to the experiences of other people.

Until today, Noli Me Tangere and its sequel El Filibusterismo serve as an inspiration for writers to express through literature any present issues in the society. It also evokes the idea of liberalism in such a way that Filipinos has become open-minded to innovations and beliefs that will benefit the country. Most importantly, education is very well valued, as tool needed by every individual to help progress the country.

Free Essays

Birth and Family Life Jose Rizal

Birth and Family Life Jose Rizal was born on June 19, 1861. It was a Wednesday evening in Calamba, Laguna, and his mother nearly died in the process. He was baptized three days later, on June 22, by the parish priest of the Catholic church in his town, Fr. Rufino Collantes from Batangas. His godfather, Fr. Pedro Casanas, was a close family friend. Rizal’s mother named him after St. Joseph, to whom she was ardently devoted. He was born in Calamba, Laguna (a few kilometers south of Manila) on June 19, 1861 and spent most of his childhood days in Calamba.

At the age of 8 in 1869 he wrote his first known poem “To my Fellow Children” (in Tagalog) where he encourages the love for one’s native language. On June 10, 1872 he started his secondary education in Manila at the Ateneo de Letran. On November 14, 1874 he wrote a poem titled “Felicitation” as a birthday greeting to the husband of his sister Narcisa. On December 5, 1875 he wrote 3 more poems for which at the end of the school year in March 1876 won him five medals for his talent in poetry.

On April 1, 1876 (age 15) he writes 2 more poems namely “Intimate Alliance of Religion and good Education” and “Education gives Luster to the Country”. During the summer months while on vacation he wrote a poem called “San Eustaquio, a Martyr”. On December 3, 1876 he writes 3 more poems “El cautiverio y el triunfo” or “The Captivity and the Triumph”, “Entrada triunfal de los Reyes Catolicos en Granada” or “The Triumphant entrance of the Catholic Kings in Granada”, and “La Conquista de Granada” or ” The Conquest of Granada”. On March 14, 1877 he received his Bachelor of Arts degree.

On November 22, 1879 his poem “A la Juventud Filipino” (“To the Filipino Youth”) won first prize in a poetry contest and an honorable mention from the organization loosely translated “Association of the Friends of the Fatherland”. Notably also he wrote an essay or prose entitled “The Council of Gods” which was about the Greek/Roman mythological “gods and goddesses” which showed his deep knowledge of the subject. He started his medical studies at the University of Santo Tomas in Manila (the oldest university in the Far East) but stopped because of the unfair treatment by the Dominican Friars of Filipino students.

On May 3, 1882 he left the Philippines for Spain where he studied to be a doctor at the Universidad de Madrid. While in Europe he lived in Spain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Austria until July 3, 1887 when he returned to the Philippines for a brief period. RIZAL’S FAMILY Francisco Mercado Rizal was born on May 11, 1818 in Binan, Laguna. He was a graduate of the College of San Jose in Manila, studying Latin and Philosophy. Francisco moved to Calamba to become a tenant-farmer of a hacienda owned by the Dominicans. He died at the age of 80 on January 5, 1898 in Manila.

About his father, Jose Rizal says that he is “a model of fathers. ” Teodora Alonso Realonda was born on November 8, 1926 in Manila. She was a graduate of the College of Santa Rosa. She died at the age of 85 on August 16, 1911 in Manila. About his mother, Jose Rizal says, “My mother is a woman of more than ordinary culture; she knows literature and speaks Spanish better than I. She corrected my poems and gave me good advice when I was studying rhetoric. She is a mathematician and has read many books. ” Rizal is the seventh of eleven children: 1. Saturnina 2. Paciano 3. Narcisa 4. Olimpia 5. Lucia 6.

Maria 7. Jose 8. Concepcion 9. Josefa 10. Trinidad 11. Soledad Rizal’s family was a mixture of races. They were a combination of Negrito, Malay, Indonesian, Japanese, Chinese, and Spanish, though Jose was predominantly Malayan. THE SURNAME Mercado was the original surname of the Rizal family. Domingo Lamco, Jose’s great-great-grandfather, adopted the name Rizal in 1731 and it became a second surname of the family. In Jose’s letter to Ferdinand Blumentritt, he says: “I am the only Rizal in because at home my parents, my sisters my brother, and my relatives have always preferred our old surname Mercado.

Our family name was in fact Mercado, but there were many Mercados in the Philippines who are not related to us. It is said that an alcalde mayor, who was a friend of our family added Rizal to our name. My family did not pay much attention to this, but now I have to use it. In this way, it seems that I am an illegitimate son. ” THE MERCADO (RIZAL) FAMILY The Rizals is considered as one of the biggest families during their time. Researchers revealed that the Mercado-Rizal family had also traces of Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Even Negrito blood aside from Chinese.

Jose Rizal came from a 13-member family consisting of his parents, Francisco Mercado II and Teodora Alonso Realonda, and nine sisters and one brother. FRANCISCO MERCADO (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Binan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila. TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913) Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and well-read.

She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas . PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution. NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939) The third child. married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a teacher and musician. OLIMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887) The fourth child. Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from childbirth.

LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919) The fifth child. Married Mariano Herbosa. MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945) The sixth child. Married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Binan, Laguna. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. He was executed by the Spaniards on December 30,1896. CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865) The eight child. Died at the age of three. JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945) The ninth child. An epileptic, died a spinster. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951) The tenth child. Died a spinster and the last of the family to die. SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929) The youngest child married Pantaleon Quintero.

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Rizal Biography

Biography of Jose Rizal The Birth of a Hero: Born On June 19, 1861, Seventh of the 11 Children of Theodora Relonda and Francisco Mercado Real Name: Jose Protacio Alonzo Mercado Rizal y Realonda Rizal as a Child: Age of 3 – learns his alphabet from his mother. Age of 5 – learns how to write and read. Age of 8 – wrote his first poem “ Sa aking mga Kababata “ 11 Children of Francisco and Theodora Saturnina ( 1850 – 1913 ) – eldest child of the family. Paciano ( 1815 – 1930 ) – Older brother of Jose Rizal. Narcisa ( 1852 – 1939 ) – also called as “Sisa” and the third child of the family.

Olimpia Rizal ( 1855 – 1887 ) – a telegraph operator in Manila. Lucia ( 1857 – 1919 ) – married to Mariano Herbosa of Calamba. Maria ( 1859 – 1945 ) – also called as “Biang”. JOSE ( 1861 – 1896 ) ( The greatest hero and Philippine encyclopedia ) – also called as “Pepe”. Concepcion ( 1862 – 1865 ) – also called as “Concha”. Died at the age of 3 due to a serious case of illness. Josefa ( 1865 – 1945 ) – also called as “Panggo”. Trinidad ( 1868 – 1951 ) – also called as “Trining”. Soledad ( 1870 – 1929 ) – youngest member of the family. She marry Pantaleon Quintero of Calamba. The Hero’s Pain

Rizal is very sad when his sister concha died, because concha is very close to him, they play together and do other stuffs together. Concha died at the age of 3. The story of the Moth This is the story of Thoedora to Rizal, he made this his inspiration. School in Binan, Calamba Rizal went to Binan Rizal went to Binan to go to school. First day of School Rizal doesn’t know anyone from the school so he just sits in one corner and doing nothing. First Fight One of the school bullies of Rizal’s school bullied him and because he can’t hold his temper anymore, Rizal’s First fight was made.

Rizal Enters Ateneo Rizal went to school at Ateneo Municipal de Manila, where he excelled in class, also he made lots of works their including poems, dramas sculptures and many more. “Aking Unang Inspiration” This is a poem that Rizal made for his mother’s birthday. Poems of Education Rizal also wrote poems that talks about Education. “Sa Edukasyon ay Magtatamo ng Liwanag ang Bansa” “Malapit na Ugnayan ng Relihiyon at Mabuting Edukasyon” Rizal’s Religious Poems Rizal also wrote religious poems. “Sa Sanggol na si Hesus “Para sa Berhing Maria” First Love

Our hero’s first love was Segunda, Segunda is the sister of Mariano which is also his classmate. Unfortunately Rizal and Segunda weren’t able to be together because Sugunda already has a boyfriend that time. Medical Student of University of Santo Tomas (1877-1882) Rizal go to medical school at the University of Santo Tomas, his reason is that he wants to cure his mother that suffers from blindness. Rizal’s Love life Miss L – nobody knows the real and full name of Miss L. Leonor Valenzuela – also called as Orang. Leonor Rivera – Rizal doesn’t know that Leonor Rivera is his far away cousin.

Education Abroad Rizal went to school abroad, he enrolled at different colleges at different countries. Exile and Courtship: In 1892, Rizal returned to the Philippines. He was almost immediately accused of being involved in the brewing rebellion, and was exiled to Dapitan, on the island of Mindanao. During that same period, the people of the Philippines grew more eager to revolt against the Spanish colonial presence. Inspired in part by Rizal’s organization, La Liga, rebel leaders like Andres Bonifacio began to press for military action against the Spanish regime. Life In Dapitan

Rizal became an inventor, a farmer ( he planted abacas ), a teacher ( he teaches young boys to speak English ) and also a doctor ( ophthalmologist ), it is also here where he met Josephine Bracken, Josephine brought her stepfather for Rizal to cure, Rizal courted Josephine and even wrote a special poem just for the lady, then they decided to get married but they were not permitted because the government is still mad at Rizal. Trial and Execution: The Philippine Revolution broke out in 1896. Rizal denounced the violence, and received permission to travel to Cuba in order to tend victims of yellow fever in exchange for his freedom.

