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A foreword of a book on mass media laws and regulations

Chapter 1


Syed Sajjad Ali Shah, Former Chief Justice of Pakistan said in a foreword of a book on Mass Media Laws and Regulations in Pakistan that:

“All over the world, the citizens’ right to acquire knowledge and information is increasingly being proclaimed and recognized as a fundamental right. The international human rights instruments as well as national constitutions and laws, acknowledge and safeguard this right”


Any channel of communication which serves different functions such as a wide range of entertainment or mass appeal and communicating news and information and advertisement messages through electronic medium is called Electronic media.

The duty of media is to communicate massages from advertiser or vendors and serves it as a product or services to the consumer. Types of media include print, electronic, outdoor and direct mail. Print media refers to magazine and news paper where as electronic media are usually referred as broadcast media that are radio and television including cable.


In 1964 Television was first introduced in Pakistan. The only channel at that time was Pakistan Television (PTV) that lasts just for few hours everyday from evening till midnight to the viewers. The Channel introduced as a corporation of the state, where the government of Pakistan appointed its board of directors. The managing director was also appointed by the Government of Pakistan but with the approval of the boards.

The Early channel includes STN, which was awarded by monopolistic contract with a private company called Network Television Market (NTM).

In 1990 PTV was stroked by the financial mismanagement that causes a vast amount of debt and because of Hindi channels the rapidly reducing popularity among the viewers also reduced their advertising revenue.

Pakistan Electronic Media is now regulated by Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA). It was established under PEMRA ordinance of 2002. The same month after establishment PEMRA issued 29 Radio licences for new private radio stations.

The duty of this authority is to regulate and facilitate the private electronic media, and to improve the standards of information, education and entertainment and to expand the choice for the people of Pakistan including current affairs, news, religious knowledge, arts and culture and as well as science and technology.

Where as in 1932 right before 32 years when television was first launched in Pakistan, BBC launched the first television channel in UK called “THE BBC TELEVISION SERVICE.” The BBC was sponsored by the public money build up from a TV licence fee collected from all UK households who had a television set. This fee was mandatory for all; failure to pay the fee was punishable by prosecution causing a fine or imprisonment. Until ITV was launched in 1955 BBC television service had a complete monopoly in UK.


Training and development come under the umbrella of human resource management. This research will help analyse the current frameworks by human resource executives to improve training and development within Pakistan media industry and as well as look at the barriers facing by human resource department over the coming year and techniques for overcoming them.

This research is a comparative study of training and development strategies in UK and Pakistan media Industry. With the purpose to look into the topic, I will compare and relate the techniques of UK media Industry with Pakistan media industry as how UK media industry deals with such kind of situations.


Training and development refers to pass on or to enhance the specific knowledge and skills of an employee. Training and development is essential to advance the current and future performance of the employee by boosting the ability of an employee to perform better through learning and training.

Training usually offers to the operatives on the other hand development programmes are for the employees on upper level or positions.

The Primary aim of training and development is to help the organisation reach its goal by increasing value to its key resources that is the employee of the organization. By training the employee we can enable them to perform well and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities.

The Basic aims of training and development are:

It develops the ability of the employee and advances their performance.

It helps to meet the organization with the future needs of human resource by help the staff to grow within the organization.

And it also reduces the learning time for the employees and make sure that they become completely proficient as quickly and economically as possible.

It has been seen that most of the researchers mainly focused their investigation on the role and responsibilities, role conflict and role ambiguity and some extent on the training and development programme, but this piece of research reflects the study of how training advance the level of understanding of the employee to their job and also how it helps in their career development.

The main objective of the research is to look in to the developments in this important field of human resources particularly in electronic media industry in United Kingdom and Pakistan. Further to this we also look in to the organisations working without training and development department in some organisations.


The goal of my research is to find out that how training and development can help improve the knowledge and skills of the employee within the organization especially in Pakistan electronic media by comparing it with the UK electronic industry mainly focus on the broadcasting media.

The first chapter of my research will help to introduce the analysis of the study and also why it is useful to investigate further into this topic. The aim and objectives of the research study are also included in this chapter.

Chapter two highlight the critical review of literature. The literature review will be divided into two major parts

(1) Organizational theories

(2) Training and Development.

Chapter Three will cover up the research methodologies used for the research area.

