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Sample Dissertation: Effect of Music on Consumer Behaviour

The present study was carried out to ascertain the effect of music on consumer behaviour in UK’s most popular footwear retailer: Clarks. Due to intense competition in the footwear retailing market, the company has taken recent steps to broaden its target market by selling fashionable shoes to younger more fashion conscious shoppers. Store atmospherics, particularly music played, was proposed as a likely option for attracting these customers.

Existing literature was reviewed to ascertain the effects of these. Certain views exist that suggest music is essential in certain retail environments. It could influence consumers into staying longer in store, positively affect their mood, and even purchase more items within the store. While other views claim that its main relationship to purchasing behaviour is in its indirect effect on mood, which could in turn positively affect purchasing behaviour. Quantitative surveys were carried out with 50 customers in store to ascertain their music preference and the process through which music affects their choice of stores and their purchasing behaviour. This questionnaire was distributed to customers within a Clarks store. Data was collected and analysed using SPSS and Excel.

Results gathered form the quantitative study illustrated that a majority of customers venturing into the store (40.9%) are aged 25 – 34. Customers aged under 50 account for a majority of visitors to the store (78.6%), while those over 50, which are traditionally Clarks’ market segment, account for only 21.4% of visitors to the store. The music preferences of most visitors to the store were Pop/Alternative, R&B/Slow and HipHop. 64% of all respondents work within offices. Likert scale responses illustrate that most customers agreed that they notice the music playing in the background (72.8%) and liked the music playing in the background (52.6%). 68.9% also claimed that the sort of music played affects their mood within the store, while 46.6% would not mind staying longer in the store as long as the music being played is appropriate. The sort of music playing does not influence their choice to patronize, or purchase more shoes. However, 65.5% claim that it positively affects their mood. Customers aged 25 – 34 have a higher preference for Pop/Alternative, R&B and Hip Hop music.

Therefore if the segment of customers sought all indicate that they prefer Hip Hop, R&B and Pop/Alternative music, which could positively affect their purchasing behaviour by influencing their mood. Then it is possible that Clarks could better attract and retain this segment of customers by changing the sort of music being played within its stores. The company could also train staff in empathy, which could in turn positively affect customers’ moods.


Kotler first described the concept of store atmospherics in 1973. Atmospherics are all the factors that go into making the atmosphere and general ‘feel’ of a retail store: the decor, the music, the temperature, humidity, and so forth. Atmospherics go a long way towards determining whether a customer remains in the store longer, spends more (or less) money and returns at a later date. In this dissertation, the researcher will examine the affects of background music on purchasing decisions with general reference to the UK footwear retailing industry, and with specific reference to the UK’s most popular footwear retailer, C & J Clarks Ltd.

a.The nature of the industry

According to information presented in Mintel (2008), the UK footwear retailing industry has been characterised as having low barriers to entry. This fact has resulted in a large amount of specialist and non-specialist retailers all competing for substantial market share. Specialist footwear retailers are those considered to generate more than 50% of sales from footwear, whilst non-specialist footwear retailers generate less than 50% of sales from footwear. The majority of specialist and non-specialist footwear retailers maintain strategies focused on product quality and price.

Recent trends show that the footwear industries low entry barriers have also resulted in several low-cost retailers now entering the market such as: Primark, Tesco, Zappos, and Amazon, just to name a few. These retailers focus on a secondary differentiation strategy based on customer need as well as price. Such retailers provide low-cost footwear, which has led to a shift in consumer purchasing behaviour. Some customers previously willing to pay a higher price for better quality footwear now prefer to buy low-cost footwear sold by these specific retailers.

Although the footwear retail industry has been recently flooded with new entrants, the market remains highly segmented. Keynote (2008) suggests that three main segments exist in the footwear retail market: upper (AB), middle (BC1), and lower (DEF). Whilst some retailers have been able to secure customer loyalty through effective brand positioning, others have not. The latter have either been forced to compete based on price, or go bankrupt.

When examining purchasing behaviour even further, it becomes evident that certain atmospheric conditions also contribute to the customer’s shopping experience. This therefore raises the issue of the sustainability of current positioning within the footwear retail industry. It is suggested that appropriate generic strategies coupled with atmospherics will aid in determining the purchasing behaviour of the footwear retail customers of today and tomorrow.

b.The organisation’s positioning within the industry

C&J Clarks Ltd., established in 1825, is a family owned business and the UK’s most popular footwear retailer. The company leads the industry in terms of sales with a market share of 9%, estimated sales of 45 million pairs of shoes, and a turnover of ?973 million in 2007 (Gemma, 2007). It operates as a specialist retailer, selling its own brand of footwear for men, women and children (Keynote, 2008).

Clarks is positioned as a middle market, comfort retailer characterised by its contemporary footwear designs and marketing. Its stores are well lit, clearly laid out and conservative. This marketing strategy is tailored to cater for its most loyal and profitable market segment of BC1 50+ population who were attracted to its brand name and comfortable, not necessarily fashionable shoes (Mintel, 2008). These product ranges are distributed through a range of outlets encompassing 552 UK stores, 1900 UK stockists, 210 outlets in the US and a myriad of wholesalers in Asia and the Middle East (Clarks, 2009).

c. Nature of the perceived issue

Clarks’ current consumers are mostly return customers who have a high level of brand loyalty. However there is a large untapped market that Clarks has been slow/failed to attract. This includes the segment of fashion-focused individuals who frequently buy shoes because of their design and would not mind paying a premium due to brand advantage (Gemma, 2007). There is also the segment of comfort-focused, under-50s who prefer to buy comfortable shoes for work and leisure. They represent a significant and promising portion of Clark’s customers.

In order to reach these untapped markets, Clarks has invested in improving its image by introducing some new fashion-end product designs that appeal to the current market trends. The company is also trying to find a synergy between its traditional comfortable designs and changing customer trends.

Despite these initiatives, certain customers that fit into this target segment proclaim dissatisfaction during store purchases, or fail to convert into customers after entering the store. Clark’s store design is currently suited and effectively delivered at its target segment. The stores are brightly coloured, with black leather seats in the middle of the store and Pop/Alternative music playing. However, the target customers are generally younger, usually more fashionable, have a different lifestyle with differing tastes in fashion, art, and music. Therefore, is Clarks’ current marketing strategy effective given their current positioning, brand perception and the potential market they are missing out on?

Whilst items such as cost and quality have generally been the focus at Clarks, the company is beginning to direct more of its attention to the concept of store atmospherics and their affect on consumer purchasing behaviour. When examining this concept, it is important to ask if Clarks’ store atmospherics are effective in attracting the younger generationShould Clarks’ work further on the general ‘feel’ of a retail store: the decor, the temperature and humidity, and most importantly on the choice of background musicWould a focus on the background music played in its stores help Clarks’ to strike a chord with the younger generation and influence their purchasing decisions?

Competing stores that sell the sort of shoes these younger consumers want usually have different store designs and adopt different styles of art and music. Aldo, for instance, plays hip hop and other music that is quite popular amongst younger people, and generally have a more “younger” store designs with mannequins and fashion shows displayed on TV. Top Man and River Island play rock music and have a more contemporary store design.

These stores have adopted different store design concepts and are therefore more successful in targeting the sort of customers that Clarks wants. Would Clarks therefore be more successful in attracting this new segment if they played background music that suits younger customers better and does not make them feel like they are in a store targeted at older people?

d.Research aim

The intent of this research dissertation is to examine the affects of different types of background music on purchasing decisions. The research will examine and suggest what type of background music Clarks should adopt in order to attract the younger generation and reach this untapped market.

The research objective is therefore to ascertain the effect of music on consumer behaviour within Clarks, by answering the following questions:

What is the impact of music on the volume of consumer purchases

What type of background music should Clarks adopt in order to attract younger customers


This study examines the role of background music in a retail environment.

a.Marketing Strategies

Marketing strategy is broadly defined by Baker (2008), as representing the communications process underlying an organisation’s effort to leverage its core resources on existing market opportunities in order to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. This definition has been supported by a number of theorists, who postulate that marketing strategy is the general procedure and underlying notion upon which the firm’s approach to the market depends (McDonald, 2008) as it illustrates the company’s best opinion as to how to profitably leverage its resources into the marketplace (McDonald, 2008).

A successful marketing strategy therefore involves a company selecting and analysing a profitable and sustainable market segment; developing an appropriate marketing mix to cater for this segment; marketing the right brand and retaining these customers through an effective use of its resources (Doyle, 1997). This view of relating the company’s resources to its marketing activities provides the basis for defining the major marketing capabilities which could be used to create sustainable competitive advantage – capabilities which all stem from the central processes within which marketing is concerned (Hooley et al, 2004).

However a marketing strategy built without an understanding of the changing organisational environment and how each of industrial force impacts on its value creation is bound to fail (Doyle, 1997). Therefore for a firm to build and sustain its competitive advantage in a highly competitive industry, it should acquire a thorough understanding of its organisational environment, and how each industry factor impacts on its business strategy (Porter, 2008). A knowledge base, which could be the foundation of a beneficial customer driven – business strategy.

b.Music and its affects

Music has become an important instrument in examining consumer behaviour and it motivates individuals to spend more time in stores. Since the 1970’s and Kotler’s (1974) pioneering work, the importance of atmospheric affects on consumer behaviour has gained popularity among academic researchers. A number of studies reveal the positives of musical congruity upon desired outcomes (Oakes & North, 2008). According to Dune and Morin (2001), variations in the intensity of pleasure induced by background music have an influence on the store assessment. The choice of music can have a positive or negative affect on consumers. It can be used to relive stress or to create a good atmosphere so as to increase business.

Music has a significant affect on consumer’s attitudes. A research on happy/sad music has been conducted and found that happy/sad music had a significant direct affect on shopping intention while the direct affect of like/dislike music was marginally significant. However, the combination of the two music dimensions investigated is perhaps most noteworthy. According to Broekemier and Gentry (2008), shopping intention was greatest when subjects were exposed to happy music.

Store image and mood of the customers can be changed with the music. In the case study by (Morrison, 2006), it was found that specifically programmed music can play a role in the total shopping experience and can be an important tool in creating a memorable identity for specific retail brands. If the music was specifically designed to fit a particular demographic and physiographic, then customers tended to relax and stayed longer in the store. In research conducted by Bailey and Areni (2006) found that, in the case of a respondent who waited idly and hence monitored the passage of time, familiar music reduced perceived duration compared to unfamiliar music. The study by Alpert and Alpert (1990) showed that when an evoked mood matched the mood of the purchase occasion, buying intention was higher than when the music and moods were inconsistent.

Garlin and Owen (2006) found that the mere presence of music had a positive effect on patronage as well as the feeling of pleasure. Tempo is an important structural component of music that directly relates to the arousal response (Day et al, 2009). Slower tempo, lower volume and familiar music resulted in the subject staying marginally longer at the venue than when the tempo or volume was high, or the music less familiar. The higher the volume and tempo of the music, the longer customers perceive time duration.

The study by Morin et. al., (2007) found that the presence of music operates at the perceptual level by contributing to the holistic quality of the service-scape and creating a greater contrast against which the provider stands out more powerfully. It therefore is reasonable to assume that other ambient factors might operate according to similar mechanism.

In other research by Cameron et. al., (2003), the study of low-cost waiting context, music was found to exhibit both cognitive (on wait-length evaluation) and affective (on mood) influence. However, music’s positive contribution to overall experience evaluation appears to be through mood and not through wait-length evaluation.

c.Music in other environments

Music has many affects on society as a whole. It can be used for relaxation, affection with others, to express emotion, and myriad of other affects. This also relates to business, in that those things that affect us in music can be used to influence us as consumers (Coloma & Kleiner, 2005). A research by Hallam and Price (1998) indicates the introduction of background music of a calming nature into the classroom significantly improved the performance of a group of emotionally and behaviourally disturbed children on a math task and led to a significant decrease in rule breaking behaviour over the period of study.

A study conducted by Milliman (1986) on the influence of background music on the behaviour of restaurant patrons isolated the background music as an atmospheric variable that could affect the atmosphere of a store (in this case a restaurant). With the slow tempo background music used in this study, patrons stayed longer, ate about the same amount of food, but consumed more alcoholic beverages. Evidently the slower, perhaps more soothing background music, created more relaxing environment (greater approach condition). It is also interesting to note that the number of customers that left the restaurant before being seated remained about the same whether slow or fast tempo music was played. This would tend to support the conclusion that the background music contributed to an approach environment regardless of its tempo.

It has been said that background music can communicate particular meanings or associations. A study conducted by Zhu and Meyers-Levy (2005) focused on distinguishing between the meanings of music. When background music affects product perceptions, Zhu and Meyers-Levy concluded that ad background music could confer either referential or embodied meanings. This means that people discern and use music when forming their product perceptions. This appears to depend on how intensively they process the advertisement and the resource demand imposed by the verbal and material input.

A more recent study by Edworthy and Waring (2006) has shown significant results about the loudness and tempo of background music on exercise performance. It has been shown that the speed of music directly affects performance and heart rate. The results of this study also show that both the volume and the tempo of the music, as well as the use of the music per se, has affects on performance itself, heart rate and some subjective parameters. It also shows that volume and tempo of music interact in an interesting way. Looking at the task performance, the study shows more than anything else the speed of the music affects the speed at which the participant runs. Faster music produces faster speeds, but louder volumes do not produce faster speeds. There is an interaction between treadmill speeds, music volume, and music tempo in that fast, loud music is particularly effective in increasing speed of running during the test period. It was also found that volume has an affect in the fast music condition but not in the slow music condition. Thus heart rate increases if the volume of fast music is increased but not if the volume of slow music increased. Thus it has been shown that the speed of the music directly affects performance and heart rate. The added benefit of playing music loudly only appears to apply when music is played fast.

The present results show that music can, like background speech, disrupt writing fluency. Writers apparently slow writing production to preserve quality when writing is accompanied by background music. It does not matter if the music is vocal or instrumental or both, despite some students’ anecdotes that instrumental music does not disrupt their writing as much as vocal (Gilroy & Ransdell, 2001).

A research conducted by Gotell et. al., (2002) confirmed observations in the music therapy and nursing literatures, to the positive influence of background music on patient communication, mood and compliance. These results suggest that background music and singing are useful interventions for late-stage dementia patients.

In a research conducted by Kallinen (2002), the results show that music tempo may have an impact on reading. There are several possible explanations why the reading rate and efficiency decreased when the tempo of the music was slowed down. The slow music may have produced a more relaxed feeling for reading. Women showed the most positive judgments on news in the no-music condition, whereas men showed the most positive judgments on news in the slow-music condition. Slow background music could be played for men and no music or fast music for women to create more positive attitudes to news. In this study, both subject driven (gender) and object based (music) differences in reading were found.

Brodsky (2001) found that the tempo of background music consistently affected both stimulated driving speed and perceived speed estimates. As the tempo of background music increased, so did both simulated driving speed and speed estimates. Without background music, subjects’ accelerated to moderately quick speeds while they perceived their velocity to be fairly slow. Another finding of the study is that the tempo of background music consistently affected the frequency of virtual traffic violations.

The results of the research conducted by Kellaris and Cox (1989) on the effects of background music in advertising cast doubt on the contention that product preferences can be conditioned reliably by a single exposure to appealing or unappealing music. However, this does not mean that affective conditioning never occurs.

Hallam et. al., (2002) conducted a research on the effects of background music on primary school and found that, where the type of background music played can be clearly defined by a group of listeners as calming and pleasant or arousing and unpleasant, it can have distinctive effects on task performance and the reporting of intended altruistic behaviour. The effects of music on task performance are mediated through its effects on arousal and mood. However, the research reported provides only a very small contribution to our understanding of the ways that music might affect behaviour and various forms of studying. The findings also show that some music can disrupt concentration and generate moods which may lead to less altruistic states of mind.

d.Music and Scent

The research conducted by Spangenberg et. al., (2005) found that consistency between an ambient scent and music in a retail setting leads to more favourable evaluations of the store, its merchandise and the store environment. Behavioural intentions to visit the store are also positively affected by consistency between ambient scent and music. Mattila and Wirtz (2001) examined in their study the notion that consumers perceive environmental cues in a holistic manner. They propose that consumer responses to a physical environment may depend on the ensemble effects, and they examined this proposition using two ambient cures, music and scent. In another case study by Michon (2005), it was found that slow tempo music influenced shopper’s positive affect, whilst fast tempo music and ambient odours mediate shopper’s perception of the mall environment.

In research conducted by McDonnell (2007) on music, scent and time preferences for waiting lines, it was found that music and scent can increase customer satisfaction among customers kept waiting in a line and reduce queue rage. This research also found that the need for time management indirectly influenced customer satisfaction when a customer is waiting for service by a negative affect on emotions that have a negative association with service evaluation. This offers a new perspective and opportunity for marketers.

e.Music and Retail

Klemz and Boshoff (2001) conducted research on environmental and emotional influences on willingness to buy in small and large retailers. In the retail industry, there is stiff competition between small retailers and big retail outlets. Klemz and Boshoff conducted research in a small town in mid-western USA and found that customer’s perceptions were different between the large and small retail districts. It was found that small retailers in the downtown retail district use empathy to influence customer’s willingness to buy, whereas large national chain retailers in the one stop district use assurance to influence a customer’s willingness to buy. It was also found that small retailers in the down town district manage empathy primarily by managing responsiveness whereas large retailers balance tangibility, reliability, and responsiveness to manage perception of assurance.

Music may be used to help create a distinctive image and position in the market. There are numerous examples of service providers who use music to help create atmospheres that are consistent with their service offerings (Herrington and Capella, 1996). In one study conducted in the USA in a supermarket, it was found that music does make a difference in the supermarkets and is seen as an established part of a supermarket experience. The researches said “it is music we like that gets us going rather than music per se”. The reason for selecting a supermarket environment was because most of the US households shop for groceries from supermarkets at least once a week (Progressive Grocer). Herrington and Capella (1996) also pointed out that restaurants often play appropriately ethnic music. For example; Asian restaurants play bangra music, Pizza houses play Neapolitan love songs, Greek bistros play Zorba’s dance, etc., but given the vast range of musical taste in the population at large, supermarkets face the challenge of selecting music that not only does not offend but makes a positive contribution to the store’s ambience.

According to a study by Sullivan (2002), it shows that in a restaurant setting, music can be used to affect the behaviour of individuals. It was examined that restaurant owners wishing to increase the level of expenditure on food and drinks should consider playing music at a relatively low volume. The study showed that the type of music is less important and tempo had no significant affects on expenditures. It suggested that it is not the presence of music that is important, but rather the perception of whether that music is typical for that particular environment. The findings of this study also indicate that the presence of any type of music in the waiting area can affect the perceptions of time of those waiting (passive activity) and may make the wait seem more bearable.

A research conducted by Yalch and Spangenberg (1990) found that music enhances a retail environment and thus results in increased store traffic, greater customer satisfaction and higher sales. The further finding of the initial research is the clear difference in perceptions of the amount of time spent shopping as a function of shoppers, age and type of music.

Popular music is no longer limited to low-income youth (Henderson, 2009). Music can influence the disposition of shoppers and manifest itself in choice of store, propensity to purchase, basket size and intent to repatronage (Soars, 2009). A study conducted in Greece by Daskalopoulou and Petrou (2005) indicates that the store size, product variety, location and belonging to a chain variable exert the largest positive effect upon the probability that a store experience will result in an above average performance. Miranda et. al., (2005), in their research regarding shoppers’ satisfaction, found that shoppers’ intention to remain loyal to their primary store was in fact influenced by several other contextual factors. A number of staff related factors are also linked to consumer’s subsequent loyalty intentions and constitute key components of the servicescape (Harris & Ezeh, 2008).

A research conducted by Chebat et. al., (2001) on background music and instore selling, found that retailers using background music in their stores favour the generation of some types of cognitive responses, which may negatively influence the attitude towards the employees and the store if the music does not fit in the sales encounter.

The findings of the research conducted by Eroglu et. al., (2005) show that, consistent with the schema incongruity theory, shoppers’ hedonic and utilitarian evaluations of the shopping experience are highest under conditions of slow music high density and fast music low density. Furthermore, significant main affects of music tempo were found for behavioural responses such as future approach avoidance tendency toward the store and extent of browsing behaviour.

Vida et. al., (2007) conducted research on background music on consumer responses in high-end supermarkets. The results show that shoppers linking of the music in the natural retail setting and the perceived music fit with the store image and positively affected the length of shopping time which indirectly influenced consumer expenditure. They also found that music valence does not influence shopper’s behaviour directly and had no affect on the money spent in the store, and only an indirect affect on the time spent in the store. The result of their research provides evidence that the background music not only induces positive feelings in shoppers but also plays an important role as an intrinsic element of the store atmospherics and retail branding.

The results of another research by Oakes & North (2008) on background music had wider implications for the retail and services environment. The findings from this study suggest that musical presence, tempo and linking can provide a much more cost-effective option for managers by reducing perceptions of wait duration. These findings are also likely to have implications for managers of organisations seeking to manage perceptions of the amount of time that telephone customers are placed ‘on-hold’. The results revealed perceived wait duration to be a positive function of background musical tempo, thus supporting the prediction of the storage-size model of perceived duration.

Jacob et. al., (2009) conducted research on background music and found that music exerted a positive affect on the amount of money spent by customers. They found that when romantic music was played, customers spent more money than when no music was played or when pop music was played. In this experiment, no difference was found in the amount of money spent by customers when pop music was used as background music and when no music was played. This study also shows the comparison between the three conditions that romantic music had a positive effect on the amount of money spent by customers. No difference was found between the amount of money spent in the pop music or no music control conditions. So it cannot be that customers spent less money in the flower shop when they heard pop music than when they heard romantic music because pop music had a negative effect on them. Since they also spent less money when no music was playing, it must be that romantic music influenced them. The results suggested that background music in itself does not encourage customers to spend more money but there has to be congruence between the music played and the products offered.

f. Music and Customers

A study by Oakes (2000) reveals a significant relationship between specific musical variables and desired customer behavioural outcomes. These can be displayed in a visual framework entitled the musicscape. It has been found that live music, for example classical or jazz music, played on the piano in a restaurant may create high expectations of service as compared to the recorded music. The type of music used in the services organisation can also affect the length of time customers stay in the premises and the amount he or she buys. The study also found that music could manage customer’s perception of time and time pass more quickly when consumers have enjoyable music to listen to. Areni (2003) also noted that time passes more slowly if customers dislike atmospheric music. Therefore it is important to play music that consumers enjoy.

Happy/sad music had a significant direct affect on shopping intentions while the direct effect of like/dislike music was marginally significant. However, the combination of the two music dimensions investigated is perhaps more noteworthy as shopping intentions were greatest when subjects were exposed to happy music (Broekemier et al, 2006).

Sweeney & Wyber (2002) have described the role of cognitions in music. They described that music is well known for its effectiveness in triggering moods. Music is the only thing that can affect people during their time shopping in the store. Retailers have also recognised the importance of music in stores and also the fact that music differentiates a store from its competitors. In the research, it has been found that most of people enjoy music. It has been found that when classical music was played, shoppers had a high perception of service quality and pleasure if the music was of a fast tempo. When slow music was played, it was found that everyone liked that music more than other music and it also had a very strong independent affect on consumer’s pleasure and their perception of service quality. Pleasure and service quality had a positive affect on consumers when they were in the store and most of the shoppers spent more time exploring the store.

In a research by Milliman (1982) in a supermarket, consumers were exposed to no music, slow tempo music or fast tempo music. It was found that, in regard to the affect on customer pace, slower music produced slower traffic flow than no music, and faster tempo showed faster flow than no music, but was not significant based on the statistical measures of the study. But there was a significant difference between slow and fast tempo.

In another case study by Areni & Kim (1993), on the influence of background music on shopping behaviour, it was found that classical music influenced shoppers to spend more money. Additional findings suggested that, rather than increasing the amount of wine purchased, customers selected more expensive merchandise when classical music was played in the background.

Research conducted by Minor et. al., (2004) on customer satisfaction with musical performance resulted in a model suggesting six factors underlying customer satisfaction with live musical performance. Many of these factors reflect attitudes towards the sound of the group and individuals’ performance sound, musical ability, musician’s appearance and audience. Other factors reflected elements of the servicescape facility and stage. These elements suggest implementable recommendations to those in charge of hiring bands, managing facilities and to the bands themselves. An easily remedied element affecting consumer satisfaction is sound volume. By making simple adjustments to the sound system and bands, engineers can optimise this element for consumers. Further providing better quality sound through purchase of better sound equipment appears justified by these results.

Mattila and Wirtz (2006) conducted another research to test a theoretical framework that explains arousal congruency affects on consumer perceptions of an intrinsically pleasant service environment. The results of their research suggest that an intrinsically pleasant service environment might not be enough to guarantee pleasure and satisfaction. Specifically the amount of pleasure and satisfaction derived from the service experience might be dependent on the degree of congruency between the consumer target arousal levels and the actual arousal level of the service environment. High arousal congruency would greatly enhance customers’ perceptions of pleasure and satisfaction, while low arousal in congruency would adversely affect the level of pleasure and satisfaction derived. The results from this study also showed that in the state of arousal congruency for both pleasure and satisfaction were maximised.

It is widely expected that consumers enter into a consumption experience with a set of expectations of what they would like to happen. Another research by Wirtz et. al., (2007) found that satisfaction in pleasant service environments is driven by arousal level expectations being met by the arousal quality of the service environment, while such matching affects are much weaker or even fail to influence satisfaction in unpleasant settings. However, consumers’ in-store behavioural responses to services environments do not necessarily mirror their satisfaction evaluations.

A research by Wilson (2003) on the effects of music on perceived atmosphere and purchase intention in restaurants reported that different styles of music, and the absence of music, influence patron’s perceptions of the restaurant environment. A positive relationship was also found between patron’s perceptions of the restaurant and their perception of music. A factor analysis of responses to the restaurant provided evidence that different styles of music and no music led to differences in the general perceived characteristics of the restaurant. Due to the fact that the number of people dining in the restaurant fluctuated considerably on the same day before, during and after the testing period it is difficult to assess the influence of music on the actual sale, however classical music was associated with relatively few people remaining in the restaurant after 11 pm and a greater number of people leaving the restaurant earlier in the evening.

Results from the structural analyses conducted separately for low and high pleasure-intensity conditions suggest that more intense pleasure, via its impact on attitude towards the servicescape, not only succeed in inducing a more positive attitude towards the sales personnel, but also strengthened the relationship between consumer’s attitudes towards the sales personnel and store evaluation (Dube & Morin, 2001).

A research conducted on the style of background music and consumption in a bar by Jacob (2006) found the style of background music had an effect on customers’ behaviour. Drinking songs were shown to increase the length of time and the amount of money spent by patrons. The combined results of these studies prove that music influences drinking behaviour. The original contribution of study is that it shows that the style of music not just its level also influences consumer behaviour.

A research conducted by Kallinen and Ravaja (2003) showed that there are consistent personality-related differences in people’s emotional and other responses to news messages with two quite distinct audio characteristics i.e., slow vs. fast speech rate and rising vs. falling background music melody. The findings were largely in agreement with the principle of similarity-attraction; that is, people may be attracted to computer-mediated messages with audio characteristics manifesting emotions or a personality similar to their own.

A research conducted by Furnham and Strbac (2002) showed that an introvert’s performance is significantly lower than an extrovert’s performance in the presence of background music and noise but not in silence. It was also predicted that there would be a main affect for background sound. That is, overall performance would be better in silence than in background music and office noise. On the reading comprehension, introverts performance was impaired further by the addition of vocals to the background music and for extroverts their performance was improved by this factor (Furnham et. al., 1999).

Caldwell and Hibbert (2002) conducted research on the influence of music tempo and musical performance on restaurant patron’s behaviour and found some interesting and occasionally unexpected comparisons to previous research into the affects of music in service settings. When analysed separately, both music tempo and preference were found to be significantly related to time spent in the restaurant. As concerns the affects of music on spending, in initial analyses (in which the affects of the independent variables were assessed separately) both music tempo and musical preference appeared to significantly influence total spending and the amount spent on food and drink in the restaurant. Spending on food and drink was higher under the slow music condition and for people who rated their liking of the music higher.

g. Music and Productivity

A number of surveys have been carried out, mainly in United State of America, as to whether background music actually proved to have a beneficial effect on production. In 1962, a management consultancy called Case and Company carried out a test of Muzak on productivity at the Brooklyn factory of American Machine and Foundry CO. The study discloses significant improvements in the production performance (Grayston, 1974).

h. Research Questions

Based on the reviewed literature, there seem to be conflicting theories on the particular effect that music has on consumer behaviour. A number of theories claim that they do drive the consumer to spend more money in store, while others claim that it reduces the perceived impact of time on their stay, and thereby makes them feel less time conscious, which could in turn lead them to check out more items and buy more products

The research objective is therefore to ascertain the affect of music on consumer behaviour within Clarks, by answering the following question:

To what extend does music impact the volume of consumer purchase


a.Research Philosophy

Answering the research questions will entail adopting a positivist philosophy, in which the social world of firms and customers upon which this study is to be based exists externally and are not related to the researcher (Easterby-Smith, 2002). Therefore the data will be gathered objectively without being exposed to subjective interpretations of findings, which may vary amongst individuals. A deductive approach will also be adopted based on the positivist philosophy. Collis and Hussey (2003) imply that a deductive approach is a more effective method of carrying out positivist research as the methodology upon which the research is based is depicted from existing literature and theories, and not hypothesised by the researcher.

Easterby-Smith et al., (2008) states that an understanding of the research philosophy being adopted in management research is useful as it helps clarify research designs, showcases the best research approach and it also aids the researcher in identifying, creating and designing studies which may not be consistent with their past experiences.

b.Research Approach

The deductive approach is the dominant research approach in natural sciences, where laws present the basis of explanation (Collis and Hussey, 2003). This approach represents the most common view of the nature of the relationship between theory and research and results gotten from this approach are developed through logical reasoning (Bryman and Bell, 2007).

Triangulation, as proposed by Saunders et. al., (2008), will be utilized in the course of this dissertation project. Triangulation is essential when the study aims to capture data using different data collection techniques. Therefore this study will aim to collect data using structured quantitative methods and also secondary empirical studies.

Primary and secondary data gathering techniques will be used to analyse the research questions, which are aimed at finding the extent to which music influences the volume of consumer purchases. Secondary data will be gathered from market research sources regarding the retail environment and the affects of music on consumer behaviour. A vast majority of secondary data will be collected from previous research and empirical studies on what has already been written or observed in relation to music and consumers. Secondary data will also be gathered from market report sites such as Keynote and Mintel that may have reports on music and retail.

Primary data however will be gathered using quantitative surveys in Clarks stores asking customers questions on their purchasing behaviour and the extent to which music affects it. Questionnaires will be designed based on theories already depicted in the literature review, using a deductive approach. These questionnaires will be handed out to customers in the store where they will be briefed on the purpose of the research and asked for their help in filling out each individual question. The questionnaires will then be collected after each customer is done. Customers that failed to answer required questions will be omitted from the data analysis for the fear of incorrect or partial data.

c.Research Strategy

The study will be conducted on approximately 50 customers of Clarks store. Data will be collected through questionnaires distributed to customers within the store. Saunders et. al., (2007) suggests that questionnaires, or surveys, are an appropriate means for gathering information in answering the “who”, “what”, “where”, “how much”, and “how many” questions.

i.Explanatory Study

The goal of an explanatory study is to study the causal relationships between variables being measured during quantitative or qualitative studies (Saunders et. al., 2008). Explanatory studies aid in the identification of relationships contained within the data. The most common method used to conduct an explanatory study is that of variable correlation. Particular variables are analysed and correlated in order to find similarities between responses. This process is undertaken in order to provide any area of generalisability of the phenomena observed.