Bonifacio and two associates sneaked aboard the ship to Cuba before it left the Philippines, trying to convince Rizal to escape with them, but Rizal refused. He was arrested by the Spanish on the way, taken to Barcelona, and then extradited to Manila for trial. Jose Rizal was tried by court martial, charged with conspiracy, sedition and rebellion. Despite a lack of any evidence of his complicity in the Revolution, Rizal was convicted on all counts and given the death sentence. He was allowed to marry Josephine two hours before his execution by firing squad on December 30, 1896. Jose Rizal was just 35 years old.

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Rizal, My Hero

Rizal, my Hero! “A hero is a man who is afraid to run away – (English Proverb)”. Indeed, a man who has a brave heart would not choose to run away but instead give the good fight he can give. Truly, Rizal deserves to be the hero of this Country. Like what Zaide wrote “He (Rizal) was not quarrelsome by nature, but he never ran away from a fight”. Every hero has its own exemplary deeds but for me, Rizal, is one of the best Heros because of his patriotic services in his country.

From his writings to his good communications with other people, foreign or Filipino, he proved to be the best man living in his time and until now. I was so amazed by his bravery that though he already knows that what he plans to do would might lose his head. I so can’t imagine that I will do such exemplary thing to my fellowmen like what Rizal did especially to Dapitan when he was an exile. I consider him my hero because I was deeply touched by his writings, through his writings I was awakened by some of his noble thoughts.

Though he is not revolutionary in nature he knows what to do to make this country free from Spanish tyranny and I consider that he is not imprudent because I know he already think what might happen and if that never happen he would accept it. I admire of how he handle things, somehow. Rizal is the hero of the poor Filipino that is hungry for freedom while he’s my hero because he thought me to be the best that I can be. Though he is intelligent in nature and I am not that so, I was inspired to excel in any ways that I can be as what his theme in his poem “To the Filipino Youth”, “Grow, O Timid Flower”.

He is a remarkable one and I am not, but through reading and discovering more of him I learned that he did not consider himself as a very noble person but he did what he can do in this country. I learned that you don’t have to look over what you can’t do in this country but look what you can do in this country. A simple good deed to your fellow men is truly remarkable already. I may not be like him that has done many things in this country, through him if he is not a Filipino I might not know what the importance of being a Filipino Youth is.

Like what he said “…the years of the youth should be employed in something nobler and lofty for the very reason that youth is noble and lofty… ” When I was a kid when my teacher asked “Who is our national hero? ” , “of course, it’s Jose Rizal” but I don’t have a deeper knowledge about him. Now that I am a fully grown youth, I was able to know through his life what I must and what I can do. Rizal is an example of a noble youth. I might not be as nobler as he but using him as an example, I can also leave a legacy to my family and relative and most of all to other Filipino Youth. Without education and liberty, which are the soil and the sun of man, no reform is possible; no measure can give the result desired – (Indolence of the Filipinos-La Solidaridad)”. I find education really important as what he thought of it. And I would do the best that I can to excel and not just to pass and to be also exemplary in the eyes of every Filipino. Rizal is really my hero because he thought me of being a brave youth, facing challenges and make things that is most important in my very eye and would benefit my fellow men. How remarkably he is!

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Jose Rizal as a Reformist

Jose Rizal, our national hero, was one of the Filipinos who asked for reforms. These reforms will grant the ultimate dream of the reformists; assimilation. Filipinos will be given the rights that they deserve. Rizal choose to seek for reforms than to start a revolution because he knew that Philippines was not yet ready to stand on its own (during his time). Rizal used his liberal ideas in asking for reforms. Rizal joined the Circulo Hispano Filipino when he was still in Europe. This organization did not achieve its goal because the members have different interests.

Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo served as Rizal’s means for asking reforms. He used these novels to portray what was happening in the Philippines during the Spanish Colonization. His goal was to awaken the Filipinos and the Spaniards(Spain) with what is happening in the Philippines and he thought that through these novels the Filipinos and the Spaniards would believe that assimilation is the just action for the Filipinos. The Filipinos who were studying in Europe during those times use this movement to ask for reforms to the Spanish Government. They organized the Propaganda Movement to serve as a way of getting those reforms.

Jose Rizal was an outstanding Propagandist of the Propaganda Movement. Rizal did not support the revolution for he believed that this will not make the Philippines a better country. The Philippine Revolution freed the Filipinos from the hands of the Spaniards. Although Rizal did not actually support it he had contributed much to this revolution. His works and writings were the corner stone of the revolution and he was indeed an inspiration for the Katipuneros during those times. Rizal’s life was devoted to his country (Philippines). His works and writings were evidence for his noble act as a reformist.

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Rizal as a role-model for students

Rizal Submitted by: Jose Marcko Durano Submitted to: Sir Parawan Rizal, American sponsored Hero |Rizal was an American-sponsored hero | Rector’s Bill |Claro M. Recto Foundation | Why is Rizal the National hero? |Jose Rizal | Discovery in Binyan Jose Rizal |Jose Rizal | Blumentritt’s role in the propaganda war |Ferdinand Blumentritt | Rizal’s stinginess |Rizal’s stinginess |

Rizal as a role-model for students |Liability | What did Rizal read? |He grew up in a home with a large | |library. | ———————– He became the national hero only because of the Americans who sponsored and encouraged the Rizal cult. Andres Bonifacio made Rizal the honorary president of KKK. KKK First Asians to rebel against a Western colonial power and establish a republic. A traitor to the revolution. The greatest Malay who ever lived. Aguinaldo declared this day to be an annual “Day of National Mourning. ”

December 1898 The Rizal course is coded as PI 100; Putang Ina 100. Made the Rizal bill. Student’s feel it’s useless studying this. Students today don’t appreciate much studying Rizal’s life. He was one man who was willing to risk losing votes because of his principles. Catholics schools threatened to close shop if the Rizal bill passed. Recto’s bill passed the law on 1956. Hero of all heroes. Spirit of Revolution “My dreams have always guided my actions. ” He was a quiet, peaceful man who wilfully and calmly walked to his death former convictions. Unconscious hero. ” Jose Potracio Rizal Mercado Y Realonda – Alonzo Teodora Alonzo Realonda Francis Mercado June 19, 1861 Regina Ursua Manuel de Qunito Brigada de Quintos Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo Domingo Lamco Ines Dela Rosa Cirila Bernacha Francisco Mercado Good friend and correspondent of Rizal. He attacked anti-Filipino writers. First European scholars o specialized in Phils. Studies. He was walking around, peeking and salivating. He goes back to the apartment as if he had eaten already. His allowance was delayed. Pride and seriousness

Thrifty Rizal did not like the idea of supplying the drinks for the party. Going in to Rizal’s school, they would be left with no “free” time. Because we had to give up fun and games to read and study. Most students today doubt Rizal’s accomplishments. He saves his allowance to buy books. Honore de Balzac, Alexandre Dumas, and Count of Monte Cristo. He read a lot of French literature. Rizal owned a valuable collection of over 2,000 books. He owned dictionaries and three different versions of the bible. Rizal also owned a lot of picture books.

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Effect of Rizal’s Writings to the Filipinos

Jose Rizal is known for his writings which increased the awareness of the Filipino people of the wrong doings of the Spaniards and it united some Filipinos to form a group against the government. His writings sparked the rebellion against the Spaniards and they believed that Rizal was one of the masterminds of the war which was the reason why he was tested and sentenced to death.

Rizal is considered as the national hero in the Philippines because he fought for our freedom and he showed the full potential of the Filipinos knowing that it would cost him his life. One interesting thing about Rizal is that he used a different method to attain peace compared to others. He used his knowledge in writing to make poems and novels instead of using force and violence which most people did to gain freedom.

He embedded ideas to the Filipinos that raising arms is not the solution because people die but our ideals and beliefs will not. He was able to reclaim the hearts of the Filipinos and reminded them how important it is to love one’s country. Rizal was an excellent writer and poet. He was able to portray his beliefs and opinions clearly to the people which easily got their attention and realize what they are capable of doing. He showed the people that one can change even without violence. Nowadays, Filipinos rarely know who Rizal is.

The only thing they know is that he is our national hero because it is what was taught to them in their basic education. Some don’t even know who he is or what he did for our country which is really depressing because we are forgetting our own culture. I believe that Rizal’s life and writings have minimal effect on today’s youth because it is considered by many as another waste of time since they won’t use it anyway when they graduate or in the courses they will take in college. In order to

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What If Rizal Was Not Exciled

In July 1982 Jose Rizal was exiled as prisoner in Dapitan. When he arrived in Dapitan, he found it to be a sleepy little town. He thought of ways and means to make it clean, beautiful, and modern. With the help of his friend, father Sanchez, he made a map of Mindanao in front of the church. The map was made up of stones, earth, and grass and it serves as adornment that makes the town plaza beautiful. He and Father Sanchez, together with the citizens, had erected a lamp post in every corner of Dapitan.

