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Nationalism Essay – Nationalism Forms & Theories –

Define Nationalism – Nationalism Forms and Theories – our site

1. Introduction

What is Nationalism and how do you define NationalismThis essay will discuss definitions and forms of nationalism in an attempt to define nationalism phenomenon. The first section will focus on presenting contemporary and historical definitions. Secondly, a brief account of the emergence of nationalism and debates over its origins will be presented. The subsequent section will detail practical and theoretical forms of nationalism and argue for the fact that distinct definitions derive from different theories and forms of nationalism.

Define Nationalism

To provide a deeper analysis, forms of nationalism and their definitions will be connected with theories of nationalism. Based on these sections, this essay will argue that due to various ramifications of the concept of nationalism, this notion exists in various forms accompanied by a variety of definitions, each serving similar and distinct purposes. Finally, concluding remarks will be drawn based on the evidence presented throughout this essay.

2. Define Nationalism

To initiate an analysis of definitions and forms of nationalism, this essay will focus on four main definitions (Smith, 2016; Anderson, 2006, Gellner, 1969 and Khon, 1965).

When referring to “nation” and “nationality” Smith (2013: 7) defines nationalism based on three generic goals which have emerged from the academic study of this ideology, namely national unity, national autonomy and national identity. In this framework, nationalism is defined as ‘an ideological movement for attaining and maintaining autonomy of unity and identity for a population which some of its members deem to constitute an actual or potential “nation”.’ However, for Anderson (2006: 211), nations are merely “imagined communities” as members of these communities will rarely know each other, and thus they will draw upon the concept of nationality from their own imagined population to which they belong to.

This idea emerged from earlier concepts elaborated by Gellner (1969) who argued that nationalism is nothing more than the process of imagining nations. A similar definition that focuses on the idea that nationalism is internally felt by the individual was developed by Khon (1965: 9) arguing that: “Nationalism is a state of mind, in which the supreme loyalty of the individual is felt to be due to the nation-state”.

Similar to Smith (2013), Coakley (2012) argues that many of the current definitions on nationalism overlap with each other and also with definitions of other notions, such as the concept of state. The state has been defined as a compulsory political organisation operating on a continuous basis (Weber, 1968) while a nation has been defied as a human population sharing a common territory and culture (Smith, 1991). Each of these terms can be encountered in definitions of nationalism which, according to Coakley (2012)see this concept as a form of political mobilisation or an ideology that justifies this mobilisation and diminishes the barriers between nation and state.

As it can be observed from the above, in some areas these explanations converge while in other areas these notions seem to be divergent. Smith (2013) looks at nationalism as being a concept that describes self-governing capacity while Andersen (2006) and Gellner (1969) see this notion as the process of imagining communities. Similar to Smith (2013), Khon (1965) sees nationalism as connected with the notion of state.

It can therefore be argued that nationalism is understood differently by these theoreticians. Finally, it can be observed that notions of self-determination and nationalism seen as an imagined form of identity expression have been maintained from the 19th century (Khon, 1965; Gellner, 1969) to the 21st (Smith, 2013). Thus, the following sections will attempt to uncover the reasons behind these differences.

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3. Nationalism Forms and Theories

To better understand why a unified definition of nationalism is not established, it is important to look at the epicentre from which nationalism arises. Consequently, a historical analysis of the concept and its subsequent forms, corroborated by theories of nationalism, will be attempted in order to understand this notion. The following section will thus discuss these themes.

3.1. The Emergence of Nationalism

Although the word nationalism only emerged in political language after 1840, its importance grew significantly in the 19th century with revolutions across Europe (Hirschi, 2011). In this period, the most significant event involving nationalism occurred in 1914, when a fear of Slav nationalism led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the First World War (Breuilly, 2013).

After the war, the Versailles Treaty made reference to notions of “nation states”, which became the primary concept used by US President Woodrow Wilson when instituting the doctrine of national self-determination (Breuilly, 2013). This action subsequently gave rise to substantial claims of nationalism around the world (Hirschi, 2011).

Dahbour (2003) contradicts this, arguing that national self-determination was a response to the colonisation of states which eventually demanded national liberation. Furthermore, self-determination not only gives rise to nationalism but also to ethical and legal citizenship and with it, the ability of a nation to self-govern. As a result, Dahbour (2003) argues that nationalism is a specific claim made for self-determination.

Both ideas elaborated by Dahbour (2003) and Breuilly, (2013) are noticeable in the definitions provided by Smith (2013) and Khon (1965). It can therefore be argued that the notion of self-governance and self-determination are connected with the emergence of nationalism and subsequently to its definition.

Another opposing view comes from Andersen (2006) who emphasises language, specifically the shared language of a nation. According to this author, nationalism could not have spread and matured without people being able to read about this notion and debate this notion in writing (Andersen 2006). As a result, a cultural element – language- aided in the spread and maturation of nationalism (Andersen, 2006). Nevertheless, this argument does not concern itself with the emergence of nationalism but rather examines its consolidation. However, it emphasises the importance of culture in the definition of nationalism which spirals from a collective mind. This can thus support ideas of Andersen (2006) and Gellner (1969) of imagined communities as shared language is an acquired cognitive function and thus it is a part of the collective mind.

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3.2. Forms of Nationalism

Nationalism can be manifested as a state ideology or as a non-state popular movement. These manifestations give rise to five forms of nationalism (ethnic, religious, civic, cultural or ideological) which are used to classify sub-types of nationalism (Chatturvedi, 2005). There are over 10 sub-types of nationalism (Snyder, 2009), some of which seek unity and self-governance for people of certain ethic groups while others seek expansion and economic growth for nations against the global community (Chatturvedi, 2005). Other forms of nationalism have been criticised for hiding racism (i.e. al-right nationalism favouring white supremacy) (Snyder, 2009) while other forms of nationalism seek to bring social unity and equality regardless of ethnicity (i.e. left-wing nationalism) (Maxwell and Maxwell, 2014).

Ethnic Nationalism

For ethnic nationalism and derivate sub-types, nationalism functions on the principle that a nation can only be defined by its ethnic connection which encompasses shared language, culture, heritage and ancestry. Because of this characteristic, Roshwald (2001) describes this form of nationalism as intolerant and descriptive of authoritarian regimes. Studies (Gil-White, 2006; Sulaiman, 2016) looking into this concept have concluded that similar to nationalism in general, ethnic nationalism is composed of a series of terms that have distinctive definitions, including ethnicity, nation and state. When looking at manifestations of ethic nationalism in the world, research (Sulaiman, 2016) seems to describe similar lines with theory (Roshwald, 2001). This demonstrates thatethnic nationalism leads to conflict, especially in ethnic diverse locations (i.e. Niger Delta) (Sulaiman, 2016).

Religious Nationalism

Religious nationalism denotes a form of nationalism which relies upon a central religion or dogma that has implications in politics and state affairs (Omer and Springs, 2013). This notion contrasts strongly with modern forms of nationalism and has been described as an irrational form of nationalism (Omer and Springs, 2013: 80). Several real world examples include non-secular states, such as Iran, Saudi Arabia or Afghanistan, where the religious law (Sharia Law or the Islamic Law) is the ultimate law of the state (Kavalski, 2016). As ethnic nationalism, religious nationalism shows little to no tolerance for other religious beliefs (Kavalski, 2016), however it does not focus on ethnic unity, but rather on religious unity by repelling any opposing views.

Civic Nationalism

At the other end of the spectrum, civic nationalism (also referred to as progressive nationalism) advocates for social unity, individual rights and freedoms. This form of nationalism is centred on the idea of a non-xenophobic society, which shows tolerance for all its individuals and strives to provide equality and social justice (Hall, 1998). A practical example of this can be found in Singapore, where the government’s strategy for development derived directly form civic nationalism and globalisation (Brown, 2000).