Chapter four will examine the data collection and analyse the types of information of the collected data.

The Fifth Chapter will conclude the research and will suggest some advice and emphasize the limitations of the study.



A critical and in depth evaluation of a previous research is called Literature Review. It examines a wide range of literature concerned with the employee motivation which has major importance for organizational matters such as Training and development.

The themes provided the framework based on:

1. Organisational theory which relates to employee in an organization

2. To designed the development strategies to reward and distinguish the employee input in television channels.

We will look in this research how these set of organisational theories and approaches relate to understand the topic of research.


Dugan the famous Author said in 1985 that “training and development is alive and well and growing. In fact, it has grown to be a part of a much larger arena.”

There are so many approaches to training and development by so many authors my research will mainly focus on the Classical Approach, The human relation approach, and the contingency theory.

I will give a brief introduction of all of these theories in my research.


The Standard model to the organizational plan and management in the classical approach were based on the assumed basic numbers, which are written below.

To be operated and structured there is at least one best approach for all the organizations.

Classical approach was based on the legal managerial power and rule of law.

We know financial reward is the best way to motivate employee to work and we will also examine what are other ways of motivating employee and get their maximum use.


The Third step in the development of modern management was the advancement in the attention to the human factors which has become known as the “Human Relation School of management.”

It was introduced in 1930s as a response to the negative view of human nature suggested by the classical approach and against the mechanistic view of organization.

Human Relation approach talks about the emotional behaviour of the people that people are more emotional rather than economical rational beings, where as organizations are cooperative social systems rather than mechanical ones; and also that organizations are composed of informal structure, and rules as well as formal procedures and practices.


This theory was first come in to view in the 1960s as a rejection of the “One best way” approach. There are many types of the contingency theory. It is a set of behavioural theory that argues that there is no one best way of organising or leading and the leadership approach to one situation is not necessarily suitable to others.

The Four most important suggestions of Contingency theory are:

• There is no one best way to manage the organization.

•The plan and aim of the organization should be according to the environment.

•Effective organizations not only plan according to the environment but also fit between its subsystems.

•The organization should be properly designed and the management style should be suitable both to the tasks and the nature of the work group if the organization wants to satisfy its needs and requirements.


According to Casse and Banahan (2007), “the different approaches to training and development need to be explored.”

Training in an organization is mainly consisting of two parts:

1- Internal Training

2- External Training


Internal training means a training session organised within the house by human resource department or giving training to a particular department by a senior staff or talented employee as a resource person.


The training which is arranged outside the organization by training institutes and consultants are called external training. Both the trainings are very essential as it helps preparing staff for greater challenges.


When the planning of a learning programme become a major concern, the theoretical concept of training becomes more significant. It helps determining the area where there is a space for further improvement and the training is required to achieve the goal. For any organization it is important to design the objectives and framework of training to achieve its corporate goal.

There are countless theoretical concepts I will include few of them in my dissertation to make it clear to understand the objective of my research. I will try to briefly explain those concepts in my research proposal.

Systematic training cycle is a stage based activity which begins with Training Needs Analysis (TNA)

Jill Bowman & John P. Wilson, (2008)

Jill Bowman & John P. Wilson, (2008) point out two definitions regarding (TNA)

• “Analysing training needs provides a focus and direction for the investment an organization has to make in its people”.

• Need for training exists in organizations when particular weaknesses need to me overcome by the application of systematic training. Therefore, before commencement of actual training session, it is very important to identify the training needs first.

Jill Bowman & John P. Wilson, (2008)

The systematic training cycle has three stages.

1- Training Design

2- Training Delivery

3- Evaluation

Any training programme in an organization has to be designed first once it is designed it needs to be implemented. Implementation is overwhelmed with certain problems such as managers at the first place are more action oriented but suddenly they get busy to engage in the training efforts. Secondly availability of the trainer who also knows the philosophy and objective of the company is difficult. And also scheduling the training programme around the present work is another problem.

The final stage of the training and development programme is the evaluation of the programme. Evaluation of the programme helps determine the result.

These set of classic theories and approaches will make the research topic more clearly for readers and how these relate to each other in media industry.



The core task for any researcher to complete its research is to analyze the problem and to select that which research methodology to follow. It is a challenging endeavour and causes difficulties if the most suitable methodology is not selected.