The focus of this research is to find the affects of background music on the volume of consumer purchasing. The explanatory method used in this research will be explained further in the analysis section of this dissertation.

ii.Quantitative Study

Two methods are commonly used when conducting research, quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative methods of research present data in a numerical fashion, whilst qualitative research methods focus on providing words. Due to the fact that this research study will utilise questionnaires, a multi-method approach to data collection will be used. A multi-method approach refers to the use and combination of more than one data collection method used during research analysis (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 2008). It has been suggested that a multi-method approach to data collection allows the researcher to better answer research questions.

This research study will utilise both questionnaires and secondary data in the collection and analysis of information gathered in order to answer the research question raised during the literature review. The dual approach will be used due to the fact that it is a more efficient way to analyse a different range of facts from different respondents (Easterby-Smith, 2002).

The multi-method approach to research is becoming increasingly popular in management studies where a combination of primary and secondary data may be used (Saunders et. al., 2007). The researcher’s decision to collect both quantitative and qualitative data through questionnaires but analyse the data using a statistical model results in the application of a multi-method approach. Tashakkori and Teddlie suggest that the multi-method approach is useful in helping researchers to answer questions. This approach is also said to allow for more efficient evaluations, which allows the findings to be more trusted.


The ability to gather primary data during this study was dependent on gaining access to an appropriate source within the organization. The level to which this source is appropriate relies on the research question, related objectives and research designs (Saunders et al, 2008). Therefore, the researcher, being close friends with an employee, was in a favorable position to get access within the organization.

The access was granted by the researcher going through a chain of command, first from the branch manager, to the head of marketing and finally to the head of market research. The researcher’s point of call was his friend’s immediate store manager, who immediately passed him on through to the most appropriate entity within the organization that was most suited to offer assistance. Easterby-Smith (2002) suggests that the best way to gain access into an organization is through known contacts.

d.Data Collection Methods

i.Sample Selection

Saunders et. al., (2008) suggest that a sample population is suitable for research whereby sampling the entire population is not possible, too expensive, time constrained, or when results are quickly needed. The majority of these factors apply to this research study; therefore the researcher has chosen to use a sample from the population in question. A sample size of 50 customers has been chosen for questioning.

Oppenheim (2005) describes a non-probability sample as a sample in which the probability of each case being selected from the total population is unknown. It is also suggested that in a non-probability sample it is impossible to answer research questions or to address objectives that require statistical inferences about the characteristics of the population. Therefore a non-probability sample would be the best use when describing the research undertaken for this dissertation.

The main reason for the choice to use a non-probability sample lies in the fact that Clarks store are located throughout the world and therefore it would be nearly impossible to use the entire sample population for this study. In this way, the researcher can focus on a few locations and distribute questionnaires to a variety of different customers. Saunders et. al., (2008) suggests that this type of non-probability sampling can be used to gain information regarding customer’s attitudes and behaviours. It is also for these reasons that the researcher has chosen to employ the non-probability sampling method.

Saunders et al (2008) states that though the non-probability sample may still be used to generalise some assumptions, these would not be based on statistical grounds. However, it could still be used to answer other forms of research questions that deal with the attributes and behaviour of the respondents.

Though it may still be argued that customers who entered the store may be representative of customers in that city or region, the different demographical characteristics of different regions makes it fairly impossible for this study to conclude on the assumption of a probability sample.

ii.Primary Data Collection

It is suggested that both primary and secondary data can be analysed using quantitative means. The fact that the researcher has chosen to collect his own data allows for more control over the structure of the sample and the data obtained. This method will also afford the researcher more confidence in gathering information pertinent to answering the research question. As a result, the researcher has chosen to distribute and collect questionnaires from 50 Clarks’ customers. This questionnaire method is described by Saunders et. al., (2008) as the delivery and collection questionnaire method. Respondents will receive the questionnaire whilst engaging in the retail experience and will be given able time in which to complete the questionnaire. The questionnaires will then be collected and analysed for any errors. Customers will then be asked follow-on questions if the need arises.


Prior to the distribution of the questionnaires, guidance was sought regarding the development of the questionnaire and which questions should be included. A pilot questionnaire was also tested on a sample of 7 individuals and subsequently revised based on feedback. Saunders et al (2008) suggests that the validity and reliability of data collected in the course of a research study, depends on to a large extent on the design of the questions, structure of the questionnaire and the rigour of pilot testing.

This study was therefore designed on the premise that an authentic questionnaire could only be achieved by appropriately designing a questionnaire to tackle all the research questions using the right quantitative methods. The questionnaire was divided into different cross sections depending on the level of analysis inherent and the type of information sought.

Questionnaires will be used in order to obtain valuable information from customers. The questionnaires will follow a standard structure and help will be given to any customers needing assistance with the questions. Questions contained in the questionnaire will centre on the customer’s overall shopping experience and any factors that may have enhanced or inhibited the experience. Questions will also be asked in regards to waiting times and how the process could be enhanced. The questionnaire will also contain questions centred on atmospherics and background music.

These questions will aim to gather information regarding customer’s moods and feelings about specific music. Comments will be solicited in regard to what type of background music could best enhance the customer’s retail experience and if any type of music could result in longer time in the store, or an increased volume in purchase. After the initial question phase, questionnaires will be gathered and collated. The excel tool will be used to aid in the process of collating data. The SPSS tool will then be used to analyse the information contained in the questionnaires.

iv.Data Analysis

Raw data in and of itself if useless, therefore it is necessary to employ data analysis tools in order to provide meaningful information. This section describes how the researcher analysed the data collected and the tools that were used to aid in the analysis process.

The excel tool and SPSS tool were both used when analysing the data collected. Univariates, which are total sample distributions of one variable at a time (Oppenheim, 2005) was utilised in analysing the frequency and percentage occurrence of each variable; including both ordinal and nominal, category and rating scale questions. Since the aim of this study was to focus on a more complex, analytical research, the real interest of the researcher was in the interrelatedness between certain variables. Frequency tables, bar charts and pie charts were therefore employed in the expression of the univariates.

Bivariate analysis, which was employed in the 2nd part of the data analysis, involved the analysis of interrelatedness between different variables. This analysis was carried out mostly using correlation and graphical analyses. Every effort was taken in order to group variables during the questionnaire design. This therefore aided in the correlation of the data.

v.Reliability, Validity, and Generalisability

Reliability refers to whether or not the data collected during research when analysed yield consistent findings (Saunders et. al., 2008). As the researcher has chosen the positivist approach, this result in issues surrounding whether or not the same results would be yielded on different occasions. Another issue concerning reliability as described by Robson (2002) is the possibility of bias on the part of the researcher.

Because the sample size is relatively small, it may be suggested that this study has issues concerning the generalisability of the information presented. Due to this fact the researcher is not entirely confident that the information gathered is the greatest representation of the general customer population.

vi.Ethical Issues

Specific ethical issues that may arise during the course of this research include the following:

The data gathered from customers may pose a threat to the organisation under study, if unfavourable research findings got out to competitors.

Customers would be worried about their data being gathered and used for illicit emails asking for further information.

vii.Limitations of Research

The following limitations were identified for this study:

The time frame given for the dissertation is quite short and may hinder extensive research.

The number of customers being questioned does not represent a probable sample of all customers patronising Clarks stores nationwide. Thereby affecting the generalisability and reliability of the research findings.

A quota sampling method could have been more appropriate as it would enable the researcher to get representative samples from all age groups in Clarks. Though the researcher did get a representative of all age groups in this study, the number of respondents gotten may not have been totally representative of the demographics of Clarks’ customers.

Some questions in the questionnaire turned out to be irrelevant, these could have been used to find more relevant data about the customers.

Data analysis was done basically through frequency and correlation analysis. A more in-depth analysis with a large array of data may have been more easily interpreted using advanced multivariate analysis. This could have enabled the researcher to find other hidden assumptions about the consumers’ behaviour.


a.Age Range

The age of all respondents who participated in this survey are summarised in figure 5. A total of 44 respondents filled in the section. 40.9% of the respondents were aged 25 – 34; 20.5% of the respondents were aged between 35 – 44 and 45 – 54.

Figure 1: Age range of respondents

b.Music Preference

A total of 45 respondents answered questions related to their musical genre preference. The highest portion of individuals (27%) chose Pop/Alternative music as their most preferred genre. Followed by R&B/Slow music, Hip Hop music (18%) and Rock (17%). 14% of respondents chose traditional music as their most preferred genre. The genre distribution is illustrated in Figure 2 below.

Figure 2: Music preference of respondents

c.Income Range

A total of 37 respondents filled this section. 24.3% (n = 9) had an income range between ?20,000 – 30,000, 21.6% (n = 8) had income ranges well below ?15,000 and 18.9% of respondents (n = 7) were between ?30 – 40,000. Respondents whose income ranges were below ?30,000 made up 59.5% of all respondents (n = 21). The income range of all respondents who participated in this survey is shown in appendix 8.3.1.

Figure 3: Occupational environment of respondents

The occupational environment of respondents is summarised in the pie chart illustrated in figure 6. A total of 42 (84%) respondents answered this section. 33% (n = 14) claimed to work in a formal office environment, 31% (n = 13) in an informal office environment and 16.7% (n = 7) in educational institutions; mostly as teachers. Collectively 64.3% of all respondents work in an office environment be it Formal or Informal. A number of respondents also claimed to work in medical facilities (4.8%) and retail environment (7.1%) amongst others.


Figure 4: Likert scale response from Q1-Q4

The line chart illustrated in figure 4 showcases the respondents’ responses to four of the eight Likert scale questions asked regarding their preference for shopping and music. The following is a description of the responses gotten for each question asked.

In Question 1: “I notice the music playing in the background”, 31.1% of respondents strongly agree that they notice the music playing in the background, while 41.7% somewhat agree. Altogether 72.8% of all respondents agree that they notice the background music playing. 14.7% of respondents are undecided on whether they noticed the music playing before the questionnaire was distributed, while 12.4% disagree to noticing background music within the store.

In Question 2: “I like the music playing in the background”, 13.7% strongly agree that they like the music playing in the background, while 38.9% somewhat agree that they like the music playing in the background. Altogether 52.6% of all respondents claimed that they liked the sort of music playing inside Clarks as the questionnaire was being taken. 11.9% of respondents were undecided on whether or not they liked the background music, while 35.5% dislike the background music playing.

In Question 3: “The sort of music played affects my mood within the store”, 42.2% of all respondents strongly agreed to the statement, while 26.7% somewhat agreed. Altogether, 68.9% of all respondents agree that the sort of music played within the store affects their mood. Be it positively or negatively. 17.8% of respondents were indecisive, while 13.3% disagreed to the statement.

In Question 4: “Because of the music playing, I do not mind staying longer in the store”, only 10.9% strongly agree that they do not mind staying longer in the store. 35.7% somewhat agree, totally 46.6% of respondents that agree not to mind staying in stores longer if the music being played is favourable. 24.4% are undecided, while 26.7% somewhat disagree, and 2.2% strongly disagree.

Figure 5 below contains the remainder four questions for the general Likert scale questions regarding music preference and purchasing attitude. In Question 5: “I frequently lose track of time when suitable music is played in store”, only 25.6% of respondents agree to the statements. 23.3% are indecisive, and 30.2% of all respondents disagree. Altogether, 51.1% of respondents disagree to losing track of time when suitable music is played in store.

Figure 5: Likert scale response from Q5-Q8

In Question 6: “The sort of music played influences my choice of stores to patronize”, only 6.2% of respondents strongly agree to the statement. 11.4% somewhat agree, bringing the figure of respondents that agree to 17.6%. 13.7% are undecided, while 37.6% somewhat disagree, and 31.1% strongly disagree. Altogether 68.7% of all respondents disagree that the sort of music played influences their choice of stores.

In Question 7: “I would buy more shoes if the sort of music played suited my taste”, 2% of respondents strongly agreed, while 4.9% somewhat agreed. Together, only 6.9% of respondents agreed that their volume of purchase is affected by the music played. 29.5% are undecided, while 36% disagree, and 27.6% strongly disagree. Altogether 63.6% of all respondents disagree that music influences their purchase volume.

In Question 8: “The mood I am in affects my footwear purchasing behaviour”, 28% of respondents strongly agree, while 37.5% somewhat agree. Altogether 65.5% of respondents agree that their mood affects their purchasing behaviour. 20% are undecided, while only 14.5% of respondents disagree to the statement.

Figure 6: Music preference amongst respondents

Figure 6 above highlights the major footwear preference of all respondents. The genres with the highest preference amongst all respondents are Pop/Alternative (48.9%), R&B/Slows (42.2%), Hip Hop (22.2%), Rock (13%), and other genres not listed (18.6%). A higher portion of individuals had a more positive preference for Pop/Alternative music, R&B/Slows, Rock and Hip Hop. However, only Pop/Alternative and R&B had the lowest negative vote.

Ratings on Rock music illustrated that most respondents were stuck in the middle on their preference for the genre. 36.3% positively rate it as a preferred music choice, while 32.6% negatively rate it as a preferred music choice.

Ratings on Pop/Alternative music illustrated that most respondents rate it positively (62.2%) as a preferred form of music in their everyday life and during shopping activities. Respondents also rated R&B/Slows highly as a preferred genre with 68.8% positive votes, while Hip Hop got 48.9% positive votes.

Bivariate analyses on the distribution between age groups and their preference for music yielded different results. 40% of all 15 – 24 respondents had R&B/Slows as their preferred form of music, while 30% liked rock, 20% liked hip-hop and 10% preferred Pop/Alternative music.

25 – 34 year olds yielded differing results. A higher portion 31.3% still preferred R&B/Slows. 24.5% chose Pop/Alternative, Hip Hop (24.6%) and Rock (7.8%). None of the respondents under 34 chose traditional music of any sort as their preferred form of music.

Respondents aged 35 – 44 also chose R&B/Slows music as their most preferred form of music to be played in stores, as a higher percentage (41.3%) of respondents chose that alternative. 20% chose Pop/Alternative, 7.8% chose Rock music, Hip Hop (13.3%), while 6.4% had no preference whatsoever.

Respondents aged 45 – 54 chose Pop/Alternative as their most preferred genre of music, with 34.5% choosing this option. 20.3% chose traditional music, 13.3% like hip hop music, while 16.4% had no preference for music whatsoever. 19.5% of respondents aged 55+ had no preference for any genre of music, while 30.1% preferred R&B, and 25% had a preference for traditional music.


Table 1: Correlation between Music Preferences

RockPop/AltR&B/SlowsTraditionalHip-HopNo Pref.
No Pref.**.0031

Correlation studies between respondent music preferences highlighted a number of factors. Consumers that preferred Rock music were also more likely to prefer Hip Hop music and Pop/Alternative music. Those that preferred R&B music were also likely to prefer Pop/Alternative and Hip Hop music. Those that preferred Pop/Alternative music are also more likely to prefer Rock music, Hip Hop music and R&B music. However, those that preferred traditional music also correlated with those that had no preference whatsoever for music. Pop/Alternative music preference correlated strongly with R&B Slows and Hip Hop music. While traditional music preference correlated strongly with individuals with no music preference whatsoever.


The following are major points that have been added by a few respondents with reference to additional information sought regarding their music and purchasing behaviour preference. The questions were included as an additional option in the questionnaire, where only 10 respondents opted to include information.

Female (25 – 35): “I like music a lot, but I do not think that really affects how I choose to purchase items in store”

Female (15 – 25): “The sort of music played within stores should be good…., unless I would feel like the store isn’t meant for me”

Female (45 – 55): “How is music meant to affect the way I buy my shoes. Its good for the atmosphere to be conducive, but buying a shoe is based on a number of factors and not just the music in the background. I think it is not that important a factor.”

Female (45 – 55): “I like traditional music. When I walk into some stores, it makes me feel happy and I want to dance. That makes me feel good and happy and more lively. But it does not make me want to buy more shoes. No it does not.
Female (35 – 45): “Music is good, and it is good when appropriate music is playing, but that does not really make me want to buy more shoes.”

Female (25 – 35): “I think music is important. For instance when I walk into a store like Aldo, I feel good, because they play appropriate music and that makes me want to dance, move a bit, and through that I feel happier and am more receptive of the customer assistants. I may even chuckle and buy an accessory because I am feeling happy. I believe music should be appropriate”.

Female (25 – 35): “Hmm… music and shoe sales. I think if Clarks wants to attract younger customers, then maybe the sort of music played should be appropriate to fit with their needs. However, Clarks has been known as a store for grannies and older people. I even feel old being in this store, so it makes it hard to envision what they could do. But yes, I think appropriate music could be used to lure in younger people and make them feel at home. But I really do not feel that it could enable them buy more items in store. No I do not think so. Sorry.

Female (35 – 45): “I do not understand how music can affect my choice of store or the amount of shoes I buy. I really do not understand it”

Female (15 – 24): “Music and Retail. I do not think it has that much importance, like for instance, music and a bar or something. Most people choose to go to bars and clubs because of the sort of music playing.

Female (15 – 24): “I really do not come here (Clarks) that much because I feel it is a brand mostly for older people. But they sell comfortable shoes that is why I like it. If I were to choose a place where I like shopping, I’d choose Aldo, Kurt Geiger or Faith. They have a cooler feel and much better music. Music is not really the reason I go to these places, but it is one of the factors that makes me feel comfortable and at ease whenever I get there. I hope you understand.”



The present study was carried out to answer the following research question: To what extent does music impact the volume of consumer purchaseThe research question was based on customer observation within a retail store, Clarks. The company is seeking to attract a unique group of younger individuals that are more impulsive shoppers and could drive sales growth. The store’s idea was to introduce new fashionable designs and use that in attracting this segment of customers. However the company was unsuccessful in its feat as a vast majority of the customers that still patronized the store still fit into its ABC1 50+ customer segment.

Store atmospherics is one of several factors that are believed to attract desired customer segments into particular retail and relaxation locations. For instance, particular customers may choose to go to a traditional restaurant as opposed to a chain or franchise because of the store atmospherics like music played, restaurant design and the general culture they are trying to protrude (Morrison, 2006). This ideology was therefore transferred to the retail environment to ascertain whether store atmospherics just like the sort of music played in the background does have an effect on the perception of customers within the store and their purchasing behaviour.

The initial hypothesis postulated prior to review of existing literature was that if the customer liked the music playing within the store, they might feel more at home, and thereby stay more in the store, be more receptive to sales assistant, and also purchase more products. If this were the case, then Clarks should be able to attract more customers of the required market segment by slightly altering their cultural environment and seeing how this positively communicates to their target market segment.

The review of the literature portrayed a number of factors. There is a wide amount of literature regarding the effects of music on customer behaviour and perception. Music on its own is widely acclaimed as a mood changer, especially when a happy music that the customer seems to like is playing. It has a significant affect on consumer attitude that can drive the consumer’s decision. Several theorists have found that specially designed or selected music can positively affect a consumer’s perception of a store and its products, while several other theorists believe that the effect of music lies solely in its mood changing behaviour and its effect on purchasing behaviour is based on how the mood change would affect a consumers decision to purchase items.

The literature also postulates that background music can communicate particular meanings to customers. The loudness and tempo can positively affect performance. Large music can affect the speed of performances, while slow music can induce thoughtful intellectual processes. It can also positively affect patient communication, mood and compliance in a hospital environment and has been known to be particularly helpful in treating certain ailments. Music in addition to the right scent is known to induce favourable evaluations of the store, its merchandise and store environment. Intentions to visit certain stores could be affected by the sort of music playing in the background.

Judging by the literature review, it was confirmed that there is indeed potential to attract the required segment of customers by playing the appropriate music and having an enticing cultural environment. Therefore, a quantitative survey was proposed in order to ascertain customer preference and attitude regarding music within Clarks stores. The survey method was chosen, as it was more appropriate for ascertaining customer perception, especially within a fast paced retail environment. Questionnaires were handed over to 50 customers within the store, which they answered within a span of 5 – 10 minutes and returned back to the researcher. The results from the questionnaire were collated into SPSS and Excel and analysed appropriately.


The sampling method employed in this research was intended as a probability sample of Clarks’ total customers. However, due to the limitations of this research, it was performed in only one location, even though Clarks’ customers are scattered all around the world. It is therefore safe to assume that the demographics in figures 1 – 3 may only be a fair estimate of Clarks’ customers. Since the choice of respondents was unbiased; there may be a fair similarity between the demographics of this study and that of Clarks as a whole; however this can only be proved with further research.

The demographics of the sample were not necessarily an issue in this study as the main aim was to uncover the attitude and behaviour of the respondents and not the demographical characteristics. Therefore a non-probability sample was deemed equally effective (Saunders et al, 2008).

The age range of respondents, who patronise the store in London, may well be different from the age range of customers in other cities. However, irrespective of the region, the demographical findings still give an idea about the musical preference of customers that patronize Clarks.


Considering the research question: To what extent does music impact the volume of consumer purchaseIt is safe to assume that we could answer the question more appropriately by considering the following dimensions:

Customer demographics and music preference in comparison to that of Clarks

Customer perception on the effect of music on their purchasing behaviour.

i.Consumer Demographics VS Clarks

The age range of customer surveyed, as illustrated in Figure 1 show that a vast majority of customers (40.9%) visiting the Clarks store surveyed are of the age range 25 – 34. This survey is unbiased, therefore for the organization to explicitly state that they target 50+ individuals, and for individuals actually visiting the stores to be much younger than that, illustrating that there may be a gap between the company’s perception of their customer segment, and the customer’s expectations of service (Zeithaml, 1988). It may also indicate that there may be another reason that attracts younger customers into the store apart from the widely held assumption that the company sells its products to over 50s.

The musical preference of all visiting customers illustrated that the majority of them (27%) preferred Pop/Alternative, while 24% liked R&B/Slows and the other Hip Hop. Rating scale results from figure 6 illustrates that respondents felt more strongly about Pop/Alternative music, R&B/Slows and Hip Hop music. Correlation coefficients also illustrated that customers that preferred Pop/Alternative were also more likely to prefer R&B/Slows and Hip Hop music. These results indicate that most customers visiting the Clarks stores have these three genres as their preferred genres for music. According to Garlin and Owen (2006), customers are likely to respond well when these genres are played within the store.

However, Clarks only plays Pop/Alternative music, which in itself only satisfies 27% of customers visiting the store (Figure 2). On an average day with 1,000 visitors, the form of music playing will positively affect only 270. Since there is a strong positive correlation between consumer preferences for the three major genres of music, there is likelihood that if these forms of music were alternated, then the store would be able to satisfy customers that want Pop, R&B and Hip Hop, literally satisfying 69% of all customers within the store. Attaining this feat would, as indicated by Morin et al (2007), positively affect the mood of customers within the store. They are listening to music they like and comprehend with. They would be more likely to sing along, dance a bit, and hang around more within the store.

Combining both age and music preference, as illustrated in figure 7, respondents aged 15 – 24 are more likely to prefer R&B music, while those aged 25 – 34 have a considerable mutual preference between R&B, Pop/Alternative and Rock music. While customers aged 35 – 44 have a high preference for R&B music. Surprisingly, those aged 45+ have a higher preference for Pop/Alternative music that most other genres. It is therefore explanatory that Clarks decides to play a majority of Pop/Alternative music as most customers aged within their target segment, prefer this music, thereby confirming Hooley et al’s (2004) view that the main aim of customer segmentation is for the company to target their preferred customers with the appropriate tools.

Therefore Clarks plays Pop/Alternative music mostly because their target customers prefer it. However, this segmentation is flawed. According to the data in Figure 1, 40.9% of all respondents are aged 25 – 34, and since the questionnaires were offered mutually, without prejudice, to all customers entering the store. The questionnaires being distributed over a 4 hour period from 2 – 6pm, was done to account for any variations that may occur in intraday store customer demographics. Based on that notion, it is safe to assume that 4 out of 10 customers entering Clarks, a majority, are aged 25 – 34. The widely held assumption of demographic, which is 50+ only accounts for about 21.4% of all customers within the store.

Based on this argument, it seems that Clark’s target customers, in reality only account for 21.4% of all visitors to its stores. Though this segment of customers do appear to be loyal and properly accounted for, what happens to the 80% or so other customers that are much younger than the target segment. They prefer a different sort of music and cultural environment. They are motivated by different brands, objectives, and taste in art and music genres. The findings that Clarks cannot target a vast majority of its preferred customer segment with the most adequate cultural environment indicates that there is indeed a large gap between managerial perception and customer expectations (Zeithaml, 1988).

This gap, according to Hooley et al (2004) is a huge reason why several companies are unable to target desired market segments that could drive profitability. If Clarks appropriately catered for all significant segments, such as those below 50, they may not be having the same issues they are currently having with respect to attracting the required segment of people into its stores. In accordance to theories by McDonald (2008), more customers entering within the store would be more at ease and feel comfortable with the cultural environment, and be more likely to spend more time within the store without any cause for discomfort.

Analysing consumer age and music preference further, respondents aged 45 and below have a higher preference for R&B, and Hip Hop music compared to other genres. Since this positively correlates with preference for Pop/Alternative, and all been rating highly by respondents, we could safely assume that these three music genres should be made compulsory in Clarks, as opposed to the one just being used now. They could satisfy more customers by utilizing a variety of songs from different genres as most customers would naturally stay more than 10 minutes within the store, enough to hear at least 2/3 different sorts of music, one of which may just be capable of changing their mood in a positive light, according to theories postulated by Milliman (1986).

The income range and occupational environment of all respondents show that majority of them are average income earners and work within offices (whether formal or informal). Though not a major objective of this dissertation, the occupational environment and income range indicate the segment of customers that are most attracted to Clarks’ shoes. These are mostly 25 – 34 year old individuals that work within offices and earn average salaries. Their most preferred forms of music are Pop/Alternative, R&B and Hip Hop. As most Clarks shoes are known to be comfortable, it could be safe to assume that their major reasons for patronizing the store is based on the functionality of the products sold, and not necessarily based on its brand image and target demographic.

ii.Music and Purchasing Behaviour

By analysing Clarks intended and realised customer demographic, we have established that there is a major gap between the company’s defined target segment, and the customers that actually patronise the store, especially within the region that was surveyed. This realisation illustrates that the company may not be adequately positioning its products and branding to target the required market segment. It may also illustrate that the company’s customers are attracted the brand for reasons other than its store atmospherics.

The Likert scale questions were designed to ascertain what the respondents felt regarding the background music, and were meant to be the main factors either confirming or discrediting existing theories on the effect that music has on consumer behaviour. The generally positive responses to the first question on whether the respondent noticed the music playing in the background, indicate that music is indeed an integral part of store atmospherics and is recognized and noticed by all visiting parties. Most customers entering into the store notice the music playing and that opens up the opportunity for it to influence their consumer behaviour if possible.

The second question on whether the respondents either liked or disliked the music playing in the background also indicated that a majority of them did like the music playing. 38.9% of respondents agreed that they liked the music. However, an increasing portion (26.7%) disagreed to liking the background music. These respondents may belong to the age group of individuals that prefer another form of music, for instance R&B, Hip Hop, Rock or even Traditional, and may not be thoroughly receptive of the sort of music playing in the background. The realisation that a majority of store visitors do witness the music playing in the background, while a significant portion do not like it, may indicate some form of discomfort amongst some visitors to Clarks, as expatiated by Edworthy and Waring (2006). In this instance, these visitors may be less responsive to sales assistants and get bored more easily as they wait to be served within the stores.

If 35.5% of respondents disagree to liking the music playing within the stores, it would indicate that 35 out of 100 customers generally feel discomfort within the stores as a result of the music playing in the background. This figure would greatly reduce the chances of the store in selling more than usual during high sales period, and even during less busy periods, customers may slip out of short queues because of pre-existing moods, or probably because the store assistants have failed to convince them more appropriately about the products on offer. This large figure of respondents could have been avoided if more appropriate music was being played to all customers within the store.

This argument is compounded by responses to the third major question, which is on how the music played within the store affects customer mood. Theories by Gilroy and Ransdell (2001) and Kallinen (2002), had previously indicated that music that consumers recognise and like can positively affect consumer’s mood. This theory has been corroborated by these research findings, which indicate that 68.9% of all respondents claim that the sort of music being played in the background can affect their mood. Though it was not indicated whether it affects their mood positively or negatively, it could be concluded, based on Kallinen 92002), that music that respondents like have a more positive, than negative effect on customer mood, except in instances whereby the music played invokes a bad memory.

If the sort of music played affects consumer mood within the store, then it could be assumed theoretically that based on previous figures, the 52.6% of store customers that do like the music being played in the background at Clarks, have had a positive mood change as a result of the music playing. Because of the sort of music playing within the background, 46.6% of respondents would not mind staying longer in the stores, also illustrated in Figure 4. These findings are in accordance with theories expressed by Hallam et al (2002), who also stated that customers often lose track of time when appropriate music is being played in store backgrounds.

If customers frequently lose track of time whenever music is being played in the background, it gives store attendants more time to serve as many customers as possible, it also reduces the perception of time wasted amongst customers, who may feel more at ease with spending more time within the store. The 28.9% of respondents that disagree may be as a result of respondents who do not believe that music or store atmospherics is a proper determinant of the reason they stay within the stores. They may not consider its direct effect. For instance customers having a generally good mood may wish to stay longer within the stores. When asked whether it is as a result of the music, they may disagree. But the music may have been instrumental in giving them a good mood in the first place, as pointed out previously, which could then have an indirect effect on the customer, as indicated by Hallam et al (2002).

When ascertaining the more direct and explicit effects that music could have on consumer behaviour, the results did not indicate that many positive agreements. For instance respondents generally disagreed or were more undecided about questions pertaining to the effect of music on their choice of particular stores, or on their decisions to purchase footwear within the store. These questions were drafted as direct effects to ascertain the conscious belief of respondents regarding their awareness of the effect that music does have on their consumer behaviour. These questions were drafted based on theories developed by Klemz and Boshoff (2001). They argue extensively that the sort of music played within stores has a positive effect on purchases within stores. However, this argument is contradicted by Herrington and Capella (1996), who state that music has a more profound effect in entertainment stores and locations, where music forms a significant portion of the stores service offering, and not in retail locations.

For instance they claim that in a store selling musical instruments or records, the sort of music played could create awareness for particular instruments, artists, brands or genres, which could in turn influence customers to purchase them. While particular restaurants and bars, where visitors usually go to have a good time and dance would positively affect investor mood if they played appropriate music. However, in retail locations where music is not a major part of the service offering, it really does not matter what form of music is played as long as the products sought by customers are available. It seems these theories have been confirmed in our empirical findings in which, 68.7% of respondents disagree that the sort of music played influences their choice of stores, while 63.6% also claim that music does not affect their decision to patronise stores, neither does it affect their volume of purchase within stores.

These findings are representative of the fact that music has no direct influence on consumer behaviour within retail stores that do not sell anything affiliated to music. However, in terms of indirect effect, the final question from the Likert scale: “The mood I am in affects my footwear purchasing behaviour”, may open up channels for further discussion. Though the sort of mood is not expatiated in the questionnaire, the responses to the question, in which 65.5% of respondents agree, indicate that there may be a way to link music to consumer purchasing behaviour. Question 3 from the Likert scale in which most respondents agreed that their mood positively affects purchasing behaviour within the store, could be linked to Question 8, in which most respondents also agreed that their food affects footwear purchasing behaviour.