Empirical evidence (Kwan, 2016; Modongal, 2016) shows that while civic nationalism is the driving force of globalisation, it also leads to a dilution of intrinsic values in highly traditional societies (i.e. China). However, civic nationalism, as nationalism, has different forms of interpretation. Focusing on a definition provided by Habermas (1996), Shen (2007: 17) argues that civic nationalism is “a voluntary selection of allegiance based on values”. If contrasting the two definitions, it can be observed that civic nationalism is defined from a societal-national perspective (Hall, 1998) but also from a global, international perspective (Shen, 2007). Here, nations would accept cooperation with other nations to whom they share similar values. In practice, this rarely occurs (i.e. China and US economic trade), and countries with distinctive cultures will end up in cooperation for economic development; hence the potential for culture dilution (Modongal, 2016).

Thus, civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism have a converging point, namely the element of shared culture. The cultural form of nationalism thus defines a middle ground between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism (Fedorenko, 2012; Song, 2009). Hutchinson (1987) argues with historical examples from Arab, Jewish and Hindu nations that cultural nationalism plays a significant part in the building of nations, as it is a shared belief, value and tradition alongside with ethnic heritage which can lead to the consolidation of states.

Ideological Nationalism

Finally, ideological nationalism is a form of political nationalism which argues for the capacity of nations to self-govern (Smith, 2013). This notion can also be seen Dahbour’s (2003) idea of self-determination as well as in the definition of nationalism provided by Smith (2013). Looking at the history of nationalism two main conclusions can be drawn. The first refers to the fact that nationalism is highly connected with the concept of national identity and claims made for self-governance. Thus it may be argued that early forms of nationalism were ideological in nature and focused on notions of territory, population and self-government. This seems to justify Coakley’s (2012) ideas, according to which definitions of nationalism overlap definitions of state, nations and ethnicity. Secondly, because nationalism comes in various forms and subsequent types, a unified definition of nationalism is most likely unachievable. As a result, different forms of nationalism will automatically lead to the conclusion that each form defines a different concept, which although similar in some respects, will also be very distinctive in others.

Because the progression of nationalism gave rise to different definitions and forms of nationalism, to better understand their nature, theories on nationalism need to be approached in a structured way (REFERENCE). The next section will therefore look at different theories of nationalism and attempt to set different forms and definitions of nationalism within these theoretical boundaries.

3.3. Four Theories of Nationalism

According to Llobera (1999) four main theories dominate the notion of nationalism. These are primordial and socio-biological theories, instrumentalist theories, modernisation theories and evolutionary theories. Primordialists such as Herder and Fichte and more recently Smith and Connor, see nationalism as something which was always present in people but had been reawakened under political self-consciousness (Brown, 2003). Geertz (1973) argues for the concept of given identity, as an individual who is born within a group will receive its identity.

Consequently, ethnic boundaries are established which are represented by the individual’s shared experience with family members and the group (Tishkov, 1997). Socio-biologists claims derived from this theory argue that heritage and implicitly ethnicity is passed on genetically (Llobera, 1999). These theories frame the notions of ethnic nationalism and cultural nationalism. Ozkirimli (2017) argues that these two forms of nationalism have their roots in primordial theory.

Hutchinson and Smith (1994) have analysed primordialism in depth and argue that human social interaction will take place based on three elements: kin selection, reciprocity and coercion. From this notion, the authors hypothesise that ethnic groups are in fact super-families. Therefore, members of these super-families will be biologically inclined towards cooperation and reciprocity with their own kin while also resorting to some forms of coercion (Hutchinson and Smith, 1994). Conclusively, it can be argued that notions of belonging and indirectly excluding others, encountered in definitions of nationalism derive from these theories.

Instrumentalist theories diverge from primordial theories by arguing that ethnic groups can be seen as nations and their boundaries are not fixed, but in fact these can vary according to specific needs (i.e. economic development) (Llobera, 1999). A representative figure in this domain is Barth (1969) who supported this theory by arguing that ethnicity is not a reference to biological or cultural heritage but more a form of social organisation. In Barth’s (1969) assertion, boundaries serve a specific purpose, either biological, ecological, economic, political and/or historical. Transposed, this idea can be encountered in the notion of religious nationalism (Sandler, 2004) where Islamic cultures maintain boundaries for political interest but individuals become a part of their nation when converting to Islam.

Modernisation theories strongly oppose primordialism by arguing that nationalism emerged as the result of modern processes, such as industrialisation, favourable political, cultural and socio-economic conditions (Llobera, 1999). Hence, theoreticians who support this claim such as Kohn, Kedourie and Gellne, see nationalism as a modern invention (Hall, 1998). According to Hall (1998) this idea can be seen in notions of civic nationalism and ideological nationalism. Although these three theories show substantial contrasts, the fourth theory of nationalism, namely the Evolutionary theory attempts to bring together the notion of modern and primordial (to some extent).

As a result, evolutionary theories argue that indeed, nationalism is a product of modern times; however in Europe, this concept evolved from the ideas of Andersen (2006) and Gellner (1969) of imagined communities corroborated by a form of patriotic nationalism which was present since the medieval period (Llobera, 1999). However, as Smith (1981) observed, in order to pinpoint the emergence of nationalism, an analysis of the transference from medieval to modern needs to be conducted. In order to accomplish this, all societal elements must be considered, including economic, social, political and ideological (Smith, 1981).

By assessing the aforementioned theories of nationalism, several elements can be noted. Firstly, the evolutionary theories focus on the emergence of nationalism in Europe, which thus implies that this theory cannot be applied for explaining how nationalism emerged elsewhere (i.e. Hutchinson (1987) on the emergence of nationalism in Hindu nations).

However, evolutionary theories can be used to explain the formation of definitions that rely on state and nation. Secondly, primordial, instrumentalist and modern theories of nationalism can be used as frameworks to explain the differences between forms of nationalism and subsequently between definitions of this phenomenon. Another observation that can be made in this case is that nationalism cannot be understood as functioning from a pure ideological, ethnic, dogmatic or religious form.

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As it was discussed, its emergence and consolidation was favoured by specific politic, economic, social and cultural circumstances, while at the same time its development was favoured by the same notions (Smith, 1981). An exemplification of this can be seen in civic nationalism which serves the purpose of developing social inclusion and globalisation (Brown, 2000) while religious nationalism can be seen as a political instrument(Omer and Springs, 2013). Considering the multiple ramifications of this phenomenon, the existence of various forms and definitions of nationalism becomes explainable.

4. Conclusion

This essay discussed various definitions and forms of nationalism and argued that a unified definition of nationalism is not likely achievable due to the existence of various forms of this notion. In the first section of this essay, by focusing on four definitions of nationalism issued by Smith (2013), Anderson (2006), Gellner (1969) and Khon (1965) it was observed that these theoreticians have different perceptions over the notion of nationalism.

As a result, the emergence of nationalism and its forms was assessed in an attempt to explain these differences. By analysing the emergence of nationalism and its various forms it was noted that each form of nationalism derived its own definition. Furthermore, it was observed that definitions of nationalism are connected with its emergence.

Hence the existence of various forms of nationalism cannot be used alone to explain its distinctive definition. To do so, understanding where and how this phenomenon emerged is also important. To provide a structured framework for the various forms and definitions of nationalism, theories of this concept were combined with the identified forms of nationalism and linked with the studied definitions of nationalism.

Here, it was observed that definitions of the broad concepts of nationalism fit within the elaborated theories while forms of nationalism also fall within this framework. By assessing current notions of nationalism it can be concluded that the exact emergence of nationalism cannot be pin-pointed however primordial theories (Geertz, 1973) argue that this concept may have innate characteristics, thus it was always present in humans.