By stroke of luck, he won six thousand pesos from lottery ticket and he spent the amount in Dapitan. Modern agriculture implements were taken and transmitted from the United State and he taught the farmers how to use them. He bought sixteen hectares of land along the bay where he himself built a little house. He had become a farmer who himself worked hard, toiled, and happy in planting coffee and cacao and from 800 to 1,000 coconuts. (Retana, 1907) As a doctor, Rizal was aware of a wide spread of malaria due to mosquito bites.

In order to get rid of malaria, he drained the swap where mosquitoes were staying. He also directed the construction of water system to have potable water for the town. (Retana, 1907) As a scientist, he collected, with the help of his pupils, different kinds of species of insects, birds, snakes, butterflies, shells, and plants which he sent, for purposes of identification, to Museum of Dresden in Europe. As payment of these species, Director A. B. Meyer sent him scientific books and journals, artificial eyes, microscopes, and surgical instruments since he did not accept money.

He also discovered three rare specimens of animals that were named in his honor by European scientist, these were: Draco rizali which is a small lizard know as a flying dragon; Apogania rizali a rare kind of beetle; and the Rhacophorus rizali, a peculiar frog species. Rizal was also an inventor although he was not as inventive wizard as Thomas Edison. He invented a cigarette lighter which he called Sulpakan. The lighter used a compressed air mechanism. He sent it as a gift to his friend, Dr. Blumentritt. He also invented a wooden machine for making bricks which can produce about 6,000 bricks per day. Bantug, 1946; Craig ,1957; Kalaw 1930; Zaide, 1984) Rizal put up a school where he himself was a teacher. There were formal classes conducted from two to five o clock in the afternoon. His students, all of them were seventeen who were sons of leading citizens in Dapitan, had learned from him Arithmetic, Geometry, and two languages, English and Spanish. (Craig, 1927) It was in Dapitan where he treated the eyes of her mother and he succeeded because her mother’s eyes were cured temporarily. Upon request of his mother when she returned in Manila after Rizal had treated her eyes, Rizal wrote a poem entitled My Retreat.

Critics had agreed that this poem was the most profound and noble he ever composed, but, it was only second to My Last Farewell. (Retana) George Taufer an American from Hong Kong proceded to Dapitan to have his eyes treated by Rizal. Mr. Taufer was accompanied by two young women, Josephine Bracken and Manuela Orlac. Rizal and Josephine met every time Mr. Taufer had scheduled for treatment. Because of their meetings, Rizal and Josephine fell in love with each other and they intended to get married. Rizal asked the Dapitan priest but the priest told him to secure permission to marry Josephine from Bishop of Cebu.

However, upon learning about the marriage, Mr. Taufer attempted to cut his own throat but was prevented by Rizal by holding his two wrists. Mr. Taufer also became temporarily insane because he would loss Josephine if he married Rizal. When Mr. Taufer went back in Manila, Josephine went along with him in order to avoid tragedy. Josephine did not go to Hongkong when Mr. Taufer proceeded there. Josephine retured in Dapitan and there, Rizal and Josephine lived together like man and wife. (Russel & Rodriguez, 1923) If Rizal was not exiled in Dapitan the forgoing events and circumstances could not have happened.

Dapitan would still be sleepy little town because it was Rizal who had awaken it. Illnesses of malaria and diarrhea are prevalent because swamp would not have drained and there will no potable water, respectably. The implements for agriculture are not modern because Rizal could no have won 6,000 pesos in lottery ticket and therefore modern agricultural implement could not have been taken from the United States. There is nothing in Europe specifically in Museum of Dresden that a Filipino people can be proud of as of today because Rizal could not have sent more than 400 articles of scientific value.

The European scientist could not have praise Rizal because he could not have discovered the three rare specimens of animals. In fact, the European scientist, as token of appreciation to Rizal, had named rare specimen the rare specimen in his honor. In effect, even in Europe Rizal is being recognize to be a science because of his discovery and collection of different specimen of animals and plants. He could not even be an inventor for having invented a lighter and a wooden machine for making bricks because if he is in Manila, he would be very active in reforming the friars through peaceful means.

If Rizal did not meet Josephine in Dapitan, the retraction issue will not exist. To allow Rizal to marry Josephine, the Spaniards wanted Rizal to sign the retraction document which contain that he is denouncing all the books and articles that he had written against catholic religion; and he had regain his faith in catholic religion. However controversy arises because some believe that Rizal signs it and so he married Josephine Bracken. Others said that his signature was not genuine and he did not marry Josephine Bracken.

If Rizal was incarcerated in Fort Santiago, his movement is limited to his prison cell. Instead of being a farmer, scientist, and inventor, his attention and works would be focus in La Liga Filipina by writing about the abuses of friars and the reforms he wanted to undergo in governance by Spanish officials in the Philippines. (he is very accessible to he could still be imprisoned in Fort Santiago where his movement is confined in a prison cell. He could have been easily approached and consulted by Filipinos who wanted to stage uprising against Spanish government.

If he was in Manila, he could have easily noticed the mistakes and mistreatments being done by the Spaniards to the Filipinos and therefore, he could have expressed his oppositions to these mistreatments. If Rizal was not exiled in Dapitan he could not have met Josephine whom he wanted to marry. Retraction controversy on Rizal regarding whether he became a catholic again or not could not have been an issue because the main reason why Rizal wanted to return in his religion is because he wanted to marry Josephine.

La Liga Filipina which he was actively involved could not be dormant. La Liga Filipina is a group which is derived from La Solidaridad and the Propaganda Movement. When Jose Rizal got exiled in Dapitan the Organization La Liga Filipina became inactive and later on split into two, the conservative had formed the Cuerpo de Compromisarios and the Radical which is led by Andres Bonifacio had formed the secret group named the Katipunan. The La Liga Filipina would have still existed if Rizal was still n Manila because he would have continued his active participation as reformist to correct and reform the misadministration being conducted by the Spanish officials as well as the misdemeanor of friars in the Philippines. ) http://joserizal. info/Biography/man_and_martyr/chapter13. htm http://joserizal. info/Biography/man_and_martyr/chapter14. htm http://www. mb. com. ph/node/236170/hero-exile-remembered http://agham. asti. dost. gov. ph/1st/rizalnat. htm http://joserizal. info/Reflections/retraction. htm

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Jose Rizal’s Timeline

Source: http://joserizal. info/Biography/timeline. htm CHRONOLOGY 1848, June 28 — Rizal’s parents married in Kalamba, La Laguna: Francisco Rizal-Mercado y Alejandra (born in Binan, April 18, 1818) and Teodora Morales Alonso-Realonda y Quintos (born in Sta. Cruz, Manila, Nov. 14, 1827). 1861, June 19 — Rizal born, their seventh child. 1861, June 22 — Christened as Jose Protasio Rizal-Mercado y Alonso-Realonda 1870, age 9 — In school at Binan under Master Justiniano Aquin Cruz. 1871, age 10 — In Kalamba public school under Master Lucas Padua. 872, June 10, age 11 — Examined in San Juan de Letran college, Manila, which, during the Spanish time, as part of Sto. Tomas University, controlled entrance to all higher institutions. 1872, June 26 — Entered the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, then a public school, as a day scholar. 1875, June 16, age 14 — Became a boarder in the Ateneo. 1876, March 23, age 15 — Received the Bachelor of Arts (B. A. ) degree, with highest honors, from Ateneo de Manila. 1877, June. — Entered Sto. Tomas University in the Philosophy course. 877, Nov. 29 — Awarded diploma of honorable mention and merit by the Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country, Amigos del Pais, for the prize poem. 1878, June, age 16. — Matriculated in the medical course. Won Liceo Artistico-Literario prize, in poetical competition for “Indians and Mestizos”, with the poem “To the Philippine Youth”. Wounded in the back for not saluting a Guardia Civil lieutenant whom he had not seen. The authorities ignored his complaint. 1880, April 23, age 19. – Received Licco Artistico-Literario diploma of honorable mention for the allegory, “The Council of the Gods”, in competition open to “Spaniards, mestizos and Indians”. Unjustly deprived of the first prize. 1880, Dec. 8. — Operetta “On the Banks of the Pasig” produced. 1881, age 20. — Submitted winning wax model design for commemorative medal for the Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country centennial. 1882, May 3, age 21. — Secretly left Manila taking a French mail steamer at Singapore for Marseilles and entering Spain at Port Bou by railroad. His brother, Paciano Mercado, furnished the money. 1882, June. – Absence noted at Sto. Tomas University, which owned the Kalamba estate. Rizal’s father was compelled to prove that he had no knowledge of his son’s plan in order to hold the land on which he was the University’s tenant. 1882, June 15. — Arrived in Barcelona. 1882, October 3. — Began studies in Madrid. 1886, –Received degree of Licentiate in Medicine with honors from Central University of Madrid on June 19 at the age of 24. Clinical assistant to Dr. L. de Wecker, a Paris oculist. Visited Universities of Heidelberg, Leipzig, and Berlin. 1887, Feb. 21, age 26. — Finished the novel Noli Me Tangere in Berlin.

Traveled in Austria, Switzerland and Italy. 1887, July 3. — Sailed from Marseilles. 1887, Aug. 5. — Arrived in Manila. Traveled in nearby provinces with a Spanish lieutenant, detailed by the Governor-General, as escort. 1888, Feb. — Sailed for Japan via Hong Kong. 1888, Feb. 28 to April 13, age 27. — A guest at the Spanish Legation, Tokyo, and traveling in Japan. 1888, April-May. — Traveling in the United States. 1888, May 24. — In London, studying in the British Museum to edit Morga’s 1609 Philippine History. 1889, March, age 28. — In Paris, publishing Morga’s History.