Therefore if the store played more appropriate music, it could affect the consumer’s mood in such a way that they are more likely to purchase more products within the store. Likable and recognisable music being played could make the consumer more jovial, and consumers that are more jovial, according to responses in question 8, are more likely to influence consumers towards purchasing more items within the store. These findings are indicative of Jacob et al’s (2009) theory which states that music may not have a direct effect on consumer behaviour, but indirectly, it influences them.

iii.Combining both Factors

Based on previous discussions, we can now safely deduce that Clarks is focusing its marketing strategies on the wrong customer segment. They are known to explicitly target 50+ individuals who make up only 21.4% of their visitors. However, the vast majority of their visitors are of a different segment. They are mostly younger than 50, work in offices and like different sorts of music. These results indicate that Clarks may not be appropriately focusing on its real customers, and therefore be losing out on potential customers in the process. The realisation also indicates that there is an existing gap between managerial perception and customer expectation.

The true segment of customers, which are mostly 25 – 34 like Hip Hop, R&B and Pop/Alternative music, while Clarks only, plays Pop/Alternative music. Based on the Likert scale responses, these customers come into the store and notice the music playing in the background, however only a few of them actually like the music. Since a majority of these respondents have claimed to have a mood change if appropriate music is playing, and stay longer in stores as a result. If this segment of customers could also lose track of time within stores and have a positive mood change, then it is highly possible that music could be a significant contributor to new efforts to target this customer segment.

If the store atmosphere was adapted in such a way that R&B and Hip Hop music was played in addition to the Pop/Alternative music already playing, and the store design was also adapted to suit them more appropriately, it is possible then that the store would be able to attract and keep more customers in store, even during sales season where customer service is low. In having this done, the store could improve turnover and visits from desired customer segments. This could also go a long way in changing the store’s current brand perception.


The demographics of customers surveyed in this dissertation are mostly of the age range 25 – 34. They work mostly in the office environment and have a preference for different forms of music. The Likert scale answers also indicate that customers notice and like the music playing in the background. They also indicate that the sort of music played affects their mood within the store and that they do not mind staying longer in the store while music is playing. However, the sort of music played does not influence customers’ choice of stores, or their purchasing behaviour within stores. Indirectly, music could affect consumer mood, which could in turn affect consumer-purchasing behaviour.


It is thereby recommended that Clarks do the following in order to ensure that they can attract and keep their pursued market segment:

Mix the store playlist with more popular Hip Hop and R&B music that could entice younger and more fashion focused customers into visiting Clarks more often.

Introduce certain marketing strategies aimed at curbing the existing brand image of Clarks that links it strongly to the 50+ market segment. If appropriate branding strategies were adopted, then consumers may begin seeing the company in a new light.

If feasible, an effort should be made to redesign existing stores in such a way that it attracts and retains younger customers within the store, long enough for them to find appropriate footwear and purchase them.

Music in itself cannot induce purchasing behaviour, however, a good mood can. Therefore efforts should be made to provide staff with adequate training in fields such as empathy. These could go a long way in providing customers with the level of service that would induce positive moods within customers.

b.Market Research

A nationwide survey using the same research methods employed in this study should be carried out. The sample should be a probability sample of not less than 1000 customers encompassing all major regions. This would enable the company to get a thorough overview of what their customers want across regions. It would also assist in verifying the findings of this data.

In-depth focus group sessions could be carried out post-research in order to verify the findings of the research. This could also enable the research department to find out the underlying factors that motivates the customers to have different preferences irrespective or their age groups.

This study should be repeated in different seasons in order to ascertain the difference in consumer preference. Leisure activities may influence their choice of footwear in summer, while the weather could be a better determinant of behaviour in the winter. Walking may constitute a major leisure activity in summer, and this may be different in winter.


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Table 1: Consumer responses to Likert Scale questions

Strongly Disagree4.
Somewhat Disagree8.026.711.126.730.237.636.012.5
Somewhat Agree41.738.926.735.
Strongly Agree31.113.742.210.918.

Table 2: Consumer responses to their Music preferences

RockPop/AltR&B/SlowsHip HopOthers
Not at all15.

Table 3: Bivariate analysis of Respondent Age and Music Preference.

RockPop/AltR&B/SlowTraditionalHipHopNo Pref

Free Essays

The Effects of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing On the Music Industry and Possible Technical Solutions


1.0. Overview

The advancement in technology has in one way or the other led to the discovery of the Internet and its associated benefits. Individuals across different age groups have found the Internet very helpful in their day-to- day activities as it has increasingly become a source of information and vital services. Quoted among these services include the numerous social networks that allow surfers to share files by passing them from one place to another via the Internet. This service has been variously referred to as Peer-to-Peer (p2p) filesharing and is lauded to have brought joy and laughter to over 60 million people across the globe. The music industry and related associations would not be included in these statistics because research work has shown a great dichotomy (Alejandro, 2005). Experts have been cited as saying that filesharing becomes an illegal activity when copyright material is made available without the permission of the rights holders particularly recording studios in the music industry.

In view of this argument, research findings have shown that filesharing involves the trading of digital files with other users over the internet causing untold financial suffering to the affected companies and institutions. This act of Peer-to-Peer filesharing has received a widespread adoption and facilitation due to a number of factors. Firstly, the increasing Internet bandwidth and the widespread digitization of physical media files have substantially made home PCs capable of managing digitized audio and video files in a far much better way (Ethan, 2007). This has additionally made it relatively easy to transfer several files from one computer to another across the Internet using various file management networks as observed by Eric (2008). Further observations by Ethan (2007) have revealed that the music industry has repeatedly shown concerns over the potentially devastating impacts of online music sharing. In this regard, the present study has proposed to analyze the effects of p2p file sharing on the UK music industry and effectively recommend viable solutions to this heinous act. The first chapter is presented through the sections discussed hereunder.

1.1. Background

Published works in this area indicate that the majority of people across all age groups are currently involved in downloading all forms of information freely from the internet. All sorts of information including copyrighted material are readily made available online by various filesharing websites resulting in adverse financial repercussions to the concerned companies. According to claims by Stephen (2007), social networks such as Facebook and Napster are shown to have made filesharing a commonplace phenomenon amongst the world’s young population. Additionally, Stephanos & Spinellis (2004) further observe that peer to peer has been equated to the sharing of popular music and other kinds of digital data transfer. This concept of filesharing is definitely very popular with consumers the world over as is evidenced by the rapid escalation of p2p application networks that are growing faster than any other technology (Moya, 2008). It is further stated that p2p technologies have generated heated debate among players in the media industry for their unauthorised distribution of copyrighted material (Shuman, 2002). This has led to the raising of the red flag in the music industry due to the enormous financial losses in recent times occasioned by the increased decrease in the sale of record labels as noted by Phillips (2010).

The argument in the foregoing paragraph is reportedly found to have resulted in the growing concerns over music piracy in the past few years. It is however in order to mention here that the nature of technology has changed tremendously owing to the fact that the popularity of music artists is short lived and the market situation changes abruptly (Phillips, 2010). This fact has effectively forced music artists to join the fight against piracy in defense of their plight according to reports by Peter (2008). In the views of Sean (2004), artists from both concerts and recorded music sales are shown to be the real gainers from illegal filesharing at the expense of record labels. This claim is supported by the increased revenue collections from the said artists over the past five years as underlined by Felix & Koleman (2004). It has therefore become more necessary and fundamental for the music companies to address this very disturbing issue. According to Felix & Koleman (2004), the net effect of illegal filesharing in the UK and elsewhere in the world has been the reduction of legitimate sales and the eventual decline of spending on recorded music. Although it is impossible to estimate the actual cost of unlawful P2P filesharing to the music industry, reports show that close to ?180 million have been lost annually by the UK music industry as quoted by Ethan (2007). In view of the increasing illegal filesharing activities especially in downloading music files, it has become necessary for the music companies in UK to come up with appropriate initiatives that can arrest this situation.

1.2. Problem Statement

Bhattacharjee et al (2006) have noted that there are devastating impacts associated with filesharing particularly in the emergence of digital libraries that seem to embrace the concept of communal property where virtually everything is shared. The overall impact of filesharing according to Frans (2008) will be an increased concern to the publishing industry whose livelihood is put under eminent threat. Since digital files are easily copied, perpetrators of filesharing are simply publishing large volumes of data denying the rightful owners their dues (Britz, 2002). For these pertinent issues, urgent interventions need to be urgently initiated in order to address these afflictions.

1.3. Significance of the Study

The results of this study are deemed critical in attempting to address the impacts and effects of file sharing on the financial health status of the music industry in the UK. This study used the general aims and objectives mentioned hereunder in embarking on this fundamental exploration. It therefore aimed to:

find the status of file sharing and music downloads in the United Kingdom
analyze the impact of file sharing on the music industry in the UK and the eminent legal solutions available for the music companies and
recommend viable suggestions to protect the rights and stop illicit download of music by the users

1.4. Research Questions

Given the magnitude of the issue at hand, the following research questions were used to conduct the survey:

What are the effects of Peer-to-Peer file sharing on the UK music industry
What are the legal implications for those engaged in file sharing
What are the possible technological solutions to the effects of Peer-to-Peer file sharing

1.5. Limitations and Delimitations of the Study

All field studies have been known to face a number of limitations. The most notable in this study was the existence of method bias attributed to the use of a single questionnaire in the collection of data. This impacted on the validity and reliability of the instrument because of the possibility of inflating the relationships existing between constructs under study (Masters, 2010). The respondents also showed some marked indifferences towards participating in the study due to a loss of interest probably from monotony. Moreover, time and cost constrains played a major role in challenging the completion of the study. These limitations were mitigated in one way or the other by initiating appropriate measures as each case demanded.

1.6. Chapter Summary

The chapter introduced the primary themes prevalent in the research and addressed all the major issues in the context of the study. It outlined the essence of the study, explaining the problem and significance of the study as well as the research questions being addressed. The chapter finally identified the limitations that the research had to contend with. This was in line the findings of the vast body of literature search reviewed by the researcher in the next chapter.


2.0. Introduction

On reviewing literature related to the effects of filesharing, it reveals that very little discussion and research work has been done in attempting to come up with technological solutions viable in addressing this retrogressive problem. According to Phillips (2010), the existing knowledge gap is found to be lacking in proposals aimed at innovating viable mechanisms for both the music industry and Internet Service Providers to enter into a collective licensing agreement that would help them solve their impasse. Suggestions by Klaus (2005) find it amicable for ISPs and individual users to pay a flat fee in exchange for unrestricted use of any p2p filesharing technology for downloading music. As noted by Liebowitz (2006), this solution would result in the music industry being compensated for their currently infringed-upon copyrighted works and would promote the use of p2p filesharing technology by more users. This according to the views of Gribble et al (2002) will translate to more users utilising p2p filesharing and hence the music industry would receive more money in fees. In view of this realization, it has become very necessary for experts to investigate the outlawing aspect of filesharing in view of tracing the root cause and magnitude of the said problem particularly on the fiscal aspect. This chapter delves into an in-depth search of related literature in an attempt to discovering the enormity of the vice.

2.1. Historical Overview and Current Findings

The term filesharing has been defined as the act of exchanging digital files between users over the internet (Wally, 2004). It is an activity perpetrated by users who download and upload files to be accessed by peers without the express permission of the rights holders. As observed by Peter (2008), this action is considered illegal when copyright material is shared between peers without the consent of the producers. Further observations made by Bhattacharjee et al (2006) indicate that filesharing came into existence with the advent of computing and informatics discipline. This is dated back to the late 70s when files are reported to have been first exchanged on removable media using computers (Alejandro, 2005). In the mid 80s, this practice is further indicated to have advanced into using more reliable and effective servers to share files. These earlier forms of filesharing are reported by Britz (2002) to have given way to the Internet Relay Chat in 1988 and Hotline of 1997 which were both able to allow users to communicate remotely through chatting and file-exchanging. The standardization of MP3 encoding in 1991 substantially reduced the size of audio files and grew rapidly throughout the 90s to its current state. According to arguments by Ethan (2007), the MP3 format is currently offering music by unsigned artists and serves close to over five million audio downloads daily across the globe.

Apart from this seemingly short history, arguments by Klaus (2005) demonstrate that the earlier forms of filesharing were comparatively primitive and purposed mainly to provide a platform for the exchange of text-based messages as well as allowing users to encode files and distribute them to participating subscribers through attachments. At the time, published works in archives claim that files were generally stored on large central servers with all users connected to that server in order to download files (Shuman, 2002). Additional reports by Sean (2004) further illustrate that the period between 1979 and the mid 1990s saw the perpetration of filesharing being effectively done through bulletin board systems and Usenet. But still in the same line of thought, Stephen (2007) argues that the advent of peer-to-peer (p2p) software facilitated direct filesharing system between users effectively removing the necessity of a central server. Instead, all operational sites simply index the location of the files on each participating individual’s computer (Stephanos & Spinellis, 2004). This enables users to download popular files very quickly by connecting to multiple users.

In another development, reports allude that the release of Napster as a centralised unstructured peer-to-peer system sometime in 1999 opened the doors to free access to digital files. After the blocking of Napster in 2000, Gnutella was released as the first decentralized filesharing network in the continent with all connecting software being considered equal and with no possibility of failure as observed by Alejandro (2005). The eventual shutting down of Napster late in 2001 saw the escalating migration of users to other P2P applications and file sharing continued its exponential growth as propounded by Eric (2008). The most outstanding development is witnessed before the end of 2004 when Kazaa network reigned as the most popular file sharing program before its decline from bundled malware and legal battles in various countries across the globe.

The collapse of Kazaa gave way to the development of the modern day Spotify which is a music streaming service offering unlimited streaming of selected music from a range of major and independent record labels with virtually no buffering delay (Felix & Koleman, 2004). The Spotify system is currently accessible using a number of operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Linux and several mobile devices like the iPhone and those compatible with web OS as highlighted by Britz (2002). Further highlights by Frans (2008) indicate that music can be browsed by artist, album, record label, genre or playlist in addition to direct searches. According to observations proffered by Masters (2010), there is a link on desktop clients that allows the listener to purchase selected material via partner retailers.

Reports abound indicate that the company Spotify was incepted in 2006 (Phillips, 2010) but was launched for public access in late 2008. According to 2010 statistics, the Spotify service had approximately seven million users; about 250,000 of these being paying members. Immediately after opening its access to the public, Spotify is reported to have announced licensing deals with many major music labels and was opened for free registration in the UK in 2009 (Masters, 2010). Ostensibly, this provision attracted a surge in registrations following the release of the Spotify mobile service forcing Spotify to close its open registrations in the UK towards the end of the same year as observed by Masters (2010). The free service is now invitation-only, although it was possible to bypass the invitation system for several months by opening the registration page directly. This loophole had then been closed and the registration page required an invitation code. Subscriptions may still be purchased without an invitation.

2.2. Effects of Peer to Peer filesharing

In the views of Peter (2008), Internet distribution of music without the consent of the copyright owner harms the careers of current and future artists firstly because record companies would have fewer sales and secondly because musicians, singers, songwriters and producers depends heavily on royalties and fees gained from their music. This claim is supported by study findings indicating that filesharing is a big hurt to sales even though not to the precise degree “the record industry would like the public to believe”. Additionally, p2p and the impact of filesharing upon so many delicate matters have got into the top list of most controversial issues and are poised to remain there for a long time. Because it engages the boundaries and the interests of innovators, content owners and consumers; it has triggered new, difficult and definitely interesting questions significantly regarding how the interests of some IP owners should affect the development of technology (Shuman, 2002). All in all, available data is substantial to conclude that online illegal filesharing has some negative influence on conventional sales even though the size of this effect is highly debatable (Stephen, 2007).

The Digital Economy Act is the latest Government crackdown on illegal file sharing. The perpetrators accused of illegally downloading music and films will receive a letter via their respective Internet Service Providers (ISP). This could result in repeat copyright infringers having internet access slowed or blocked altogether under secondary measures in the act. As of April 2011, the Digital Economy Act will not come into force for at least another six months due to a high court challenge from BT and TalkTalk respectively (Halliday 2011).

2.2.1. Economic impact on the music industry

The economic effect of copyright infringement through peer-to-peer filesharing on music revenue has been controversial and difficult to determine. But a recent report by Phillips (2010) indicates that the UK music sector lost an estimated ?200m in 2009 to online copyright infringement due some 7.3 million people engaged in unlawful filesharing. The report further predicted that the cumulative cost to music companies will run into ?1.2bn between the years 2007 and 2012. Losses of this magnitude are clearly unsustainable and suggestions call for the support of Internet service providers and the government to assist the music community in tackling the issue. According to published statistics, music sales dropped globally from approximately $38 billion in 1999 to $32 billion in 2003 attributed to illegal filesharing. Additional reports by the MPAA as quoted in Stephen (2007) indicated that American studios lost $2.3 billion to Internet piracy in 2005, representing approximately one third of the total cost of film piracy in the United States.

In yet another study conducted by independent Paris-based economics firm TERA in 2010 (cited in Masters, 2010), it was estimated that unlawful downloading of music, film and software cost Europe’s creative industries several billion in revenue each year. Moreover, the study predicted that losses due to piracy are expected to reach as much as 1.2 million jobs and ˆ240 billion in retail revenue by 2015 if the trend is not checked (Phillips, 2010). Research findings conclude that piracy rates of 25% or more for popular software and operating systems have been common even in countries and regions with strong intellectual property enforcement. Hence, small independent labels have pointed out that the negative economic impact of illegal file sharing on them and their grass roots artists cannot be denied as it is difficult to compete with unauthorized free distribution of their copyrighted music as envisioned by Masters (2010).

2.2.2. The legal implications of filesharing

Since the increase in home internet connections and download speeds in recent times, the unauthorised sharing of copyrighted music and video files has become increasingly popular. According to estimates by Peter (2008), close to six million people are confirmed to be regularly filesharing copyright content without permission. The music and film industries have tried largely in vain to prosecute those who perpetrate this kind of activity. But a breakthrough was achieved in 2009 with the successful conviction of a key player in the filesharing industry as reported in Phillips (2010). Many observers claim that this outcome could have significant implications for the future of filesharing in the world at large. The current breakthrough involved the successful conviction of the four owners of The Pirate Bay, the world’s most high-profile filesharing website for breaking copyright law (Sean, 2004). The presiding court found the four guilty as charged and were sentenced to one year’s imprisonment and ordered to pay damages amounting to $4.5m as outlined by Masters (2010).

The foregoing revelation is critical in demonstrating the enormity of legal implications of engaging in illegal filesharing. The court case in reference in this discourse was made airtight following reliable testimony adduced from computer forensic experts that established that the facilitation of filesharing can concretely be considered a crime in itself (Eric, 2008). The basis of this court ruling was found to reside in the fact that a breach of copyright by the filesharing application was evident and the perpetrators were indeed aware of providing material protected by copyright for access to the public. Following this ruling, experts stipulate that other filesharing site owners and perhaps even p2p software developers could be convicted of breach of copyright (Bhattacharjee et al, 2006). Even claims are rive citing the giant Google search engine as earmarked for prosecution for providing links to copyrighted material that has been uploaded without authorisation (Bhattacharjee et al, 2006).

2.2.3. Public perception in the usage of filesharing

As already indicated elsewhere in this dissertation, filesharing has been perpetrated with such abandon across various nations in the world using the internet. Research findings have variously illustrated that most of the perpetrators of this vice have been much ignorant of their actions arguing that there is nothing wrong in exchanging files with peers. A case in point is presented by Alejandro (2005) who claims that an estimated 70 million people participated in online filesharing in 2004. Additionally, a CBS News poll reported by Felix & Koleman (2004) indicated that nearly 70% of those aged from 18 to 29 years thought filesharing was acceptable in some circumstances while 58% of all Americans who followed the filesharing issue considered it acceptable in at least some circumstances. It is also indicated that some 32 million Americans aged over 12 years had downloaded at least one feature length movie from the Internet early 2006 with over 80% of them reportedly having used the p2p software (Peter, 2008).

Alternatively, 40% of the population sampled felt that downloading copyrighted movies off the Internet constituted a very serious offense equitable to taking a DVD from a store without paying for it according to 78% of the focus group. This comparison was short in substance by ignoring the obvious distinction that taking a DVD from a store deprives the store owner of an object that they could otherwise sell to another person while downloading data does not deprive a business from selling that very same data to another person as explained by Phillips (2010). Moreover, filesharing results in creating an enormous illegal library of music available for illegal download thus constituting stealing and cheating which deprives the government and the music industry tens of millions of pounds each year.

Finally, it is indicated that 20% of Europeans used filesharing networks to obtain music in mid 2008 with 10% percent using paid-for digital music services such as iTunes (Masters, 2010). Another survey conducted in UK by Phillips (2010) found that 75% of the British public polled was aware of what was legal and illegal in relation to file sharing. There was however a significant divide as to where they felt the legal burden should be placed with 49% believing P2P companies should be held responsible for illegal filesharing on their networks while 18% viewed individual file sharers as the culprits and another 18% either didn’t know or chose not to answer (Phillips, 2010). In the same survey, 60% of people reported downloading music because of a limited budget. A common attitude concerning music downloading was that of ‘why should one pay for something when they can get it for free?’ as observed by Phillips (2010).

2.3. Recent studies

According to study findings presented by Alejandro (2005) on the public opinion about filesharing, it was effectively reflected that filesharing economically hurts music and record sales. Although this was also found to be true of other numerous economic studies, their conclusions fell short of pinpointing the precise degree “the record industry would like the public to believe” the extent of their financial hurt (Felix & Koleman, 2004). One disturbing study conducted in 2004 by two economists significantly deviated from these findings by concluded that music filesharing’s effect on sales was “statistically indistinguishable from zero” as reported by Felix & Koleman (2004). The results of this research were challenged by many as having been doctored and manipulated to suit the selfish intentions of the researchers (Liebowitz, 2006). Similarly, a 2006 study published by Industry Canada as quoted in Ethan (2007) made the conclusions that filesharing has no measureable effect on the sales of CDs. These conclusions were contradicted by another study in 2007 conducted by the Institute for Policy Innovation cited by Phillips (2010) that upheld that copyright infringement of movies, music and software, including unauthorized downloading costs the US economy some 373,375 jobs and $58 billion in annual output.

Using a recent Billboard report of 2010, Phillips (2010) indicated that the production of music, books and movies has increased tremendously since the advent of file sharing. This in effect negated the very fact the recently observed decline in record sales is due to file sharing. In fact, proponents of filesharing hold that illegal downloading had not deterred people from being original. They remained creative with or without the motivation of monetary incentives particularly those in creative industries. In their views therefore, adduced data on the supply of new works are consistent with the argument that file sharing did not discourage authors and publishers in any way (Phillips, 2010).

2.4. Chapter Summary

This chapter has delved into an examination of an extensive and diverse body of literature by attempting to review relevant literature in the area of Peer to Peer file sharing. Most recent studies have also been scrutinized and found to have been broad-based and not touching on the in-depth effects of illegal file sharing particularly in the music industry. These studies have also been found to be defining to the quest for knowledge as they endeavour to shed light of whether there is any change in direction adopted by the UK music industry and individual companies. Having carried out the evaluation and scrutiny of the literature available from various studies, the next chapter presents the approach that best fits the needs of this study.


3.0. Introduction

This dissertation used the quantitative approach to realize the aims and objectives set originally at its inception. It thus took the form of a case study approach which is deemed desirable to facilitate the exploration of the impact of p2p file sharing on the UK music industry through empirical methods. The quantitative method was found to be appropriate in this study due to the fact that it is guided by a practical model according to highlights by Balsley (2006). It is further pinpointed by Davies (2007) that the quantitative method of research is one that is made up of counting and measuring events and performing the statistical analysis of a body of numerical data. The method is observed to be highly deductive and particularistic; implying that the study is ought to produce reliable and valid data. In view of this argument, the researcher employed the said approach in collecting reliable data that was ideal in addressing the impacts of the said research question.

3.1. Area of study

The researcher set out to investigate the effects of p2p file sharing on the UK music industry and the possible technical solutions that can be instituted by the concerned parties. The area of study was confined within UK companies dealing with music production, recording, publishing and distribution. The researcher therefore selected the EMI Music Company for the purpose of this study as it happened to be one of the worlds’ leading music company and home to some of the most successful and best known recording artists (Sean, 2004). All aspects of data pertaining past and present record sales including losses incurred by the Company due to filesharing were collected.

3.2. Research design

Usage of the quantitative research method was found to be most appropriate in studying the effects of p2p file sharing on the UK music industry since emphasis is laid on an intensive examination of the settings (Davies, 2007). Since this was a case study, the approach was used because it usually promotes an intensive and detailed examination of the case at hand (Davies, 2007). As a research method, it is used in many situations to increase knowledge of individual, group, organizational, social, political, and related phenomena as observed by Davies (2007). The conclusion of the dissertation demonstrated results of high reliability levels since all data was gathered through empirically correct research manipulations.

3.3. Target population

The focus group in this study was specifically composed of individuals found to have some interest in the music industry and had direct relevance to the research question being investigated. Employees of the EMI Music Company and members of the general public who were involved with the Company in one way or the other took part in the study. This sample of the population was subjected to interviews in order to collect primary information regarding various aspects of legal sanctions and their policies on handling copyright infringement. In addition, a well structured questionnaire was administered to managers in the marketing, distribution, sales and account departments respectively in order to collect appropriate data required in achieving the aims and objectives of the study.

The focus group was very inclusive by considering representation in terms of number and gender issues where ten respondents from each category of respondents were sampled. This brought together fifty (N=50) participants composed of both males and females in equal proportions where possible. Similarly, secondary data was collected by going through official documents of the sampled Company as well as using library sources dealing with the area of concern. Extensive review of various hardware and software was done in order to address the issue in present era.

3.4. Sampling technique

The target population was selected through stratified random sampling procedure for use in the collection of primary information. The researcher had pre-identified the EMI Music Company in UK from which the focus group was sourced. As earlier indicated, the target population comprised of forty managers and ten members of the general public concerned with the sale and distribution music records. The managers helped in extracting answers pertaining to the technological and legal assistance used to prevent illegal download of copyrighted music. Similarly, the researcher randomly consulted official documents particularly financial reports and policy documents of the sampled companies for the study. Finally, the researcher consulted library and other printed sources to support the primary sources.

3.5. Instrumentation

The research design employed in this dissertation was a simple survey design of a questionnaire constructed by the researcher by concentrating on the key issues outlined in the statement of the research problem. As already detailed from the outset, employment of library based research design of secondary information from multiple archival sources was exploited to compare and validate the primary sources of empirical materials (Davies, 2007). There is a rich source of secondary empirical materials available for any researcher conducting a survey in the area of social sciences. These sources are argued to be endowed with rich organisational information. The questionnaire was physically administered by the researcher to the focus group to complete and eventually returned for analysis alongside data obtained through secondary means.

3.6. Data collection

In this survey, primary data was collected from the focus group by use of the questionnaire technique. This information focused on achieving the aims and objectives of the study and in providing viable recommendations to the research problem under investigation. The survey instrument was thus distributed to the respondents by the researcher to complete and return for analysis. All of the participants were provided with a questionnaire each where the researcher sent out fifty questionnaires to be completed by both the Company employees and members of the general public. These included four sets of questionnaires each sent to the identified departments in the sample company and one set to the general public. In essence, this population was researched because it was made up of all the key stakeholders within the area of investigation. A cover letter of introduction was included with the questionnaire so as to let the respondents know what the research was attempting to accomplish and hence the significance of giving honest responses. The second round of data collection on the other hand sought to understand the company’s approach and analyse its components in order to provide a potential practice model for companies involved in the music industry. This mix of method was necessary to supplement each other and thus validate the data collected.

3.7. Statistical data analysis

It was fitting to rigorously analyse the data collected in consideration of the findings of the survey. The results of the questionnaire under exploration were first of all subjected to a rigorous statistical analysis as already mentioned using the computer program statistical package for social science (SPSS). This data evaluation was in line with the study objectives set earlier aiming to investigate the impact of filesharing on the UK music industry. Alongside data obtained from other secondary sources, it was used to analyze the impact of file sharing and the measures adopted to prevent illegal download of music online. All categorical items on the survey were completed using a 5-point scale format ranging from the minimum value (strongly disagree) to the maximum value (strongly agree). Items that did not receive a response were coded as missing values (Davies, 2007).

3.8. Reliability and validity

The reliability of the survey instrument was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and those values above 0.7 were considered to have acceptable reliability (Davies, 2007). When checked against other such instruments used in research, reliability of the survey design used in this study might have been lacking probably because the questionnaire was constructed by the researcher and thus not standardized (Davies, 2007). Validity was found to be low just as is the case with most field researches.

3.9. Ethical consideration

The issue of confidentially was exhaustively addressed when carrying out this survey. It was addressed in the introductory letter by stating that information obtained was not to be divulged in any unauthorised manner (Davies, 2007). The questionnaire used also ensured the issue of anonymity to the respondents by signing the distributed consent forms. Secondly, the researcher made sure that the instrument was very gender sensitive and balanced between both sexes. Finally, the researcher made sure that all the print and audio media were used in accordance with copy right requirements in conducting the secondary research. There are no other issues as the research was mainly dealing with people who were conversant with the subject matter of the study.

4.0. Chapter summary

In this chapter, the rationale for the research approach has been clearly provided giving a vivid clarification of how the descriptive statistics will be applied to achieve the desired research goals of investigating all nuances of peer to peer filesharing in the UK music industry. The study has attempted to address the concepts of reliability and validity in this chapter. Similarly, the ethical considerations found resident in this study were also highlighted. The researcher thus went ahead to carry out an extensive data analysis as described in detail in the next chapter.


4.0. Introduction

This chapter is concerned with the presentation of the descriptive data for the population sample studied in the primary research using the questionnaire instrument distributed by the researcher. In this section, the researcher presents the findings obtained from the focus group in the study. It is the researcher’s contention that the results obtained using the said research design are most reliable given that the focus group the survey set out to investigate was properly sampled.

4. 1. Descriptive data: Findings from the focus group

The findings indicate that the questionnaire instrument was completed by all focus group participants (N=50). The first question which had sixteen items was used to assess the general attitudes towards peer to peer file sharing. 57% of the respondents indicated that file sharing was significant in forcing music companies to cut on production and this variable was more important than anything else. It was closely followed by the fact that majority of the participants engaged in online file sharing on a regular basis at 46.6%. Moreover, a number of the respondents interviewed indicated that they preferred getting free music downloads from the internet at 45.9% which was a very significant percentage. The fact that filesharing was a result of technological advancement and the recording industry was losing money due to file sharing were both least important in contributing to the respondents’ attitudes towards the question under study. Most of them seemed to allude that the recording industry was losing money due to poor economy rather than as a result of file sharing (Alejandro, 2005).

The means and standard deviations of all the items in this variable are shown in Table 1 below. All the items were measured on the five-point scale from one to five on the survey instrument shown in the Appendix.

Table 1: Frequencies, Percentages, Means and Standard Deviations of General attitudes towards peer to peer filesharing variables (n = 50)

Prefer free music downloads3445.94.000.93
Limited budget2533.83.040.79
Distributing unauthorized copyrighted material2837.83.190.84
A result of technological advancement2331.52.750.77
Engaged in online file sharing on a regular basis3446.64.030.95
Consider file sharing an innocent activity3141.93.300.89
Often use of peer-to-peer file sharing software3344.63.430.92
File sharing changing user’s livelihood for worse2533.83.040.79
File sharing forcing music companies to cut on production4256.84.200.98
File sharing forcing music companies to lay off employees3445.94.000.93
File sharing helps in marketing the music industry2939.73.300.89
Recording industry losing money due to file sharing2331.12.600.76
Decrease in sales of record labels due to file sharing2635.63.120.80
File sharing a threat to the recording industry3243.83.400.90
Use of free file sharing applications2432.92.800.77
Regulating file sharing


KEY: S.D = Standard Deviation

F= Frequency

The mean of free music downloads, limited budget, distribution of unauthorized copyrighted material, a result of technological advancement, engaged in online file sharing on a regular basis, considering filesharing an innocent activity, using peer-to-peer filesharing software, filesharing changing user’s livelihood for worse, filesharing forcing music companies to cut on production, filesharing forcing music companies to lay off employees, filesharing helps in marketing the music industry, recording industry losing money due to filesharing, decrease in sales of record labels due to filesharing, filesharing a threat to the recording industry, use of free filesharing applications and regulating filesharing were 4.00, 3.04, 3.19, 2.75, 4.03, 3.30, 3.43, 3.04, 4.20, 4.00, 3.30, 2.60, 3.12, 3.40, 2.80 and 3.30 respectively.