1- Primary Research

2- Secondary Research

3- Qualitative Research

4- Quantitative Research


In Primary research a researcher collects the data which doesn’t really exist. It can be done through surveys, questionnaire, interviews and observations.


Secondary research is to examining the existing data, it may be the mixture of information acquire by different authors and scholars and a summary or collation.


Qualitative research tries to find out the “WHY” not “HOW”. It is about investigating the issues, answering the questions and understanding phenomena.

The main methods uses in this research are observation, interviews and documentary analysis.

It seeks to explore people’s attitudes, behaviours, value system, and lifestyles. It also focuses groups, in depth interviews like many other approaches but qualitative research also involves the analysis of any unstructured material including customer’s feedback forms, reports or media clips.


Quantitative research technique enumerates the data by applying different mathematical and statistical methods. Quantitative research includes surveys and customers questionnaires.

It is about knowing the opinion of the people in a way so you can produce an appropriate fact and statistic to guide you in making decision for future.

You can only get the reliable statistical result by surveying people in a fairly large numbers and also ensure they are representative sample of your target market.



At first the data may appear to be a mass of confusing, unrelated, accounts. But by

Studying and coding (often I code the same materials several times just after Collecting them), the researcher begins to create order (Charmaz, 1983: 114)

In Data Analysis researcher gathers a raw data and organize it so that useful information can be extracted from it. Raw data can be in variety of types including measurements, surveys, and observations. In data analysis process, the raw data organised in a way which will be useful. For Example, The result of surveys may b tallied so that we can see that how many people answer to the surveys and how they response to the questions.

Data Analysis is an important step of the research process. The aim of data analysis is to define the qualitative and quantitative data that provides learner to develop knowledge and skills in data analysis. It also supports the development of critical appraisal skills by considering the critical review.


In this stage I will try to analyze the primary data which I will collect from different television channels. I will try to collect data from BBC and Pakistan television channels including GEO TV Network, Express News and AAJ TV. I will also do the surveys and make the questionnaire for the employee working in electronic media industry and also a separate interview questions for HR experts associated with the industry. I will also analyze the data and the information collected through surveys by focusing on the objective of my research and will try to analyse them in a very systematic way, it is very important as it will help me to draw a valid conclusion and clarify the aim and objectives of my research.


A dissertation is an extensive piece of academic writing. The timeline make sure that every step is completed at a given time. For successful achievement of a dissertation there has to be a time line.

Month 1 Month 2 Month 3


Preliminary Research

Define research questions/objectives

Work on methodology and finish rough drafts of methodology

Library Work

Preparing Questionnaires, and survey questions

Refine Dissertation Methodology

Write literature review

Write Introduction

Research paper writing

References and Bibliography

Polish format of research proposal



This research adds value in quite a lot of ways; firstly it contributes a better understanding on some vital attributes of Training and Development specifically in Pakistan and UK electronic media Industry. Secondly it provides insight the attitude and behaviour of an employee in the organization and why they need training.

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of training in the efficiency of an employee, in how the training gives confidence to perform there desire task in their routine work.

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Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism

Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism

“The types of questions investigated in mass media research are virtually unlimited” (Roger and Dominick 2006:5). Going by Roger’s statement, it is practically impossible to limit mass media research subject areas. Given that a research work can never be perfect, hence, the limitations of a research open the scope for further research work in the subject area. Here we have collected a number of original dissertation topics in mass media and journalism. dissertation topics in mass media and journalism usually address several ongoing practices in the field of journalism.

However, it becomes difficult if the researcher focuses on a vast subject area for example the world cinema, which is a generalised topic and has no specific target. Hence, ideally it is suggested to narrow down the target and focus on a specific research question, which is a crucial part of research work. The biggest challenge in this field would be to get hold of participants and interviewees. Given media signifies a practical approach mainly rather than theoretical, hence, a media research depends a lot on whom we are interviewing which can range from a common man to a minister. The following ten categories are just some of the subjects that can be covered and not an exhaustive list.

1. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Journalism/ News – Dissertation examples

1.1 Representation of women journalists in the media. How are women journalists treated across the world and their limitations?

1.2 Newspaper readers pay unnecessarily for ads in which they are not interested, but newspapers can’t do without advertisements. Is there an alternative?