Published “The Philippines A Century Hence” in La Solidaridad, a Filipino fortnightly review, first of Barcelona and later of Madrid. 1890, February to July, age 29. — In Belgium finished El Filibusterismo which is the sequel to Noli Me Tangere. Published “The Indolence of the Filipino” in La Solidaridad. 1890, August 4. — Returned to Madrid to confer with his countrymen on the Philippine situation, then constantly growing worse. 1891, January 27. — Left Madrid for France. 1891, November, age 30. — Arranging for a Filipino agricultural colony in British North Borneo. Practiced medicine in Hong Kong. 892, June 26, age 31. — Returned to Manila under Governor-General Despujol’s safe conduct pass. Organized a mutual aid economic society: La Liga Filipina on July 3. 1892, July 6. — Ordered deported to Dapitan, but the decree and charges were kept secret from him. Taught school and conducted a hospital during his exile, patients coming from China coast ports for treatment. Fees thus earned were used to beautify the town. Arranged a water system and had the plaza lighted. 1896, August 1, age 35. — Left Dapitan en route to Spain as a volunteer surgeon for the Cuban yellow fever hospitals.

Carried letters of recommendation from Governor-General Blanco. 1896, August 7 to September 3. — On Spanish cruiser Castilla in Manila Bay. Sailed for Spain on Spanish mail steamer and just after leaving Port Said was confined to his cabin as a prisoner on cabled order from Manila. (Rizal’s enemies to secure the appointment of a governor-general subservient to them, the servile Polavieja had purchased Governor-General Blanco’s promotion. ) 1896, October 6. — Placed in Montjuich Castle dungeon on his arrival in Barcelona and the same day re-embarked for Manila.

Friends and countrymen in London by cable made an unsuccessful effort for a Habeas Corpus writ at Singapore. On arrival in Manila was placed in Fort Santiago dungeon. 1890, December 3. — Charged with treason, sedition and forming illegal societies, the prosecution arguing that he was responsible for the deeds of those who read his writings. During his imprisonment Rizal began to formulate in his mind his greatest poem who others later entitle, “My Last Farewell. ” (later concealed in an alcohol cooking lamp) December 12 — Rizal appears in a courtroom where the judges made no effort to check those who cry out for his death. 896, December 15. — Wrote an address to insurgent Filipinos to lay down their arms because their insurrection was at that time hopeless. Address not made public but added to the charges against him. 1896, December 27. — Formally condemned to death by a Spanish court martial. Pi y Margall, who had been president of the Spanish Republic, pleaded with the Prime Minister for Rizal’s life, but the Queen Regent could not forgive his having referred in one of his writings to the murder by, and suicide of, her relative, Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria. 896, December 29 — Completes and puts into writing “My Last Farewell. ” He conceals the poem in an alcohol heating apparatus and gives it to his family. He may have also concealed another copy of the same poem in one of his shoes but, if so, it is lost in decomposition in his burial. 1896, December 30, age 35 years, 6 months, 11 days. — Roman Catholic sources allege that Rizal marries Josephine Bracken in his Fort Santiago death cell to Josephine Bracken; she is Irish, the adopted daughter of a blind American who came to Dapitan from Hong Kong for treatment.

Shot on the Luneta, Manila, at 7:03 a. m. , and buried in a secret grave in Paco Cemetery. (Entry of his death was made in the Paco Church Register among suicides. ) 1897, January. — Commemorated by Spanish Free-masons who dedicated a tablet to his memory, in their Grand Lodge hall in Madrid, as a martyr to Liberty. 1898, August. — Filipinos who placed over it in Paco cemetery, a cross inscribed simply “December 30, 1896”, sought his grave, immediately after the American capture of Manila. Since his death his countrymen had never spoken his name, but all references had been to “The Dead”. 898, December 20. — President Aguinaldo, of the Philippine Revolutionary Government, proclaimed December 30th as a day of national mourning. 1898, December 30. — Filipinos held Memorial services at which time American soldiers on duty carried their arms reversed. 1911, June 19. — Birth semi-centennial observed in all public schools by an act of the Philippine Legislature. 1912, December 30. — Rizal’s ashes transferred to the Rizal Mausoleum on the Luneta with impressive public ceremonies.

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Reaction Paper: Jose Rizal Movie

While watching the movie, I have observed similarities and differences of some scenes from today’s youth. Let’s start discussing about the similarities. First thing I have observed is the harsh treatment given by the colonials to our fellowmen especially to women and children. They, if not physically, were verbally abused by the Spaniards. I compared it to what’s happening in our society today and quite noticed a similarity. It is similar in a way that women and children, even the men too, are still abused by foreign people and sometimes even our own people. They also treat them as slaves.

Child labor – forcing minors to work – has been a big issue. Women slavery – treating women as slaves, sex slaves to be exact – has been an issue too. Nowadays, our people are still abused and these are oftentimes done by those who have the power like politicians and other well-illustrated persons. They think that with their wealth and position they have the right to hurt our fellowmen. Even a small mistake or a suspicion causes the people who have the power to physically abuse our fellowmen because for them that’s how they should be treated after what they have done.

Next thing I have observed is the racial discrimination. As we have discussed in class, it is one of the evils during Rizal’s time. Filipinos who were flat-nosed and brown-skinned were labeled as “Indios” and the Spaniards being pale-complexioned were termed as “Bangus” or milkfish in English. The Filipinos who were called “Indios” had little privileges unlike the “Milkfish” people who had most of the privileges to themselves. The Spaniards look at them like they were as tiny as an ant and they were of no importance to them. Foreign people thought that they were superiors against the Filipinos.

They criticize them based on how they look and they treat them rudely based on how rude their criticism on their looks is. There were different beliefs in anointing officials in where Spaniards have believed that Indios should not be allowed and do not deserve to be given a position in any fields because for them they do not make any contributions that would benefit our country. Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora’s (GomBurZa) execution was an example of how Spaniards hated the fact that Indios are given a chance to serve the country.

For Spaniards, they were the only one who should have all the rights and freedom to do whatever they like and no one should be against them for if there was they would be killed. Third thing I have observed in the film was the greediness of the Spaniards for power. They wanted to be anointed immediately to a position where they have more ability to control the Filipinos. And once they have the power to do things, they start to abuse it. The Spaniards had never been in favor of what the Filipinos like.

Actually, they were in favor of what the Filipinos disliked. Once they hear our fellowmen reacting rudely at their deeds, they start to make their lives miserable to let them know that they are not to be messed with. Spaniards’ greed for power made them abuse their rights. They used their position to access more power which made the control more people. It is the same today. People still use their position to manipulate us. They are superior, they have the power, and they can do anything they like. So, what they do is they treat us rudely.

For example, policemen nowadays use their position to hurt and get money from our fellowmen. They abuse their right to use materials which they should only use for defense. Another example is when a politician uses his position to manipulate people. They start to make people believe that their intentions are good but the truth is at the end of the day it is not. So what happens, people trust them because they appear so nice and tend to do what they’ve been told. Since they trust these politicians, they will not question the things they’ve been told to do.

Then later on, it will turn out that they were used by these politicians for their own gain and not for our fellowmen’s sake. A common example of this is when politicians promise a program to our people. They start trying to gain their trust. Once they have gained our fellowmen’s trust, they start to ask for favors like asking them to some deeds, some which are illegal, and ask them for money. Our fellowmen will willingly oblige to what they have been asked for believing that it would benefit them.

But sometimes, they do what they have been told because they are forced by these men who have the power to do so. Fourth thing I have observed is the maladministration of justice e. In the movie, it was pretty obvious that the trial was just a scene so that our fellowmen would think that the Spaniards would still give Rizal a chance when in fact a decision has been made before the trial. The Spaniards were very firm about their decision which was to execute Rizal. There was no justice there because Rizal was not given a chance to explain and prove to everyone that he was innocent.

The Spaniards looked like they were in the trial listening but actually they turned into deaf the moment Rizal started to explain himself. Comparing to today’s situation, people are not given the chance to explain their selves because the moment a case has been filed against you they automatically make a decision which usually is for you to lose the case. Nowadays, only those who can afford justice can have justice. People who have enough wealth pay the one assigned for their case to win it whether they deserve it or not.