The standard deviations for the same index were 0.93, 0.79, 0.84, 0.77, 0.95, 0.89, 0.92, 0.79, 0.98, 0.93, 0.89, 0.76, 0.80, 0.90, 0.77 and 0.89 respectively.

The results of this Table therefore reveal that all the sixteen variables have significant influence on the participants’ attitudes towards peer to peer filesharing. In line with results of other study findings, the table above confirms that filesharing has been instrumental in forcing music companies to lay off employees to minimize on operational losses supposedly occasioned by reduced record sales (Ethan, 2007). On reflection, the current researcher concludes that file sharing has been critical in marketing the music industry by allowing a number of new artists to become successful through the Internet. Felix & Koleman (2004) argue that a big majority of online perpetrators of peer to peer filesharing are ignorant of their actions as attested by the results showing 41.9% claiming innocence when filesharing. But these observations are negated by the results of Table 2 which indicate the legal implications associated with peer to peer filesharing.

Table 2: Frequencies, Percentages, Mean and Standard Deviations of participants’ interpretation of legal implications of peer to peer filesharing (n = 50)

Holding P2P companies responsible39783.040.89
Government is successfully instituting legal sanctions on file sharing39783.040.89
Legal ramifications to curb losses31622.170.76
Illegal music downloaded with intent to sell34682.800.84
Illegal File Sharing Punishment32642.800.79
Stopping illegal file sharing all together38763.190.90

KEY: S.D = Standard Deviation

F = Frequency

The findings indicate that the entire focus group completed the questionnaire instrument on the legal implications of peer to peer filesharing. Approximately close to 78% of the respondents indicated that it was more meaningful to hold P2P companies responsible for illegal filesharing on their networks rather than individual users and that they believe the government is successfully instituting legal sanctions on file sharing (Wally, 2004). This aspect was closely followed by strong beliefs that illegal filesharing should be stopped all together, scoring a significant 76%. This was followed by arguments that there were no significant foreseeable legal ramifications that could curb losses to the music industry occasioned by filesharing in line with observations made by Stephen (2007). This was at 62% closely in the heels of participants’ feelings that it was not necessary to punish perpetrators of illegal filesharing.

The mean for holding P2P company’s responsible, legal ramifications to curb losses, illegal music download with intent to sell, punishment and stopping illegal file sharing all together were 3.04, 3.04, 2.17, 2.80, 280 and 3.19 respectively. The standard deviations for the same indexes were 0.89, 0.89, 0.76, 0.84, 0.79 and 0.90 Table 2 reveals that the five variables are significant in influencing the participants’ informed interpretations of legal implications associated with peer to peer filesharing. The sample in this study seems to suggest that the variable on stopping illegal file sharing all together is the most significant in influencing the participants’ interpretations. But generally, all the five variables were seen as interrelated in this study.

Moreover, the researcher sought to understand how the participants characterised theirviews on possible technical solutions that could minimize the impacts of peer to peer filesharing. It emerged that 44.7% of them felt that fining internet users for sharing music on the Internet would be most deterrent to the habitual perpetrators. Another 40.8% of them insisted that they would rather support the suggestion that the identities of repeat offenders of illegal filesharing should be disclosed as a measure to curb the aggression (Frans, 2008). This feeling was similarly reiterated by literature review indicating that P2P file-sharing users wouldn’t want to be openly identified. These result findings found in the study are shown in Table 3 below.

Table 3: Characterization of participants’ view on possible technical solutions to the impacts of peer to peer filesharing


Response Rate %

Allowing the music industry to enter into a collective licensing agreement with ISPs8


Individual users pay a fee for unrestricted access to any P2P file-sharing software for music download5


Unrestricted use of P2P file-sharing technology would promote record sales worldwide4


Increased number of P2P file-sharing users would bring more money in fees to the music industry9


Fining internet users for sharing music on the internet would deter them22


Blocking Internet access for repeat offenders of illegal file sharing is a viable solution13


Disclosing the identities of repeat offenders of illegal file sharing21


Formally warning those illegally downloading files will be a viable solution2


Results in Table 3 reveal that there were large differences in factors influencingparticipant’s views on possible technical solutions to the impacts of peer to peer filesharing. This differentiation was seen to vary from participant to participant with the least significant variable being that indicating formal warning through writing to those illegally downloading files was likely to become a viable solution. Likewise, the same argument was supported by result findings in the study where 44.7% of the respondents indicated that they strongly believed that fining Internet users for sharing music amongst themselves would be most deterrent as observed by Peter (2008). It must be re-emphasised that blocking Internet access for repeat offenders of illegal filesharing as a viable solution was significant to a number of respondents participating in the study. 26.2% of them sustained this argument and were strongly supported by 16.5% who underscored the importance of increasing the number of P2P file-sharing users in bringing more money in fees to the music industry (Stephen, 2007). It is additionally upheld by 15.5% who believed that allowing the music industry to enter into a collective licensing agreement with ISPs was a realistic technical solution to the peer to peer filesharing problem. Even though not the least significant, 10.7% of the focus group supported the suggestion that individual users be allowed to pay a flat fee for unrestricted access to any P2P file-sharing software for downloading music as noted by Shuman (2002).

4.2. Chapter Summary

This chapter has succinctly presented the results from the questionnaire sections handled by the EMI Music Company and the general public. The chapter has thus attempted to address the general attitudes towards peer to peer filesharing as well as the legal implications associated with peer to peer filesharing. The issue of possible technical solutions that can be initiated to arrest the problem has been clearly highlighted. The discussions and implications of these results are presented in the next chapter.


5.0. Introduction

This is the final chapter of this dissertation and is divided into four sections. The first section handles a brief discussion of the results presented in chapter four. The second section presents a short summary of the study findings. In the third section, the author gives the recommendations that should be adopted for future research in this area. The final section presents the conclusions of the study.

5.1. Discussion of the results

The study suggests that there exists a vast discrepancy between the general attitudes held by different individuals towards peer to peer filesharing in the UK. However, these ways are found to be not so much diverse since most of the interviewed respondents demonstrated that there were similar behavioural patterns across music companies in the UK. Demographic factors to begin with play a crucial role in participants’ perceptions of their individual alienations towards peer to peer filesharing. Those aged between eighteen to twenty nine years are reportedly popular with free music downloads with about half of them blaming limited budget for their inclination (Liebowitz, 2006). They similarly demonstrated their often use of peer-to-peer file sharing software in exchanging files amongst themselves. A common attitude concerning music downloading among members of this group was that of ‘why should one pay for something when they can get it for free?’ in line with similar observations made by Klaus, 2005).

As far as the legal implications of peer to peer filesharing is concerned, there seemed to be a divide with the majority feeling that the legal burden should be placed on the P2P companies for filesharing on their networks at 78%. These results were in line with other study findings by Britz (2002) who observed that about 49% of people believed P2P companies should be blamed with only 18% viewing individual file sharers as the culprits. Those in the younger age cohorts (18-29) reported that they fully supported filesharing even if it is illegal (Gribble et al, 2002). They indicated that they partook file sharing with impunity regardless of the repercussions involved when asked how often they downloaded music. This feeling was further supported by respondents in the current study who indicated that fining and disclosing the identities of repeat offenders of illegal filesharing on the internet may effectively deter them from the vice.

5.2. Summary of the results

From the study findings presented in chapter four above, it emerged that the act of file sharing is widespread across all age groups in the UK. The practice was found mostly amongst the younger age group ranging between 18 and 29 years who are reported to be deeply entrenched in the act. This is represented by about 37.8% of them having distributed unauthorized copyrighted material to their peers regardless of the inherent legal implications. It is similarly illustrated that this category of users applied a number of P2P technologies when downloading music from the Internet as attested by 44.6% of the participants. It is also indicated that the use of peer to peer filesharing is attributable to the current technological advancement observed in recent times (Alejandro, 2005).

In the views of Phillips (2010), a lot has been done by both the government and music companies in controlling and regulating peer to peer filesharing as attested by study findings. 78% of the focus group in this study believed that the government had instituted legal sanctions on file sharing and scored a very significant value. Moreover, the numerous cases that have been concluded in courts regarding music pirating are a testimony of the government’s commitment in arresting the peer to peer filesharing problem. For instance, the successful conviction of the four owners of the world’s most high-profile filesharing website for breaking copyright law is a case in point as noted by Sean (2004). The Pirate Bay website was severely punished by the presiding court to act as an example to others with similar intentions. The study finally found that several technological solutions suggested by the government and music companies were acceptable by a big percentage of the respondents. It is only about one third of the suggested solutions that were rated as insignificant by the focus group in the study.

5.3. Practical implications and recommendation for future research

In regards to the consideration of the current macro environment, it is clear that the economic downturn is affecting consumer spending power and is stipulated to continue further into the decade. Studies show that since the start of the economic crisis late in 2007, numerous job losses have been witnessed with deteriorating consumer confidence being reported (Sean, 2008). This has fundamentally affected the music industry with a substantial proportion considering it a luxury and hence not a necessity. The researcher has therefore found it necessary to put certain recommendations in place for future research. From the outset, it is the researcher’s views that more research should revolve primarily around the technological solutions that can be instituted to minimize if not arrest the problems associated with peer to peer filesharing. Future research should therefore concentrate on discovering solutions that are more amiable to both the music industry and the Internet user.

Secondly, the findings of this study further recommends that something must be done to avert the current growing animosity between the government, music industry and the illegal Internet users over the status of peer to peer filesharing. Available research findings indicate that over 60 percent of people downloading music across the globe do it because of a limited budget (Stephen, 2007). If the economic situation in the world is improved, it is the researcher’s contention that this move would be instrumental in minimizing the number of music downloads due to a limited budget. Moreover, it is the suggestion of the current author to institute more research in the area of peer to peer filesharing in a view to dealing with this problem once and for all.

5.4. Conclusions

One thing that becomes apparent after reviewing previous studies on the effects of peer to peer filesharing is the absence of research work into technological solutions as observed by Stephanos & Spinellis (2004). The existing knowledge gap does not propose viable mechanisms for both the music industry and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to enter into a collective licensing agreement that would help them solve their impasse. In the observations made by Frans (2008), the current research proposes the passing of a flat fee to be paid by individual users to have unrestricted access to any available P2P file-sharing software in order to download music. Similarly, fining and disclosing the identities of repeat offenders of illegal filesharing has been found to be a more viable solution as noted in this study.


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Felix, O & Koleman, S. (2006). The Effect of File Sharing on Record Sales: An Empirical

Analysis. UNC Chapel Hill.

Frans, M. (2008). An introduction to games studies: games in culture. SAGE.

Gribble, D. S., Krishna, G & Stefan, S. P. (2002). A Measurement Study of Peer-to-Peer File

Sharing Systems. Department of Computer Science & Engineering. University of

Washington. Seattle, WA, USA.

Klaus, W. R. (2005). Peer-to-Peer Systems and Applications (Eds). Lecture Notes in Computer

Science, Volume 3485.

Liebowitz, S. J. (2006). “File Sharing: Creative Destruction or Just Plain Destruction?” The

Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 49, No. 1.

Masters, K. (2010). “Articles shared on a medical web site – an international survey of non-open

access journal editors”. The Internet Journal of Medical Informatics 5 (2).

Moya, J. (2008). “China to Require Video File-Sharing sites to get permits?” Zeropaid.

Peter, L. (2008). “Infringement! Artists Say They Want Their Music Site Dough”. New York


Phillips, T. (2010). Digital Economy Bill passes as critics warn of “catastrophic disaster” Metro.

Sean, S. (2004). Music Downloads: Pirates- or CustomersHarvard Business School Working


Shuman, G. (2002). Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models. MIT Sloan School of


Stephanos, A. & Spinellis, D. (2004). A survey of peer-to-peer content distribution technologies.

ACM Computing Surveys, 36(4):335–371.

Stephen, E. S. (2007). “The True Cost of Copyright Industry Piracy to the U.S. Economy”

Institute for Policy Innovation.

Wally, W. (2004). Steal this file sharing book. No Starch Press.

Halliday, J. (2011) Digital Economy Act: filesharing code delayed by six months.

Free Essays

The Rise of Youtube and the Causes of Internet Music piracy

Sharing of illegal musical contents is becoming very popular nowadays. Sharing tools and many websites such as Kazza and Pirates bay are considered as a major source for downloading musical tracks and albums from the Internet around the globe. There are many reasons which have caused these illegal acts to emerge.

One of the possible causes is the high cost of some albums and concert tickets. Many musical concerts might ask for very high entry fee. Example of this is the ticket price of a local concert for an artist named Stevie Wonders at Yas Island which is set to a price of Dhs250!

Some CD and DVD packages might be little overpriced as well; however, several websites such as Amazon offer used CD albums while other websites such as iTunes offer cheap Mp3 tracks and albums for as low as 1$ ( 4Dhs).

Another possible cause is the diversity of tools and methods used by the pirates to publish the stolen and illegal material. Tools such Ares, Shareeza, and Kazza could be downloaded easily into your computer and use the P2P technology to acquire all the latest albums. The P2P (peer to peer) technology allows thousands of persons to share the same album and even allow the illegal users to comment on and rate these contents. There are several search engines created to find the illegal peers (distributors) such as website which connects thousands of violating sites. There are also several website where you can search for recorded musical events too. Several sites exist like YouTube where people can upload and watch HD quality full concerts for free with subtitles which make it more convenient for them than paying for the ticket money. Some people might also use forums and blogs to distribute such albums. Twitter (which is a blogging site) is an excellent source for the leaked mp3 tracks downloads.

A third cause of this major issue is the lack of moral and legal knowledge about this issue. For instance, many of the teens nowadays think that it’s not bad to download songs from the Internet. A recent study made by Barna group discovered that only eight percent of the sample of 1448 teenagers thinks it’s morally wrong to download music illegally from the internet (Ventura, 2004). As a result, several laws are enforced to protect Artist’s rights such as the UAE Copyright Law .These laws range from huge fines to impressments of copy-right violators, but these laws are mostly implemented heavily on companies rather than particular persons and this might seem quite disappointing.

As a conclusion, it’s hard to ignore the several causes that made some Internet users distribute copied music contents through the Internet. It will be better to educate these persons on the possible effects of their actions.


Moore, C. W. (2003, August 8). Is Music Piracy StealingRetrieved March 12, 2011, from Applelinks:

Stevie Wonders. (n.d.). Retrieved 03 12, 2011, from Yas Island:

Ventura. (2004, April 26). Fewer Than 1 in 10 Teenagers Believe that Music Piracy is Morally Wrong. Retrieved 03 12, 2011, from The Barna Group:

Free Essays

Music meter

Appreciating music as the universal language of the soul is more of an instinct and should not be tiring. However, dealing with music formally exposes us to a lot of technical aspects that may appear a little complicated especially for beginners who eventually get exhausted in the learning process.

But not all technical issues remain confusing. In music studies, meter is perhaps easiest understood. It is almost an automatic information absorbed by a listener without having to look at a chart or any written guide. The simple hand clap or stomping of the feet acquaints our ears so we can easily follow a tune. Even children can be surprisingly responsive to the music they listen to. Because it is fundamental, learning music meter would not take too much of your time. By simply focusing the mind, one can easily go to the next level.


Music meter is the arrangement of rhythm in fixed, regular patterns with a uniform number of beats [or pulse] in uniform measures (Dudley et al, pp. 240).  At this point, the word ‘timing’ becomes the main concern. Formal musical pieces indicate the meter applied through time signature, which is the fraction number indicated beside the clef symbol at the beginning of the staff or that five horizontal placement lines that hold the notes (Fig 1).

The numerator tells us how many basic beats there are in each measure, and the denominator tells the basic duration value of the beat (Dudley et al, pp. 241). It consists of equal divisions and subdivisions translated into counts of 1-&–2-&-1-&-2 (Schmidt-Jones, pp. 3) or ONE two, ONE two (Dudley et al, pp. 241). This depends on the types of music meter used.

Fig. 1  The staff, plural form: staves

There are actually two traditional patterns of music meter widely used in Western music, the duple, triple, and quadruple, which breaks into simple and compound sub-patterns. For example, the duple pattern have simple duple and compound duple; the same goes for the rest. “In a simple meter, each beat is basically divided into halves. In compound meters, each beat is divided into thirds.” (Schmidt-Jones)

This can be written as:

Duple simple              1-and-2-and-1-and-2                                                 2/4

Triple simple               1-and-2-and-3-and-1-and-2-and-3                            3/4

Quadruple simple       1-and-2-and-3-and-4-and-1-and-2-and-3-and-4       4/4

Duple compound       1-and-a-2-and-1-and-a-2                                           6/8   (pp. 3)

Sometimes, a single piece can contain a number of time signatures. Sometimes, it can contain no definite pattern at all. A music piece that does not follow a specific time signature is called free meter. This is common in Gregorian chants or plainsong, and some cultural music that has distorted beats and pulses, which can be really frustrating for a listener as they can be hardly followed. There are also experimental musicians who does not stick to certain music patterns.


Music meter is one of the basic elements of music that is evidently easy to learn until we can come up with a professionally designed composition. Musicians and listeners to day has more advantage as music has progressed with a lot of new things to discover and experiment with. One only needs to look a few years back to know its historic details, which can be more interesting than today’s versions. Anyone can even educate themselves about it with the help of comprehensive and concise reading materials.


Dudley, L., Faricy, A., Rice, J. G. (1978) Elements of Music. The Humanities. (Sixth Edition, pp.

238-271). US: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Schmidt-Jones, C. (2007) Meter In Music. Connexions Module, Version 1.7, Retrieved February

15, 2007 from

Free Essays


In living life in general, music plays a very important part in our lives. Through time and history, music has not only shown the culture of man in general, but also it has shown an essential reflection of what passions has driven man through time. Music is the window of expression to what each person feels in their lives in general. As we all know, it is through music that we share our common passions and in the lyrics that we verbalize which words appeal to us.

This is pretty much what the plot of the movie Music and Lyrics by Marc Lawrence revolved mostly about. How music and lyrics composition is the reflection of passions and aspirations in the life of Alex Fletcher (Hugh Grant) and Sophie Fisher (Drew Barrymore). In the flow of the story, Alex Fletcher, a former band member of a hit 80’s band is trying to relive his glory days by singing with a famous singer; Cora Carmen to advance his own career. Cora agrees to do this if he makes the perfect song that they can duet to in her upcoming album.

Alex at once tries to work at the song but struggles to find the lyrics given that he himself lacks what it takes of making the perfect lines to a hit song due to lack of passion in his own day to day life. In the process of racking his brains out in finding the perfect words to a song, Sophie; his plant lady comes waltzing in Alex’s house humming the perfect words that strikes Alex’s ears. He tries to convince Sophie to work with him at once and when she helped him out in making the perfect song, she also helps him out in a much more important thing he needed help in; his very own passions in life.

In the process of making the song, Alex and Sophie gets really close as the stories of their lives unravel and frustrations are poured out. With Alex’s downfall in the music industry and Sophie’s mishap with dating a guy who ends up using her character in a book which traumatizes Sophie as all her frustrations in that relationship felt like was opened to the general viewing of the public eye. In the course of all this Sophie teaches Alex what it means to truly write a story of our lives through a song.

She not only helped him in coming up with the words, she also thought him how to make it the proper way, through living your own life well and writing to sing about it. Eventually they come up with the song and Cora likes it but wants to put a modern twist to the melody so she can dance to it. Sophie doesn’t think that this is a good idea since it cuts out the essence of the song, this is where things get ugly when Alex refuses to tell Cora their opinions to the modern twist fearing that she will reject the duet contract.

Sophie gets disappointed in Alex given that they have already reached an intimate relationship in the course of time that the spent together. This is when Cora requests for a another verse in the song and Sophie comes up with the perfect words to describe the scenario the two lovers were caught in; “There are moments when I don’t know if it’s real or if anybody feels the way I feel. I need inspiration, not just another negotiation.” This is where Alex realizes his mistake and makes it up to Sophie by making his own song of apology to her which he sings in Cora’s concert and convincing Cora to keep the song that he and Sophie made just at it is.

All in all, I think this was a feel good movie where in the reality of the politics of show business and the music industry is also reflected. It also reflected the typical day to day drama that women deal with in love and lost specially with Sophie’s role as she felt like she’s been used and betrayed by two men; her ex and at one point even Alex Fletcher. It depicts traditional roles that women still play in society these days.

The erotic pleasure in film, its meaning and in particular, the control place of the image of woman will be interwoven. Mulvey, Laura ” Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema ” 1975

Although there are different depictions that may be derived from the love story of Sophie and Alex or why Alex and Sophie fell for each other, the drama of their relationship and fear for entering a new intimate relationship reflects what most of use deal with in day to day life.

The perceiver may find deeper or “explicit” meaning. The perceiver decides what the core of the film is from her own perspective. While one might see the crux of Saving Private Ryan as war is hell’, another might see it as saving one saves us all. “Chapter 1A: Making Films Mean” October 7, 2007 <>

As a viewer, I loved the story line because it once again reminded me that no matter how complicated love and life can be, people are capable of making things work. That’s the beauty of romantic comedy films, no matter how redundant the plot can get, you keep on watching it for the very same reason; it’s “feel good factor”. I also found the lyrics of  Way back into Love and its lyrics very captivating so I really felt like the movie’s title gave justice to the show.

I do think that the movie was quite typical especially with the variety of different plots that are emerging in the movie industry now-a-days. It was far too predictable for a contemporary movie, but given the genre of the show, I felt like I was supposed to be typical in order to captivate its target audience. It’s the type of movie that will be fun to watch with your family friends and loved ones wherein your quality time will be maximized not only by the feel good factor of the plot but also the comedic effect of the story line.

The narration and the film technique was also pretty typical given that the plot of the movie didn’t really call for anything special work with the cinematography and the likes. I found the music video’s of POP also refreshing as it took me back to a trip to memory lane with the style and music of the band..

The setting was also perfect for the plot as Alex’s apartment and the surrounding locations did fit in perfectly in making the infamous song that they had to make for Cora. I also found the set of characters for the movie and the storyline brilliantly pieced in specially matching the lyrics of the song way back into love.

It was like I was being taken into a journey with Sophie and Alex as I felt like I was being part of that song that they were making. No wonder the song became a hit once the movie hit the cinemas. The storyline captured the heart and soul of the drama of life and love and pieced it in to the song that everybody is still humming to months after its release.

The characters were also perfect specially with Cora who did depict your typical popular pop star in dire need to dance to any of their songs. As simple as the movie was, it was a wonderful journey to the backstage of life and music and how it fits perfectly well together. I think it would give people a deeper appreciation for music.

I also think that the movie also calls for a political challenge to artists and songwriters to write more about real things in life. This is because lately I have noticed the invasion of dance songs that has just connotations of sex, rage, unhealthy self image and vices to the point that it is no longer helping ourselves and the people around us in our modern day society.

Music and Lyrics I think has a lot to show and tell us if we really read into the deeper meaning of what the movie had to offer. It was also refreshing that a love story has been put in the middle to buffer the point of embracing the heart and soul of the artistry of poetry and music. I really appreciated it given that I am a music lover myself. The soundtrack is a refreshing mix 80’s songs and modern dance in line with the story’s plot.

It is a must see for people ready to unwind and enjoy catering to both young and old since the music is really bound to transcend generations as it has been shown in the film.

Music and Lyrics has successfully fused the best ingredients in life; Love, Drama, Life, Music and Words! Just try singing to its soundtrack with your eyes closed while recalling scenes from the film and you will know what I mean when I say the movie could reach your soul if you let it. Just like how music has for many people and generations.


Free Essays

The Effect of Lyrics in Music on Society

Music and its lyrical content has become an integral component of society as it constitutes an essential part in most people’s lives. The advent of MP3 players, ipods and similar gadgets has cemented the widespread reach of musical lyrics, particularly among the so – called MTV generation. While this point cannot be called into question, the exact effect of lyrics on society at large is debatable and is the subject of much controversy. The reason for this is the paucity of research on the said subject. In response to public concern over the harmful effects of explicit lyrics, much has been said and written about it but there is little scientific evidence to back up opposing claims. A careful analysis of the existing research literature, however, reveals that the lyrics in music exercises a profound influence on society and moreover, there is disturbing evidence to show that it does more harm than good.

Arguments and Counterarguments about the Effect of Lyrics in Music

It has been argued that the lyrical content of music has precious little effect on the collective psyche of the masses and that the focus on its pervasive influence and perceived harmful effects is largely uncalled for. The meaning of songs is subject to interpretation, it has been claimed and as such depends entirely on the listener and his or her individual perception.

Besides songs nowadays are layered with intricate meaning and severely tax the cognitive skills of the listeners who usually misinterpret the lyrics or simply don’t care about them. Some are of the opinion that it is solely music as opposed to its lyrical content that affects the masses. Studies conducted by Rosenbaum and Prinsky as well as Wass et al. have supported this claim by revealing that “… listeners have reported that song lyrics are not particularly important to them and that they are more attracted to qualities of music than they are to the lyrics” (qtd. in Hansen & Hansen 178).

All these viewpoints are misleading as they underestimate the sheer insidiousness and impact of the lyrics in songs. The tremendous popularity of rap music bears testament to the power of words, particularly since rap or hip – hop focuses entirely on the lyrics and music merely serves to accentuate the clever wordplay and inherent themes. Thus the genre of rap music with its attendant controversy and crazed fan – following highlights the immense effect lyrics have on society.

Further Hansen and Hansen have concluded from their studies that “…despite low levels of lyric comprehension and recall of song lyrics, listeners were able to extract themes of sex, suicide, violence,  and satanism from songs by popular heavy metal groups using schematic processing” (178) . On the basis of this and other studies, it may be concluded that the lyrics in music have the ability to shape impressionable minds, influence beliefs, determine one’s outlook towards life and subsequently at an overt level, affect the behavior and actions of individuals.

Lyrics may enable people to become cognizant of socially relevant issues and empathize with their fellow humans. But more often that not lyrics of popular music appears to spawn harmful effects that have dangerous implications for our society.

The Harmful Effects of Lyrics and Its Impact on Society

Over the years, the lyrical content of music has undergone a metamorphosis of sorts. Lyrical themes no longer celebrate romantic love and peace but glorify pleasures of the flesh, aggression and drug use. Therefore people have become increasingly concerned with lyrics replete with sexual and violent overtones, particularly their influence on youngsters.

This concern is not misplaced because in the words of Hargrave and Livingstone, “… studies reveal consistent messages in music lyrics that may be considered harmful including messages promoting violence among boys / men, homophobic messages, or those encouraging early sexuality among young girls / women” (109) . Contemporary music abounds with alarmingly casual descriptions of lustful and violent activities and has had the effect of desensitizing the masses and prompting individuals to make unwise decisions.

With regard to the accusation of harmful effects, lyrics have been directly implicated as a study by “Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) found that fans of rap and heavy metal music scored significantly higher on measures of aggression than did fans of other musical genres” (Giles 67) . And of course it is these particular genres that have come under fire for their brutal lyrics. Thus there is little doubt as to the effects of explicit lyrics on listeners.

Thanks to the offensive material conveyed by songs, many of the evils that plague our society can be directly linked to the lyrics in music. For instance the increased incidence of sexual activity among adolescents, teen pregnancies, drug use, violence against homosexuals, women and other minority groups may be traced to the lyrical content of music. In view of the existing evidence, the pervasive effect of lyrics cannot be taken lightly as it threatens to undermine the very foundation on which society is based.


In light of the evidence outlined above, one may safely assert that the lyrics in music affect society to a large extent. In addition to their profound influence it is found that their effects can be harmful to the individual as well as society. Therefore the impact of lyrical content cannot be ignored or underestimated and further research is imperative to determine its exact nature.

Works Cited

Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.

Hansen, Christine, and Ranald Hansen. “Music and Music Videos”.  Media Entertainment: The Psychology of Its Appeal. Eds. Dolf Zillmann and Peter Vorderer. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000. 175 – 96.

Hargrave, Andrea and Sonia Livingstone. Harm and offence in media Content: A Review of the Evidence. Portland: Intellect Books, 2006.


Free Essays

Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Kpop Music

Pinoy Youth’s Preference for KPOP (Korean Pop) music: How does it affect their taste for OPM (Original Pilipino Music)? CHAPTER IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This particular research study aims to determine the Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Korean Pop Music and how does it affect their taste for Original Pilipino Music (OPM).

Regarding this, the researchers will seek to know whether factors like rhythm and music composition of Korean Popular Music really affect the Pinoy teenagers’ preference towards Original Pilipino Music In addition, the researchers want to distinguish the respondents (female residents of the University of the Philippines Cebu College Dormitory and other chosen students in UPVCC) view toward Korean Pop music as well as their outlook in the Original Pilipino Music (OPM).

Moreover, this study would identify if the students’ music preference would affect their sense of nationalism. In doing this, the researchers gathered information which will help in achieving the goal of the researchers. This would serve as support to the current research study. RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT This study will be conducted at the University of the Philippines Cebu College (UPVCC). The location will be the University of the Philippines Campus in Gorordo Avenue Lahug Cebu City. The place is accessible to the researchers for they would not spend much time travelling.

The researchers choose the locale since one of the researchers is currently residing in the dormitory and because it is more accessible in terms of distributing the survey questionnaires. RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS The major concern of choosing respondents would be the residents staying in the UP dormitory which consists of 9 rooms with 53 student residents but the researchers respondents are on to chosen female dormers only. On the other hand, there will also be some respondents who do not stay in the dormitory but still female students in the University of the Philippines Cebu College.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Simple random sampling was done for the sample selection. This sampling method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all members of the population have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is said to be the most efficient sampling procedure. The researchers will list down all the names of the female respondents. After that, the researchers will use the fishbowl technique and will randomly pick 15 out of these 32 respondents including the chosen respondents not staying in the dormitory.

The researchers decided to use this fishbowl technique since all the respondents are females and would only choose by means of “draw by lots”. This method involves the selection of the sample at random from the sampling frame through the use of random number tables (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2003). Numbers were assigned for each respondent in the master list. These numbers were written on pieces of paper and drawn from a box; the process was repeated until the sample size was reached. This research study will use a survey questionnaire as a research tool.

The survey will be arranged basing on the factors that affect the respondents’ preference toward Korean Pop Music and how it affects their taste to Original Pilipino Music (OPM). There are 4 factors that the researchers consider. These are the respondents’ outlook towards the performers of the Korean Pop Music and Original Pilipino Music, the rhythm of music that K-pop and OPM music brings, as well as music’s composition and the message being delivered by both K-pop and OPM music. Every factor will be stated in a form of table.

The researchers prepared an introductory part for survey consisting of 3 questions involving whether the respondents’ are into K-pop music or OPM Music. One of the questions determines what music does the respondent like from the two choices, the Korean Pop Music or the Original Pilipino Music. The second question is just related to a supporting answer to question number one in which the choices pertains to the time that the respondents often listens to her preferred music. Below the introductory question will be 2 tables, one for K-pop music and the other one is for OPM music. The two tables are divided into 5 columns.

These columns would serve as the respondents’ ratings from 1 to 5 and 5 as the most appreciated towards K-pop and OPM Music. Each factor consists of 3 phrases related to the factor revealed. As mentioned earlier, one factor that affects the respondents’ preference toward music is the performers. The second factor involves the pattern of beats that the music contains. The third one relates to the lyrics of the music and how the message is being delivered to the listeners or audience. The researchers provide a survey questionnaire with a letter of permission to the chosen respondents.