1.3 Night life and how it affects the youth in developed countries-a journalistic research. Night clubs, pubs, strip clubs, discotheques and its impact upon the teenage section of countries likeUSAandUK(You may refer to other countries as well).

1.4 Does the media industry follow Noam Chomsky’s Propaganda modelRefer to different countries and how they practise journalism.

1.5 Journalism and showbusiness: where does truth based and objective journalism stand today with the practice of infotainment based reporting worldwide?

1.6 Paparazzi, yellow journalism, and tabloidism- is this the future of journalism?

1.7 Political chaos in India. How would the current political turmoil in the UPA government affect its ties with neighbour countries?

1.8 A research of local media in Britain – choose a particular media and its representation of a particular community issue; what were the impacts for the local community?

2. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Film/Cinema – Dissertation examples

2.1 Bollywood and its profit margins. How Bollywood has changed India’s cultural economy?

2.2Hollywoodor Bollywood- which is biggerHow does the industry turnover contribute to the world market?

2.3 Is French cinema a national or global cinema?

2.4 South-East Asian films and other emerging film markets on the global arena. Threat to Hollywood?

2.5 YashRaj films and its overseas business over the years. Examine how the major Indian production houses like the YashRaj films have a hold worldwide?

2.6 What makes USA and UK the major business hub of Indian cinemaAn analysis of Indian global film market.

2.7 An examination of 3D technologies in cinema- its emergence and worldwide acceptance.

2.8 The music industry and its billion dollar profit. How does Pop, Rock, Classical, RnB, Bollywood music influence a nation’s economy?

2.9 How foreign collaborations and its competitive advantage proved beneficial for the film industry over the yearsFor example Slumdog Billionaire?

2.10 Indian cinema Vs Bollywood. Is Indian cinema not a part of Bollywood?

3.Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – International journalism – Dissertation examples

3.1 United Kingdom visa norms and its impact on the country’s economy. What can be the possible plans and strategies to cope with the massive monetary loss and tackle recession?

3.2 China has been the most efficient country in practising public diplomacy. Do you agree?

3.3 Globalisation and its impact upon the businesses of developing countries; specifically refer to India- a developing country facing economic slowdown but still a major player in the world market.

3.4 Stagnating economy of the United Kingdom. How can a developed country facing constant recession be safeguarded against the downfall of the nation?

3.5 Anti-Islam stance of the United States; even celebrities are not spared. The anti-Islam video has created fuss all over. How does this affect the image of Muslims in other countries?

3.6 How efficiently does the United Nations response to an emergency or crisis situation in any nation Examine how the UN practices propaganda, public diplomacy and psychological operations in controlling these situations.

3.7 Formation of media finally took shape during the Gulf War, the Somalia, Bosnia and Kosovo conflictDo you agree?

3.8 Psychological operations and propaganda are crucial to Iraq and Afghanistan’s nation building process?

3.9How does war reporting and the role of a journalist affect in forming or destroying the image of any nation?

4. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Political and investigative reporting – Dissertation examples

4.1 Critically analyse the UPA government’s functioning ahead of the parliamentary election in India in 2014.

4.2 Sonia Gandhi’s Italian roots and its impact on the future of India?

4.3 Corruption is synonymous with politics. Do you agree?

4.3 Power of America-what has made the USA the ultimate ruler?

4.4 Can there be any solution to Pakistan/Afghanistan/Iraq’s negative image worldwide(or any other country of your choice). Examine the role of mass media in fostering stereotypes and establishing images.

4.5 Politicians and political parties have lost their ideological drive. They are now driven by the goal of marketing/selling their ideas to the public. Do you agreeChoose a particular country.

4.6 Call centres are creating numerous jobs and helping the unemployed section of the society. This would be impossible without the assistance of media and journalists. Do you agreeSupport your answers with examples.

4.7 Creating adequate jobs and education system are still vague promises made by politicians in many countries. Probe into the realities of developing countries?

5. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Business journalism – Dissertation examples

5.1 Go Green- How would you go about promoting an online store for green leafy products/clothing to appeal for green revolution?

5.2Fashion portal- how does the world of fashion dominate business market todayAn analysis of business market of major countries.

5.3 Develop a social networking site and formulate ways to compete with popular sites such Facebook and Twitter.

5.4 Emergence of social networking sites and e-commerce. Examine how it changed the concept of business over the years?

5.5 3G countries and their contributions to the world economy. Analysing each of the countries growth rate and where it would stand by 2050. What are the implications?

6. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Developmental journalism – Dissertation examples

6.1 Dowry system and other dogmatic practices still prevalent in modern India. Examine media role in this issue and its implications upon development.

6.2 Primary education is still a distant dream for many countries. Research of the underdeveloped countries where the illiteracy rate is rising. Examine the role of media in tackling these issues.

6.3 Poverty, hunger, malnutrition still haunt the regions of Africa. What is the practical solutionHow can mass media contribute to alleviation of povertyExamine particular region/regions/countries in Africa.

6.4 Female Condoms-the latest discovery; discuss in-depth on how to go about promoting it. Discuss the risk factor of introducing it among the conservative societies.

6.5 Women molestation/rape is rampant now in India, are the officials listeningExamine the role of mass media in tackling the issue.

6.6 Is education/economic reform the way to transform a developing countryExamine the role of media in education promotion as a path to economic development.

7. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Media discourses – Dissertation examples

7.1. An examination of the role of media discourses in facilitating ethnic conflict. A case study / systematic review of the Bosnia Conflict.

7.2. The role of media in foreign policy: can mass media discourses influence foreign policy and why(The CNN effect).

8. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Online media – Dissertation examples

8.1 Can the web media revolution make the print media extinct?

8.2 Examine the role of social media in the Arab uprising. Was it the facilitator of peace or conflict?

9. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism – Animation – Dissertation examples

9.1 The film/advertising industry is incomplete with animation. Do you agree?

9.2 The world of cartoons and serious business. Analyse some of the cartoon giants and examine how they transformed a child’s play into billion dollar business.

9.3 The world of animation-both in theory and practise-you may also make a short animation film of your choice.

10. Dissertation Topics in Mass Media and Journalism Advertising /Public Relation/ Corporate communication/ Television production – Dissertation examples

10.1 Media and advertising: Can media exist without advertising?

10.2 Public Relation and journalism: Are public relation professionals more satisfied than journalists?

10.3 Even big production companies cannot do without the PR industry, put forward evidence to prove.


Journalism/mass media requires more of a practical approach and even if any topic is theoretical, it is better to conduct interviews, surveys or other practical tests to be on the safe side.

Harvard style of referencing applicable everywhere. Charts/ diagrams/ statistics add credit to the investigation. Some specific media sites like Media, Culture and Society and European Journal of Communication might be useful.

Don’t forget to check out our most popular dissertation examples in mass media and journalism Free Essay – our site Essay

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Functions of Mass Communication

Wright (1960) characterizes seven functions of mass communication that offer insight into its role in our lives. * Surveillance. The first function of mass communication is to serve as the eyes and ears for those of us seeking information about our world. When we want to find out the latest news about what’s happening, we can turn on the television, surf the internet, or read a newspaper or magazine. We rely on mass communication for news and information about our daily lives such as the weather, stock reports, or the start time for a game.

What was one of the first things you did after you heard about the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center? More than likely, you were glued to the Internet or your television waiting for details about the disaster. In fact, your authors’ campus closed down to allow people to stay at home to collect information and be with loved ones, even though our campus is located on the other side of the country. * Correlation. Correlation addresses how the media present facts that we use to move through the world. The information we get through mass communication is not objective and without bias.

The grandmother of a friend of your authors stated that the information she heard on the radio, “had to be true” because it was on the radio. This statement begs the question, how credible are the media? Can we consume media without questioning motive and agenda? Someone selects, arranges, interprets, edits, and critiques the information we see. A friend of your authors’ has a brother who edits for a major reality TV show. When asked if what we see if a fair representation of what really happens, the person who does the editing simply laughed and said “no. ” * Sensationalization.

There is an old saying in the news industry-“if it bleeds, it leads” that highlights the idea of sensationalization. Sensationalization is when the media puts forward the most sensational messages to titillate consumers. Elliot poses some interesting food for thought: “Media managers think in terms of consumers rather than citizens. Good journalism sells, but unfortunately, bad journalism sells as well. And, bad journalism-stories that simply repeat government claims or that reinforce what the public wants to hear instead of offering independent reporting -is cheaper and easier to produce” (2004, . 35).