Secondly, by observing the various forms of nationalism it can be concluded that this concept may have begun as a simple ideology from medieval times however it evolved to serve various purposes resulting in the variety of definitions and forms. Thus, a single definition of nationalism is unlikely to be developed (Hall, 1998).

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Nationalism in the 19th century

Nationalism is a term used to identify two phenomena. First, it describes the attitude of individuals towards their nation which result to the rise of national identity. Second, it pertains to the action that members of a certain nation take in order to achieve the sustainability of self determination (Miscevic).

During the era of industrialization and urbanization in Western societies, nationalism emerged as one of the most successful political forces. Nationalism became the foundation with which western societies were organized. Between the years of 1850 and 1914, the establishment of nation-states gained the support of all social classes. Hence, the equilibrium in the international political power arises.

The masses were diverted towards governance that does not adhere to the class war socialist doctrine. In France, Napoleon III spearheaded the successful campaign for nationalism. During his mild dictatorship for nearly 20 years (1852 to 1870), Napoleon promoted the idea that national states and the programs provided by the government could appeal to all social classes such as the rich, the poor, the conservative, and the radical. Consequently, Napoleon’s political initiative became a landscape where national states became an avenue for the rapid changes in politics and economy (Lloyd).

In 1860, Count Cavour, the nationalist leader of Sardinia unified majority of the areas in Italy. His initiative to promote nationalism resulted in Italy’s emergence as a single political state without the use of drastic actions in addressing economic and social matters. Two years after, Prussia hailed Otto von Bismarck as the country’s chief minister. Under his leadership, the states of Germany were unified into a single political state under the Prussian governance. This was only made possible after Bismarck fought three wars. The unification of the states of Germany strengthened the pride of nationalism. Likewise, the country attained an anti-liberal and conservative force (Lloyd).

In order to attain national identity, the United States competed for national aspirations which eventually led to the civil war. A slave-based cotton industry in the south expanded rapidly right after new lands were utilized for industrialization. Thus, the south was able to generate much demand from cotton production. Due to this, a conflict emerged between the people from the south and the north’s urban culture and family farm agriculture. The triumph of north against the south marked the end of slavery. However, land reforms and racial discrimination were not totally addressed (Lloyd).

Nationalism also played an important role in the lives of Russian. Right after the Crimean War, major reforms were put forward. In 1861, the freedom of the serfs was attained. Likewise, the government spearheaded the development of modern industries and railroads (Lloyd).

As nationalism continued to grow, most of the politicians and national governments responded accordingly in order to strengthen and meet the demands of the people. Because of nationalism, most of the Western societies managed to promote reforms that appeal to all social classes.

Works Cited

Lloyd, Jim. “19th century nationalism.” Fresno Unified School District. 2008. 28 October                      2008 <http://www.fresno.k12.ca.us/schools/s090/lloyd/nationalism.htm>.

Miscevic, Nenad. “Nationalism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 24 September 2005.

28 October 2008 <http://stanford.library.usyd.edu.au/entries/nationalism/#4>.

 

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What Is Nationalism?

What is Nationalism? The easiest way to define such a complex and broad term like nationalism is to start with the definition of a nation. A nation, as Ernest Renan clearly defined in 1882, is “is a conglomerate of people who share a common past and have derived a strong bond, with an agreement to stay together and be governed by mutual consent in the future. ” In other words, a vast group of people living under the same type of government that share a common language, culture, history and a similar background overall. These nations become unified by sport events like the Olympics or World Cups.

Nationalism is a possible definition of the happiness and pride lived during these games but the term is so complex that further explanation is needed. The origins of Nationalism, its characteristics, the types of nationalism that concern and the huge complexity of the term could all join in to create a perfect definition of such term. The causes that arouse the feelings of nationalism can lead to a clear definition of this word. Short-term political causes like the American and French Revolution led to the unification of its people to fight for what was theirs.

The vernacularization of language and an easy access to books or newspapers were some of the effects that resulted from Martin Luther’s 95 theses, the translation of the New Testament, or the invention of the printing press. Consequently, nationalism started emerging as a political ideology. In John Stuart Mill’s article “Of Nationality, as connected with Representive Government “expresses the causes of nationalism from his perspective. Mill begins his article by explaining how people, being part of a nation, should be linked by common sympathies, should cooperate with each other, and agree to live under the rules of the same government.

In addition, he mentions the fact that geographical limits are also one of the causes of nationalism. People living in the same area will consequently end up having a common language and/or religion. “But the strongest of all” Mill emphasizes on, is the identity of political antecedents: the sharing of a common history together and experiencing emotions of pride and humiliation or joy and regret at any point given. From John Stuart Mill to Eric Hobsbawn, various authors help identify the different characteristics with the help of their own opinions and ideas on the subject of nationalism.

Mill’s view on nationalism is completely optimistic. He explains how countries, in order for them to be nations, should unite under the same needs and demands. This being, cooperation between their own people and an aim to be under the same system of government. In contrast, English journalist and novelist, George Orwell, had a different and negative theory on this topic. He views the nationalists as power-hungry and with the unique goal of forcing their customs on others. Orwell believes there are three characteristics to a nationalist thought: obsession, instability, and indifference to reality.

Obsession: thinking your own country is superior to all the rest. The instability between the nationalist rulers or dictators. And finally, indifference to reality describes how nationalistic behavior blinds people from noticing facts of the real world. Additionally, in his article “Nations and Nationalism since 1780” historian Eric Hobsbawn explains how nationalism always comes before a nation and it helps it form and develop from it. He also believes both political and national systems should be equal. These altered points of view help change our beliefs on nationalism and shape the definition of nationalism even more.

The different types of nationalism are clearly explained in George Orwell’s “Notes on Nationalism” article. Positive, negative and transferred are the three types the writer focuses on while talking about Britain’s nationalism throughout the years. Subdivisions such as: Neo-toryism, Celtic, and Zionism are specified by Orwell under the positive nationalism category. He states that Neo- tories are anti- American (and sometimes anti- Russian) that do not recognize that Britain’s power and supremacy have declined. Orwell describes Celtic Nationalists as anti- English but have nothing to do with Anglophobic.

These Irish, Welsh, and Scottish nationalists are known for their racist beliefs. These discriminatory beliefs are also a common denominator for the Jews that are part of Zionism. George Orwell’s next grouping known as Transferred Nationalism fall divisions such as: Communism, Political Catholicism, Color feeling, Class feeling, and Pacifism. The difference between transferred and the other two types of nationalism is the fact that it isn’t as serious as the other two but people still believe in it and are somewhat influenced by it.

Class feeling and color feeling are similar in the sense of superiority between races or class status. White people over black people or upper classes over lower classes are some examples of this dogmatism. Pacifism is described as “hatred of western democracy and admiration of totalitarianism” against Britain and the United States. Lastly, George Orwell subdivides Negative Nationalism into: Anglophobia, Anti- semitism, and Trotskyism. Against their own country, Anti- Jews (against Jews) and against Stalin are the main motives of these three examples.

Nationalism is one of those words whose current definition is based on opinion and belief. The complexity of this term is due to time evolution. As different periods of time passed, nationalism went to from being negative to positive or vice versa. Showing pride for the United States by singing the national anthem at the beginning of a school day wasn’t the same thing as yelling “Heil Hitler” to a soldier in Germany during the Holocaust. Propaganda was another main influencer of the people. The government put up posters and television ads showing the “bad side” of their opponents in order to get their country’s support during war.