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Story of Jose Rizal by Austin Craig

The Story of Jose Austin Craig Rlzal Chinsegut Hill University of Florida Libraries )h- ?yv^. ^>-. (l. witliDUt lu-sitatioii. Willi not a reerret in the a’lv’mg; No matter what place, ‘Mid cypress or laurel or Whether on lilies. scaH’old. in open. Or combat or martyrdom same the Who the jtuem dies for his written home and by Dr. Rizal the ere of hix execution . crurl. to the hcrt) It is /'”/•(;/// “” what condition, (Lieut. E. in his tiresidt. ” Fort Santiago clnn^cL H, Rubottom^s translation uu . THE STOKY J R OSK rHK ORKATKS’I^ Ol 1 Z MAN A Ol THK UHOW? ^ HAO; The study of the life and character cannot but be beneficial esirous of imitating: him. of Dr, Rizal to those —President PHII. IPPINTK Wm. H. T^ff, MANILA KDUCATION PUBLltaHlKO 1 ooo CO. L A FTHOirS These pages aim the principal of Spanish time a to to summarise figure letter in NOTE the interest in him meant and suspicion. fully destroyed everything relating circumstances variations it is from events in the life During mentioning Dr. Bical was sufficient cause deportation of both zvriter any main Philippine history. receiver, Even him. to and to Under such quite natural that there should he the popidar version of his show his family care- many life in this first uthentic hiography. The statements are based on lahorions researches in government and church records, extensive inquiries among relatives, associates and confemjwraries, and a careful study of the considerable Kizal literature, but achiowltdgment of those obligations must Jje deferred till the puhlication of the larger worlc. Here ii is possible only to express gratitude for the enthusiastic interest shown by the Filipinos, and appreciation , of the courtesy of the Spaniards, uniformly experienced during the five years i^i ivliich this study has been in indgrcss. I^HIUPflNK KDUCifVXION PUBLISH ^fC* COMPANY

KBCJISTERED IN THE PHILIPPINES ISLANI>S I (Txi’/Jif of Tranxhifiori lifiicrved . ) Press of Methodist Publishing House, Manila. EN The Story of ^Jose Rizae ^J OSE RIZAL, the martyr- hero of the Philippines, on the southwest shore of the picturesque laguna of Bay, in Luzon, June 19, 18G1. His father’s family began in the Philippines with a Chinaman named Lam co who came from the Amoy district to Manila possibly because of the political troubles which followed the conquest of his country by the Manchu invaders. It was in 1697 that this ancestor, whose Christian name was Domingo, was baptized in the Parian hurch of San Gabriel. » was born At first in Kiilamba, a merchant, he finally made up his mind to stay in these Islands, and turned farmer to escape the bitter anti Chinese prejudice which then existed in Manila. Rftther late in life he married the daughter of a countryman who was a dealer in rice and moved into La Laguna province to become a tenant on the Dominican Friars’ estate at Biiian. His son. Francisco Mercado y Chinco, apparently owed his surname to the Chinese custom of looking to the appropriateness of the meaning. Sangley, the name thruout all the Philippines for Chinamen ignifies “travelling trader” and in the shop Spanish cf the Islands “mercado” was used for trader. So Lamco evidently intended that his descendants should stop travelling but not cease being traders. Francisco Mercado was a name held in high honor in La Laguna for it had belonged to a famous sea captain who had been given the encomienda of Bay for his services and had there won the regard of those who paid tribute to him by his fairness and interest in their welfare. Francisco’s son was Captain Juan Mercado y Monica and he took advantage of his position to expunge from the municipal records the designation “Chinese mestizo” fter the names of himself and family. Thus he saved the higher fees and taxes which Chinese mestizos then were compelled to pay. The Captain died when his youngest son, Francisco Fngracio Mercado y Alexandra, was only nine years old. An unmarried sister, Potenciana, twenty years older than boy and sent him to the Latin school. years later the husband of their sister Petrona died and they moved to the neighboring hacienda of Kalamba, also belonging to the Dominican order, to help the widow with her farm. The landlords recognized the industry of the young farmer and kept increasing his land until he became one f the most prosperous of their tenants. In 1847 his sister Potenciana died and the following year Francisco married. he, looked after the Some Dr. Rizal’s Father His wife, Teodora Alonso y Quintos, was nine years his junior and a woman not only of exceptional ability but with an education unusual for that time in its modern- She was of Ilocano-Tagalog-Chineseness and liberality. Spanish descent, possibly having even a little Japanese blood, and her family counted lawyers, priests, govern- ment officials and merchants among its members. They boasted of one representative of the Philippines in the

Spanish Cortes, and it is said to have been a youthful ambition of Dr. Rizal to fill some day the same position. A new family name was adopted in 1850 by authority of the royal decree of the preceding year which sought to remedy the confusion resulting from many unrelated Filipinos having the same surnames and a still greater number having no last names at all. The new name, however, was not taken from the government lists but appears to have been selected, as was the old one, because of its appropriateness. Rizal, a shortened form of the Spanish word for “second crop”, seemed suited to a family of armers who were making a second start in a new home. Francisco Rizal soon found that in spite of his legal authority for it. the new name was making confusion in business affairs begun under the old name, so he comproHis mothmised, after a few years, on “Rizal Mercado”. er-in-law, who lived in the neighborhood, at the same time adopted the name “Rialonda” and her children fol lowed her example. So it was that when Jose Protasio Rizal was baptized, the record showed his parents as Francisco Rizal Mercado and Teodora Realonda, another spelling of “Rialonda”. St. Protasio, the child’s patron, very properly was a artyr, and that a Filipino priest baptized and a secular archbishop confirmed him seem also fitting. Jose’s mother taught him his letters, learned at three, and his uncles and an- aunt interested themselves in his training untila young man named Monroy, who had studied for the priesthood but never taken the final orders, came into the house as Jose’s tutor. The impression of his first reading lesson, which was the story of the foolish butterfly in Abbe Sabatier’s “Children’s Friend”, was prophetic of a martyr’s fate, for the child envied the insect which had died for the sake of Early the injustices and abuses daily to be he light. seen in Kalamba attracted his attention and he wondered if in the land across the lake, which to him then seem- ed a distant country, the people were happier and the officials less cruel than they were on the shore where his home was. No small part of his childhood training came from listening to the Spaniards, officials and priests, who generally were guests in the Eizal home when they visited Kalamba. The parish priest, Father Leoncio Lopez, also made the boy the companion of his walks, and the confidant of his views on the injustices done the Filipino clergy. On his pony or afoot with his dog

Usman, Jose explored all the picturesque region which lies about Kalamba, but his first journey from home was at seven when his family -visited Antipolo during the festival in honor of the Virgin *’of Peace and Safe Travf’l” which had been brought from America by an early Spanish governor. Until he went away to school, and then during his holidays at home, entertainments were given the neighbors ‘Our Lady of Peace and Safe Voyages who is venerated at Actipolo” — l’>()rii Hail. Flower of Purity, Queen Hail, “Al Juveniud Pilipina,’. of the seas. Seamen’s Security, Emblem of peace. Antipolo. Of thee we all know.

The fame of thy name shall not cease. The picture was found RizaVs album and in Dr. engraving placed by him, according to the Filipino custom, inside his is the chest home. when he Jirst left and shadow movintr pictures. These shadowgraphs were made by paper figures moved by his clever fingers between a lamp and a white curtain. Their novelty and his skill were the subject of village talk which magnified them as it repeated the stories until the boy came to be enveloped in a sort of mystery. As he became more than a local hero, these tales spread thru the archipelago abreast with his growing reputation nd were doubtless the foundation for the belief in his miraculous powers which existed among the illiterate of his countrymen. In two years at the Biiian Latin school, where he lived in the home of an aunt, he got beyond tlie old schoolmaster, Florentino Aquin Cruz, and returned to Kalamba to wait till he was old enough to go to Manila. After a few weeks in the public school under a Lucas Padua, who had been a student in the Jesuit Normal School, Jose rested for a while from studying. His unfavorable opinion of the public school and its methods are very apparent, however, from frequent references in his writings.

His brother Paciano had been studying philosophy in San Jose College but really had been more interested in the stirring political matters of the day so that it was considered better for Jose, when he went to Manila, to not go with the elder brother. He lived with the keeper of a sinauiay store in which his mother was a partner thru furnishing the capital, and seems first to have been examined in San Juan de Letran College but not to have attended there. This was in June, 187 1, and of the rest of that school year there is no record, but college mates say that once in Spain he spoke f having been in the Jesuit Normal and laughed aver the recollection of his first struggles with Spanish. His Ateneo record shows credit for arithmetic but evidently given for examination on entrance, which was June 15, 1872, and learning Spanish would certainly have been enough work for one year. The first year in Manila was important in Dr. Rizal’s education tho the knowledge was not gained in school. On January 20, 1872, the liberal ideas that had been rapidly gaining ground in the Philippines received a terrible set back thru an insurrection in Cavite which was of sleight- of -liaiid tricks ade the pretext for removing the progressive leaders tho their guilt was never established and the people bePaciano kept his brother posted on lieved them innocent. the conditions nor did Mrs. Rizal conceal from her sons her interest in the situation and belief that injustice was being done^ “To the memory of the priests, Don MARIANO GOMEZ (aged 86 years) DoD JOSE BURGOS (aged 30 years )» and Don JACINTO Executed ZAMORA on (aged 35 years) Bagumbayan Field February, 1872. “The Church, by refusing to unfrock you, has placed in doubt the crime which has been charged against you; the State, by enveloping your trial in ystery and uncertainty, caused belief in an error committed in a fatal moment; and the Philippines, by venerating your memory and calling you martyrs, does not recognize in any way your guilt. ” {The dedication of the novel “El Filibustensmo. ^^) JO With the following year, when he entered the Ateneo Municipal, his real schooling began. This school, whose semi-centennial is to be celebrated in 1909 and which has educated the greater part of the leading men of the Philippines of today, had been founded by the Jesuits upon their return to the Islands after nearly a century of banishment.