If the respondents approved the letter, they would answer the questionnaire automatically. If not, the researchers would pick another respondent and will answer directly to the survey questionnaire after approval. The respondents would just directly answer the questions with no time limit. After the respondents have completed answering the questions, the questionnaire will be collected. DATA ANALYSIS The researchers would then tally the results obtained. The results will then be tabulated. After that, thorough analysis should be done and the results would then be interpreted.

This will be done by calculating the results using the Chi-Square Test for Independence. The researchers decided to use this type of test for it is applicable whether there is a relationship between two variables. In this study, the relationship between Pinoy Youths’ Preference towards K-pop Music and OPM Music is being described. This type of test actually involves statistics. As said earlier, the chi-square test is used to determine whether there is a “significant difference between the normal frequencies and the experimental frequencies in one or more categories.

The Chi-Square statistic compares the tallies or counts of categorical responses between two or more independent groups”(Maben, 2009). In so doing, the researchers would be helped by the Chi-Square test in determining Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Korean Pop Music and how does it affect their taste for Original Pilipino Music (OPM). CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Several theories have been gathered and analyzed in this research study to help determine the factors causing an individual to affect his/her attitude due to the type of music he/she prefers.

A theory of Rudolf Radocy and David Boyle (2003) contends that musical preference is “more than an interaction of inherent musical characteristics and individual psychological and social variables” (p. 371). They cite the work of Abeles (1980) who, after a thorough review of the pertinent literature, concluded that personality factors and emotional states were related to preference, but not in a clear cut aspect. Moreover, Radocy and Boyle (2003) stress out that music preference might be influenced by the factors of environment such as institutions, experiences, group gatherings, self-concept, mass media and among other things.

Another theorist, Warren Prince (1972) developed a paradigm for music listening with a major premise that “a listener is capable of more than one response pattern and more than one type of listening experience” (p. 446). His paradigm is proposed as an initial effort to build “a framework based on crucial decisions on what variables and what relationships between variables are to be investigated” (p. 446). In addition, his paradigm gives a graphic representation of the variables in the listening process.

Prince’s paradigm has three categories; the listener variables, response patterns and a group of learning process variables. The variables in these three categories are interrelated indicating causal relationships. Below is the diagram interpreting his paradigm. Figure 1. 5 Figure 1. 5 shows the flow of Prince’s Music Listening Paradigm with the (1) listener variables that are located at the top which are directed through the listener’s general state of attention, (2) response patterns at the center and the learning process variables are located at the bottom, and mostly has the function of feedback into the responses.

Moreover, the reason why the listener variable is located on the top is that, it determines its behavior according to the influence that the environment is causing it. From here, these listeners can be able to provide their own response patterns (e. g. music materials) from what they get from the environment’s influence. This then makes the learning process variables take place giving the outcome and effect from what the listeners prefer. Another music listening preference theory was developed by Albert LeBlanc (1982). LeBlanc’s theory conceptualizes musical judgment as a hierarchical process.

LeBlanc’s music listening preference theory covers a whole system of input information. He explains that a person’s decision on music listening preference must follow “unavoidable time sequence. ” He asserts that music is differently processed at different levels, which one involves personality characteristics. When Prince built his music listening theory, he considered his theory as an initial paradigm. He mentioned that “an initial paradigm represents theoretical considerations not yet confirmed even though they may be supported strongly by research evidence. A later paradigm or theoretical schema may emerge as a result of many studies based on the initial paradigm. ” (p. 446) LeBlanc (1991) stated that his model has a different focus (music listening preference) from that of Prince (music listening). However, LeBlanc’s music listening preference theory can be classified as a later paradigm of a more specifically developed theoretical model for music listening paradigm. The theory developed by Robert Walker (1980) similarly characterizes musical preference as only indirectly related to personality and/or attitude factors.

Walker asserts that liking is directly influence by musical complexity. He point out the idea that preference is modeled by a “bell-curve” which means that there is an “optimal level of complexity that is most enjoyable. Both very low complexity and very high complexity are less enjoyable” (p. 105). “Individuals have particular optimal complexity levels, with deviations in either direction decreasing liking. Simplistic music might produce boredom while overly complex music requires extensive processing that can decrease the likelihood that an individual will continue attending to the music. (Perkins, p. 5) Walker’s idea stresses out the fact and/or assertion that an individual, when introduced to a new kind of music will probably like and abandon the previous preference or he/she would have the same level of likeness to the both; previous and new kind of music. This, then leads to the point where the individual’s personality and/or attitude is greatly affected and influenced by the preference he/she chooses resulting to the creation of different views of the individual. Below is the diagram of the Theoretical Framework:

Conceptual Framework: Base on the ideas of the theories that were combined, the researcher came up with the above conceptualized framework. The music environment variables which include the institutions, experiences, group gatherings, self-concept and mass media are located at the top of the framework, followed by the second variable—students that become affected by the music environment. From this, the second variable could experience the exposure of the third variable which is considered to be the various types of music materials and response patterns.

Then, they can assess their response patterns by weighing the dominance of the dominant music which becomes the fourth variable in the framework. Upon weighing the dominance, the students will learn to choose and prefer the more dominant kind of music which then, formulates their views on it and the effect comes after. The variables in this framework are considered the specified factors following the points and ideas from the theories mentioned. In addition, the framework’s flow is also based on the things that the theories pointed out. Below is the diagram of the Conceptual Framework:

Operational Framework: The variables featured on the operational framework as showed below are the most specified factors that become a background flow of the research study. Home, UP Grounds, television, pals—variables found at the top of the framework are part of music environment which functions as the ones mainly influencing the second variable—the selected UP Female Students. This student variable now becomes the dependent variable in a way that its reactions depend on a certain situation due to the process that takes place in the music environment.

In reacting to the environment variable, students tend to enumerate in their minds the response patterns—KPOP’s beat, rhythm, composition, styles and performers—that they get from the influence of the music environment. Having the response patterns settled, students will have a selection of one type of music leaving the other type. Appearing in the framework, the dominance of KPOP music on the preference of Pinoy Youth becomes the outcome gained from the response patterns.

The dominance of KPOP music can possibly be assessed that Pinoy Youth will end up selecting and/or preferring KPOP music over OPM (original Pilipino music), which is another variable based on the framework. The effect of selecting Kpop over OPM by the Pinoy Youth will probably lead to the effect on their personality and/or attitude questioning now their sense of nationalism. In accordance with these analyses, the specific flow of ideas showed in the framework is only based on the points pondered by several theories provided in the previous pages having the views of the theorists, respectively.

Below is the diagram of the Operational Framework: CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The new generation today has been exposed already to the different kinds and genres of music. From time to time music has been improved and made more entertaining than before. This has evolved from the native type of music to the modern kind of music in which most of the teenagers at present seems to like and appreciate. Most of the music nowadays are already been mixed up.

Some music are from other countries that become popular and known to other neighboring countries and is still getting much popularity worldwide. Butler (2006) defines music as “an art of arranging across time”. Music is part of almost every culture on Earth but it varies widely among cultures in means and structure. Music is a language of human figure of communication with well developed rules of structure much like a form of sentence structure. An individual through music would be making interpretations based upon speech patterns like loud or soft rapid and bitten off, slow or smooth.

According to Greeks (20th century), the beginning of music can be solved by thought where ancient people make up chants of religion, war, love and death through direct organization of words with the combination of body movements. Greek philosophers assumed that listening to music based on certain modes in use at that time was beneficial to the enhancement of the young person’s character. With music, an individual can develop one’s potential and positive outlooks in life (Butler (2006). Music is “a mode of thought, a way of thinking in tones”. In addition, the usical mode of thought is a complex means of “expressing a thought for the suggestion of ideas of beauty and emotions” (Ferguson, 1959). With the help of rhythm, the message in music is delivered conveniently for rhythm contains everything that pertains to the forward movement of music in time. Rhythm is the pattern of beats in a piece of music. Mayol (1990) stated that “music has existed from time immemorial: archaeologists have unearthed traces of music in the most ancient society, ethnomusicologists have found it in even the most primitive tribal culture and scientists have claimed it present in space.

Yet, no one has been able to established precisely when, where, why or how music originated. Mayol (1990) also claimed that there are recent theories proposing that in all cultures, music originated in a similar manner which was from a universal source (monogenesis) (p. 3). Ordinary people became uninterested with its beginning that for them it is a nonsense and worthless. But as time pass by, its implication and origin have brought sensation to their lives.

And so, this made them vary their preferences towards the different kinds of music leading to other individuals conducting research and other related studies regarding with these behavior and choices. At present, there are already many types of music known to be famous. One of which is the popular music. Popular music pertains to a kind of music that is produced for a broader audience. This includes jazz, rock, rap music and many more. Popular music has three of the most important elements and these are language, beat and tune.

This popular music originated in America in the year 1850-1950 (Yudkin,1996). In addition, popular music is typically vocal where everybody can sing more or less, and it has no formal training because it is intended to appeal to the widest possible audience. Until now, this particular music is still being acknowledged and appreciated worldwide including Philippines as well as other European countries. (Yudkin,1996). Regarding this popular music, Korean Pop or known as K-Pop is one of today’s hits and famous music worldwide.

Korean pop music is the well kind of music in the country of South Korea today. K-pop music is just similar to western music. The only difference is their lyrics which are in the form of Korean. Hallyu is the word that means Korean wave. Part of the Korean wave is their overwhelming success not just in music but as well as in South Korean dramas and movies. The term Korean pop music does not only pertains to music but with accompaniment of movement that makes South Korea popular in Asia and neighboring countries from 1990’s until present (Villano,2010).

According to Hicap (2010), the making of Korean pop music also involves attractive young stars and their unique moves in dancing accompanied with how they dress up. One of the newest and most famous is Rain, the male singer who became artist after his shooting in the Korean Drama Full House with the actress Song Hye Kyo. BoA is one of Korea’s top female singers who has topped the charts in Korea, then Japan and released an album in US. BoA worked in partnership with western artists and was cited as an influential artist in the 2004 MTV Asia awards.

Others are bands and groups which are today’s most known. One of them is the female group 2nel having a member who became famous in the Philippines before she reached her fame in Korea. Her name is Sandara Park. The next known group is the Wonder Girls, also a female group who was famous for their popular hit “Nobody” which was loved by many Filipinos. Other group includes SS501, a male group that become famous after the inclusion of some of their songs in the soundtrack of the popular Boys Over Flowers and having their member Kim Hyun Jung.

Todays’ known female group, the Girls Generation who were trained in various aspects of the performing arts, has its own TV Series and they endorse products in Korea. There are still many known groups and artists that contributed to the success of the Korean Pop Music such as the Super Junior and Shinee group. These bands and groups made Korean Pop music be known (Hicap, 2010). Younger Korean musicians have already gained reputation, much popularity and appreciation as top performers in both concert and entertainment fields.

In relation to this, youth around Asia especially Filipino youths have been affected by the outstanding effect not just to the K-pop music but also to other music from other countries (Kim,1985). A study by Fritzie Joy J. Dungog (1997) distinguishes the influence of Pinoy alternative music to the attitude of students towards local government officials. Dungog used a three part questionnaire that asked questions pertaining to personal data, exposure questions and an attitudinal test. The questionnaire was distributed to 284 respondents.

Based on the questionnaires she gave to the 284 respondents, the researcher found out that the respondents showed a high level of exposure to Pinoy Alternative Music and that the majority of respondents exhibited a positive approach towards their city government officials. The study also revealed that “there were no significant relationship between the attitudes of respondents toward their city local government officials and the frequency exposure to Pinoy Alternative Music”(Dungog, (1997)). Dino Arnaldo A.

Karganilla (1994) determines the effect of exposure to foreign music in FM stations on the perception of high school students towards Filipino music. The study covered a sample size of 111 fourth year U. P. College High School attendees through a two-page questionnaire which were given to those 111 respondents. The instrument that Karganilla used in his study was a two paged questionnaire composed of three sections with an additional information part. The researcher discovered that the respondents had a low level of exposure to foreign music and that the respondents had a favorable insight towards Original Pilipino Muisc (OPM).

There was no connection between the respondents’ sexual category and rank of exposure that could influence their view towards Original Pinoy Music (OPM) and in turn, the exposure to foreign local FM stations did not bear a negative impact of the respondents toward Original Pilipino Music (OPM). A supplementary research study by Jessica Servande Losorata (2008) verifies whether Cebu local rock music airplay on Monster Radio BT 105. 9 has either a positive or a negative impact on selected rock bands that have played for Harakiri Mosh Production. “A Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with selected ock bands that have played for Harakiri Mosh Production was the main method in gathering the data. A separate Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with Monster Radio BT 105. 9 listeners and online interviews with the station’s manager and a representative of Harakiri Mosh Production were also conducted to gather additional information” (Losorata, (2008)). The researcher found out that the respondents were not devoted clients of radio. They had a low level of exposure to radio but their consciousness of its Cebu local rock music airplay was positive.

The results of the study was been supported after the researcher interviewed Paolo Valera, known as Paolo Walker, the station manager of Monster Radio BT 105. 9 together with Shanette G. Mancao, one of the founder of Harakiri Mosh Production. For the respondents, the interviews and interactions were done through internet because of the interviewees schedule and activities. Another study by R. S. Holganza (1987) was all about the relationship between the exposure to foreign music in FM stations and the attitude of fourth year high school University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R) students towards Original Pilipino Music (OPM).

This particular research was conducted to determine if there is a connection between the exposure to foreign music in local FM stations and the attitude of fourth year USJ-R students toward OPM. The research was conducted inside the University of San Jose-Recoletos (USJ-R) High School campus using 100 fourth year male and female respondents from the different economic levels. The respondents exposure to foreign music was determined by the number of hours spent listening to FM stations while the respondents attitude was measured by four OPM-related statements.

The respondents in this specific study belonged to the same age level which was 16 to 17 with same educational attainment (fourth year high school). The researcher found out that the respondents were exposed to local FM stations whose programming was more on foreign music but the playing of foreign songs in FM stations seems not to decrease or slow down the popularity of the Original Pilipino Music (OPM). The amount of exposure to FM stations influenced the respondents’ liking of Filipino songs and the respondents over-all choice of song as verified by the results of the chi-square test was the Original Pilipino Music (OPM).

A related study was conducted by Minni K. Ang and Miranda P. Yeoh (year) concerning the music preferences of Malaysian students and KBSM Curriculum implications (explain). Ang and Yeoh organized this by preparing ten selection of ethnic-based Malaysian music and twenty selection of non ethnic related music consisting of ten popular music selections and ten western art music selections were used. Ratings of preferences, familiarity and musical training were gathered from 139 randomly selected teenage students of two public schools in Serdang, Malaysia.

The researchers discovered that the respondents preferred non-ethnic related music especially popular music. In addition, the interpreted results proved that the main factor affecting their preference for both ethnic-based Malaysian music and non ethnic-related music was their familiarity of the music (M. K. &Yeoh, 2002). These past studies serve as a basic foundation to this recent research which determines if factors like rhythm and music composition of Korean Popular Music really affect the Pinoy teenagers’ preference towards Original Pilipino Music and if this would affect their sense of nationalism.

According to Malm (1977), there are explanations about the behavior observed with regards to the preference of Filipino youth. Malm said that early in the history back to the time where Philippines was colonized, the Filipino music traditions were mixed with Spanish-type of music which was distributed into the country. “The Spanish influence becomes even stronger as one move toward Philippine urban culture” Malm (1977). Malm (1977) claimed that Filipino possesses an attitude which comes from the experience of colonization, wherein it has adapted many music cultures from different neighboring countries in the history.

Through this fact, it can now be related to the issue of choice of music that Filipino youth is experiencing with interest, specifically its fascination towards Korean pop music. Additionally, they ought to love the unfamiliar type of music with amazement and astonishment to that kind of music. Regarding this concept, the popularity of the native music will declined slowly until it will no longer be known. According to Mayol (1990), the shifting of the Youth’s musical preference is due to the music’s influential power that serves as a “shaping force in determining the nature of the moral character of the populace.

The power of music affecting a person was derived from its structure. The above mentioned cases and studies have shown that there is an effect or impact regarding the preference of Pinoy teenagers toward music. And the above researches would aid the current researchers to accomplish their study about the Pinoy Youth’s Preference for Korean Pop Music and how does it affect their taste for Original Pilipino Music (OPM). This would serve as guiding principles in this latest study. Bibliography Books: Hoffer, C. R. (1989). The Understanding of Music (sixth edition): Personal Preference in Music.

United States of America. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. Kim, E. (1985). Facts About Korea: Music and Dance. Seoul, Korea Malm, W. (1997). Music Cultures of the Pacific, the Near East and Asia (second edition): Philippines. Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Mayol, P. (1990). The Development of Western Music: Heritage from Antiquity. United States of America. Wm C. Brown Publishers Yudkin, J. (1996). Understanding Music: Popular Music. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Unpublished Materials: Ang, M. K. & Yeoh, M. P. 2002). Music Preferences of Malaysian Students and KBSM (Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah or Integrated Secondary School Curriculum) Implications. Serdang, Malaysia. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://www. musicmall-asia. com/minni/Educ/2002. pdf Dungog, F. J. J. (1997). Influence of Alternative Music on Students’ Attitude Towards Local Government Officials. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines Cebu College Holganza, R. S. (1987). The Relationship Between the Exposure to Foreign Music in FM Stations. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis.

University of the Philippines Cebu College Karganilla, D. A. A. (1994). Relationship Between the Exposure to Foreign Music and the Perception of Fourth Year UP High School Students Towards Filipino Music. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines Cebu College Losorata, J. S. (2008). The Impact of Cebu Local Rock Music Airplay on Monster Radio BT 105. 9 on Cebu Rock Bands. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. University of the Philippines Cebu College Online Periodicals: Hicap, J. (2010). Filipinos Get Hooked on Kpop Craze. Korea Times.

Retrieved December 7,2010 from http://koreatimes. co. kr. /www/news/nation/2009/09/117_51347. html Villano, A. (2010). The Korean Pop Invasion. The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 12, 2010 form http://dancepinoy. com/forum/music-lifestyle/k-pop-invasion-in-the-philippines-2 Internet Sources: ______. (2006). Kpop: History and Globalization. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://encyclopedia. thefreedictionary. com/korean+pop ______. (2007). Music of Korea. Retrieved November 24, 2010 from http://encyclopedia. thefreedictionary. com/korean+music ______. (2008). Kpop’s History and Definition.

Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://www. asiafinest. com/review/kpop. htm ______. (2007). Korean Music Popularity. Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://www. chinatownconnection. com/korean-music-popularity. htm ______. (2009). Korean Pop (K-pop). Retrieved December 1, 2010 from http://www. 123helpme. com/preview. asp? id=35074 Xiong, Y. & Li, S. (2007). Effect of South Korean Pop Culture on the Potential Tourists from Chinese Mainland. Retrieved December 16, 2010 from http://www. docstoc. com/docs/19647133/ effect-of-south-korean-pop-culture-on-the-potential-tourists-from.

Free Essays

Music Firms Want EU to Cut Off Pirates

The plan, backed by French President Sarkozy, asks Internet service providers to disconnect users who illegally download copyrighted music
by Leigh Phillips

With sales of compact discs across Europe in free-fall, the record industry has called on the EU to follow French president Nicolas Sarkozy’s lead and force internet service providers to disconnect customers who illegally download music.

“Up until now, ISPs have allowed copyright theft to run rampant on their networks, causing a massive devaluation of copyrighted music,” said John Kennedy, the CEO of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), the record industry trade association. “The time for action is now — from the EU and other governments.”

The IFPI believes the mood of indulging ISPs and their downloading customers is coming to an end.

“2007 was the year ISP responsibility started to become an accepted principle,” he said. “2008 must be the year it becomes reality.”

Last November, president Sarkozy backed an initiative in partnership with the record industry and internet providers that would see ISPs automatically disconnect customers who illegally download copyrighted material.

“More than anyone else in 2007, our industry has to thank French President Nicolas Sarkozy and the chairman of FNAC [the France-based chain of record and electronics superstores], Denis Olivennes, for the change of mood,” said Mr Kennedy.

The Sarkozy agreement, announced in November, is the most significant milestone yet in the task of curbing piracy on the internet.

The French president’s move requires ISPs to disconnect customers using an automated system and to test filtering technologies.

Mr Kennedy made comments in an IFPI report on the state of the sector. Although there was a 40 percent increase in digital sales globally in 2007, according to the report, there was a 10 percent decline in sales of compact discs last year.

The report also praised government moves against illegal downloading in Sweden, Belgium, the UK, the US and Asia.

Provided by EUobserver—For the latest EU related news

BusinessWeek Europe January 28, 2008 1:04PM EST

Free Essays

“On the Waterfront” and the Music of Leonard Bernstein

Addam Farmer MUS 468I Written Project Professor Perry La Marca 3/19/2012 “On the Waterfront” and the Music of Leonard Bernstein (1954) “On the Waterfront” is a masterpiece film about a union man (Terry Malloy) whom makes an attempt to stand up to the corrupt mob bosses leading the Longshoremen’s Union. Just as important as the plot of the film is the music; the original score by Leonard Bernstein greatly influenced how other composers would approach film scoring.

Bernstein combined the “American” characteristics of Aaron Copland’s music (disjunct melodies, wide intervals, small but colorful ensembles) with the dark and somewhat disturbing elements of modernism. Bernstein did not shy away from dissonance, and he also incorporated jazz elements (such as brass and rhythmic syncopation) into the equation. During the opening credits, we can hear a solo French horn followed by a small music ensemble. This is expected of the modernist technique – to start off with one instrument followed by others mirroring the opening melody and/or providing contrapuntal contrast.

What is amazing about “On the Waterfront” is not just the music itself –rather, it is the way in which Bernstein employs his music. The movie score is not wall-to-wall; there are long periods of silence in the film (other than sound effects and dialog. ) Strategic musical entrances and long periods of silence are carefully placed to help with the storytelling of the film. For instance, when the “non-corrupt” members of the Longshoremen’s Union meet in the Church to discuss their problems, there is no music.

Suddenly, thrilling “danger” music begins to play, followed by the mobsters’ attempt to break up the union meeting. The corrupted mobsters begin to beat up the union members, showering them with intimidation. The placement of the music plays a vital role in this scene as the absence of the music symbolizes the absence of conflict. Another way Bernstein helped the film is through his utilization of various themes. The “Waterfront” theme serves as the frame of the musical score.

Parts of the theme can be heard throughout the film, but the “Waterfront” theme is only heard in the complete form at the beginning and end of the film. There is also a love theme that acts as the catalyst for the portrayal of Edie and Terry’s chemistry. Lastly, the dominant theme in the film is the “Violence” theme, which is first heard in the second scene with the death of Joey. These themes help to distinguish the films elements: the love story between Edie and Terry, the violent nature of the corrupt union bosses, and the overall message of the film.

The greatest point in the music occurs at the climax of the film, when Terry gets severely bruised and beaten by the union boss’s men. At this point, Bernstein utilizes the “Violence” theme surrounded by dissonance and jazz-style syncopated rhythms. Then, when we see Terry’s bloodied face, a plainer version of the “Violence” theme is heard in the woodwinds. The opening “Waterfront” theme is then heard by a solo horn after Terry asks the others to “Put me on my feet. ” The horn is joined by an orchestra.

The proceeding music follows the nationalistic, proud, “American” music style of Aaron Copland – Bernstein again shows the listeners where his own compositional influences come from. The grand performance of the theme suggests the unity of the union members standing up to the mob bosses. The theme also can suggest the courage held by the longshoremen as working citizens of American society. Leonard Bernstein was a musical genius in many different aspects. It is kind of a shame that “On the Waterfront” was his only original film score – even “West Side Story” was later adapted for film.

His intelligent use of various themes coupled with his great sense for rests in the score create a mood that sucks the viewer into the world of Terry Malloy. His careful decisions concerning where to place the silences also help to surprise the viewers in a way that is conducive to the film; the viewer can’t help but wonder what will happen next. It is no wonder that Bernstein’s scoring for “On the Waterfront” was held in high esteem by the very composers that inspired him.

Free Essays

Music in the Roaring Twenties

MUSIC ENTERTAINMENT IN THE ROARING TWENTY’S [pic] ? Introduction The 1920s known as the “Roaring Twenties” were a time of great change, economic growth, mass production, urbanization (farmers moved to larger industrial cities), cars, telephone, radio, record players and prohibition. It was a period of a new freedom for women. It was for Americans and western Europeans, a break period from the first world, a time for happiness and peace. Finally the Wall Street Crash of 1929, ended this period as the Great economic depression set in worldwide.

The Roaring Twenties were the first golden age of the American music and often known as “The Jazz Age”. This “movement” in which jazz music grew in popularity, also influenced other parts of the world. However prior to the Jazz, dance was to dominate all forms of music. ? America export Music to the world When the American dancer Josephine Baker visited Berlin in 1925, at the time when Francis Scott Fitzgerald published the Great Gatsby in the US, she performed at the “Theater Des Westens” and found it dazzling. The city had a jewel-like sparkle,” she said, “the vast cafes reminded me of ocean liners powered by the rhythms of their orchestras. There was music everywhere. ” Eager to look ahead after the crushing defeat of World War I. The music played in Berlin, Amsterdam, London, or Paris, mostly originated from small towns in America. ? Origins of music in the ‘roaring twenties’ Following World War I, around 500,000 African Americans in search of better employment opportunities moved to the northern part of the United States.

They left their home towns of New Orleans, (Louisiana), or Saint Louis (Missouri), Kansas City (Missouri)… With them, they brought their culture to the North in places like Chicago (Illinois), Detroit (Michigan), Cincinnati (Ohio), Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), and York City (NY) which became the place for the “Harlem Renaissance” During this period of time, the works of African Americans in fields such as writing and music escalated. Styles of music including Dixieland and blues became popular as well.

Throughout the 1920’s many people took an interest in music and in dance. They owned pianos, trumpets, saxophones, drums, bass, guitars, clarinets, trombones and played sheet music, listened to records and visited theatres, and dance clubs. With the help of radio broadcasting, new artists become famous all over the United States and for some around the world. ? Dance clubs in the 1920’s Dance clubs became enormously popular in the 1920s. Dance music came to dominate all forms of popular music by the late 1920s. Classical pieces, operettas, folk music, etc. ere all transformed into dance music in order to please young people much as the disco phenomena would later do in the late 1970s. For example, many of the songs from the 1929 Technicolor musical operetta The Rogue Song (starring the Metropolitan Opera star Lawrence Tibbett) were rearranged and released as dance music and became popular club hits in 1929. Dance clubs across the U. S. sponsored dance contests, where dancers invented, tried, and competed with new moves. Professionals began to perform in tap dance and other dances across the United States.

With the advent of talking pictures (sound film) musicals became the main attraction. Film studios flooded the box office with new musical films, many of which were filmed in ‘Technicolor’ ne of the most popular of these musicals, ‘Gold Diggers of Broadway’ became the most known film of the decade. Harlem played a key role in the development of dance styles. With several entertainment venues, people from all walks of life, all races, and all classes came together. The ‘Cotton Club’ featured black performers and catered to a white clientele, while the ‘Savoy Ballroom’ catered to a mostly black clientele. Popular dances & Musicians The most popular dances throughout the decade were the: foxtrot, waltz, and American tango. From the early 1920s, however, a variety of eccentric novelty dances were developed. The first of these were the Breakaway and Charleston. Both were based on African-American musical styles and beats, including the widely popular blues. The Charleston dance became popular after appearing along with the song, “The Charleston,” by James P. Johnson in the Broadway musical Runnin’ Wild in 1923.

Although the origins of the dance are obscure, the dance has been traced back to blacks who lived on an island off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina (which is why the dance is called “Charleston”). A brief Black Bottom dance, originating from the Apollo Theatre in Haarlem (NY), swept dance halls from 1926 to 1927, replacing the Charleston in popularity. By 1927, the Lindy Hop, a dance based on Breakaway and Charleston and integrating elements of tap, became the dominant social dance. Developed in the Savoy Ballroom, it was set to stride piano ragtime jazz.

The Lindy Hop would later evolve into Swing dance. These dances, nonetheless, were danced by small groups of people. The majority of people continued to dance the foxtrot, waltz, and tango. On the singing side, top singers were Nick Lucas, Scrappy Lambert, Frank Munn, Lewis James , Gene Austin, Franklyn Baur, Johnny Marvin, and Ruth Etting. Leading orchestra leaders included Bob Haring, Harry Horlick, Louis Katzman, Leo Reisman, Victor Arden, Phil Ohman, George Olsen, Ted Lewis, Abe Lyman, Ben Selvin, Nat Shilkret, Fred Waring, and Paul Whiteman. ? All that jazz in the 1920’s

However, despite all these trends and forms of music, the most known would remain the Jazz. Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in black communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. One name, one of the most famous jazz musicians of all time, is worth mentioning. Louis Daniel Armstrong (1901 – 1971), from New Orleans, Louisiana, displayed his amazing talents as a trumpeter, cornet player, and singer during the Jazz Age. He studied and played with a famed cornet player named Joseph “King Oliver” Oliver (1885 – 1938).

In 1925, “Satchmo,” (his nickname) who had learned to play cornet at the age of twelve, started The Hot Fives. The band would later gain two more musicians and was appropriately renamed The Hot Sevens. He did not restrict his talents to just music, however. He also starred in films such as Pennies from Heaven. He continued working in the last three years of his life, most of which was spent in hospitals. He died at home on July 6, 1971. Some of the many artists of that time also included Duke Ellington (1899 – 1974), Joseph “King Oliver” Oliver (1885 – 1938), Bessie Smith (1894? 1937), Benny Goodman (1909 – 1986), and Ma Rainey. ? Conclusion: The Roaring Twenties: a golden age for American Music and dance The Roaring Twenties period has long been considered a golden era of American society; the standard of living was rising, morality was being re-defined, innovation and business was soaring, and the general public perceived that times were good. It has been considered also as a golden age for the music and entertainment industry such as dance, theatre and film industry. Definition: The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the “New Negro Movement”, named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, many French-speaking black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance. PICTURES [pic] New York Dance Club 1923 [pic] Jazz Orchestra Houston Tx. [pic] Fashion models listening to radio [pic] News [pic] Dance club : Cotton Club [pic]

Free Essays

Music, Race, and Nation

Peter Wade’s Music, Race, and Nation is a book that takes a long look at something that the author clearly has a passion for. Not only does Wade have a clear and honest passion for the cultures of South America, but it is clear through his writing that Wade has spent plenty of time researching the things that he writes about. In the book, Wade’s primary goal is to shed a fun and interesting light on the cultural dances which are such a part of the culture in places like Colombia. After reading the work, it would seem foolish for anyone to argue that Wade did not achieve his stated objectives, as he clearly hits the mark with both his message and the overall presentation of that message to the reader.

The basic themes presented in this book are a bit heavier than one might expect when they pick it up, but after reading, one can clearly understand why they were included. In Colombia, the music is a huge part of the cultural fabric there. In a nation that has long been dominated by white people and their overbearing culture, a mostly African dance takes hold and becomes a staple of the country. In order to truly understand the social dynamic that exists in Colombia, one has to understand the interesting dynamic presented with the relationship between the music and the people who enjoy it.

Wade seems to understand the importance of this theme and because of his understanding; he does everything within his power to impart that knowledge to those who read the book. The presentation of this theme is somewhat different when compared to other works, but in the context of his objectives, the presentation certainly works.

Before Wade gets started with the deeper and more complicated themes in his book, he makes sure that the reader has a strong grasp on the history of the subject at hand. Because the majority of people reading his book do not have a firm understanding of the basic pretenses on which it was written, Wade had to give those readers a crash course, or else they would be lost. In this regard, he succeeds beautifully.