Lastly, as George Orwell said, nationalism is not to be confused with patriotism. Nationalism is the will to imply or even force a lifestyle or customs on others whilst patriotism is the showing of pride and joy of one’s way of living and commitment to a certain place. There are many other opinions on this complicated word such as Perry Anderson’s wrong belief of thinking nationalism was “the desire of people to form their own independent nation-state. ” There are no right or wrong definitions of nationalism because they are all expressed by people in their each and own unique ways.

Their surroundings and their experiences both influence how the feelings of nationalism are defined. However, one does not deny that a definition for such feelings is obviously subjective… Bibliography Easton, Mark. “Cry ‘God for Harry, England, and Saint George!. ’” BBC. N. p. , 14 June 2010. Web. 29 Aug. 2012. <https://asmoodle. asmadrid. org/moodle/course/view. php? id=32>. Hobsbawm, Eric. “Nations and Nationalism since 1780. ” ASM IB History 1. The American School of Madrid, n. d. Web. 30 Aug. 2012. <https://asmoodle. asmadrid. org/moodle/course/view. hp? id=32>. Mill, John Stuart. “Of Nationality, as connected with Representative Government. ” ASM IB History 1. The American School of Madrid, n. d. Web. 30 Aug. 2012. <https://asmoodle. asmadrid. org/moodle/course/view. php? id=32>. “The Origins of Nationalism. ” CSU Bakersfield. California State University, n. d. Web. 30 Aug. 2012. <http://www. csub. edu/~mbaker2/Hist102nation. htm>. Orwell, George. “Notes on Nationalism. ” ASM IB History 1. The American School of Madrid, n. d. Web. 29 Aug. 2012. <https://asmoodle. asmadrid. org/moodle/course/view. hp? id=32>. Renan, Ernst. “Qu’est-ce qu’une nation? ” [“What is a nation? ”]. ASM IB History 1. The American School of Madrid, n. d. Web. 29 Aug. 2012. <https://asmoodle. asmadrid. org/moodle/pluginfile. php>. Savich, Carl K. “Nationalism and War. ” MakNews. N. p. , 1 Sept. 2010. Web. 29 Aug. 2012. <http://www. maknews. com/html/articles/savich/nationalism. pdf>. Wolfson, Ben, ed. “Nationalism. ” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N. p. , 1 June 2010. Web. 31 Aug. 2012. <http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/nationalism/#BasConNat>.

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Irish Nationalism

Irish Nationalism: The Fight for Self-Government Since the late twentieth century, Ireland has been subject to varying types of English rule. There has been much debate on the degree of English rule in Ireland, but the call for a united Ireland was very popular among many Irishmen. Nationalistic feelings in Ireland saw a steady growth in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with many different movements looking to achieve Irish self-government. These nationalistic movements can be categorized into three groups: constitutional, revolutionary, and cultural nationalism.

Whether by politics, violence, or education, Irish nationalistic groups each had their own ideas on how to achieve independence from English rule. Each group had its strengths, as well as its weaknesses that contributed to the overall success of the nationalistic movements. Constitutional nationalism, which encompassed nationalism through political forces, mainly involved the vision of Home Rule. Home Rule was the idea of having an Irish parliament to control domestic matters while Britain controlled external Irish affairs. The face for the Home Rule movement was Charles Stewart Parnell, a political leader and Irish landlord.

Parnell is most commonly known as the founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party. He turned the Home Rule movement into a major political force dominating legislation, and proving it to be a vast encompassing party by gaining the widest possible support. Parnell was deemed the “Uncrowned King of Ireland”, possessing enormous political skills leading him to be extremely successful in the field of practical politics. However, political scandals led his leadership to be called into question and put his whole political career on the line.

Charles Parnell’s skills led him to many accomplishments in politics. Parnell was elected president of the Irish National Land League in 1879 which campaigned for land reform, including the reduction of tenants’ rents during a time of economic disaster. He not only raised an enormous amount of funding for famine relief during a trip to America, but Parnell also used his position as president to gain the support of tenant farmers in his fight for Home Rule. The support that came from the Land Movement and its mass appeal aided Parnell in bringing the Home Rule party under the wing of the movement.

One of Parnell’s greatest accomplishments was the conversion of William Gladstone and the Liberals to Home Rule. During the election of 1885 the Conservative party used Parnell in order to gain an electoral advantage. This tactic succeeded giving them the majority of seats in Parliament and ultimately leading to the Liberals under Gladstone coming to power with Home Rule party. Although Parnell enjoyed great success as the leader of the Home Rule party and as a notable force in the fight for domestic Irish self-government, his weaknesses limited the extent to which his political skills could carry him.

Parnell accomplished a great amount in the fight for Home Rule, but ultimately he failed to achieve it. The reason he was unsuccessful was due to his greatest weakness, the scandal with Katherine O’Shea. During the time Parnell was elected leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party he began a relationship with Katherine O’Shea, wife of Captain William O’Shea. His fall from power occurred when Captain O’Shea filed for a divorce naming Parnell as the guilty party. “It was therefore Captain O’Shea and the divorce case which brought down Parnell”[1].

Although many leading politicians had known about Parnell and O’Shea’s affair for some time, it was when Parnell did not challenge Captain O’Shea’s allegations that shocked the public. This caused Parnell to be revealed as an adulterer and discredited him as a leader. Gladstone was forced to distance himself from Parnell due to the fact that the Liberals had no chance of winning the next election with ties to Parnell. Without the support of Gladstone, Home Rule was not a possibility. In the end, Parnell’s strengths were his greatest weaknesses.

His pride and iron will kept him from contesting Captain O’Shea’s allegations allowing O’Shea’s side of the story to go unchallenged and ultimately leading to Parnell’s fall from power. Constitutional nationalists such as Charles Parnell used politics in pursuing Irish self-government. The strength of this method is that it delivers concrete results. Although Parnell was not able to achieve Home Rule himself he was able to gain support for the party, leading the way for John Redmond to get the third Home Rule Bill passed by the House of Commons.

Before this time, no success of this magnitude had ever been achieved in the fight for Irish independence. The weakness of constitutional nationalism is that it is a time consuming method. It took two initial Home Rule Bills to be rejected, the first of which being introduced in 1886, until the third was passed in 1914. Parnell dedicated his political career to the pursuit of Home Rule and was not able to see it passed before his death. Even when the third Home Rule Bill was passed, the process of it becoming a law was suspended pending the end of World War I.

Constitutional nationalism is successful in that it delivers results in the fight for Irish self-government; however, the process is long and grueling. Revolutionary nationalism was a more forceful, rebellious method in pursuing Irish self-government. Revolutionary nationalists were not afraid to use violence including assassinations, bombings, and even uprisings. The most popular uprising in the struggle for Irish independence was the Easter Rising, which took place shortly after Britain’s entrance into World War I. The main group involved in this revolutionary nationalistic movement was the Irish Republican Brotherhood.

The Irish Republican Brotherhood, or I. R. B. , devised a rebellion to overthrow Britain’s government in Dublin following the time tested dictum that England’s difficulty is Ireland’s opportunity. While Britain had surely forgotten about Ireland and Home Rule, focusing its attention mainly on the war, the I. R. B. used it as an opportunity to rebel. Patrick Pearse, a key leader in the rising, chose Easter for the uprising for its biblical connotations of sacrifice and resurrection; he saw the rising as a ‘blood sacrifice’.

The rebels hoped to take control of Dublin as well as initiate riots in order to start a revolt, in turn removing English rule. However, the rising was a military disaster. On top of many of the rebel’s plans being disrupted by the British, poor organization also led to an unsuccessful rebellion. Upon capture many of the rebels were condemned to execution including James Connolly, who was carried to a firing squad tied to a chair due to an injury sustained during the rising.