In methods of instruction it was in 187’2 the only modern school in Manila, but it was particularly because Filipinos were given the same treatment there as Spaniards that the school was so popular. Hundreds were going as day scholars awaiting a vacancy in the dormitory that they might enjoy the advantages of a boarder. It was not until his fourth year that Jose’s opportunity came. The Ateneo Municipal On March 14, 1877, he received his bachelor’s degree in Arts with highest honors, having been first in his class in both deportmtent and scholarship thruout the course and having won most of the prizes offered by the school.

The next year he did double work, taking the first year in philosophy in the University of Santo Tomas and studying agriculture in. the Ateneo. This latter course was also completed with highest honors but because h^ was not yet of the legal age his credentials as “agricultural expert and surveyor” were not issued until two years later. 11 Hig second, third and fourth years in the Manila university were in medicine and were combined with outside studies in painting, and sculpture, and interest in two societies established by the Jesuits, the Academy of Spanish Literature, of which he was president, and the

Academy of Physical Sciences, in which he held the position of secretary. Modelling liad come from making masks, or false faces, from clay for which Jose used to go out to a cousin’s brick yard at San Pedro Macati, and when younger his play with wax in Kalamba had been to fashion rude birds. Drawings of men with arms like X’s on the margins ot his Abbe Sabatier, for which his mother had scolded him, had been followed by daubings in color. One festival day, when an important banner had been lost just before Bust, Rizal, by modelled of Padre Dr. Guerrico, one of his Ateneo instruc-‘ received tors. medal t (190’4) 12 It Exposition. the St. a gold Louis the procession in which it was to be used, young Rizal hastily painted a substitute that the deh’ghted municipal captain said was every bit as good as the original which had come from Manila. From a Spanish translation of the Latin Vulgate his mother had read to him the poetry of the Bible as well as the stories usually told to children and its rich imagery had made an impression. Then she had encouraged his efforts at rhyming, which were inspired by the simple verses in Abbe Sabatier’s ”Children’s Friend”, and at eight a Tagalog comedy of his had een bought by the municipal captain of Paet for as much as a farm laborer earned in half a month. Verses to Magellan, to El Cano, on Education, a French ode, and a dozen other efforts had given practice and each was better than its predecessor. At eighteen competition held by the “Liceo Artispoem “Al Juventud Filipina” (To the Filipino Youth) he won the special prize for ”imliaths’ in a tico Literario” with the and mestizos. The next year the same lyceum in a contest in honor of Cervantes allowed Spaniards, mestizos and imUans ail to enter the same competition. The first prize for prose as awarded Jose Rizal’s “Consejo de los dioses (Council of the Gods)” and the jury gave it another special prize as the best critical appreciation of the author of “Don Quixote. ” At the public meeting in the old Variadades theatre, Governor General Primo de Rivera presented to the young student the gold ring bearing a bust of Cervantes which had been won by him as “one who had honored Spain in this distant land”, to quote from the newspaper account. Everybody had expected this prize to be won by Friar Evaristo Arias, one of the most brilliant literary men the CFniversity of Santo Tomas had ever had on its faculty, nd there was astonishment and disappointment among his many friends who were present to applaud his triumph when the award of the jury and the opening of the envelopes reveafed the success of an unknown medical student. Naturally, as the Jesuits and Dominicans were rivals in school work, there was corresponding elation in the Ateneo and among its friends for, tho Rizal was a student 13 THE The use of the PRIZE FOR “AL word Spain in JUVENTIJD FILIPINA” the translation makes the meaninxi vnmistakable bid the reference ivas not obscure in the originoh Prosperity once for an era in this land held reign.

But now it groans beneath an iron yoke, Slowly expiring from a mortal stroke Ruthlessly dealt by the grim, nnpitying hand of Spain. And yet if it should now devoutly bend tlie knee At the shrine of Patriotism, might it still be free? Alas! In the sad future, for unnumbered days, AVill come the reckoning which man repays AV’ho, putting his own before his country’s gain, Finds in his own ensuing degradation, Slave of a cruel, harsh invading nation, His rewanl; in pestilential \’ars and endless pain. 14 Paciaiio encouraged him and so did Antonio Kivera, a distant cousin of bis mother’s in whose house he had

I5een living and to whose beautiful daughter, a few years younger than himself, be was engaged. Nor did his old professors in the Ateneo, of whom he sought advice, try to dissuade him. So, on May 5, 1882, after he had been recalled by a cipher telegram from Kalamba, where he had been staying for a short visit, he embarked for Singapore on the mail steamer ”Salvadora” and after the six days that the journey then took he transferred to a foreign passenger ship which carried him to Barcelona. There was quite a distinguished passenger list of returning officials and their families among whom Rizal figured, according to is passport, as “J^se Mercado, a native of the district Paciano furnished the funds but as soon of Santa Cruz. ” as his father learned of Jose’s going he arranged to send him money regularly thru Antonio Rivera. This roundabout way was necessary as life would not have been pleasant for any provincial family known to have sent one of its sons abroad to be educated, especially for a family like the Mercados who were tenants on an estate which was part of the university endowment. From Barcelona Rizal quickly went to Madrid and contin^jed his double course in philosophy and letters and in medicine. Besides he found time for more lessons in rawing and painting, and studied languages under special teachers. In 1884 he received the degree of Licenciate in Medicine and the following year, on his twenty-fourth birthday, the like degree in Philosophy and in Letters, and with highest honors. On the voyage to Spain or just after arrival, Rizal wrote and sent back to a Manila Tagalog daily an article on love of native land, and he continued to write for the paper during the short time it lived. The Filipino students in Spain knew Rizal by reputation, many of them had bee a schoolmates of his, and they enthusiastically welcomed him, but in their gayety he took o part. He economized in everything else to have money to spend on books and his first purchases included “Picturesque America”, “Lives of the Presidents of the United States’, “The Anglo Saxons”, “The English ! ZAL’S SHIP ; m THE SUEZ CANAL [Photograph from IHs album) THE SONG OF THE WANDERER (Translation by Arthur P. Ferguson. ) Like to a leaf that is fallen and withered, Tossed by the tempest from pole unto pole, Thus roams the pilgrim abroad without purpose, Roams without love, without country or soul. Following anxiously treacherous fortune, Fortune which e’en as he grasps at it flees.

Vain tho the hopps that his yearning is seeking Yet does the pilgrim embark on the seas Ever impelled by invisible power, Destined to roam from the East to the West, Oft he remembers the faces of loved ones, Dreams of the Day when he, too, was at rest. Chance may assign him a tomb on the desert. Grant him a final asylum of peace, Soon by the world and his country forgotten God rest his soul when his wanderings cease! Often the sorrowful pilgrim is envied. Circling the globe like a sea gull above; Little, ah, little they know that a void Saddens his soul by the absence of love. Home may the pilgrim return in the future,

Back to his loved ones his footsteps he bends; Naught will he find but the snow and the ruins, Ashes of love and the tomb of his friends. Thou must seek other pasturcis, Stranger thou art in the land of thy birth, Others may sing of their love while rejoicing; Thou once again must retra verse the eartli. Pilgrim, begone! Pilgrim, begone! Nor return more hereafter, Dry are the tears that a while for you ran, Pilgrim, begone! and forget thy affliction. Loud Uughs the world at the sorrows of man. J8 Revolution” and other indications that then, as he said later, “the free peoples interested him most. The affectation and love of display of some of his countrymen disgusted him and at the same time convinced him of a theory he later declared in regard to race This same disgust, he reasoned, is felt toward the ostentatious new rich and the braggirt self-made man, only these when they come to their senses are no longer distinguishable from the rest of the world while the man of color must suffer for the foolishness of his fellows. So he who by nature was little inclined to be self-conceited, boasting or loud came to be even more unaffected, simpler in dress and reposeful in manner as he tried to ake lymself as different as possible from a type he detested. Yet this was at no sacrifice of dignity but rather brought out more strongly his force of character. His many and close friendships with all who knew him, and that his most intimate friends were of the white race, (one of his Spanish jailers even asked to be relieved of his charge because the association was making him too prejudice. fond of his prisoner) seem to show that Dr. Rizal’s theory was right. One day, after an association aimed to help the Philippines had gone to pieces because no one seemed willing to do anything unless he were sure of all the glory, some f the students met in an effort to revive if. The effort was not successful and then Rizal proposed all joinino- in a book, illustrated by Filipino artists, to tell Spain about the real Philippines. The plan was enthusiastically received but tho there was eagerness to write about, the “The Pilipina Woman” the other subjects were neglected. Rizal was disappointed and dropped the Then he came across, in a second-hand booka French copy of “The Wandering Jew” and bought it to get practice in reading the language. The book affected him powerfully and he realized what an aid to the Philippines such a way of revealing its wrongs ould be, but he dreaded the appearance of self-conceit in announcing that he was going to write a book like subject. store, Eugene Sue’s. idea of writing So he said nothing to any one, yet the NoU Me Tangere was constantly in his 19 mind from the night in January of 1884 when he finished the French novel. During his stay in Madrid, Dr. Rizal waa made a freemason in Acacia Lodge No. 9 of the “Gran Oriente de Espaiia” at whose head was then Manuel Becerra, later Minister of Ultramar, or Colonies. Among the persons with whom he thus became acquainted were Manuel Ruiz Zorilla, Praxedes M. Sagasta, Emilio Castelar and Victor

HowBalaguer, all prominent in the politics of Spain. ever slight the association, it came in the formative period of the young student’s life and turned his thoughts into He no longer constructive lines rather than destructive. thought only of getting rid of Spanish sovereignty but began to question what sort of a government was to reAt Barcelona he had seen the monument of place it. General Prim whose motto had been “More liberal today than yesterday, more liberal tomorrow than today” yet he knew how opposed the Spanish patriot had been to a Spanish republic because Spaniards were not prepared for it.