The organizational tactics used in this work give the reader a chance, while other books with similar themes might preclude those people who do not already have a basic understanding of Colombian culture. From that history, Wade does not just jump to his next theme. As any good author would, he builds upon the history that he has established in order to show how the music and dancing is interwoven into the country’s history. This is a very interesting way to present a thesis to readers and in this case, it is an effective means to the stated end.

In this work, Peter Wade sticks to the point and never deviates from that. This is a fine line to walk when it comes to presenting a book with some history involved. Authors want to include enough information so that their readers can understand, but they do not want to include so much information that the readers feel like they are taking another history class.

Wade walks this fine line and never falls over into the dreaded scholastic feel with this work. He gives the reader exactly what he or she needs and he does not do it with much fluff. The styling of the writing is simplistic enough to stay on point, yet it flows with enough grace to be easily readable. In short, Wade hit a home run with his diction and style. His writing is almost like the dance that it is describing.

When one considers this book’s overall contribution to the topic that it addresses, it is easy to see why the book has been so successful. Though a few books have been written about South American music and South American culture, few have done it with this much passion. When the author cares about the subject matter contained in the book, that comes out through the writing.

After flipping only a few pages, readers can tell that they are reading a work by an author that has a deep, profound understanding of Colombian culture. In addition, this book speaks to the importance of the Colombian music in the development of the culture of that country. This is an important theme that absolutely must be captured if individuals want to fully grasp the culture of Colombia. In regards to impact, it sheds a positive light on something that people did not know very much about. It brings to the forefront a brand of music that helped create a nation and helped create a culture that is often misunderstood.

The work is a good one for a number of reasons. No book can be considered perfect, but this one is perfect in that it achieves its set objectives. When writers like Wade pour their heart and soul into the research of a subject, the resulting work bares that out. Music, Race, and Nation is one of those works.


Free Essays

Music and Crime

Music and crime are two very distinctly different but related things. Music has effects other than providing pleasure to listeners. On one hand, music may affect emotions in such a way that it may trigger a person to justify a criminal act. On the other hand, it can also help suppress a potential criminal’s emotions, which may possibly prevent crime from happening. For most people, classical music is that which usually has a positive effect. It may calm the violent instinct that is deep within a person, especially those who have no other means to release these instincts.  Thus, classical music may have a negative effect on crime.

Music and crime can be correlated through an individual’s mood. The mood that music inherently suggests is usually reflected in one’s thoughts. To clarify, crime may be usually driven by a person’s mentality, while music can influence one’s thinking.  In some forms of music, there are seemingly subliminal messages that may cause a variety of effects for different personalities. The subliminal messages that could influence a person can be a contributing factor in crimes (Cooper).

However, other forms of music, like classical music, are popularly believed to have positive effect that can prevent potential criminals from committing crimes. For instance, some studies also show that classical music has the effect of keeping the violent instinct down.  This can be attributed to the kind of slow, meditative and soothing quality that classical music has in trying to deal with certain elements, such as brute force and violence.

It can bring back gentle and tender memories of a person, which would most likely result in bringing out the gentle emotions that a person might have hidden deep inside of him (Partenheimer).This can have the unexpected effect of eliminating the kind of violent instinct that leads to crime.  For instance, in West Palm Beach, Florida, authorities found that playing classical music in the streets have lessened the criminal incidents in the said street (USA Today).

Everyone is subjected to music with embedded messages.  There are kinds of music that seems harmless and innocent that may actually influence one to commit crimes if it has an embedded negative message.  This occurs because people have different levels of comprehension; these negative messages may unconsciously encourage them to commit crimes.

If a person was exposed to music with a positive message, like that of classical music, the person that might have been previously inclined to commit crimes will be persuaded to gently stop committing crimes.  Moreover, a person’s mood can also be influenced by music.  Basically, it works in the same way subliminal messages do. However, it only targets more of the emotional side of a person (Wilson).

People who might have been in the mood for violent acts or criminally prosecutable actions will be very reluctant to engage in these kinds of acts if there is a big emotional weight pressing their feelings. This is the power that classical music has; it is capable of influencing the kind of mood that a person has. Classical music may help encourage resistance for criminal thoughts that will prove to be beneficial to one’s psychological state.

Classical music has the kind of ephemeral quality that the human mind cannot possibly comprehend in all its subtleties.  For this reason, the mind cannot actively stop the kind of influence that music exerts. The human mind unconsciously follows the lead made by the kind of music it is exposed to since the sounds are not hindered by simple syntax of human language. The kind of wordless but emotionally tangible quality that is inherent in classical music takes it straight to the inner workings of the human emotion.

There is nothing but the defenseless inner self or ego that bears to receive the kind of message that the music has.  Since classical music transcends the usual human emotional barriers through its capability to affect emotions, the person’s thoughts and mood is usually affected as well.  In turn, it also strongly influences the actions of the person. Classical music is powerful because it targets the basic emotions that can influence a person’s intention to commit crimes.

In addition, classical music can influence a person in a relatively peaceful or positive way.  Even if there are various reasons behind criminal or deviant acts coming in many forms, all of them are at least connected to some emotions as part of the underlying reasons hidden deep in the part of the human psyche. Classical music, which has an unfathomable effect on the human psyche, can highly influence a person’s decision to commit a crime.

In conclusion, classical music is conducive to positive emotions; therefore, it has a negative effect on crime because it triggers a positive effect on one’s emotions and thinking.  The effect of such musical forms and the mood it represents has the capacity to diminish a person’s violent instinct, as well as to keep criminal thought at bay.  In this way, classical music can be instrumental in preventing crimes.

Works Cited

“Classical Music on West Palm Corner Deters Crime.”  USA Today. 8 July 2001. The Associated Press. 22 March 2008  <>

Cooper, Candy. “Subliminal Messages, Heavy Metal Music and Teen-age Suicide.” San

Francisco Examiner. 29 September 1989. 5 March 2008 <>

“What are subliminal effects?” World of Mouth Experiment. 2007. 5 March 2008


Wilson, Stephanie. “The effects of Music on Perceived Atmosphere and Purchase Notions in

Restaurant.”(Abstract). Psychology of Music 31.1 (2003): 93-112. 5 March 2008 <>

Partenheimer, David. “Violent Music Lyrics Increase Agreesive Thoughts and Feelings,

According to New Study.” APA. 2003. 5 March 2008 <>

“Classical Music on West Palm Corner Deters Crime.”  USA Today. 8 July 2001. The Associated Press. 22 March 2008 <>



Free Essays

Musical Performance

The history of music predates the written word and is tied to the development of each unique human culture. Music has been used as meditational music since the very dawn of civilization, because it balances the human organism through its rhythmic pattern of tones, which are generated in a harmonic relationship with each other. Mantras originated in the Vedic religion of India, later becoming an essential part of the Hindu tradition and a customary practice within Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. Indian music and mantras bring us back in to the physical world every day.  Most of the indian songs were written by  saints for devotion and meditation. This music was created in order to give people better feelings.

Not long ago I visited the concert of a not very famous group “Atmosphere”. It consisted of two women who chanted mantras and three men who played some instruments. Those instruments included pakhawaj , violin, flute. The most exotic of those instruments were pakhawaj and flute. Pakhawaj  is a long bodied wooden drum with both ends covered in skin. Played horizontally with the fingers and palms of both hands, the right hand surface is tuned to the pitch required and the left hand surface provides the base. Flute, carved from bamboo, is made in every possible size. It is usually played in a vertical position.

The combination of the sounds made by those instruments was excellent. The music they played was composed by the members of those group. They took the text of a famous Indian mantras and  composed  a modern joyful music for chanting it. Actually, when they were singing and playing they were meditating themselves. Moreover, a lot of people sitting in the hall were meditating too. While singing the women were dancing. There were no special costumes, except an embroidered Indian shirts. Of course they were influenced by some chanters of mantras, but intheir group they expressed their individualities. To tell the truth, I liked the style of their performance greatly. I think it was a good idea to combine mantras with a modern music.


“Atmosphere: Music Group”. (2006). Retrieved January 28, 2007, from


Free Essays

Musical Theatre – Fiction Assignment

Andrea drives a car through busy New York traffic (‘A Good Start of the Day’) and receives a phone call from Miranda who orders her to get her car from auto care, her dog from a vet, and bring them to Miranda’s house. When Andrea comes to report to Miranda that everything has been done, her boss tells her that she was supposed to bring the car and the god to the office instead of Miranda’s house. She tells her assistant that everything should be by the door of her office in 15 minutes (‘15 Minutes’).

The atmosphere in the headquarters of ‘Runway’ is tense and almost hysterical (‘The World of Fashion’). When Andrea fulfills these directions, they leave for a preliminary show of the latest collection of a prominent designer (‘Behind the Scenes’). Andrea proves to be more qualified than Emily, and Miranda decides to take Andrea on an important business trip to Paris — the fact that deeply offends and disappoints Emily (‘Paris, Je T’aime Moi Non Plus’). When Andrea comes home that night, she realizes that she forgot about her boyfriend’s birthday (‘This Not-so-special Day’), and their relationship teeters at the lip of abyss.

Act 2

Miranda and Emily arrive to Paris; they attend top-notch fashion shows and receptions (‘Eurostar’). Andrea occasionally meets Christian whom she knows from New York, and the romantic atmosphere of Paris makes her spend a night with him. However, in the morning she realizes that she made a mistake and finds herself missing Nate (‘Charms Are Frail’). On board of the plane that carries her back to New York, Andrea reconsiders her lifestyle and values (‘Home Again’).

She is unhappy to return to her busy workplace (‘The World of Fashion: Reprise’). She decides to quit her job and strike a better balance between her professional and private life. Before leaving, she presents all the designer clothes to Emily (‘These Little Pieces of Fabric’) and in this way denounces the importance of looks and fashion. The musical ends with a scene of Andrea reunion with Nate (‘Being True to Yourself’).

Character List

Andrea Sachs: She is a young graduate from Midwest who has just moved to New York to look for a job at a magazine or newspaper. At the beginning, she is confident of her abilities, yet she is easily confused by vibrant New York life and tough approach of her new boss.

Miranda Priestley: She is a powerful and authoritarian editor of the ‘Runway’ magazine. She has connections both in the press world and in the world of fashion; however, she often demonstrates her power by maltreating her subordinates.

Emily: She used to be the first assistant to Miranda before the arrival of Andrea who proved to be more competent and was promoted to Emily’s position.

Nigel: He is the art director of ‘Runway’ who often advices Andrea on how to dress with taste and deal with Miranda’s whims.

Nate: He is Andrea’s boyfriend who suffers from lack of attention and condemns her girlfriend paying too much attention to her job and her looks.

Christian: He is a magazine writer who fancies Andrea and eventually seduces her into a romantic adventure in Paris.

Chorus: Chorus, together with Nigel, performs ‘The World of Fashion’ song and serves the purpose of conveying the atmosphere of fashion industry characterized by (quoting ‘Sunset Boulevard’ musical) ‘whispered conversations in overcrowded hallways.’

Song List

Act 1

A Good Start of the Day (upbeat)

15 Minutes (upbeat)

The World of Fashion (dance)

Behind the Scenes (upbeat)

Paris, Je T’aime Moi Non Plus (ballad)

This Not-so-special Day (ballad)

Act 2

Eurostar (upbeat)

Charms Are Frail (ballad)

Home Again (ballad)

The World of Fashion: Reprise (dance)

These Little Pieces of Fabric (upbeat)

Being True to Yourself (ballad)


There are three different set: headquarters of the ‘Runway’ magazine, Andrea and Nate’s apartment, and Paris. The first set features the use of bright lights, crowd, hallstands, and various posters from fashion shows. The second set should convey the calm and comfortable atmosphere of New York middle-class couple. The third set features some of the landmarks of Paris (e.g. Eiffel Tower) and creates the atmosphere of excess, lush, and festivity. Almost all costumes used in the musical should be expensive and fashionable designer clothes; the only character that wears casual clothes in Nate. No special effects are used, but the song ‘The World of Fashion’ is accompanied by a ballet.

The theme of the musical is the balance between professional and public life and hard choices people have to make. It also deals with the ability to stay honest and kindhearted under the pressure from inhibiting circumstances.

Free Essays

Musical Subculture

Punk rock is primarily a British musical genre that reached its creative and popular peak during 1977 and 1978. The precursors of punk rock were those American and British groups of the late 1960s and early 1970s who played rock music with an aggressive feel, with loud distorted guitars and nihilistic lyrics. While most punk rock groups drew influence from some earlier bands, they were specific about rejecting the majority of music produced in the early 1970s. In particular, punk rock musicians did not like what they termed the hippie music of progressive rock. Central to any discussion of punk is the band The Sex Pistols (Sabin 78).

Not the first punk rock group but certainly the most influential was The Sex Pistols. The group was formed in late 1975. Shortly after this the band started touring on the pub rock and college gig circuits. Early songs such as ‘Submission’ and ‘Anarchy In The UK’ lyrically mocked what the band perceived to be the traditional and boring nature of British society. They were against a backdrop of rambunctious guitars and drums. It was not long before The Sex Pistols attracted a fanatical following of punks equally disillusioned with British society and culture (Sabin 123).

The media furore that made early Sex Pistol’s gigs was nothing in comparison to the outrage that emerged after their actions in December 1976. Following the cancellation of an appearance by the group Queen, The Sex Pistols were invited to appear on the early evening London television show Today. After drinking heavily before the show, the band verbally insulted interviewer Bill Grundy, and caused a tabloid storm with their explicit language.

This set the stage for the release of their ‘God Save The Queen’ single, a week before the Queen’s Jubilee weekend in June 1977. Again tabloid newspapers and the public in general were shocked by the band’s direct attacks upon an institution central to British society, the monarchy. In particular the record cover, created by the band’s ‘Art Director’ Jamie Reid, created a sensation with its image of the Queen with a safety pin through her nose (Sabin 123-125).

‘God Save The Queen’ was The Sex Pistol’s high point. Later in 1977 the band released their one and only official album, Never Mind The Bollocks. Like all the band’s releases it came in a trademark Jamie Reid cover that mimicked the style of a ransom note, and contained direct attacks on central facets of British culture. The Sex Pistols found that they were unable to obtain gigs in Britain because promoters and venues showed an unwillingness to allow them to perform.

Band tensions reached a head following the band’s tour of the USA, and they split in early 1978. The band’s lead singer Johnny Rotten reverted to his real name John Lydon, formed Public Image Limited, and left the punk rock genre. The band struggled on in his absence, but the drug-related death of bass player Sid Vicious led to their inevitable demise (Strinati 89).

However, some commentators claim that the ‘spirit of punk’ is not to be found in those groups who sound like their 1970s counterparts, but in the house, techno and jungle acts who make music for reasons other than commercial gain. For many of the first generation of punk rock groups, making music was about ‘making do’ with the available technology, and they were therefore opposed to the kind of learned musicianship of previous rock genres. It is understandable that house, jungle and techno acts, with their cheap sampling equipment and their own production technology, consider themselves to be the direct descendants of the first punk rock bands.

The Sex Pistols were attracting media attention, a whole wave of other punk rock bands were forming, notably The Damned and The Clash in London and The Buzzcocks in Manchester. Although none received the same mixture of notoriety and fame as The Sex Pistols, many considered them to be musically more interesting. In the wake of the successes of The Sex Pistols, many young people began to form their own bands in 1977 and 1978. In particular these bands developed a ‘DIY’ attitude to making music. The Sex Pistols developed different styles of punk, but maintained a central ethos of opposition to mainstream British society. Either implicitly or explicitly, this political ethos was central to punk rock (Sabin 103).

The degree to which The Sex Pistols has influenced subsequent rock styles is hotly debated. Throughout the 1980s, new bands formed and drew inspiration from the events of 1976 and 1977. In particular, indie bands’ faith in the seven-inch single and suspicion of the LP has been interpreted as directly related to punk’s ‘DIY’ approach. Musically, The Sex Pistols has been particularly influential upon American bands, with Nirvana, Hole and Mudhoney all having had chart successes in Britain. These ‘post-punk’ bands developed a similar sound to the stripped-down aggression of the first generation of The Sex Pistols. Some British rock groups, such as The Wildhearts, Therapy and the Manic Street Preachers also have their musical roots in punk rock (Curtis 60).

In fact, the absence of a symbol of class solidarity made The Sex Pistols more important than it had ever been before. Moreover, punks realized that they no longer had to be passive spectators, for rock ‘n’ roll had always meant self assertion of one kind or another. In this sense, the key punk song is the Sex Pistols’ “No Feelings,” especially the line, which Johnny Rotten screams over their version of the wall of sound, “I’m in love with myself.” What we have here is an assertion, not of a political program, but of the discovery of what Daniel Yankelovich called personal entitlement.

The Sex Pistols made a terrific impact because through them their audience discovered that they didn’t have to go through their lives saying “sir.” It was as though they had discovered the working-class equivalent of black pride, and had realized that they didn’t play the equivalent of Uncle Tom to their betters—or to their peers, either. After seeing them for the first time, Coon noted:

What impressed me most…was their total disinterest in pleasing anybody except themselves. Instead, they engaged the audience, trying to provoke a reaction which forced people to express what they felt about the music. Quite apart from being very funny, their arrogance was a sure indication that they knew what they were doing and why (Coon 70).

For many people, spiked hair and dog collars had become a joke, the domain of soda pop ads and television dramas. But did punk disappear with the utter sell-out of its foremost corporate spokesband, the Sex Pistols? Did punk rock vanish when pink mohawks could be found only on pubescent heads at the shopping mall? If the spectacular collapse of punk rock was also the collapse of spectacular subcultures? What crawled from the wreckage? In what ways can young people express their unease with the modern structure of feeling? A new kind of punk has been answering these questions.

Today, to a certain extent, punk rock means post-punk – a nameless, covert subculture reformed after punk rock. To recap: early punk rock was, in part, simulated ‘anarchy;’ the performance of an unruly mob. So long as it could convince or alarm straight people, it achieved the enactment. For its play to work, punk rock needed a perplexed and frightened ‘mainstream’ off which to bounce. But when the mainstream proved that it needed punk rock, punk’s equation was reversed: its negativity became positively commercial.

As mainstream style diversified, and as deviant styles were normalized, punk rock had less to act against. Punk rock had gambled all its chips on public outcry, and when it could no longer captivate an audience, it was wiped clean. Post-punk, or contemporary punk, has foregone these performances of anarchy and is now almost synonymous with the practice of anarchism. Long after the ‘death’ of classical punk rock, post-punk and/or punk subcultures coalesce around praxis.

The Sex Pistols called attention to themselves with their clothing as well as with their music. The torn clothing, which they wore, like the tattered shirts, the chains wrapped around their bodies, the safety pins in their cheeks, said something of great importance. The Sex Pistols created a fresh moral panic fuelled by British tabloids, Members of Parliament, and plenty of everyday folk. Initially, at least, they threatened ‘everything England stands for’: patriotism, class hierarchy, ‘common decency’ and ‘good taste’ (Curtis 98).

When the Sex Pistols topped the charts in Britain, and climbed high in America, Canada, and elsewhere, punk savoured a moment in the sun: every public castigation only convinced more people that punk was real. Fortunately, The Sex Pistols meant more than excitement in a few clubs and big sales in safety pins. The Sex Pistols also produced one of the great bands of the seventies—The Clash. If rock ‘n’ roll is a universe, The Clash and the Sex Pistols are different planets.

Works Cited

Coon, Caroline. The New Wave Punk Explosion, New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1978.

Curtis, Jim. Rock Eras: Interpretations of Music and Society, 1954-1984. Bowling Green State University Popular Press: Bowling Green, OH, 1987.

Sabin, Roger. Punk Rock, So What? The Cultural Legacy of Punk. Routledge: London, 1999.

Strinati, Dominic. Come on Down? Popular Media Culture in Post-War Britain. Stephen Wagg. Routledge: New York, 1992.






Free Essays

Music is the speech of angels

Music is the speech of angels. Angels are the exemplifications of goodness, uprightness, and everything that bespeaks of morality and mortality. It is said that music is the child of prayer and the companion of religion. Among the Hindus and the Egyptians, music is interwoven with religion. I

Aristotle, the great philosopher, saw in music not only enjoyment, relaxation, and recreation, but also release of tension and an incentive to a positive development of character. Likewise Plato, another Greek philosopher said, “Through music, rhythm and harmony find their ways into the inner-most soul of man which becomes part of his personality.”

Music is the unifying element where man finds adequate expression and inner satisfaction for feelings. Dignity and love of work is manifested in songs about the boatman (barcarolle), sailor (chantey) , and the farmer (Japanese rice planting songs). Early history of man has a treasure of  songs evoking friendship (English), victory (Greeks), grief ( Russians), and festivities ( French ). The Belgians have songs for bathing, and the Vikings also had songs about rowing their boats. John Dewey said in Sobritchea’s “ Famous People on Music”, As sculpture expresses the enduring, the stable , and the universal, so music expresses stir, agitation, movement, the particular, and contingencies of existence (47).

Music helps establish emotional integrity. Fully aware  of his social and moral responsibilities, the teachers uses remedial measures to extricate the student from delinquent situations, safe from the thorny clutches of evil and vice and from crime—through new musical presentations such as music in the puppet and marionette shows.

That music is a manna for emotional catharsis finds evidence in the continuing proliferation of music groups, vocal and instrumental, and in the various contests and festivals which allow the surfacing of talents of the people, young an old

( American Idol, Just for Variety et al ).

It is now generally realized  that music; brought about in ways that have meaning to the child, contributes significantly to building the child’s personal identity, enriching his life by developing understanding and perception in his social environment through sound, color, emotion, thought and social relationships and expanding his ability to imagine, create, and appreciate with discriminating judgment.

Human beings are lovers of music. Singing, according to Quema  Torrelavega in “ The Myths in Music”  was an ongoing even before the discovery of other countries such as the Americas (98). In Roman mythology, the spirits of the gods had to be appeased through songs. Prayers, lustrations and laughter were accompanied by songs. Music is a necessary ingredient in all ceremonies: weddings, delivery of the new baby, baptismal, etc. Music is the flavor of games, dances, worship, festivities, and other ceremonies expressing joy, humor, wonder, and sorrow.

Again to include John Dewey as cited in David’s “ Music’s Mystique”, said that music is also change. For Music is a discipline geared to the physical, social, and physiological developments of people, as well as to the socio-economic aspects that lead to the fulfillment of moral values.

Motivated and inspired to music, the out- of- school youth is more  than willing to sing and strum his guitar, if only to give expressions of enjoyment and pride in his chosen are- music.  People young and old, have developed a natural and perennial longing for cultural evidence local and foreign, and a feeling for increased involvement and a high level of participation. They seize every opportunity to go out not only to promenade in the streets but also to share, as willing and intelligent music consumers, to free concerts, recitals, vocal or instrumental and other presentations at open parks, cultural centers, art auditoriums, theaters, and other entertainment venues.

A powerful antidote to the multifarious problems of delinquency in this troubled world, music affords profitable changes in man’s societal surroundings (89) , according to Peaches Noveuelli  in her book ”  The Fancies and Guiles of Music”.  Cultural exchange in the performing arts have paved the groundwork for deepened social, and moral goodwill amongst people—Asian, European and the like. Music has effected the blending of culture of the east and west.

Music serves as the liaison between the youth and his stand in the community, socially and morally. Singing native songs becomes a pleasurable campaign to propagandize the country’s vast reservoir of human talent.

Music is a very important vehicle in the extension of man’s love of country. It is a strong medium that strengthens nationalism and solidarity. The reference book,  “The Legacy of Euripedes” by Edward Romulis states that Hungarian music educators – Zoltan Kodaly, and Bela Bartok, introduced folksongs-the supreme expression of life, play, and work – as the core of their music curriculum (90). Frederick Chopin, the great Polish composer, known as the Poet of the Piano expressed the national sentiments of his people through his polonaises.

Music has a deep respect for the beauty of nature. To achieve beauty, the composer utilizes a kinship of many elements: melody, harmony, rhythm and dynamics. Through music, man attempts to reduce phenomena into matters of order and definite form. With sound and silence as basic components, music is delivered into varied styles whether in the haunting and mystic music of the East or to the acculturated music of the West.

Music is a testing ground and clearing house for talents. Shinichi Suzuki has spent more than three decades teaching violin to children. Music  is a mental discipline, after all, and oftentimes demands training, schooling, and guidance.

Music performed as solo or in groups has been one of countries’ big “exports”—be it choral or instrumental. The creative rock and pop singers, the gyrating combo players in their new age music, and other instrumental players are tangible evidences that they are substantial contributors to the country’s coffers. Music is really an impetus for progress and indispensable in the enhancement of the quality of man’s life. Music’s continuing attention for aesthetic pleasure is adequately shown in Chopin music, romantic violin concertos, or in the magnificent operas, sonatas, and symphonies of the elite society to whet the appetite of music lovers.

The only bad effect that can be mentioned of music, is the effect of some forms of innovations in music, like rap and spoken word music, because they tend to increase the hyperactivity of the youth of today,[ sometimes, the young merely opt to have their earphones plugged into their ears, even during class hours, and they do not listen to their teacher’s lectures anymore ], but this is problem that can be handled easily, through discipline measures, like detention.

But, this aside, one thing remains, that music knows no bounds.


David, Lucianno.  “ Music’s Mystique”

Dell Publishing: Chicago, 2000.

Noveuelli, Peaches ”  The Fancies and Guiles of Music”.

9th gate Presses: Italy, 2001.

Romulis, Edward.  “The Legacy of Euripedes”

Blaisdale Publishing: London, 1996.

Sobritchea, Paulinho. “Famous People on Music”.

Wagonhouses Books: London, 1999.

Torrelavega, Quema.  “The Myths in Music” .

Harper and Row: USA , 1997.


Free Essays

Music and Violence: Still a Concern in 2007

Media effects have been a hot topic in United States social history, especially with the newest in technology, which brings video and film to the personal computer and ipod.  However, one of the most long-standing debates does not concern new technology, but an older medium – music.  For nearly five decades, psychologists, scientists and parents have expressed concern that music lyrics could affect listeners and behavior, even violent behavior.  Despite some switch in focus to violent and sexual content in film and internet video, music lyrics still hold concern for their possible contribution to aggressive behavior in the United States and elsewhere.

In response to this concern, many public and private investigations have sought to reach some sort of conclusion on the impact that music lyrics may have on aggressive behavior of young people.  The 1982 National Institute of Mental Health report noted that media violence, including violence in music, was a “serious threat to public health,” and by the 1990s, most research concluded that “media violence on aggressive and violent behavior was real, causal and significant” (Anderson, et al.

This was followed by a Congressional Public Health Summit which consisted of six medical and public health organizations.   Their conclusion delivered as a joint statement of all was that “entertainment violence can lead to increases in aggressive attitudes, values, and behavior, particularly in children” (Anderson, et al., 2003).

These research organizations define aggression as “any behavior that is intended to harm another person” and can include not only physical aggression, but also sexual aggression, verbal aggression, and indirect aggression.  Particular attention has be revisited on music lyrics with the rise in popularity during the 80s and 90s of the music video.

Researcher found that music videos are laden with violence and “explicit aggressive content” with “antisocial overtones” (Anderson, et al. 2003).  In fact, a study by However, Waite, Hillbrand, and Foster (1992) found that aggressive behavior in a forensic inpatient ward decreased significantly after MTV (Music Television) was removed from the television offerings.

Additionally another group of researchers found that males who listened and viewed violent music videos exhibited a significant increase in “adversarial sexual beliefs and negative affect” (Peterson and Pfost, 1989).  Additional this group also found that college students who listed to rock music with antisocial themes self-reported a wider range of acceptance for antisocial behaviors. Additional studies also followed test subjects for several years and report that violent music videos can have long term negative and maladaptive effects on young people (Anderson et al, 2003)

One performer who has recently fallen under close scrutiny is Marshall Mathers, known to listening fans as Eminem.  Eminem’s character, Slim Shady, appeals to teenagers because her represents the extreme emotions which range from outrage to helplessness that are so common in the lives of adolescents (Doherty, 2000).

Eminem is profane, rebellious, determined to be himself, to speak what he takes to be the truth about his emotions and what he sees around him. He’s all the more determined to do so if it pisses off authority figures. And in a world largely dominated by modern liberal cant, the best way to outrage adults is to come across as anti-gay, anti-woman, and pro-violence. As Eminem says in “Criminal,” “Half the shit I say, I just make it up to make you mad.” Such an attitude speaks directly to adolescent anomie and rebellion (Doherty, 2000).

Lyrics such as this draw teens into the world of Slim Shady, identifying with him and adopting his style of dress, attitudes and behaviors.

Now, these lyrics are even more damaging, according to Myronda Reuben of WBLX in Mobile, Alabama.  She says that music now holds less hope and fewer positive possibilities in the lyrics:“Back in the day, when a rapper was talking about ‘the life,’ it was usually about getting out of away from the violence and the streets.  Now the music glorifies it, and there are so many contradictory messages out there” (Hall, 2000).

Another example is the phenomenon known as Hip-Hop. Researchers note that these songs target what is known as “marginalized youth,” which is defined as those that experience the “most dramatic social pressures” (Violent Music Lyrics Increase Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings 2003)  in life, such as economic, family and behavior issues.  These individuals who listen to rap are more likely to become violent. Hip hop music seems to have the common theme of drug use, alcoholism, Aids, and murder.

Thus, results of several experimental studies show that subjects who listened to violent songs were more likely to interpret ambiguous words and phrases as aggressive, and to having “increased feelings of hostility without provocation or threat”  (Violent Music Lyrics Increase Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings 2003).

These violent songs with their aggressive thoughts and feelings have daunting implications for real world violence, notes Anderson cited in the aforementioned article:

Aggressive thoughts can influence perceptions of ongoing social interactions, coloring them with an aggressive tint. Such aggression-biased interpretations can, in turn, instigate a more aggressive response–verbal or physical–than would have been emitted in a nonbiased state, thus provoking an aggressive escalatory spiral of antisocial exchanges…(Violent Music Lyrics Increase Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings 2003).

It is easy to see why these concerns are in place when one examines the lyrics from two hip hop songs that have been at the very top of the Billboard charts as cited by Senator Brownback (1998):

“F– home we capture with more hits and slaughter more kids…

You know for real the nig– came f–in’ sucked my d–…

I have nig–z falling like white b in a scary movie…”


“I’m known in the ghetto for slangin’ narcotics…

I come up short I’ma bust yo’f–in’ lip up

Cuz money and murder is the code that I live by

Come to ya set and do a muthaf–in’ walk-by.”

These lyrics from the songs “Get at Me Dog,” by DMX and “Come and Get Some” by Master P show the explicit references to killing, racial slurs, sexuality and drugs.

Ironically, these chaotic songs are highly organized and effective at targeting youth and maximizing profit, which tends to squelch legislative attempts at censorship.  Scholars have identified some particularly disturbing rap styles:  hustler rap, booty rap, pimp rap, gangsa rap, and don rap – all of which are considered as hardcore rap.  Hustler rap features a bad guy figure who dominates others through force, intimidation and/or seduction.

Booty rap applauds sexual shock and nonconformity with titles from the group 2 Life Crew like “Dick Almighty,” “Me So Horny,” and “The Fuck Shop.”  Pimp rap focus on money and sex; an example is P Diddy’s song “It’s All about the Benjamins.”  Finally, gangsta rap emphasizes the acceptance of antisocial, often violent, behavior.  For example, NWA’s  (Niggaz Wit Attitude) album Straight Outta Compton offers a written thank you to:

“All the gangsters, dope dealers, criminals, thieves, vandals,

villains, thugs, hoodlums, killers, hustlers, baseheads, hypes,

winos, bums, arsonists, police, maniacs and bad ass kids for

listening to our shit…” (Lena, 2006).