The nature of these executions led to anger among many Irishmen and turned the rebels into martyrs. The rising led to control of Irish politics shifting from the Irish Nationalist Party to the recently I. R. B. infiltrated Sinn Fein. This shift led the way for constitutional nationalists to push for a challenge to Britain’s control of Ireland. Revolutionary nationalists took a more direct approach in the fight for Irish self-government. Rebellions, such as the Easter Rising, sought to overthrow government in a revolution without political involvement.

This approach is strong in that it is has been successful in the past, as seen by the American and French revolutionary wars. A revolutionary approach can shift power almost instantly rather than going through years of political negotiations. However, when unsuccessful, revolutions end in meaningless bloodshed. The Easter Rising at first seemed to be a failure, resulting in the deaths of many Irishmen for no reason. Instead, Britain’s reaction resulted in the rebels becoming martyrs, and the British losing the hearts of the Irish people.

Although the Easter Rising resulted in the deaths of many Irishmen, it also opened the door for constitutional nationalists to take control of parliament in the 1918 general election and for revolutionary nationalists to initiate the Anglo-Irish war. While constitutional nationalists focused on politics and revolutionary nationalists focused on rebellions, cultural nationalists focused on the revival of Gaelic culture and language. Just as constitutional and revolutionary nationalism was important in the fight for Irish self-government, so was cultural nationalism.

It helped to foster a spirit of earnest nationality, invoking feelings of patriotism in young Irishmen. The Gaelic Athletic Association was established to do just this. Founded in 1884, the Gaelic Athletic Association aimed to establish an independent Irish organization dedicated to promoting athletics as well as preserving Irish nationalism. The Gaelic Athletics Association not only encouraged education about Gaelic language and culture, but was also formed as an anti-British group closely associated with the Irish nationalistic cause.

This association caused the GAA to get caught up in the troubled politics of the early twentieth century. In 1920 British soldiers interrupted a football match in Dublin firing shots into the crowd and onto the field killing fourteen people. This was a response to political violence that had occurred in Dublin earlier that day. This event came to be known as Bloody Sunday. However, the Gaelic Athletics Association was a non-violent one that was subject to the repercussions of being associated the nationalistic cause. The GAA is claimed to have been founded by the I. R.

B. with the goal of getting Irish youth involved with an organization in order to form a physical power capable of pressuring the Home Rule party of the future. Although the association had no violent or political intentions, it provided the depth that the Home Rule party needed in order to secure an independent, self-governing Ireland. Cultural nationalists were strong in that they united Irishmen in the fight for Irish nationalism. Cultural nationalists promoted camaraderie through athletics and focused on a revival of nationalistic feelings as well as Gaelic culture.

They provided a unity of Irish people that was necessary to the success of a self-governing Ireland. However, cultural nationalists did not provide any concrete results in the pursuit of Irish independence. They brought together the Irish people but only to the extent that they were prepared to join a constitutional or revolutionary force. Nationalistic feelings were high in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Many nationalistic movements that existed sought to set up Irish self-government in one form or another.

These movements were constitutional, revolutionary, or cultural nationalistic groups. Each group possessed both strengths and weaknesses. Constitutional nationalists succeeded in political battles relating to domestic rule. However, their means were often time consuming and presented results that were not very certain. Revolutionary nationalists, on the other hand, were able to change the tides of the Anglo-Irish governmental struggle almost instantly. The bloodbath that resulted in their physical force, however, was the weakness of their methods.

Finally, cultural nationalists were able to unite Irishmen in the fight for self-government promoting nationalistic feelings. Unfortunately, they provided no real means of progressing Irish nationalism in the fight for self-government. Constitutional nationalism had the most impact with the Home Rule party as well as the Dail Eireann (Assembly of Ireland) which helped to establish a treaty following the Anglo-Irish war in order to establish the Irish Free State. However, without the physical presence to back up the political force, Irish self-government would not have been possible.

As Eamon de Valera stated, the way to Irish independence was “first battling England with votes, and if that failed, with rifles. ”[2] All in all, each form of Irish nationalism contributed in some way to lead Ireland into a self-governing country. Bibliography [1] “PARNELL AND KITTY O’SHEA. ” PARNELL AND KITTY O’SHEA. Web. 05 May 2012. . [2] “Troubled Ireland – Anglo-Irish War. ” Troubled Ireland – Anglo-Irish War. Web. 05 May 2012. . [3] Hachey, Thomas E and McCaffrey, Lawrence J. The Irish Experience Since 1800: A Concise History. Armonk, N. Y: M. E. Sharpe, 2010. Print. ———————– [1] [1] [2] [2]

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American Nationalism

Following a perceived victory in the War of 1812, the surge of nationalistic spirit that swept the nascent U. S. nation revealed its significance as a catalyst for unified change. The nationalism manifested itself economically, socially and politically, and was evident through the emergence of a uniquely American culture. The first major political and economic policy change was the emergence of Henry Clay’s American System.

The system created an expansive, accessible credit institution, protectionist tariff act, and an invigorated investment in infrastructure (Kennedy 256). The motive for the new policy was the desire to lessen American dependence on cheap British imports. In establishing related acts such as the Tariff of 1816, the nationalist Congress acted directly in the interest of protecting American infant-industries, rather than acting purely from the consumer’s pricing interest.

Furthermore, the national bank whose charter had expired was reinstated in an effort to bring in more revenue to the federal government (Kennedy 256). In line with the American System, revenues from tariffs would be allotted to the creation of new transportation methods, such as the Erie Canal (Kennedy 257). However, sectionalism was still present, as states opposed federal funding of interstate commerce, especially those of New England and the Hartford Convention.

Despite the sectionalism, an American culture did arise, as seen through the literature of Washington Irving and American-written textbooks (Kennedy 256). Furthermore, America was able to defensively assert its intentions in the Western Hemisphere under the Monroe Doctrine. Although the new American identity unified the country, it was partially built on the unfortunate issue of slavery that would arouse the sectionalist differences between North and South in the years after the Missouri Compromise.

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Muslim Nationalism Dbq

Ryan Rojas 4/6/8 AP World History 3rd Period Muslim Nationalism DBQ Muslim leaders in North Africa and India saw the needs for nationalism in the Muslim areas and took on the issue of westernization as they saw right. A portion of Muslims wanted to welcome western ideas. And others didn’t want western ideas around, they thought they needed to be one in their own nations, not in the Nations of the west. Some saw westernization as a flawed idea or solution, and used parts of westernization that would help them the most, and still allow them economic freedom. Most of the world was near required to westernize, during the Industrial Revolution.

To compete with the new technology coming out in the world, and the new way of living. The rest of the world had to deal with and change in favor of the new technology and knowledge. The western portion of the world was “smarter,” and had stronger military power, and were more successful, economically. Not paying attention to these new technologies and ideas, would no benefit the Muslim community. Syed Ahmad Khan knew this and made the argument that the prophet of Muhammad said Muslims should find knowledge even if they need to go to places far away such as China. Document 1. ) He was referencing the fact that Europeans were far more successful. He is biased on this subject because his argument wouldn’t make sense to a crowd of say, British people or French people, as they do not get the references to the prophet or these Islamic teachings. But, another person had said, that the people of Egypt should definitely be proud and content with their nation for how it is and they should go to nationalism and try to escape the pressure of Westernization. Document 2) Ahmed Ben Bella Bella, military lead of the Algerian National Liberation Front stated that the two societies of Europe and the societies of the Muslim nations were hardly different in any way. He makes the argument that both the teachings of old Greek Philosophers and their ideas. (Document 6)The Indian Muslim leader Abul Kaham Azad had called the western societies ignorant on the subject of religion. And at the same time calling people who were traditional, troubled or harassed by religious beliefs or irrationalities.