So he resolved to prepare the Filipinos and the compaign of education which he saw being waged by Spaniards in Spain Rizal thought would be no more unpatriotic or anti-Spanish if carried on by a Filipino for the Philippines. Already he had become convinced of one political truth which was to separate him from other leaders of his countrymen, that the condition of the common people and not the form of, Uie government is — the all-important thing. From Madrid, after a short trip thru the more backward provinces because these were the country regions of Spain and so more fairly to be compared with the Philippines, Dr.

Rizal in 1885 went to Paris and continued his medical studies under an eye specialist. Association with artists and seeing the treasures of the city’s rich galleries also assisted in his art education. For the political part Masonry again was responsible. The Grand Orient of France was not recognized by the Spanish Masonry of which Rizal was a member but held relations with a rival organization over which Frof. MiMoray ta presided. So in Rue Cadet 16 he was initiated into this irregular body which had been responsible for the French Revolution and, because it did not re- guel 20 Dr. Rizal’s Library hown here makes the Of the open volumes first is in German, next Site’s ‘^Wan- Attother small case with those half reinaining of his books. Goethe” s ” Wilhelni Meisttr”’ and the third a “The Lives of the rlering Jew”’ edit ion # of finely illustrated Spanish Presidents of the United St a ( EXPEDIENTK (7 ^? rother knew of the insurrection, tho the use of the thumbscrews and hanging him by the arms had taken place in Manila just after Dr. Rizal had sailed for Spain. In those days a prisoner was compelled to testify against himself, and the Doctor answered very frankly except Avhere othesrs ere concerned. The use of symbolic names among his Masonic acquaintances made jt possible for him to say in many cases that he did not know any one of such a name. At other times his memory was made the excuse for not caring to answer, but where it concerned himself there were no subterfuges. The man whose word was so sacred to him that he would not take any of the many chances to escape offered during his years in banishment disdained any attempt at deception. *^ He had said that his conscience was clear and in his trial he seemed only anxious that his real position shall be understood. In act he asked permission to address a proclamation to the rebels in the field who had been deceived into insurrection by the fraudulent use of his name, and when it was read by the prosecutor that zealous official added it as him only -by another proof of disloyalty. It urged that tbey disband now, for they were unfitted for independence and should first educate and fit themselves before they attempted to There was no cringing or denying separate from Spain. Riof responsibility but neither was there any bravado. zal’s additions to his defense were as clearly reasoned and dispassionate as tho he were debating with a friend nd not on trial for his life. No time was lost in convicting him nor in confirming the military court’s decision but he was sentenced to be shot on December 30, 1896. Just after Rizal became aware of his sentence to death but before bis transfer to the chapel he wrote the poem now f amors as “The Final Farewell. ” It was copied on a small sheet of notepaper, folded lengthwise into a narrow strip and then doubled and wedged inside the tank of a little alcohol lamp on which his cooking in the cell had been done. At the farewell to his sister Trinidad while in the chapel he said: “I have nothing to give you as a ouvenir except the cooking lamp Mrs. Tavera gave me and then so the guard might not while I was ii^ Paris understand he said in a low tone, in English, “There is something inside. ” The lamp was taken with his other belongings from the fort and it was not until the night of the second day after his death that it was deemed safe to investigate. Then when the verses were found they were immediately copied and the copy without comment mailed to Hong Kong. There they were published. But Rizal had time to polish the poetry a little and thru another channel safely sent the revised poem so the morning after his death opies of it were found on the desks of prominent Filipino > ” sympathizers. He had been a prisoner in Fort Santiago, at first “incomanicado” in one of the dungeons and later in a cell on the ground floor. After his sentence he was removed to the fort chapel with troops on guard in the courtyard in The military chaplains offered services which front of it. “My own “Of all of “My own idolized Native Country, my sorrows the saddest, Philippines, “Hear now my my beloved! adieu, ray last farewell! 40 “Behold “My all for parents, thee my I am leaving, friends long beloved! “I go where no slaves are in bondage, No hangman, nor cruel oppressor, “Where faith does not justify murder, “And God is the Ruler Eternal. “Adieu, Oh my parents and brothers, “As part of my soul here remaining, “Ye friends of the years of my childhood, “And of the dear home lost forever! “Give thanks unto God, that already “I rest from the day’s toil and trouble. “Farewell unto thee, gentle stranger, “My friend “Farewell, “Oh weep and all my joy thou wert ever! ye beings beloved! not, for death *L is but resting! he courteously declined but later Jesuits came, from iiia old school, whom he warmly welcomed. These brought a ittle wooden image of the Sacred Heart which as a schoolboy he had carved with a penknife during playtime and had put up inside the door in the dormitory. During all the tweTity years it had stayed in the same place for Rizal was not only the favorite of his fellows as a student but had remained the hero of the Ateneo boys up to that time. The recollection of his happy school days brought up memories of when for his exemplary conduct he had been a leader in the Marian Congregation, and of the verses he had written in honor of the Virgin. A retraction was required by the Archbishop before he ould receive the consolations of his religion and several forms were proposed. Practically every victim of political persecution had left a retraction couched in such language that its spontaneousness was always questioned. The one dictated for Rizal was no exception and the Jesuits knew he would never sign it so they substituted a form of their own, giving what was essential for reconciliation with the Church and worded in a way that would not recall the differences Rizal had had with some of its minis- With its ideas the prisoner was satisfied but he very reasonably argued that unless in his style no one ould believe that he had changed the habit of a lifetime in its last moments. To this request the Jesuits say they agreed and the retraction was re- worded by him. Unfortunately the original has been lost and that it was ever made was disputed, at the time it was first pubNo one of his family was permitted to see it. lished. Nevertheless the attending circumstances all argue in Strongest of all is the favor of its having been made. testimony of the Jesuits who were not mixed up in the politics of that time when church and state were so interwoven that it was argued that no one could be a good Catholic who was not a good Spaniard.

Two copies, differing only in phraseology, have been published. Of these the one telegraphed to Madrid and published in “El Imparcial” on December 31st, 1896, seems to be more Rizal’s style and is free from those for- ters. 4;i mal church terms which he would have been likely to nothing he could not have sfgned in when he was expressing his religious views to Dapitan Father Pastells. But th^n a political recantation as well as a religious reconciliation was desired. avoid. Tliere The is in it retraction reads: I want to live and “I declare rayself a Catholic. I retract with all my heart whatdie as a Catholic. ver I have said or written or done against the Church and our Lord Jesus Christ. I give up Masonry which is an enemy of the Church. ” “The head of the diocese may publish this retrac tion, which I make of my own accord, to repair as as may be possible the scandal caused by May all men forgive writings and by my acts. for the injury which I have caused to many. ” far my me After his confession Dr. Eizal was married to Josephine Bracken, the adopted daughter of a Hong Kong retired engineer who had come to Dapitan to see if there was any cure for his lost sight. Rizal had fallen in love with he girl, who was ten years younger than himself, and had asked her to stay in Dapitan until they could be married but tho authorized by law there was no provision in the Philippines fqr civil marriage and so there was no chance for the ceremony until this reconciliation with His wife, the daughter of an Irish sergeant the church. in the British army in India and, to judge by her features, an Indian mother, was also of his faith. The belief that Mrs. Rizal was an Eurasian is^ borne out by the fact that she was educated in the Italian convent of Hong Kong which has so many of that mixed Her adopted mother, Mrs.

Taufer, from whom blood. she took her middle name of Leopoldine, was Portuguese, and thru her knowledge of that language she found Spanish easy to learn. If she had not known Rizal personally she at least ticing medicine in knew of him while Jje was prac- Hong Kong. It was now morning and after a short interval the march to the place of execution, on the Luneta, was begun, on foot and with a heavy escort of soldiers. 44 In the same place where the three priests had been 1872 and where his very- very-great-grandfather had his rice store, two centuries back, beside a bastion of the same name he had given to Kalamba in the novel or which he was dying, Jose Rizal with a pulse that beat as naturally as ever was shot by Filipino soldiers behind whom stood Spanish soldiers to see the order was unhesitatingly obeyed. The request that he might not be shot from the back because he was neither traitor to Spain nor to his own country was refused. A powerful effort of the will in falling led the victim to turn himself so as to fall with his face to the sky. So the Spanish soldiers saw hira as they filed past his dead body and the cheers for Spain and the triumphal music of the band as it played the March of Cadiz did not prevent a feeling of admiration for the brave man.