Finally, don rappers (like Master P and Junior M.A.F.I.A.) combine gangsta rap’s emphasis on

violence with the pimp rap emphasis on money and sexual dominance (Lena, 2006).

These songs do translate into aggressive action.  For example, in the case of Mitch Johnson, the boy who was charged with killing four fellow students and a teacher in Jonesboro, Arkansas, frequently listened to violent rock and rap.  Mrs. Pelley is a junior-high-school teacher there who notes that after the shootings, several students revealed that Mitch had a morbid fascination with this type of music.  Mrs. Pelley discovered in a discussion with her students that while nearly ball of them could recite the violent and aggressive lyrics of songsw by Bone, Thugs-N-Harmony, and Tupac Shakur, nearly none of their parents had any idea about these songs and performers (Brownback, 1998).

The tragedy of Columbine is also linked to the music of the controversial Marilyn Manson, primarily because shooter Eric Harris’s website contained frequent laudatory references to the odd performer, and both shooters wore Manson t-shirts and recited his lyrics frequently.  However, many psychologists note that this type of violence hails from an inability to communicate hatred and rage, a characteristic that these lyrics definitely do NOT have (Sanjek, 1999).

Violent results from these songs are not limited to school kids.  In fact, one of the newest controversies concerning music lyrics hails from the dancehalls of reggae.  Dancehall reggae lyrics have a long history of aggressive content.  One popular artist is Buju Banton, whose 1992 chart topper called ‘Boom Bye Bye” explicitly urged listeners “to burn, shoot and pour acid on gay people”  (Werde, 2004), and Artist Beenie Man’s hit “Weh Yuh No Fi Do” similarly argues that  gay men should die.

Luckily, gay rights activists have been able to convince some of these dancehall sponsors such as Red Stripe Beer and Pepsi, to exert pressure on these performers to tone down their acts.  A group of sponsors did issue a statement to this effect, saying “that the continued use of violent lyrics could ultimately lead to the decline of our music industry, as well as a social and economic backlash” (Werde, 2004).

It’s disappointing to realise that in the 21st century there are still people who want to belittle or frighten other people for their own amusement. Aren’t we better than this? Aren’t our musicians better than this” (Debbonaire, 2006).  While violence is rarely linked to only one source, certainly the draw of aggressive music lyrics must share in the responsibility for aggressive behavior in youth.

Possibly because of the enormous profit to be made by this music and possibly because of the first amendment, which protects speech, these lyrics are allowed onto CDs and on videos.  Despite warnings and labeling movements, any youngster who wants to obtain a CD is likely to be able to.  If not, the most vulgar of these artists perform and release their CDs underground, where they can be copied and spread among these teens.

The best defense against song lyrics is parent involvement and participation.  Open discussion will do a lot towards deflecting some of the adverse effects of violence in music.  While song writers will do what makes money and kids will buy what music is hot, adults need to take a stand to ensure that this sad trend does not get any worse.


Anderson, Craig A. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in

the Public Interest 4 (3), 81-100.

Brownback, Senator Sam. (1998). The melodies of Mayhem. Policy Review, 92

Debbonaire, T. (2006).  Domestic Violence: Are Song Lyrics Really To Blame?  BBC Radio.                  Retrieved 2 June 2007 from


Doherty, B. (2000). Bum Rap.  Reason 32 (7)

Hall, D. (2000). Violence In Lyrics, Life An Issue For Radio. Billboard 112.27

Lena, J.C. (2006). Social Context and Musical Content of Rap Music, 1979-1995. Social Forces   85.1: 479-495

Peterson, D.L., & Pfost, K.S. (1989). Influence of rock videos on attitudes of violence against

women. Psychological Reports  64, 319–322.

Sanjek, D. (1999). Paying the Cost to Be the Boss. Popular Music & Society 23 (3), 25-29

Violent Music Lyrics Increase Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings. (2003). Journal for Quality &

Participation 26 (2):46-47

Waite, B.M., Hillbrand, M., & Foster, H.G. (1992). Reduction of aggressive behavior after

removal of Music Television. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 43, 173–175.

Werde, B. (2004). Reggae Boycott. Rolling Stone, 961, November 11.


Free Essays

Music History: Renaissance Era

The Renaissance was the great age of vocal polyphony, music consisting of a number of equally important voice parts all woven together to create a complex tapestry of overlapping melodies and beautiful harmonies. In religious music, the primary compositional forms were the Mass and the motet, while in secular music they were the French chanson, or song (for three or four voices), and the Italian madrigal. Instrumental music was not, for the most part, as formalized during the Renaissance as it would later become.

Instruments were used in varying combinations to accompany singers (in both religious and secular music), to provide music for private entertainment and dancing, and to provide festive or ceremonial music for towns and royal courts. Principal instruments of the period included the lute, organ, and harpsichord, viols, recorders shawms (double-reed precursors of the oboe), cruhorns (also double-reed instruments), trombones and trumpets (Gangwere).

Among the most important composers of the Renaissance were Guillaume Dufay, of the so-called Burgundian school, centered at the court of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon France and Johannes Ockeghem, Jacob Obrecht, Josquin des Prez, and later, Orlando di Lasoo of the Flemish school (Pen).

The Mass

The unvarying structure of the mass, the constancy of the text, and the solemnity of function were not conducive to musical experimentation in mass composition. Flemish masses still used the cantus firmus techniques of the earlier Burgundian masters. In the hands of exceptional composers such as Giovanni da Palestrina the mass was a highly devotional and serene expression of the liturgy, perfectly suited to the austerity demanded by the Counter Reformation. Palestrina’s flexible arched melodic lines, his studied use of consonance and dissonance, and his beautifully constructed harmonic sonorities became the model for generations of counterpoint teachers (Hoffman).

The Motet

The early motet (from the French word meaning “word”) frequently contained different texts in various languages for each voice parts. Complexities of word setting and tone painting were simply not an important aspect of the music for early motet composers. As the humanism began to exert its influence, composers grew more attentive to text setting. The single text was the motivating force for the motet. Each section of music was presented as a separate musical episode that attempted to highlight the clarity of the text as well as to convey the emotional impact of the words.

This style of sensitive text representation came to be known as music reservata. Composers developed specific techniques for the musica reservata style. Second, the natural speech rhythm was matched by melodic rhythm so that the words were correctly accented. Third, syllabic treatment of text and expressive figures were used to portray the message of the text (Hoffman).

The Chanson

Chansons were three-voice secular works in which the music closely mirrored the meaning of the French poetic text. The text, usually an expression of love, was in rondeau form with a two-line refrain (A B a A a b A B). Although they may have been performed entirely by voices, the usual presentation probably featured a solo voice on the top (superius) line with the bottom two polyphonic lines played by instruments (Hoffman).

Other musics such as chorale, anthem, psalm settings, frottola and madrigal are legacies of Renaissance period. It was only during the Renaissance that musicians begun to recognize the idiomatic potential of instruments and consequently began composing in particular genres intended for instrumental rather than choral performance (Pen).

Works Cited

Gangwere, Blanche. Music History During the Renaissance Period, 1520-1550: A Documented Chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.

Hoffman, Miles. The Npr Classical Music Companion: An Essential Guide for Enlightened Listening. Houghton Mifflin Books, 2005.

Pen, Ronald. Introduction to Music. McGraw-Hill Professional, 1992.


Free Essays

Music Classroom Management

Classroom management is a challenge in any field. Effective classroom management in music classes or performance ensembles has the additional challenge of having to be able to encourage creativity and self-expression.  Gordon reflects that there are significant stress factors in music classes that it is critical that teachers develop all the necessary skills not only to ensure the artistic and educational value for students but also to endure that classes also fulfill teachers (162-164).

Considering these, music educators have to adapt standard classroom management skills to accommodate the nature of music as an expression and art (Moore et al 5-8). This entails an understanding of the students learning and performance, indicators of learning, manner of interaction and physical set up of the classroom. Those these factors are not the only ones to be considered, they are basic factors that are to be considered in any music classroom (Gordon 158-159).

Students Learning and Performance

Music classes require greater participation form students not only in discussions but also in actual performance. Similar to a physical education class, performance serves as the students’ main means of participation but music students are still required to master knowledge as they would in a science or mathematics class. Therefore, students will need equal amounts of knowledge in literature to allow understanding of notations and technique whiles at the same time just as much instruction to translate it to actual performance (Moore et al 37-40).

According to the Teacher Vision sponsored article Strategies for Developing Basic Music Knowledge, this entails a child learning essentials of form in holding an instrument as much as learning to read notes. Both elements of learning are critical in music education which in a standard classroom for other disciplines may not be required as much. In other disciplines, there is a general inverse relationship between “book learning” and performance.

At the same time, much of the studying that students do for the class lies beyond the direct control of the teachers. Mastery is of knowledge or a piece must be translated by students into practice. It thus becomes even more critical that students are driven to develop positive learning attitudes in students because of the interdependence of learning and practice in student performance (“Discipline Strategies in the Music Classroom”).

Indicators of Learning

As mentioned, there is an equal emphasis on the theoretical and practical application of music learning. However, music teachers also give greater allowance to the manner of performance to accommodate technique or style. Since music is inherently an expression, there should be an expectation that there are variances to the performance (Moore et al 17-23). Though mastery either in performance or form is a common indicator of learning, it should be remembered that it is not universal. Since musical aptitude varies greatly from one individual to another, standards may be developed in a progressive scale (Gordon159-160).

After students learn the fundamental of music, the development of performance indicators becomes more challenging for music teachers. One suggestion for the qualitative indicators cites that learning in music must create value, allow for expression and be a tool for communication.

Teacher Vision suggests that is important that students be able to learn the value of musical learning which can be indicated by the reflection and insight students make from the lesson of musical piece (“Strategies for Establishing a Thinking Music Classroom”). Next, students should be encouraged to use the learning as a means of expression whether directly or indirectly. Finally, music should create a foundation for communication for students whether they are performers or not.

Manner of Interaction

Communication and interaction is one of the most important elements in any music classroom. Since feedback is critical in improving performance, teachers have to develop interactivity among students. This is to be done by developing a communication platform among students and with the teacher that can facilitate not proactive critique and reinforcement as well as encourage accommodation or assimilation of various styles and techniques (“Strategies for Making Music Happen”).

Though these are also critical in any standard classroom, music teachers have to develop this to a higher degree because of its significance in terms of encouraging expression and performance. This is even more critical in classes were there ensembles: in this scenario, individual students’ performances become only an element of the performance of the group (Moore et al 46-48). Students need to work more closely together or depend much more on each other’s performance and this in turn will require greater sensitivity in terms of managing friction among students (“Strategies for Making Music Happen”).

Physical Set Up

In a similarity to learning requirements, music classrooms must be set up to be conducive both to learning and performance wither individually or as a group. It should be helpful to develop specific sections of the room for specific uses or groups so that study can be done independently. Sectional divisions should be appropriately sized according to the needs of a section and ordered according to their association with other sections. These should also afford opportunities for collaborations as they may be needed (Moore et al 22-29).

There should be particular attention given to the care and safety of not only students but instruments. Since most schools also use the music classroom to store or maintain instruments, a portion of the room should serve not only as warehouse. At the same time, there should be common area for performance or instruction. The common areas also serve as cohesive factor for the class (“Discipline Strategies in the Music Classroom”).

Works Cited

“Discipline Strategies in the Music Classroom”. Teacher Vision. 16 April 2007. <>

Gordon, Debra G. Discipline in the Music Classroom: one component contributing to teacher stress. Journal Music Education Research (2001) Volume 4, Number 1. Pages 157-165

Moore, Marvelene C., Batey, Angela L.,Royse, David M. Classroom Management in General, Choral and Instrumental Music Programs. The National Association for Music Education, 2002

“Strategies for Developing Basic Music Knowledge”. Teacher Vision. 16 April 2007. <>

“Strategies for Establishing a Thinking Music Classroom”. Teacher Vision. 16 April 2007. <>

“Strategies for Making Music Happen”. Teacher Vision. 16 April 2007. <>






Free Essays

Music Business Merchandising and Law

Discuss how the Music Business is a system comprised of principle subsystems.

There are several key components to the success of an artist in the music business. These components support one another, and enable each to complete tasks that are designed to further the marketability of an artist or group.

One such component, or subsystem, is the agent. The agent acts as the legal representative of an artist. This person, or company, manages all of the legal issues associated with an artist’s image and career.

Agents, typically, are the face of the artist to the business world. These agents meet with promoters, and venue owners to secure the performance rights, and facilitate touring. They also ask as mediators between the artist and publishing companies to ensure that all legal issues are addressed, and that the transfer of the artist’s created materials are handled in the proper manner.

Another aspect of the agent’s responsibility is to maintain and negotiate contracts for the artist, with their respective parent companies. This is to ensure that the artist receives all the proper representation that is required to ensure that the contracts that the artists are bound by are fair, and ethical.

The next subsystem is the parent company itself. Often referred to simply as the “label”, record companies are the binding source of power within the music business. The label is the enterprise which holds the contracts, oversees promotion, ensures distribution, and holds the records on taxes, royalties, and payments to the artist and all his/her employees.

Record companies range in size, depending on the scope of their enterprise. Small or independent companies typically handle and short list of clients, and are able reach a limited area for the release. The larger companies are multinational conglomerations that hold interests in hundreds of artist. These companies are able to reach markets the world over. They also, typically, oversee a wide range of music business genres.

The next part of the equation is the distributor. It is the job and obligation of the record distributor to procure the reproduction rights of an artist, produce large quantities of the product, and ensure that the product is available for the public demand.

Just as the record company, record distributors range in size and scope. With the small companies reaching a localized market, and the larger, international companies, reaching every market available, the distributors serve the record companies directly. Though they are dealing in the product of an artist, they rarely deal directly with them.

It has only been in recent years that the Music Business has had the ability to find and foster increasing numbers of qualified leaders.

The music business, though in existence for centuries, has only in the past few decades created an environment that fosters a profitable medium. The earliest professional musicians were limited to audiences of royalty, and noble elites – for they alone possessed the wealth enough to pay for such extravagances.

This early form of the music business was also limited by the desire of the leading nobles or royalty in the scope of content and style. The musicians, such as Mozart, in his day, were allowed to create only what was pleasing to the royal court – and profited very little from it.

However, in the 20th century, artists began to see a freedom that had eluded them in the past. With the increasingly large audience base in the United States, artists from multiple genres were able to procure livable wages in town halls and theaters.

Following World War I, there was a large outcry for artistic expression in the arts in the United States – and a boom of employment followed. The era of the Big Band, saw music leaders, such as Duke Ellington, tour the entire country – playing their own music and earning their own wages.

This boom in musical freedom peaked in the 1950’s with the rise of “Rock and Roll” – and such artists as Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis and Roy Orbison. The late fifties, though socially repressed, saw the first millionaires rise from the music industry – and along with them, the rise of the industry itself.

The era of Sun Records, in Memphis Tennessee, showed the music world that vast amounts of income that could be generated with a properly maintained and well organized corporate entity. The number of record companies increased drastically, and by the early 1960’s there were dozens of large scale companies operating the in United States.

The next big step came in the form of British artists. The arrival of The Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and other English groups into the United States, opened the door for the first multinational company holdings. The rights of these groups to perform and sell their records within the United States meant that American companies had to hold part of their ownership. Soon this would lead to the expansion of American companies to other countries, to acquire the artists directly, and increase the profitability – by eliminating the shared contracts.

Today, we see companies such as Sony, Viacom and Time Warner, as companies that are reaching every part of the globe, and dealing with not only music, but all ranges of entertainment arenas. These world wide conglomerations hold interest in hundreds and thousands of entertainers each, and command vast amounts of yearly income from the music business alone.

Discuss the emphasis placed on the fact that Performing Arts Professionals rely heavily on a full staffed support system to gain and sustain success.

The amount of legal issues that govern an artist today is nearly as expansive as the United States tax code – which is also one of the many things that must be dealt with. The time that is necessary to maintain accurate records, deal with all of the promoters, distributors, lawyers, and agents would be impossible for a single person, or even a small group of people, to undertake.

Nationally marketed artists have dealings with thousands of people that are related to the marketing and distribution of their product. This is why the music industry has created several specific positions that are intended to deal directly with each facet of an artist’s career.

There are tour managers who deal directly with local promoters and venue owners to schedule events and solidify contractual necessities. There are also public relations agents who deal with the entertainment press and ensure that all the necessary information about an artist is available for public knowledge – or in some cases, unavailable.

There are also entertainment lawyers whose job it is to ensure that all of the issues that involve the artist are dealt with accordingly. These issues may include copyrights, ownership of the material, and/or the transfer of these from one party to another.

Another very important part of an artist’s career management team would be the accountant. As we have seen with artists such as Willie Nelson and others, improperly managed income can result in terrible personal and economic costs to the artist. The amount of time that is necessary for this task to be maintained successfully, in the cases of especially large acts, is hundreds of hours per week – of course impossible for the artist to worry about and still maintain a career in music.

Finally, there are the people whose job it is to ensure that every recorded track is perfect, and marketable – the producer. Today’s recording technology is vastly more complex and sensitive than was seen even twenty years ago. The expertise that is necessary to operate and adjust the sound boards for a recording artist takes years of training within itself.

Some of these producers, such as Bob Rock and Jermaine Dupri, have as much recognition as the artists that they support. They are also some of the highest paid professionals within the music business – as they often hold a large percentage of the finished product’s copyright and therefore, profits.

What are the FOUR FACTORS which represent the essential core foundation contributing to the success of those who “win” in the Music Business?

The first factor is marketability. This is the ability of an artist to create a body of work that is acceptable to the largest possible audience. The more people who would listen to an artist’s chosen style, the easier it is to sell and profit from that style.

The term “Pop Music” is the very definition of this. With artists today such as Jessica Simpson and Kelly Clarkson, who produce mainstream music that pushes few boundaries, the ability for the record companies to market these artists is greatly increased.

Next would be the playability of an artist. This is the ability for an artist to be broadcasted on radio stations and television networks. It is important that an artist be able to be broadcasted on national radio stations to ensure that the artist is heard by the largest possible number of people – thereby increasing the possible number of record buyers. There are acceptations to this rule, however. Groups such as Korn and Pantera have each had number one records in the United States – with little or no airplay. This leads to the next factor – touring.

Touring is the best tool that an artist can utilize to see that their work is seen by the public. Tours are usually very profitable ventures, the most often the source of greatest amounts of income for the artist or group. Tours also enable the buying public to see, first hand, the musical ability and entertainment value of an artist.

Some artists, such as the Grateful Dead and Phish, never had large numbers of record sales, however their non-stop touring schedules ensured them a strong fan following and large profitability. Both bands also used a tactic that brought them much success as artists, but not as enterprises, the use of bootlegged recordings. They allowed audience members to record their performances and sell them on their own, without fear of reprisal. This created a strong fan solidarity, but most certainly contributed to their low actual album sales.

Finally, there is the factor of performance, itself. No artist or group could maintain a career without an enjoyable and entertaining performance. The necessity for performance is at the root of an artist’s success. Combining talent, creation and execution in the proper construct will make for a successful artist. As seen with groups such as The Door, who were arguably the most intellectual group of the 1960’s, saw their popularity plummet as the drug and alcohol induced antics of front man, Jim Morrison, became belligerent and sometimes, combative to the audience.

The Business of Music: This encapsulates the sum total of all issues that are involved in the recording, marketing, and obtaining of profit from music. The enterprise of music involves thousands of titles and positions that work to ensure the profit of an artist or group. Though, sometimes seen as the driving force behind musical trends, the business of music is intended to see that all possible musical endeavors are profitable and lucrative.

The New Professionals: This is a description of groups of people who have left their original positions – such as lawyers, doctors, or CEOs etc. – to become involved with the music business. These people are shown an opportunity to capitalize on an artist or venture relating to the industry and have the resources to embrace it.

Though not always long term, these professionals see the allure of the music business in much the same way as the artist. The desire for fame and fortune inspire these professionals to endeavor to make their fortunes in this business. Often taking to the production chair, or the marketing position, these people attempt to create a sustainable income promoting, producing, or investing an artist or group.

Versatility: This is the ability of company to encompass multiple genres within their network. This ability allows for a single company to reach a diverse audience and increase the sales numbers of the company itself. Also, this enables a company to reach an audience with a diverse selection of musical tastes. For example, should a prospective record buyer feel that the standards of a company are high; they may pursue an artist from the same company, but outside of their normal listening area.

This also allows for a single company to manage markets in multiple countries. Sony, for example, is a company bases in Japan, with holdings in many countries, in including the United States. Their diverse distribution enables Sony to sell to countries with different languages, genres, and preferred media.

Job Floating: This is a term used to describe an artist who has yet to sign to a set contract, but has a marketable body of work. Much like “Free Agency” in professional sports, Job Floating is the passing of an artist from one agent or producer to another, in hopes that this artist would either sign to the company, or record their project with a reputable producer.

This allows a record company to obtain distribution rights to an artist’s work without that artist signing a committing contract with that company. This option increases the ability for a company to reach the independent markets, as well as the mainstream.

Education: Education in the music business is the acquisition of knowledge that better prepares the individual for all of the possible eventualities that arise within the industry. Just as with any other business venture, preparedness is essential to success.

An individual receives this education from any one of dozens of colleges or technical schools that offer such courses. These schools, such as Art Instruction Schools, International, offer in-depth courses that revolve around the information needed to succeed.

“Commercial” side of Music Industry: This is the area of the music business that is solely interested in the profit of a musical venture. These projects are often called “jingles” and used in advertisements and television commercials.

The artists that are employed in these ventures often differ from the mainstream artists, in that they do not attempt to create an artistic expression, but rather a short, and very memorable tune that can be easily identified with a certain product.

These ventures are also not intended for wide consumption. They are intended for short lived, commercial endeavors that seek to increase the sales of a product or service, outside of the music industry.


Ream, Rundi. “The Songwriter’s Guild of America”. SGA.COM. 2004.   Online access: 29        March 2008. URL:

“International Alliance for Women in Music”. IAWM.COM. 2006.         Online Access: 29      March 2008. URL:

Whitsett, Tim. “The Dictionary of Music Business Terms”.            Mixbooks. New York. 1998.


Free Essays


Just like most people, even Native Americans are fond of music. Music has been a universal language to people of different races or even to the different faces in the world. Music has been used centuries before in rituals, chants and dances. For the Native Americans music plays a vital role in shaping their history, as this is very important to their culture as a part of the ceremonies and customs that is led to their generation. The type of music that Native American tribes vary, it is dependent on their preferences and the music which represents their tribes. Gender plays an important role in their music, traditions reflect their kind of music and it greatly influences their preferences.

American Indians music is a platonic type wherein it is basically the homogenous in terms of rhythm and style. It is compose of tune that is predicted to their sense of culture. It is somehow their way of communicating is deeply rooted as their means of understanding themselves. Unlike most people the music that they choose are more on the basis of their product something that is heard only by them. Nowadays different people have similarities in music prefernces and is mostly influenced by one or the other, whether it be jazz, rock or pop.

The type of music that most native Americans listen are monophonic, which is sung with octaves by both men and women, the lyrics that are used are different yet the melody is still the same. Their type of music are usully the ones making unusual melodies and sounds in it but whats important is the story that these melody tells. The natives music piches are high and are in ramdom and is mostly accomodated by flute. This preference stioll varies from each tribe because of the cultural differences and practices that each tribe has.

Although these natives type of music are still intact and preserve, their traditional songs are also influenced and integarte with the modern type of music that we have now. Natives also considers the modern music as a good music because of the influenced by the other Culures like Europeans and the white americans. They are also engage in music such as rok, pop, alternative and love songs that we hear nowadays, through their integration of the cultures of others in order to adopt to the changes.

Teenagers of the natives are listening to hip hops and other new genres of music nowadays. They find these music a way of appreciating the type environment that they are in and in some case because this is what most people listen to as to a bandwagon thing. Their appreciation to the new genres of music is mainly because of the societal role it plays on their tribes or culture.

The Natives although appreciate the modern type of music has somehow managed to still practice and preserve the type of music that they have. Their traditional songs that are still handed down to the following genertaion, ceremonial type of musicis still practiced and are still used in curing the sick. They have their own types of love song that although has some influenced from the modern genres is somehow still reflective on the type of culture and practices they have. It is amazing that despite these changes that we have now, they still manage to parctice their music even if withoutn any music record or recording artist to make a hit.

Music has not onle been a form of entertainment but it has been a way of symbolizing an individuals confinement. Every individual has its own preference of music as this relate to them personally, whether it voices out their emotions or concerns on a particular thing. Muisc is hold to be pleasant as this deviates or soothes an individuals self, as this help a person to cope up. Music nowadays has greatly influence people as this is a universal aspect of communicating to those people with the same aspiration as the other.


Reublin R. & Maine B. (2000) Native Americans & American Popular Music. Parlor Songs.(Electronic Source) Retrived from:





Free Essays

Music Paper

In this essay an attempt will be made to compare and contrast the music styles and compositions of the two great musicians of 20th century: Charles Ives and Arnold Schoenberg.

Arnold Schoenberg and Charles Ives are considered as the important music composers. They succeeded in redefining the contemporary music. Initially, their styles of composition and music philosophy attracted a few criticisms although later the Musicians realized the real value of their music styles. In this sense, although both Schoenberg and Ives belonged to different music schools, they shared a few similar features. However, one can also notice many differences in their music styles and philosophy.

Schoenberg originally belonged to Vienna, Australia and later he settled down in USA. He and Charles Ives can be considered as the contemporaries. Schoenberg was also a teacher of the music compositions. There were different phases in his personal life. After his wife left him, Schoenberg began to compose several revolutionary musical notes.

He decided to give more importance to atonical music by rejecting the music with tones. In fact, this led to the establishment of the new school of music philosophy named the Second Vienna School of Music. Schoenberg, unlike Ives, had no formal training in music and he was a self taught music composer. He gave importance to the freedom of the aesthetic thought. (Danuser, 1998)

Particularly after the First World War, he composed several works. Schoenberg also decided to introduce the compositions with twelve notes which became very much controversial among the contemporary musicians. Initially, his new music attracted only a minority of music lovers. Later however, his music was criticized and even attacked by those people who did not like his music style. Schoenberg enjoyed the service of his students and he was able to obtain the support of the music composers such as Albon Berg and Anton Webern. The main interest of Schoenberg was to break the monotony of the classical musical notes.

He wanted to produce simple and clear music. He found that the contemporary music tones lacked this quality. When he introduced the music with twelve tones, he considered this as a great discovery. In fact, after 1950s, many music composers have used the ideas of Schoenberg and have contributed to improve the dynamic quality of music. Schoenberg can be considered as belonging to the school of experimentation and modernism as he believed in introducing something new after experimenting with the tones. He composed the works such as Moses and Aron and many other compositions. (Wikipedia, 2005)

Charles Ives, on the other hand, belonged to America and he was influenced by the American music composers and his own father who believed in experimentation. Ives used to accompany his father in the music composition and gained valuable experience to become an experienced music composer. His father encouraged him to experiment with music by introducing bitonal and multitonal compositions. In this respect, one can find similarities between Schoenberg and Ives. However, Ives composed more popular music although some of his compositions are known for their complexity of detail.

He also worked in an insurance agency. The series of heart attacks led to increase in the creativity in Ivy and in 1922 he published his book – 115 Songs. (Ives, 2005) This collection included the various songs which were composed during the different periods of his life. He also composed the dissonant songs such as “The Majority”. He believed in the combination of the popular and the classical music leading to the creation of bitonal music. Ives belonged to the school of experimentation and dissonance.

His philosophy of music is expressed by the use of the term “eternal question of existence” in his music. (Ives, 2005) He was influenced by the philosophers such as Emerson and Thoreau and this influence can be seen in the music composed by Ivy. However, his works, like those of Schoenberg, were also not liked by many music scholars as they could not understand his music philosophy.

Ives was more concerned with popular perception of his music as he included many American folk songs. He was also praised by Schoenberg for his original compositions. He composed the works such as Variations on America for organ, Central Park in the Dark for chamber orchestra, and The unanswered question for chamber group. (Ives, 2005)

In fact, Schoenberg was also influenced by the experimentation of Charles Ivy. However, later Schoenberg introduced the twelve note music. At the same time his music was not liked by the ordinary music lovers as they could not understand the complexity of his music. (Hawes, 1998)

The above details show that although both Schoenberg and Ivis belonged to the school of experimentalism, there were major differences in their music compositions. Schoenberg worked as a teacher which allowed him to interact with his students regarding his music compositions. His works are influenced by the European musicians although he wanted to discover something new. Ives on the other hand gave more importance to the American folk music and integrated it with the classic music.

He was also influenced by the American philosophers. However, both the composers were criticized for their unconventional approach to music. Both the musicians composed complex musical works which the ordinary people could not understand and appreciate. Schoenberg gave importance to the German tradition. He was influenced by the German composers such as Mozart, Beethoven, Wagner, and Brahms. He believed in the music philosophy of serialism which gave greater order to the twelve notes created by him. He also believed in the philosophy of modernism as he modernized the classical music by introducing radical changes to the earlier German compositions. (Modernism, 2005)


Danuser, von Hermann. (1998). “Arnold Schönberg – Portrait of a Century”, Arnold

Schönberg Center, retrieved online on 10-12-2005 from <>

Hawes, Peter. (1998). “Learning to Love A Cranky Composer”, Yale Alumni Magazine,

retrieved online on 10-12-2005 from <>

(2005). “Arnold Schoenberg”, retrieved online on 10-12-2005 from

<> last updated in November


(2005). “Charles Ives”, retrieved online on 10-12-2005 from

<> last updated 10 December 2005.

(2005). “Schoenberg’s Harmonielehre: Modernism through Tradition”, retrieved online

on 10-12-2005 from <>

Free Essays

Age Requirements in the Music Industry

Music brings excitement to everyone’s lives. It goes without saying, music industry is a youth dominated business.  Music creates huge portions of popular cultures, promoting fashions, make-up, automobiles, popular hangouts and latest technology. People behind scenes in music business targeting youthful audiences bring in most revenue. Performer’s ability to portray sex symbolic image determines, to a large extent, record company’s success.

Age Requirements;

When professionals force very young children into stretching their vocal chords to match pitches in high notes above treble staff, when a child is given drugs to work longer hours while keeping up with school work, it is too young. When an older person no longer wants to make efforts to appeal to audiences, that is when they are too old. Madonna, Tina Turner and Janet Jackson did not acquire their sex symbol images by accident, regardless of how beautiful they were when they were born. When a “stroke of bad luck” involving serious health problems, is another time when a person is too old for the music industry. This can occur at 20 years old, or it may never occur. Music industry professionals are not concerned with actual ages, as they are with possessing appearances and talent appealing to youth and ability to hold audiences.

“Although Bocelli was exposed to different styles when he was young, its been my experience age doesn’t matter. What matters is a willingness to do what it takes. I have used methods to assist many singers into developing new styles, regardless of age” (Goodrich, 2007).  Carrying off a sexy singing voice is equally important as carrying off sexy physical image. Many auditions forms ask a persons age range. Age range refers to the age performers can portray. Very often, a 40 year old person has an age range of 20-25; likewise very often, a twenty five year old has an age range of 40-50.

Sex Symbols;

“Audiences today have a very short attention span. An ability to intrigue an audience is mandatory” (paraphrased, Ravelo, November 1, 2007).  Sex symbols definitely intrigues audiences, initially. Anyone can look like a sex symbol. Sex symbol status, like it or not, is determined by weight management. Rules of statistics do not apply to people keeping youthful appearances years longer than expected. Singers such as Beyonce, Madonna, PussyCat Dolls are superior role models for women. Their hairstyles, fashions, physique contribute to their identity of being a sex symbol.