This displays how much he enjoyed and gave credit to the thought of European philosophy and teachings and Europe’s peoples. His point of view is bias on this subject, because European influence has been very heavy in India for a very long time, he more than likely grew up around European teachings and the influence of Europe. (Document 3) A portion of leaders in the Muslim society wanted to stay away from the idea of westernization. A nationalist in the nation of Egypt had noted that the Europeans were far more militarily advanced then they could hope to be.

The only real reason he wanted better weapons and technology was because he didn’t the English people to be Egypt any longer then they already have been. Taha Husayn was really pushing for their independence in the economic area, and that he really wanted to defend the Suez Canal from any enemies or people trying to harm the Egyptian people. (document 4. ) His opinion on this subject is bias, because the English have been in Egypt really taking control of it and not giving the freedom that Egypt might of really wanted. If he had lived in France I highly doubt he would care that the English people were oppressing the Egyptian peoples.

Moufdi Zakaria thought of the people of Europe as an interruption of the Muslim societies and they really seem to pushing the division of the Muslim community. This portion of Muslims wanted to stay together and strong by the teachings of their religion. They wanted to stay united by their language, and by their country or location. (Document 5) The Muslim leaders all were in desperate need of nationalism, without that it is very likely that North Africa and India, would be ruled by the European way of life, its teachings, its populace even, and maybe even the religions in Europe.

Another document that would of helped understand the situation would have been an account or letter, or journal from a European military leader, or European King or ruler taking a side of the issue of Muslims accepting or declining the idea of nationalism in their society. The leaders in these 6 documents really interpret their definition of nationalism by how much they would want to accept the new advanced, and successful European way of life, and the European teachings even.

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Greek Nationalism

Within the 18th and early 19th century, Greece experienced highly heinous ordeals when it was under Ottoman subjugation, and it aspired to redeem their previously established terms of democracy and overall culture; however, these ordeals for the Greeks were so influential that they ultimately altered their culture and general customs. These changes affected Greece in vast, multifarious ways but they can primarily be classified by Greece’s economical, social, and political aspects.

Economically, Greece experienced, under Ottoman rule, poverty and were hardly able to provide for themselves nonetheless defend themselves from Ottoman rule with substantial weaponry and armor, they also received a transfiguration in not striving to possess lands and riches as in precedent instances but to possess and utilize income as a means of ensuring liberation, and they experienced a great economical and thus cultural diversity amongst themselves with extensive, distinct attitudes and economical intentions within Greek society between the more opulent and poorer individuals.

Socially, the general sentiment of Greece was deteriorated by its transfiguration into a more solemn nation in Europe and the precedent vibe of Greece, before Ottoman domination, was altered and substituted with Turkish gloom with apathy reflected towards Greek arts, passions, and sciences, and their only manner of which they managed to free themselves was by working together with other nations and forming a resistance, which they did; also, Greeks were very compatible with other nations and they were able to become cared for by other nations and were able to receive assistance from them during the Greek Revolution in result.

Politically, Greece’s government transfigured with the Ottoman’s political customs and their authorities were poorly implemented, and even formal approbation had to be made in order for officials to enact on malpractices such as robberies and rebellions; subsequently, this caused revolutions in Greece in order to bring retaliation on the Ottomans for killing their leader of the Greek Orthodox church, which was apart of their religious, or sultan’s, government, and ultimately, they subjugated the Ottomans’ jurisdiction in Greece and, as they aspired, established their own government as well with beneficial leaders.

Indeed, there are many puzzling factors and results of the Greek Revolution, but they can become vividly perceived with the synopsizes and recounted instances given by individuals who in which were living at these times expressed by there works and archived data. There were many inauspicious economical aspects of Greece during the 19th century that contributed to its anarchy, yet also enabled the people with an incentive of change.

The economical stature of Greece had its people predominately classified among the rich who were respectful to their Turkish masters and the poor, who comprised much of the Greeks, were not too fond of the Ottomans, and this, as conceivable, caused contention amongst these major classes in Greece as well as the Ottomans; James Dallaway, a chaplain to an English community in Constantinople, sent a missive that comprised these ideas and aspects of Greece’s economical aspects and anarchy.

He conveyed a vital component in his missive by saying, “The richer Greeks are very devious and intriguing, and with very limited exception only less ignorant than their Turkish masters. The lower ranks are the merriest creatures imaginable, but are untrustworthy, and awake to every advantage. ” His purpose in devising this missive was most likely to express his great concern for the dreadful economical status of Greece and to imply the ultimate effect of how sovereign acting country and an extensive variation between a rich and middleclass can impact a practical nation (Doc. ). Subsequently, another economical issue lied primarily with how Greece would be able to request accommodations from other countries to receive independence from the Ottoman’s with assurance of the other countries’ moral incentives, such as Russia that in which aspired to assist Greece in order to receive financial compensation from Greece to a broad extent of possessing Greece’s lands.

Percy Shelley, an English poet, provided this evidence through his poem entitled “Hellas” that says in its preface, “Russia desires to possess, not to liberate, Greece; and the wise and generous policy of England would consist in establishing the independence of Greece, and in maintaining it against both Russia and the Turks. ” He wrote this poem with an intention of, perchance, expressing admonition during this revolution for the Greeks (Doc. 7).

As a another, supported economical ordeal, A. Regnier devised an engraving entitled Greece Sacrificed that in which comprised a display of Ottomans attacking Greeks, which seem to be of a poorer class in; however, as mentioned antecedently, most people in Greece were impoverished during this revolution. These Greek individuals seemed defenseless and, as made apparent, did not possess any weaponry as the Ottoman Turks confronted them; this engraving was most likely devised by A.

Regnier with a purpose of conveying Greece’s economical strife during this Greek Revolution, and it also expressed how Greece’s religious integrity remained in tact as the soon to be succumbed Greeks await their deaths from the Ottomans (Doc. 11). Like the many adverse economical aspects in Greece, there were also manifolds of unfavorable social facets in Greece as well while under Ottoman subjugation.

The precedent vibe of Greece, before Ottoman subjugation, was one of jubilancy and patriotism or nationalism in Greek contrivances and culture; however, this sentiment altered as they were undermined by the Turks. Sneyd Davis, an English writer, composed a poem entitled To His Friend and Neighbor Dr. Thomas Taylor that coveys an articulate way of describing the solemn effects that were wrought in result of the Ottoman jurisdiction in Greece.

He conveyed an exceptional perspective of these adverse effects even in the most popular location in Greece, Athens, by saying his poem, “Go, search for Athens; her deserted ports, Enter—a noiseless, solitary shore, Where commerce once crowded the Athenian strand. Trace her dark streets, her ruined shrines; and wonder, where her glories shined. Where are her orators, her sages, now? Shattered her moldering arches, her towers in dust, but far less ruin’d, than her soul decayed. Sneyd Davis ensured to incorporate the correlations between Greece when it was experiencing its utmost prosperity in its ancient times to its most pitied downfall during Ottoman domination, which he did so to supplement imagery to hopefully elicit a realization in individuals that Greece was in desperate need of assistance of becoming liberated from the Turks; although, Greece would not be liberated for another 100 years from the publication of this poem, the ideas of freeing Greece grew early in the hearts of individuals from other nations, especially, as made apparent, Great Britain and, soon later, France. Doc. 1). As antecedently mentioned, Greece’s culture was altered monumentally by Turkish domination, but the primary manners of how it was affected are not specifically by how its economy or how its vibe of jubilancy was effected but also incorporating its arts and artistic passions, its build on philosophies and sciences, and how the subjugation obstructed the entire progress of the Greeks.