* Entertainment. Mass media provide us with an escape from daily routines and problems by entertaining us (Zillmann & Bryant, 1986, p. 303). Media like People Magazine and E-TV keep us up to date on the doings of our favorite celebrities. We watch sports on television, go to the movies, play video games, and listen to our ipods and radios. Most mass communication simultaneously entertains and informs. We often turn to media in our leisure time to provide an escape from our boredom and relief from the predictability of our everyday lives.

We rely on media to take us places we could not afford to go or imagine, acquaint us with bits of culture, and make us laugh or cry. Entertainment can have the secondary effect of providing companionship and/or catharsis through the media we consume. * Transmission. Mass media is a vehicle to transmit cultural norms, values, rules, and habits. Consider how you learned about what is fashionable to wear or what music to listen to. Mass media plays a significant role in the socialization process. We look for role models to display appropriate cultural norms, but all too often, we do not recognize inappropriate or stereotypical behavior.

We start shopping, dressing, smelling, walking, and talking like the person in the music video, commercial, or movies. Why would soft drink companies pay Christina Aguilera or Mariah Carey millions of dollars to sell their products? Have you ever bought a pair of shoes or changed your hairstyle because of something you encountered in the media? Obviously, culture, age, type of media, and other cultural variables factor into how mass communication influences how we learn and perceive our culture. * Mobilization. Mass communication functions to mobilize people during times of crisis (McQuail, 1994).

Think back to 9/11. Regardless of your political preferences, we mourned as a nation and rallied around national pride and patriotism during this time of crisis. Using our earlier example, your authors’ campus decided to suspend classes to allow the campus community time to mourn the loss of fellow citizens. With instant access to media and information, we can collectively witness the same events taking place in real time somewhere else, thus mobilizing a large population of people around a particular event.

The rising popularity of political websites such as moveon. rg is another key example of the use of mass communication to mobilize people for political action. * Validation. Mass communication functions to validate the status and norms of particular individuals, movements, organizations, or products. The validation of particular people or groups serves to enforce social norms (Lazarsfeld & Merton, 1971). If you think about most television dramas and sitcoms, who are the primary characters? What gender and ethnicity are the majority of the stars? What gender and ethnicity are those that play criminals or those considered abnormal?

The media validates particular cultural norms while diminishing differences and variations from those norms. A great deal of criticism focuses on how certain groups are promoted, and others marginalized by how they are portrayed in mass media. Given the power of the various functions of mass communication, we need to be reflective about its presence in our lives (McLuhan & Fiore, 1967). We will now turn our attention to the study of mass communication by looking at what mass communication scholars study, and how they study it.

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Management Role in Ensuring Editorial Freedom

Responsibility, credibility and quality are key words for a large, serious media group. This applies in relation to the users of our media, customers, employees, shareholders and the societies in which we work. At the forefront, however, is the publishing responsibility: to safeguard editorial independence and freedom of speech in the media which we own. Free media are among the main contributors to strong, live democracies. A credible, strong media should defend important values such as religious freedom, tolerance, human rights and democratic principles. They must reflect a diversity of opinion.

For this reason, they should also provide different ways of looking at issues and views on important questions in public debates. The management must facilitate editors in complying with the legislation and ethical regulations of the country where the operations take place. Editorial quality and credibility are the cornerstone of publishing activities and these, together with the individual medium’s articles of association, form the basis for the editors’ work. The editor-in-chief has full freedom and is personally and fully responsible for the content of the medium of which he or she is in charge.

However, there are only few publications that allow their editors with total freedom. In reality, an independent press is a myth. Or at best, a glorified term. Most editors dare not write their honest comment/opinion. In other words, they are sometimes paid to keep their honest opinions out of the paper. And if they do defy the management, they would soon be out on the streets hunting for a new job. Most managements have vested interests – political, social and cultural in running the paper, which may not gel with the opinions held by the editors they employ.

It is here that the editors have to either compromise with their editorial values or pay a price for standing up to them. In private, corporate media environments, editorial hiring and firing are the preserve of the owners. Media houses (read owners) have become highly profit-oriented organizations. So editorial values are always at stake Distortion of news and comment in such a scenario becomes the order of the day. Most owners hand-pick their editors so that the policy of the owner becomes the policy of the editor.