Even with stricter laws on underage drinking, and the nightclub staff, many underage people successfully enter into clubs. All night club personnel must attend classes and pass a mandatory exam regarding laws. Fake identification cards, or theft of someone else’s valid ID’s are one way it is done. Legal parents or guardians accompanying their children can legally enter into night clubs and drink, as long as the beverage is served to the parent, and they parent gives them the drink. Sometimes managers bend rules allowing underage people into the club.

And sometimes unmentioned arrangements are bargained with between the club and the state and city law enforcement agencies. Clubs who ID every person walking through the door, are probably the ones pulling something under the table. Nightclubs appeal to youthful crowds. Usually, nightclubs target age groups by music selection. Sometimes a persons choice of music reveals their age. People educated in music will listen to all types of music.


Music industry has no age requirements. Music industry requires targeting youthful audiences at any age. Popular culture, which is youth oriented, is often associated with music. Music videos are full of sex symbols, including Justin Timberlake, Elvis, Ricky Martin, Usher, Gwen Steffani, Christina Augillera. Sex symbols in music industry serve as wonderful role models for all people of all ages. People who are in the spotlight also have a responsibility to ensure their behavior is worth copying. The media and Christian groups love to “throw dirt” on anything or anyone presented as a glamorous sexy superstar. Music video industry has talented sex symbols of all ages.


Goodrich, M. Can Style Be Learned? Voice Movement; Published November 2, 2007; Date retrieved November 3, 2007

Ravelo, H., Kuhn, S., Bickelmann, L., What Top Three Things Make a Successful Actor; Ask A Pro. Published November 1, 2007; Date retrieved November 3, 2007

Free Essays

Music Festival Featuring Adrian Brendel and Till Fellner

Adrian Brendel developed a strong affection towards music while a student at Winchester College, Cambridge University.  At the college Frans Hermerson, one of his tutors at Cologne music Conservatoire, lectured him. Some of his contemporaries on master level include; Alban Berg quartet and Gyorgy Kurtag. He was also a member of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, one of the most prestigious young artist schemes from 2002. He is the brainchild of Music at Plush, musical season held yearly in summers in Southwest England.

Andrian Brendel is a showman with a crooning voice that is clear and elaborate. He is oriented towards classical attunement, always with a comprehensive edge of the composer’s intentions. Andrian Brendel has earned himself an icon of a cellist musical vanguard in our contemporary generation. He has been staging dramatic solo musical concerts all over the world. He is a good team collaborator who has worked with musical juggernauts like Imogen Cooper, Paul Lewis, and Till Fellner among others.

In this research finding, however, we are centered on Adrian Brendel and Till Fellner. Adrian father is known as Alfred Brendel an octogenarian musical Icon, they have also been timing up with his father to perform Beethoven’s music for cello and piano in huge gatherings worldwide with promising appeal from the public. With his dad they have recorded Philip’s and the translation of a colossal A major Sonata, which featured notably on the BBC channel among other explicit musical and radio channels.

Their modest concert expositions have been centered in Amsterdam, Lucerene, Florence, Frankfurt, and Royal Scottish national Ochestra. He has gone beyond as far as recording for radio companies including BBC, ORF, and NDR, WDR all based in Europe.

Till Fellner

Till Fellner was born in Vienna in 1970 and he went to further studies with Meira Farkas, Oleg Maisenberg, Claus-Christian Schuster and Alfred Brendel the father to Andrian Brendel. Till Fellner musical career has seen him perform in most cherished orchestras, this include; the St Martin in the Fields, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Camerata Salzburg, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, among others.

He anchored his musical career on the international scenes when he won the first prize at the prestigious Clara Haskil International Competition in 1993. His chamber music constituted the Alban Berg Quartet, Lisa Batiashvili, Adrian Brendel, Mark Padmore and not forgetting heinrich Schiff.

Till Fellner has greatly moved around the world pocking in most incredible musical centers in continental Europe, America, Australia and Far east. He has also featured in crucial world festivals, just but to name a few;  Scubertiade Schwarzenberg the Mozart festival New York and this where they teamed up with Andrain Brandel where they aroused the crowd.

Felliner’s first performance was in 1995, he then featured mostly in New York with big time orchestras like the Chicago Symphony and the Los Angeles Philharmonic.

Felliner has shared the honor of Tobey Maguire a Spider-Man movie star, its true that he doesn’t parallel Maguire in terms of screen persona though his has been persistent in his music that is unfailingly earnest. It is evident that most of Fellner teachers have complimented his musical ingredients that are inclined towards premiership. Kent Nagano a conductor upholds the notion that Fellner’s music has a special kind of truth and natural character.

Brandel and Fellner

Mr. Brendel and Feller met in 1990 at Vienna Conservatory School where Fellner was studying. At this juncture Brendel had an opportunity to listen to Fellner and it sounded fantastic for his music was agreeable to him. They have been meeting occasionally to discuss on repertory and playing on two pianos.  Mr Fellner and Adrian Brendel have since been performing in many concerts and even in birthdays.

One summer they perfomed for Brendel senior, Adrian’s father in his 75th birthday. They performed ‘Lied’ during this occasion. Lied is dubbed from a British composer Harrison Birtwistle written as an honorary piece dedicated to the elderly Brandel. These duets have been complimenting each other and Brendel concur that Fellner is predominantly an intellectual player.

Recently, Till Fellner and Adrian Brandel have featured in musical season was scheduled 2006-07. They perfomed in myriad places which included Montreal, Paris, London, Tokyo, New York among others. In New York they staged a duo tour with Adrian Brandel. Tell Fellner has recorded myriad prolific CDs that have been selling explicitly, the first book of Bach’s ‘The well tempered Klavier’ was realesed in 2004. Because of Tinnitus complication, an ear sickness, he had to terminate a musical concert that was held in Mozart festival at Lincoln in 2005. He however undergone treatment and he performs even better that before.

Music mood

Andrian and Fellner constitute a very magnificent duo; poetic, ingenious, coherent, dynamic and well matched musical artists. In the event that Brendel’s intonation is not realistic, both that duet could refine the music within its boundaries. The Duet brings out explicit melodies that rhyme with the aura of passion; their stage is typically formal precisely, and more so when they hinge on the outer-movement rewind.

The guitar like paraphernalia is harmoniously employed in blending the melodies. Held between the knees and bowed it ushers a flowing and impish scenario. Lied’s piece of art comes out in a screaming tone that fill’s the room melancholically; the sound however is sepulchral, economic and spare, it portrays the oozing darkness. These variations were likened to the Chinese whispers.

The Lied piece progress in a mood that was symbolic, with course dichotomies and outrageous declamations, that depict somber atmosphere perhaps more to those connotations in funeral. The performances evolve in splendid demonstration where the duet depict and eludes from the mythic archetypes. Persons in search of heroism would definitely seize the opportunity to dub a few magnificent traces in the sonatas played by the duet. Something close to the heroic Beethoven, the heaven-storming romantic.

The music unfolds tentatively with hypnotizing tones that traverse across the rhythmic domains.

They brake into elementary eccentric point that disappears in thin air leaving a polite silence. The chronological presentation of the sonatas F sharp and the E minor and E flat was an indication of predominant musical ingenuity that exposed the duet’s musical wit, vigor, power and vitality






Free Essays

How Urban Centers Affect Music Development

How did the rise of urban centers and trade affect the development of music? What where those developments? The Middle Ages spanned from approximately 400 to 1400 A. D. In these times there was a lot going on historically that changed the world as we know it. I am going to write about one of those things that was responsible for altering the way that music had been developed. Mainly about the economic expansion that changed the way that music as a whole was to be defined. With the growth of the population came the progress of certain economy’s.

One of these would be in agriculture. Since there was a boom of people inhabiting the areas like Italy and England there was a need to farm more and so this prompted people to come up with better ways to farm. As they boosted the agricultural output the population grew as well. This led the possibilities of the expanding population to be able to pursue other forms of work and other different long distance trading opportunities. This gave more free time to be more creative in the arts. Does this affect the development of music? Yes, it has a huge affect!

Instead of music being mostly just a thing of the church it gave the people the time to explore their own interest in music. Individuals got to be more creative and actually were seeking employment in these different subjects. Instead of just being confined to music of the church they would teach music or put on shows. With the economy expanding as it was there was a market for the more wealthy couples to want to go be entertained and see live performances. There was also more experimentation of different kinds of music which sparked things like musicians being more creative about their music making.

Music was also regularly being put into written form so that it was available to more and more people. Unlike when music was stuck solely in the church. Music was affected by the explosion of the economy in the middle ages and love of music and expression was available to more and more people. This is still true to this day. Sources: The Middle Ages Dr. Maureen Miller http://chnm. gmu. edu/courses/westernciv/video/miller1. html Medieval Guilds Gary Richardson, University of California, Irvine http://eh. net/encyclopedia//article/richardson. guilds

Free Essays

Music Analysis

STUDENT SAMPLE 12:30-1:45 October 7, 2010 Contextual Analysis From Protest to Peace In Coldplay’s “Violet Hill,” an anti-war theme unfolds along with opposition of political and social issues. From a relatively obvious perspective of a soldier to subtle remarks regarding modern media, Coldplay pieces together a protest song that steadily speaks out against the flaws of the American government. Quite similarly to Green Day’s “American Idiot,” the concept of a nation being persuaded by mass media and entertainment is heavily focused on.

Coldplay effectively attacks the imperfections and controversies of the American government through their protest song “Violet Hill,” while providing lyrics that are relevant to the majority of Americans. “Violet Hill,” released in 2008 during the second term of President George W. Bush, is a protest against both war and the media’s failure to allow individuals to think for themselves. No particular war is explicitly addressed here; however the media is illustrated as modern, so the meaning can be applied toward the Iraq war. A large portion of this song contains implicit lyrics, which must be analyzed to determine possible implications.

The way in which this song perceived is not directly affected by the lyrics, as the majority of the lyrics are implicit; this requires a more in-depth analysis of the lyrics in order for the perception of the song to be changed. One of the most fundamental pieces of a protest song is its effectiveness, namely how it is taken in by its audience. Coldplay, a British pop group formed in 1997, has released songs that have topped the charts, specifically “Viva La Vida,” released on the same album as “Violet Hill” in the summer of 2008.

By virtue of being on an album that was such a hit and coming from a group that is world-renowned, “Violet Hill” has been able to reach the audience of young adults all the way to middle-aged citizens. Since the release of “Violet Hill” release in 2008, thousands of troops have been withdrawn from Iraq, and Obama has pledged that all US troops will be out by the end of 2011. As well as Coldplay’s “Violet Hill,” Green Day’s “American Idiot” is well-heard because of Green Day’s popularity and timeframe in which it was released. American Idiot” was released 2004 during Bush’s presidency, and both of these songs are effective in persuading the thoughts and actions in our nation’s citizens. An interview of Chris Martin, Coldplay’s lead vocalist, was conducted by Brian Hiatt of Rolling Stone Magazine in 2008. Hiatt picks apart each song in Coldplay’s album, “Viva La Vida. ” During the interview, Hiatt asks, “Was the song inspired by Fox News? ” The lyrics which Hiatt references are “by a carnival of idiots on show,” and “and the fox became God. Martin responds, “No one’s got that before, no one in the band, no one. ” Martin later goes on to say, “My best friend, Tim, he’s a musician in a band called the High Wire, but he also has to work in a bar. He was having trouble with his boss, and it made me think that so many people spend their lives being told what to do by people that they just don’t like. ” Using the situation of his friend Tim for some inspiration for the song, Martin translates this same situation into the song, only portraying him as a soldier out at war. Martin also notes that the song takes a shot at FOX News.

He says that after watching Billy O’Reilly on FOX one day, he decided to add focus to the media into this song. In “Violet Hill,” Coldplay sings, “and the fox became God. ” This subtle lyrical metaphor implicitly reflects how American people often act solely on what the news and media tell us to do, or believe what they want us to believe. Green Day’s “American Idiot” relays the same message: “Don’t wanna be an American Idiot / don’t want a nation under the new media…Television dreams of tomorrow / we’re not the ones who’re meant to follow. Coldplay states, “When the future’s architectured / by a carnival of idiots on show / you’d better lie low…” This media is exactly what is shaping the youth’s perspective and outlook on the future, which in turn is the future of the nation. The “idiots on show” are the news stations and media who skew the meaning of different situations to fit what they want you to see. When Coldplay says, “You’d better lie low,” they are referring to the youth, warning the adults of these kids to be careful about what their children’s future is shaped around.

Following the previous lyrics are even more lyrics aimed at the media. Coldplay sings, “If you love me / won’t you let me know? ” This is sung from the viewpoint of the youth, pleading to the media for truth instead of a twisted representation of the world. The anti-war element of “Violet Hill” is presented very implicitly throughout the entire song. The song begins, “Was a long and dark December / from the rooftops I remember / there was snow / white snow. ” It begins with a steady beat of the drum, which gives the sense of soldiers marching into battle.

Later in the song, Coldplay sings, “Priests clutched onto Bibles / hollowed out to fit their rifles / and the cross was held aloft. ” These lyrics represent how many people find ways to validate war, even when there is no need for war at all. The priests, who traditionally reject the idea of war, find a way to justify it by holding on to their Bibles. However, they are only acting, because they carrying a rifle along with a Bible. At the same time, they hold their crosses up for the world to see. These lines represent the hypocrisy in America today.

Another selection from the song states, “Bury me in armor / when I’m dead and hit the ground / a love back home unfolds. ” This represents how many Americans have no problem with war until a loved one dies from battle, and how nobody respects those who fight for their country until they are killed at war. Another stanza is portrayed from the viewpoint of a soldier, “I don’t want to be a soldier / who the captain of some sinking ship / would stow, far below. ” This characterizes a soldier referring to the president, who is represented by the captain of the sinking ship, while America is depicted as the sinking ship.

The president sends off all of the soldiers putting them in the line of battle, and the soldiers are the ones he “would stow, far below” in order to continue the war. Similarly to this call out to the president, “American Idiot” refers to George W. Bush’s controlling campaign: “Well maybe I’m the faggot America / I’m not a part of a redneck agenda / now everybody to the propaganda / and sing along to the age of paranoia. ” The “faggot America” Green Day refers to is Bush’s work against gay and lesbian rights.

The “redneck agenda” is Bush’s southern roots running America’s government. Both songs attack the work of the president and cry out for a change in the government. The subtle implications in “Violet Hill” allow Americans to relate to the world around them and feel as though their opinions actually count toward a greater cause. Whether they are anti-war protest marches that citizens attend or those who simply think we need a new leader, these actions and thoughts are weaved together by Coldplay to produce a song that many can appreciate and relate to.

The personal aspect of “Violet Hill” is one of the keys to the effectiveness of the song, as it allows those who feel speechless and helpless to fell as if they are finally being heard. The cover painting of the album Viva La Vida, in which the song “Violet Hill” is found, has a painting of Liberty Leading the People by Eugene Delacroix. This is another strong indication of Coldplay’s anti-war messages presented in “Violet Hill,” as well as the entire album. Violet Hill is a landmark in Hong Kong that played a major role in the Battle of Hong Kong.

Violet Hill was invaded by the Japanese during World War II, but ironically this Violet Hill has nothing to do with the naming of “Violet Hill. ” On the other hand, Martin claims that the title of this song was inspired by the Beatles. Violet Hill is the name of a street in London that intersects Abbey Road, which is the name of one of the Beatles’ albums. The Beatles were one of the first artists to introduce the concept of a protest song, namely “Revolution” and “Bungalow Bill,” which later inspired Coldplay to produce their first protest song.

The themes of anti-war and rejection of modern-day media are intertwined throughout Coldplay’s “Violet Hill” to produce an implicitly elusive protest piece of art. Similar and comparable to other modern protest songs such as “American Idiot” by Green Day, this song provides a relevant and relatable topic for almost anybody. The different perspectives of characters in the song represent those who need attention most, while the subject matter illustrated by the lyrics applies to all Americans.

Free Essays

Music; the Savior of Life

Jacob Cheslock Ms. Smith World Literature, Hour 6 30 November 2012 Music: The Savior of Life One good thing about music, when it hits you, you have no pain—“Bob Marley. ” No matter what kind of music you listen to, there seems to be something about it that soothes, calms, or sparks the creative side of the mind. Ishmael Beah, a victim child of war, is very connected to music, using it to lose himself in it, forget about the war, and focus again on life just as many of us, including myself, do when life gets tough.

Beah, like many of the children in his generation, is very connected to the rap genre of music but for reasons other than because it is what is popular around him. Beah and his friends are first influenced by rap music when they see it on television at a neighboring village of Mobimbi. They are amazed at how good the black people could speak English so fast and to the beat of the music. This ends up becoming a way of life for the boys as they form their own dance team and end up carrying notebooks and cassettes with the music of their favorite artists to always work on music together.

They use this to express themselves and who they really are. After the war Beah ends up in a rehabilitation center called the Benin Home. The rehab process is a very long, hard, and painful process for not only Beah, but as well as all of the boys affected by this war. Beah however ends up finding his true self through the use of his music. It helps him to focus his mind and heal up from the damages of war. Thinking about the lyrics helps him to avoid the flashbacks and bad memories of the war, while opening up to the possibilities of life again.

Beah has had a super touch life, especially being a child and music for him seems to be not only a tool to help him, but something that he needs. He explains what it feels like to be one of the victims of war, which is what the music was used to cure, in this quote by him in his book “A Long Way Gone”, “One of the unsettling thing about my journey, mentally, physically, and emotionally was that I wasn’t sure when or where it was going to end. I didn’t know what I was going to do with my life. I felt that I was starting over and over again” (Beah 69).

This is the main reason why music becomes such an important aspect in Ismael Beah’s life just as it has become in my own. Music for me has always been something that I loved. It has helped me through many times where I felt alone or when something was making life tough. I also music because by writing my own songs and lyrics it is a good way for me to express myself and who I really am. Whether I am listening to, playing, or writing music it seems like it flows through me like the blood in my veins. It can determine my mood or influence the mood I am in.

Music always makes me feel like I have a place in this world even when nothing else can and sometimes when no one else will…it is my best friend. Music lives within me, around me, and is what I can always fall back on. Being a child victim of war, Ishmael Beah connects himself to music to help cure himself to the damages of war and to help him focus on returning to a normal life, as I have even done a few times. Music is an aspect of life that anyone can use to get through life…no matter what has happened in your life, even if you have been to end and back. “Music IS the ultimate savior and friend of life. ”—Jake “ChEz”

Free Essays

Music: the Medicine of the Mind

Music can have effects on the human brain that are hard to exaggerate. For instance, a mere snippet of song can trigger one’s memories so vividly. A tune can induce emotions ranging from unabashed joy to deep sorrow and can drive listeners into states of patriotic fervour or religious frenzy–to say nothing of its legendary ability to soothe the savage beast. The study of how music affects the mind and the interconnection between music and the physical and mental health of human beings has been a subject of interest for many.

Music is known to speed the recovery of health ailments and has a calming effect on the mind. Music helps fight anxiety and has a soothing effect on the brain. Music may affect the brain/mind by increasing creativity and problem solving skills; concentration and memory; and speeding up healing. Music increases creativity and problem-solving skills. Music enhances creativity, by positively impacting the right side of the brain where most of one’s creative thought is situated and triggering brain centres which deal with enhancing creativity.

For example, according to the article “Healing by Music Therapy – Ragas” From the online magazine: ‘Akhand Jyoti’, certain ragas (A pattern of notes in Indian music that have characteristic intervals, rhythms, and embellishments, used as a basis for improvisation) activate the chakras of the body, thus giving the individual an added advantage in other creative tasks. Additionally, music increases spatial and abstract reasoning skills required in tackling problems, solving puzzles and decision-making.

Moreover, according to Eric H. Chudler, Ph. D. , a lecturer at the Washington University Faculty of Music, “the brain responds to the “Mozart Effect”; listening to classical music for a period of 10 minutes appears to increase your creative abilities. ” Therefore, listening to Mozart’s music positively affects the spatial-temporal reasoning, simply put; it ‘makes one smarter’. Furthermore, music increases concentration levels and improves memory.

According to the online article “The Brain on Music” by the neurologist Dr. Ellen Weber; “Classical music, such as Haydn and Mozart, often improves concentration and memory when played in the background. ” Hence, music helps increase your concentration levels a great deal. In addition, music has a calming effect on the mind, so, the calmer the mind, the easier it is to focus and concentrate. Additionally, music has been found to increase memory levels of Alzheimer’s and dementia patients.

The silence between two musical notes triggers brain cells which are responsible for the development of sharp memory. Flute music, and instruments like the santoor and sarod are recommended for the enhancement of concentration and memory. Also, classical music improves the ability to recall what’s retained in the brain in the form of memory. Strong beats cause the brain waves to resonate in synch with the beat, thus, leading to increased levels of concentration and increased mental alertness. Moreover, music acts as a catalyst in the healing process.

According to the online article “Music and the Healing Process” from the Thorburn Associates Acoustic and Technology Consultants website, “There is also significant research that music can be used in medicine to help manage pain, reduce anxiety…” Hence, music is an effective distraction from pain and suffering of the sick and injured, however, music not only diverts the mind from pain, but also helps bring about certain chemical changes in the brain, such as, enabling one’s mind to secrete endorphins that speed up the process of healing.

As a result, music therapy is recommended for patients of high blood pressure, heart diseases and even cancer, so, music may be considered as therapeutic in pain management. Therefore, listening to melodious, comforting music is sure to have a positive effect on the physical and mental well-being of patients. If not cure every ailment, music definitely creates hope in the minds of patients – a hope to recover. And when nothing else works, only hope does. To sum up, increased creativity and problem solving skills; concentration and memory levels; and speedy healing, are the effects music has on the mind/brain.

Music really affects the human mind a great deal. So much so, that it influences one’s physical and mental state. Music aids in the speedy recovery of ailments by diverting the mind away from the pain as well as through chemical changes in the brain brought about by music which catalyse the healing process. In addition music calms the mind, helps fight anxiety and has a soothing effect on the brain, thus, increasing one’s concentration and memory levels. Lastly, through triggering brain centres and stimulation of the right side of the brain, music enhances an individual’s creativity and problem-solving skills.

Free Essays

The Ways to Prevent Influences of Rock Music on Teenagers

The subject of rock has been controversial and a source of conflict between parents and children ever since it first appeared on the scene in the mid 1950’s. When Elvis Presley performed on the Ed Sullivan Show for the first time in 1956, the cameras only showed him from the waist up, because adults were offended by the way he shook his hips. The kids loved it! When the Beatles arrived in the mid 1960’s, parents were shocked again this time by the mop-top haircuts. But young people were swept away by the infectious enthusiasm of their music.

After the Beatles, more shocks were in store as groups like the Rolling Stones and the Animals popularized a more coarse, gritty, and vulgar style of blues-influenced rock. Rock and Roll has a major impact on our society and the way people acted. Early on the issues of cars, school, dating, and clothing, and the famous artists or bands that are singing them could really influence the minds of young kids. A lot of the songs would also talk about events or conflicts that people listening could relate too.

Topics such as sex and drugs that were pretty much unacceptable in the 1950s were starting to be in songs in the 1960s and 1970s, and now today rock artists such as Marilyn Manson sings about everything. Eventhough rock music is one of the arts that promotes creativity and expression, it still has negative effects on our society today, especially among teenagers. The first effect that we can see are rock music is a genre of music that uses guitar, drum and bass, which contribute to its noisy music.

Not only that, the most negative part of rock music is its heavy metallic sound, which unconsciously makes its listeners violent. Rock music can cause a phenomenon called nerve jamming which is similar to hypnosis. Rock music also an often-cited example in this case is that of a sixteen-year-old boy in Texas, U. S. A who was taken into a trance like state while listening to rock song that he became violent and unconsciously murdered his aunt.

After hearing the negative effects of the rock music, do we as parents would just sit idly by and continue to let the youth drift with rock music that turned out to have an adverse effect on them? Parents always want the best for their children. Thereby, there are several ways to control and prevent this problem from becoming rampant in our society, especially the youth who always need guidance and advice. The first ways that you can do as a parents to prevent the problem is monitor your children’s music the same way you supervise their use of television, videos, and the Internet.

Developmental psychologists and other researchers who study the effect of media on children have found that parents who are involved in all their children’s media choices have a great impact on taming its potentially destructive effects, such as encouraging aggressive behavior and reinforcing negative stereotypes about women and men. Luckily, as parents of young children, you are likely to be involved in buying the tapes or CDs, or borrowing them from the library, so music choices should be easy to monitor. But remember. The monitoring should be done on an ongoing basis.

There are other ways you-can maintain control such as stay involved and listen to your child’s music choices with him. If you find something objectionable, clearly explain in specifics why you’re concerned so that he begins to understand that you’re not just being mean and also you have valid reasons and particular values that you’d like him to understand and adopt. Also, don’t make the mistake of dismissing your child to his room to listen in private to music you don’t like: The more privacy he has, the less control and awareness you have.

You also must to make sure the rules apply to everyone. One way that young children are often exposed to music that may not be appropriate for their ears is through older siblings (and parents). If you don’t want your 6-year-old listening to music that offends you, you probably don’t want your older kids listening to it, either. Lastly, you can share your favorite selections with your child and make an effort to appreciate his music. Encouraging your child to explore different kinds of music is likely to benefit him in many ways.

In fact, our research shows that children whose parents introduce them to, and encourage them to listen to, a variety of music do better in school. Teenagers tend to get their style of dress from musicians that they like. Singers and songwriters have always set the tone for fashion trends. The music and fashion industry have become so intertwined that recording artists are now using their fame to sell their own fashion line of clothing. The rock fashion including black nail polish, waist chains and black makeup fashions are from rock music.

For example Sleeveless T-Shirts Rock Band became very popular sense awesome bands like AC / DC, Metallica, Poison, Ratt, Ozzy & others made prototypes all the Rage. The band Nirvana brought the Grundge look to the masses in the 90’s. Although this look started out in the city of Seattle, USA, it quickly became a popular fad. Even now in our country, we can see that young children wearing head skin pants, leather jackets, cut rock hair style and so on, where they take advantage of clothing shows how the singer or bands that they like. Follow clothing trends favored artist directly cause teenagers tend to follow the development of the artist.

Parents should better monitor and take care of what are their children wearing even where they are, especially the teenagers because this group is more likely to follow changes in fashion and always want up-to-date. Parents can control with a fashion review and selection of children’s clothes when they go out shopping. In other way, although the parents just give children pocket money for the teenagers to buy their stuffs or things that they want parents need to find out what fashion and how clothes and the bought by their teenage children.

As a conclusion, rock music seems to be the most controversial but it also has many positive influences that should be taken in to consideration. There are some negatives that come with it, and those should be filtered out by the parents. So, the next time your child wants to listen to a song they like, instead of immediately refusing, listen with both ears. You will learn much of what your child likes and dislikes. You will gain insight into the thinking of your child. You will also learn what to absolutely deny your child.

Free Essays

Hank Williams

Hiram King Williams, also known as Hank Williams, was born on September 17, 1923 in Mount Olive, Alabama. His dad was Lon Williams, a locomotive engineer. His mom was Lillie Williams, a church organist. Hank spent most of his childhood in Georgiana and Greenville, Alabama. Hank Williams was a key person in the development of modern country music. He caused a shift in country music from a regional, rural phenomenon to a nationwide, urban acceptance in the late 1940’s. He turned “hillbilly” music into country music. He became interested in music at a very early age.

He learned to play the organ from his mother. He could also play the harmonica. His mother gave him his first guitar when he was eight. His father walked out on the family when Hank was a young child. It became the responsibility of his mother to raise Hank and his siblings. She was a very strong willed woman. He attended Sidney Hanier High School in Montgomery. He quit school when he was 16 years old. He was raised as a fundamentalist Baptist. The music and sermons from his childhood had influenced him. “My earliest memory” Rolling Stone writer Ralph J.

Gleason (as quoted by William’s biographer Colin Escott) “is sittin’ on that organ stool by her and hollerin’. I must have been five, six years old and louder’n anybody else. ” In 1937, Hank’s mother opened a boarding house in Montgomery. Hank helped the family income by shining shoes, selling newspapers, and peanuts on the street. This is where he met Rufus Payne, a black man, known as Tee-Tot. He taught Hank to play the guitar. He would follow him around on the street begging him to teach him to play. He would pay him 15 cents or whatever he had for a lesson. Payne also helped him overcome his shyness.

He is the one that the blues influence came from. He made his very first radio performance at the age of thirteen. He formed his first band when he was fourteen years old. I was called Hank Williams and his Drifting Cowboys. He began wearing cowboy hats and western clothes. He sang without amplification and above the sounds of the band. He developed a full throated style of singing. It was similar to Roy Acuff from the Grand Ole Opry. Hank was turned down for the military service because of his back problems.

Near the end of the war he began pursuing his musical career again. He started performing at dances nd local events. He also started playing at “honky tonks”. These were rough and rowdy beer joints that the city’s new comers went to. Williams began abusing alcohol. This problem haunted him the rest of his life. It was partly because of him trying to self medicate the terrible back pain that was caused by a congenital spine disorder. When Hank was 20 years old he met Audrey Mae Sheppard. She was a single mother and separated from her husband. She and Hank married after her divorce was final. They were married by a justice of the peace at a gas station near Andalusic, Alabama in December 1944.

They had a child Hank Williams, Jr. in 1949. Hank and Audrey visited Nashville to meet Fred Rose, the head of Acuff-Rose Publishing. The meeting resulted in the recording of “Never Again” and “Honky Tonkin’”. This led to signing a contract with MJM. Rose became his manager and record producer. “Lovesick Blues” became Hank’s trademark tune. It began with a yodel. It spent a year on the charts, including sixteen weeks at the top. He suddenly found himself on a roll. He quickly recorded two more songs, including “Mind Your Own Business”. They say this song was aimed at his wife.

Audrey began to push for more of her own spot in the stardom as he became more famous. They had recorded several sets and she had played with the band some. It was said that her voice was shrill and tuneless. They also said that she didn’t have a very good sense of time. In 1950, he had more successful songs. He also released a series of religious songs with his wife. He used his connections to get a recording contract for her with DECCA. They were not as successful. H recorded his religious narrations talking blues under the name “Luke the Drifter”.

Luke the Drifter walked with Hank Williams and talked through him. These recordings were the closest Hank Williams came to bearing his soul. Hank’s musical career was very successful, but his personal life was falling apart. This was mostly caused by his alcohol abuse that was intensified by his rocky relationship with his wife. This found its way into the words of his songs about heartache, heartbreak, and the break- up of relationships. Hank and Audrey divorced in 1952. As he began to earn more money and spend longer periods of time away from home he began to drink more frequently.

While on a hunting trip in Tennessee, he tripped and fell re-hurting his back. He began taking morphine and other painkillers to help control the pain. He quickly became addicted. Following a short tour in Texas, Hank, returned to Montgomery in December to rest before going to Canton, Ohio on January 1, 1953. He was scheduled to play in Canton. Charles, a friend and his driver, was stopped for speeding on their way to Canton. The police officer saw Hank in the car and thought he looked like a dead man. He was then taken to a West Virginia hospital and was declared dead at 7:00 a. . He had died in the back seat of a Cadillac on his way to the concert.

He was buried three days later in Montgomery. There was a record crowd attending. His last single released before he died was “I’ll Never Get Out of This World Alive”. It reached number one immediately after his death. In 1953, they continued to release his records that hit number one including “Your Cheatin’ Heart” Hank Williams was a recording artist for only 6 years and recorded 66 songs under his name (more under Luke the Drifter and with Audrey). Out of the 66 songs 37 of these were hits.