Spain’s was a brief triumph, for tho the first killed in anniversary of his death was celebrated by desecrating his grave, the second found it decorated, and each sue ceeding year has seen an increased importance given* to the day which has become the great holiday of the Philippines. The martyr’s body was put in an unmarked grave in Paco cemetery but a way was found to have a small marble stone, bearing his initials in reversed order, dropped in with the un coffined remains Within less than two years, on the first day of American occupation, the body was raised for a more decent interment and tbe marble slab rests under a cross bearing nly the date “Dec. 30, 1896”. The ashes have since been put in an urn of Philippine woods carved by the skillful hands of Dr. Rizal’s instructor in carving, and will be finally deposited in what will be by far the finest of Manila’s monuments, the P100,000 memorial which is to mark the place where he gave his life for his country. His widow joined the insurgents at Cavite, and later returned to Manila and then to Hong Kong where in 1898 she was married to a Filipine ^tudent from Cebu. She taught in the public schools of Manila in 1901, and in the following year died in Hong Kong and is buried there in

Rizal’s Execution. (Courtesy of Mr. 46 Dantas) the Catholic part of Happy Valley cemetery beside the monuirjent of her adopted father, George Taufer, the blind man, who was an American. him but a year, but his and not long ago refused a proffered pension from the Assembly with the statement that she did not believe in paid patriotism and was content that her son had done his duty. Of the numerous Rizal relatives there seem to be none in politics but all are industrious and seeking to bring Dr. Rizal’s fatlier survived mother still lives about the independence of their country in the way their istinguished kinsman recommended, working to increase its wealth and availing themselves of every opportunity for education. A new province bears Doctor Rizal’s name, his picture appears upon the most generally used values of postage stamps and paper money, every town in the Philippines has its Rizal Street or Rizal Square, Manila has a flourshing Rizal University, a Rizal Ateneo and a Rizal Business College, and his birthday is getting to be observed as well as the day of his death, but Filipinos are forget- I ;* B -i I f t f Former Grave ‘ ” of Dr. 47 • Ris&l “i

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Rizal Retraction & Josephine Bracken and Rizal’s Marriage

Rizal was excommunicated by the Catholic Church when he joined the Masonry. Influenced by Miguel Morayta, a history professor at the Universidad de Madrid, Rizal joined Masonry, under the Gran Oriente de Espanol, adopting the Masonic name, Dimasalang. He was automatically excommunicated, expelled from the Catholic Church, a fate decreed for all Catholics becoming Masons since 1738 and reaffirmed by the CBCP in 1990. Some argued that Dr. Rizal wrote those anti-catholic passages on his letters, poems and novels during the times when he was still excommunicated from his Catholic faith.

So, he was really an enemy of the Catholic Church of that time. But prior to his execution by firing squad, he wrote a retraction letter which in turn rejects all the things he wrote about the Roman Catholic Church. Catholic legend has it that as if fearing for his salvation, Rizal regained his faith on his last night thus leading to his retraction saying “ I declare myself a Catholic; I wish to live and die as a Catholic; I retract with all my heart all that I have said, written and done against the Church and our Lord Jesus Christ. ”

Josephine BRACKEN Being a mason, Rizal and Josephine could not get married. Josephine and Rizal reunited for the last time at the latter’s cell in Fort Santiago on December 30, 1896. The couple were married in Catholic rites by Fr. Victor Balaguer two hours before Rizal’s execution at Bagumbayan. After his execution Josephine, accompanied by Paciano and Trinidad Rizal entered rebel territory in Cavite. They were received by Andres Bonifacio who received from the Rizals a copy of the hero’s last poem which would be known as the Mi Ultimo Adios.

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Dr. Jose Rizal’s My Last Farewell: Last Notes Before His Execution

“Mi ultimo adios” (Spanish for “My Last Farewell”) is a poem written by Philippine national hero Dr Jose Rizal on the eve of his executionon 30 December 1896. This poem was one of the last notes he wrote before his death; another that he had written was found in his shoe but because the text was illegible, its contents remains a mystery. Title Rizal did not ascribe a title to his poem. Mariano Ponce, his friend and fellow reformist, titled it Mi Ultimo Pensamiento (My Last Thought) in the copies he distributed, but this did not catch on. “On the afternoon of Dec. 29, 1896, a day before his execution, Dr.

Jose Rizal was visited by his mother, Teodora Alonzo, sisters Lucia, Josefa, Trinidad, Maria and Narcisa, and two nephews. When they took their leave, Rizal told Trinidad in English that there was something in the small alcohol stove (cocinilla), not alcohol lamp (lamparilla). The stove was given to Narcisa by the guard when the party was about to board their carriage in the courtyard. At home, the Rizal ladies recovered from the stove a folded paper. On it was written an unsigned, untitled and undated poem of 14 five-line stanzas. The Rizals reproduced copies of the poem and sent them to Rizal’s friends in the country and abroad.

In 1897, Mariano Ponce in Hong Kong had the poem printed with the title “Mi Ultimo Pensamiento. ” Fr. Mariano Dacanay, who received a copy of the poem while a prisoner in Bilibid (jail), published it in the first issue of La Independencia on Sept. 25, 1898 with the title “Ultimo Adios”. ” [1] The stove was not delivered until after the execution as Rizal needed it to light the room. This 14-stanza poem of Jose Rizal talks about his “Goodbyes” to his dear Fatherland where his love is dedicated to. He wrote it on the evening before his execution. Farewell, dear Fatherland, clime of the sun caress’d Pearl of the Orient seas, our Eden lost! Gladly now I go to give thee this faded life’s best, And were it brighter, fresher, or more blest Still would I give it thee, nor count the cost. On the field of battle, ‘mid the frenzy of fight, Others have given their lives, without doubt or heed; The place matters not-cypress or laurel or lily white, Scaffold or open plain, combat or martyrdom’s plight, T is ever the same, to serve our home and country’s need. Interpretation The first stanza speaks about Rizal’s beautiful description of his Fatherland. He used the biblical Eden to describe the Pre-Hispanic Philippines which is an imaginary time of purity and innocence.

He adores the beautiful country that he and others are fighting for. He said that he is glad to give his life to Filipinas even though his life was brighter, fresher, or more blest than it is now – pertaining to the time when he wrote the poem. The second stanza speaks about the men who gave their life to his beloved country. Rizal said that their dedication and patriotism to the country is without second thoughts. It doesn’t matter how one struggles, that all struggles, all deaths, are worth it if it is for the good of the country. The third stanza speaks about Rizal’s love of liberty.

The image of dawn that Rizal used in the first line signifies the liberation that he adores. In the third and fourth line, he says that if the colour of liberation lacks his blood, he must die for the country to attain freedom. The fourth stanza presents the flashback of Rizal’s love for the patria that started when he was young. He was young when he saw the martyrdom of the GOMBURZA and promised that he would dedicate himself to avenge one day for those victims. His dreams were to see his country in eminent liberation, free from sorrow and grief. The fifth stanza repeats Rizal’s dream of complete liberation. All Hail! ” signifies that he is positively welcoming the dawn of freedom after his death. He also repeats what he has said in the third stanza that it is his desire to dedicate his life to the Patria. The sixth stanza describes the image of Rizal’s grave being forgotten someday. The grassy sod may represent the country’s development, the growth of liberty, and that with the redemption of the country, he becomes forgotten. Rizal does not say here that he wants monuments, streets, or schools in his name, just a fond kiss and a warm breath so he could feel he is not forgotten.

In the seventh stanza, Rizal says he wants to see or feel the moon, dawn, wind, and a bird over his grave. The moon’s beam may represent a night without its gloom like a country without its oppressors. The imagery of dawn has been repeated here and its radiant flashes represent the shining light of redemption that sheds over his honour. Only the wind will lament over his grave. The bird does not lament him but sings of peace, the peace that comes with liberation and the peace with which he rests below.

In the eighth stanza, the metaphor of the sun drawing the vapors up to the sky signifies that the earth is being cleansed by the sun like taking away the sorrows and tears that has shed including his last cry. Line 3 reminds us to remember why he died – for the redemption of the country. And he wants to hear a prayer in the still evening – evening because he may also want to see a beam of light from the moon which he stated in the stanza 7, and that it is before the dawn. Prayers he stated that will make him rest in peace in God’s hands.

Rizal said in the ninth stanza that he also wants his fellowmen to also pray for others who also have died and suffered for the country. Also pray for the mothers, the orphans and widows, and the captives who also have cried and have tortured, and again, for his soul to rest in peace. The tenth stanza says that Rizal’s tomb is on the graveyard with the other dead people. Rizal says that in the night, he does not want to be disturbed in his rest along with the others and the mystery the graveyard contains. And whenever we hear a sad song emanating from the grave, it is he who sings for his fatherland.

In the eleventh stanza, Rizal says a request that his ashes be spread by the plough before it will no longer take significance. His ashes represent his thoughts, words, and philosophy making it his intellectual remains. The symbolic ashes should be spread all over Filipinas to fertilize the new free country long after he is forgotten. The twelfth stanza again speaks about being forgotten but Rizal does not care about it anymore. Oblivion does not matter for he would travel far and wide over his beloved fatherland. He keeps his faith with him as he sings his hymn for the nation.

Rizal says goodbye to his adored Fatherland in the thirteenth stanza. He gives goodbye to his parents, friends, and the small children. He gives everything to Filipinas. Now, he satisfies his death by saying he will be going to a place where there is peace – no slaves, no oppressors, no killed faith. He is going to a place where God rules over – not the tyrants. Finally, in the last stanza, Rizal cries his farewell to all his fellowmen – his childhood friends, and his sweet friend that lightened his way. In the last line, he repeats that “In Death there is rest! ” which means that he, being ready to be executed, is happy to die in peace.