Claude Etienne Savary, a French scholar of Greek and Arabic, wrote a missive, like James Dallaway, and described his loath for the deterioration of Greek culture by saying, “Let me not be accused of painting the Turks in darker colors than they deserve, but I have traveled through their empire and have seen the injuries of every kind which they have done to the sciences, the arts, and the human race. At the sight of these melancholy spectacles my heart groans, my blood boils in my veins and I would wish to excite all Europe to combine against these Turks who have crushed the Greek nation. Claude Etienne Savary reflected this deep resentment towards the Ottoman Turks most likely because of their intrusion between Savary and his avidity directed towards Greek culture; this obstruction of Greek progression in Greece’s magnificent talented unity of culture and artistic passion even enraged those of distinct cultures with aspirations of reprimanding the Turks and helping ignite a revolution in Greece (Doc. 3).

According to opinions from other nations, Greece was a very compatible and respected nation because of their sympathy directed to other nations, and they were always recognized for persisting with their religious integrity throughout very challenging trials such as through Ottoman domination. Alexandros Kalpholougo, a popular poet concerned with Greek culture, composed an untitled poem that reflected Greece’s avidity with other nations; he said through his poem, “Greeks love every foreigner, they love a German for his company and an enlightened Frenchman, an impious libertine.

In conversation not a word about the commandments of God.? The young, the educated, do not go to Church, for they have got French enlightenment.? They say, “We have books and French romances, all the other books are so melancholy! ”” (Doc. 4). As the years grew closer to the initiation of the Greek Revolution in 1821, exhortations were made by more and more Greeks to commence a revolution and as these expressions augmented and stressed the things that they were unjustly being pressed against by the Ottoman Turks, their aspirations of rebellion increased as well.

Greek exiles, which had experienced the ordeals made by the Ottoman Turks, encouraged their Greek comrades to fight and rebel against the Ottomans; they encourage their belligerent desires by saying, “O Greeks, learn forever that the weapons of justice are unconquerable, and that the Ottomans will flee from the armed Greeks.

Remember, finally, that the beginning of victory is resistance, and that the Greeks are neither savage nor of worthless spirit, as are their enemies. Freedom has approached her ancient home. ” (Doc. 6). Greece’s political statuses were also altered by the Ottoman’s self-righteous desires of subjugation in multifarious ways.

With the Ottoman’s established governmental regime, enforcement for robbers and what may be considered as “righteous criminals” were not regulated properly, and if a lamentable occurrence was to transpire, then there generally was a need for the head sultan over the Turks to initiate a means of retaliation rather than having leaders that were designated to make decisions perhaps even allowing Greeks to participate in decision making; this can reflect an improper distribution of power, poor governmental/ enforcement systems, and imposing sovereignty with not allowing Greeks to contribute to conclusions made by government.

Mustapha III, the Turkish sultan during 1765, ordered his chosen governor in northern Greece to repress rebellions made by Greeks and said, “With the arrival of my imperial decree be it known that robbers continually incite the district of Larissa to rebellion. Impose order and report on the measures taken. Mustapha III must have enacted on this order to his governor as a matter of ensuring that his jurisdictions remained stable; however, based on the apparent previous information given, the logic behind the Greeks’ rebellions was because of the maltreatment made because of him, so, therefore, there is an ignorant contention with Mustapha III who needed to refrain from being greatly imposing with the Greeks and should have respected Greek nationalism (Doc. 2).

Throughout Greece’s strife through the difficult times of Ottoman sovereignty, Greece depended on the reliable political/ religious guidance by their leader in the Greek Orthodox Church; however, during the commencement of the Greeks’ enragement. Edward Blaquiere, an organizer and fundraiser for the London Greek Committee, wrote in his composition entitled the Greek Revolution, published in 1824, and said, emphasizing these matters, “The fortress of Navarino, which surrendered soon after the uprising began in 1821, was the scene of another tragedy, to which only wars between slaves and their masters ever give rise.

During the siege, news of the murder of the head of the Greek Orthodox Church by the sultan’s government spread throughout Greece. ” Edward Blaquiere’s purpose in composing this work of his, regarding that he is a fundraiser for the London Greek Committee, was most likely to not only inform people of these inauspicious occurrences but to also elicit subsidization and assistance for the Greeks during the Greek Revolution. (Doc. 8).

Although Greece had lost their reliable leader that was head over the Greek Orthodox Church, another leader, Alexander Mavrocordato the writer of Declaration to the Christian Powers, assisted in the Greek Revolution and helped produce the Greek revolutionary government; this regime, with the assistance of other nations, enabled Greece to proclaim its independence and established a stable government free from Turkish rule entirely (Doc. 10).

As it is apparent, the Greeks had to endeavor through many trials during 18th and early 19th century while they were under Ottoman subjugation; these ordeals mainly affected Greece in practically every manner possible: its economical, social, and political aspects. Economically, most Greeks were impoverished, there was economical distrust towards other nations in alliances with Greece, and there was a vast aperture between the major poor and minor rich classes in Greece that caused conflict among them.

Socially, Greece became more of a solemn nation, there was degrading found within former Greek passions such as artistic productions philosophies and sciences, and Greeks were luckily able to receive accommodations by other nations in result of their great compatibility.

Politically, the Ottomans enforced their own governmental regime that was very unstable and irresolute, they murdered the head leader of the Greek Orthodox Church, and, at least luckily for the Greeks, they attained a new leader for their revolution who in which assisted among with the accommodations of other nations in order to reestablish stability in Greece and was contrived successfully.

The Greeks may have had an interval of where they were unable to progress with their cultural achievements due Ottoman subjugation in Greece; however, due to the Greeks persistence of revolutions and with the accommodations made by other nations, the Turkish sovereignty was not prolonged and Greece was able to recover its splendid, wholesome culture.

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Globalization vs. Nationalism

Nationalism vs. Globalization The debate on whether U. S. domestic and foreign policy should center on nationalism or globalization has been a long standing one. Before I add my personal opinion to it, I would like to state the advantages and disadvantages of both options and how it woild affect our economy in the long run. Nationalism uses trade protectionism as a basis for its concept. The main objective is to protect domestic resources by deterring foreign trade. This is accomplished through raising tariffs, quotas, and embargoes. It also raises taxes for export subsidies, import licensing, and exchange rates. Riley) Initially, people believe that keeping trade domestic benefits the standard of living because it keeps employment high. Unfortunately, there are unforeseen side effects that have damaging results to the economy. One of the biggest factors is quality control. Since competition of the goods and services offered are reduced, there is no real motivation to produce innovative and technology advanced products. In addition, ineffective factions of business are safe from being edged out by more competent foreign rivals. In the long run, protectionism diminishes the value of a country’s products and cripples its economy.

Globalization, on the other hand, is the opposite of nationalism. It is defined as the “ongoing process of integration of regional economies into a global network of communication and execution. ” (Lovekar) There are many advocates and protestors of globalization. Supporters state how global trade raises GDP, employment, and per capita income for citizens of developing countries. Competition also raises the standard for good, quality products at reasonable prices ultimately benefitting the consumer. Employment, or lack thereof, is one of the hot button topics in the debate over globalization.

Some believe that outsourcing manufacturing, a key part of globalization, causes a loss of jobs domestically. Despite the steady cash flow from trade, developing countries are still growing twice as slow as developed countries. The average worker is still not benefiting from globalization due to their extremely low rate of pay, an enticing factor for outsourcing. So which option is the better policy ti adapt? In my opinion, globalization would be the better option for the U. S. Since they are such a phenomenal force in the global market, enforcing nationalism policies would not only weaken the economy, it would affect other countries as well.

High tariffswould spark initiation tariffs from other countries and start a trade war. The outsourcing of lower skilled jobs to low wage countries is not necessarily a bad thing. It opens up the market for high waged, high skilled jobs that make equivalent products. The demand for these jobs raises the education level does to as many pursue degrees to fill them. So in conclusion, while it may seem ideal for the U. S. to protect its own by stymieing global trade, in the long run its beneficial to use globalization. In addition to stimulating developing countries’ economy, it benefits the consumer through competitive pricing.