Dissent is seldom allowed It is media owners who possess the greater weapon today – i. e. , one useful against incumbent politicians fearful of bad press, lack of access, and endorsement of opponents. This sorry, quid-pro-quo, relationship leads to media corruption, benefitting only the ruling, corporate, class. Managements giving complete editorial freedom is therefore rare. But any newspaper which enjoys more flexibility and freedom from their management, has the potential to make greater impact and live up to the reputation of a frank, fair and fearless media.

Today’s concentration of media ownership and editorial power brings into sharp focus not only the immense responsibility, but also the freedom and estate of editors – in particular those with huge audiences. Yet it is major-media owners, and their hand-picked editors, who decide what the vast majority see, hear, and read. Media owners and their editors have become the unelected, and unregulated, keepers of the public trust and molders of the public mind.

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Mass Media

There are many researchres, the purpose is to find out about the influence of media on young people. It is undeniable that the mass media has a lot of effects in our everyday life, especially to young people who have not had enough maturity. (in the age of 12 – 21) Let’s find out what is the mass media. The mass media is any medium that transmits mass communication, such as newspaper, books, magazines, etc. It also refers collectively to all media technologies, including computer games, internet, TV shows and radio.

Both of these highly-tech countries, Singapore and United State of America, are the good examples to be discussed about the effects of some mass medias in this essay. Singapore is the well-known country as the communicative country. It is because Singapore is a small island, there is a wireless covers all areas in the island. Therefore you can easily access the website all over the world. Singapore’s government has the Media Development Authority to block the undesirable website, mainly targets sexual, political, violence, racial and religious issue.

Although Singapore’s government has the authority to block, censor and control about private information on the internet, there are still some problems about the internet. Many teenagers in Singapore use technologies especially internet in a bad way. Some use internet in order to hack, gamble, prostitute through chatting room. This indicates that internet has an influence to young people today. The national internet advisory council of Singapore, the authority that controls the usage of internet, had held a project to campaign teenagers in Singapore to use internet in a valuable way.

The name of this project is Cyber wellness. Michael Yap, the leader of this campaign said that teenagers spend the most of time playing game online, surfing internet and chatting, including the young people who have not had enough maturity. There are many danger related to the internet. In the same way in United State of America (USA), most youths spend a lot of time surfing internet. Their attitude is that the internet brings numerous advantages to them. However, internet does not bring only positive things, there are also negative things from the internet.

USA is the developed country. Many authorities play the role of censorship on the internet. Programs such as censorware or web filtering software are used in some institutions. The influence of internet in USA is mostly internet addiction. Internet seems to separate youths from the real world. Almost communication is communicated through the website, such as Facebook, Yahoo, MSN, Skype and Myspace. They hardly communicate directly. This might loses their sensibility, feeling and emotion in relationship between interlocutors.

Another media that obviously influence young people is the television. The teenagers will imitate their idol on the TV shows. Unfortunately, quite a few things that teenagers copy from their favorite idol are not really good. Fashion is one thing that stars and celebrities will be the model of dressing, hair style even though speech and behavior. Nowadays, K-POP or Korean Popular, the product from Korean, had put on the market all around Asia especially South East Asia. Singapore is one of these countries.

Almost teenagers in Singapore copy the image from their Korean idols. They change their hair cut and use Korean product such as pencil case that has pictures of their idols screened on it. K-POP becomes the new attitude for the teenagers, they thinks that they are cool when they copy the Korean style. It is not only that, the fashion is changed all the time. Thus, the teenagers, who want to be up-to-date, have to buy new clothes all the time. This shows that the TV shows have an effect on the teenagers’ popularity.

USA also has problems about TV shows too. It includes music and also movies that broadcast on television. Violence is one of the influences that have an effect on American youth. Rock stars are good examples. Rock Music began popular because of the distinctive clothes, hair style mixed with the line of the song that excites audience. Many people consider Rock Star as a hard-drinking, hard-living character. Drugs were also a big part of rock music life style. Moreover, the characteristic and environment of rock stars seem to relate with violence.

The young people will gradually receive this violence. In America, many teenagers change their hair style and tint their hair follow the famous rock star. These are only a little part of the influence of mass media. In different countries, there are difference kinds of influence, depends on the environment and value of each country. The mass media has positive and negative influence. Everyone has a role to prevent the bad influence and encourage the good one.