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Extreme Nationalism

Extreme Nationalism. Objective The objective of my essay is to let you know what were the main causes of World War 2, focusing in extreme nationalism and letting you know my opinion about it. Introduction The Second World War was a global conflict that resulted in more deaths than any other war. It started in 1939 and concluded in 1945. A lot of World Nations were involved including the Great Powers. There are several causes that led to the Second World War; here I mention the main ones: * A worldwide depression. derived from the Great Depression, the world was suffering of extreme inflation, high prices and very low wages. People suffered despair and had no hope for the future and unemployment was very high. * Problems left from The First World War. – The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too sever to them. Germany could not afford to pay the money and during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor because there were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high.

People were dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man, Adolf Hitler, who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. * The rise of Dictators. – Nations like Germany, Italy, and Japan came under the rule of dictators or military leaders. A dictator named Mussolini took power in Italy in 1922. Military leaders took control of Japan in the early 1930s. In Germany, Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, gained power in 1933. These leaders promised to restore their countries. Hitler began to arm Germany for war. Japan invaded China.

Mussolini sent Italian troops to conquer Ethiopia, in Africa. And the League of Nations failed or did nothing to stop them. * Ideologies. – Some ideologies doctrines and philosophies like totalitariansm, fascism, imperialism, militarism, racism and extreme nationalism affected too. The one I’m focusing is: extreme nationalism. Extreme Nationalism. Many countries were left out of the Treaty of Versailles or didn’t receive a large enough piece of the Treaty pie. This led to self interest within countries to prove their power and ability to rules as top leaders.

One of the most common examples was The German Workers party, more commonly known as the Nazis. They grew and expanded from one single catalytic seed into a blooming party. Nationalism was in the minds of Germans after the end World War 1, budding and taking nutriment from the steely resentment that covered German opinions. It was from the common ground of extreme nationalism that the Nazis were able to build their empire. The party started out as the Free Committee for a German Workers’ Peace in 1918.

The party was built under opposition of the Treaty of Versailles, anti-Semitic, anti-Monarchist, anti-Marxist opinions and the solid belief that German nationalists were a superior race. It demanded that people should be absolutely loyal to the nation and support its foreign expansion. It emphasized national glory. It was from the basis of extreme nationalism that the Nazis were able to be a factor in the causes of WWII. Nationalism is defined as: 1. Devotion to the interests or culture of one’s nation. 2.

The belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than collectively, emphasizing national rather than international goals. 3. Aspirations for national independence in a country under foreign domination. Personal Opinion. About nationalism I think everywhere you look; you can find tiny hints of nationalism somewhere. Personally I think that nationalism is opinionated. And in my opinion I think that nationalism can create false enemies and starts riots in many areas of the world. A negative effect to me, are people who take nationalism to the extreme.

Some of these extremists protest against churches of different religions just because of their beliefs. For example, Hitler singled out every Jew just because they weren’t Christian. Some neo-Nazi groups today believe in “white power. ” They protest against all the time, and it disrupts the peace in some places and creates large disputes in many areas. Aide Thamara Mendoza 50L Another extreme effect of nationalism, are the people who literally kill just because of what they believe in. For example, Iraqi nationals yelled “ALLAH!!! right before they set off a suicide bomb on American soldier. Also, some even sneak onto planes with bombs and timers strapped to their chests knowing that they’re killing many people for their beliefs. I think that their theory is bizarre and unnecessary. These methods create large confrontation between countries, which is obviously bad. I mean, I find nothing wrong in having a slight nationalistic feeling that doesn’t hurt anyone just because your lack of tolerance doesn’t let you assimilate that they are different than you and there’s nothing wrong with it.

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Nationalism Is a Modern Form of Consciousness

A few weeks ago the topic of nationalism was presented to me. So I asked myself “What is nationalism? ” and “How did it come about? ” This led me to an essay stating that “Nationalism is a modern form of consciousness (Greenfeld 2006: 64-92). ” It went on to say that “Nationalism is the constitutive element of modernity and it provides the foundational form of consciousness in all societies defined as nations (Greenfeld 1992: 3-26). ” With this brief insight on nationalism I wrote this paper. This essay will discuss the proposed question ‘Nationalism is a modern form of consciousness.

What role(s) do you think that this form of consciousness play(s) in the identity of Caribbean people? Do you think that this modern form of consciousness contributes to the motivation of Caribbean people? ’ But before we talk about nationalism in the Caribbean we must take into consideration the history of the Caribbean in order to identify the role that this form of consciousness plays in the identity of Caribbean people. While growing up, I can vividly remember my primary school teacher, Mrs Khan, stating that “The Caribbean is a group of small islands encircled by the Caribbean Sea”.

That same afternoon I asked my mother about the small islands makes up the Caribbean and how far are they from Trinidad. She told me that “The Caribbean is made up of countries such as Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Island (BVI), Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St Christopher & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines and the republic of Trinidad and Tobago and that they share a common history.

It is enriched with variety of cultures, religion and dialects, which were mixed and created new forms such French Patois; that’s why the Caribbean is comprises of such rich diversity. ” This information encouraged me to dig deeper and find out more about nationalism and to my astonishment I realised that there are multiple perceptions on the theory of nationalism. These perceptions varied because of the overall modifications in life and the roles that different persons took on the idea of nationalism.

Nationalism, a modern form of consciousness, emerged in the sixteenth century after the War of Rose in England (Greenfeld 1992: 3-87). This war resulted in the annihilation of the aristocracy creation a void at the top of the social pyramid which needed to be filled thus a new aristocracy. This new aristocracy was comprised of talented and educated individuals of the lower social strata. Although I had all these information the question still remained “What is nationalism and how it related to the Caribbean? Ernest Gellner (1964) stated that nationalism “invents nations where they do not exist even if it helps to have some pre-existing cultural traits. ” He went on to say that the nation has become a sociological necessity for modern, industrial society. This form of modernisation eats away traditional society and its role relationships, uprooting and mobilising the peasants and swelling the cities. These urbanised peasants and workers who experience discrimination formed a new nation of their own and consequently, nationalism generates new nations. Now I’m faced with a new question “What is a nation? According to dictionary reference a nation is “a large body of people, associated with a particular territory, that is sufficiently conscious of its unity to seek or to possess a government peculiarly its own. ” Eric Hobsbawm (1994) viewed the nation as an invented tradition. He argued that in order to understand the concept of nationalism this invented tradition must be explored. Furthermore, she understood that the fundamental part of nationalism is the nation. The perception of nationalism deals with the creation of consciousness of human mind, shared beliefs, popular sovereignty and equality.

This then led me to think that nationalism has play role in the Caribbean identity. When discussing the historical background of the Caribbean you should know the difference between individualistic nationalism and collectivism. Before the 19th century, most of the Caribbean islands were colonized by the European Union such as Great Britain, France, Spain and Portugal to a lesser extent. The enslaved individuals of these colonies fought against the whites for improved working conditions among others.

This is one of the examples whereby enslaves individuals felt that mental consciousness. Together they saw they needed a better life and so showed resistance. After the emancipation of slavery and countries obtaining their independence the beginning of nationalism has been felt greatly by countries. For example, in my birth country, Trinidad and Tobago, a French Creole, Andrew Arthur Cipriani, , was responsible for the beginning of national consciousness. He was responsible for the formation of the Workingmen’s Association, now called Trinidad Labor Party.

The party’s motto “Agitate, Educate, Confederate” motivated individuals to overthrow the Euro-British Colonialism which appealed to their sovereignty. Now there is a place called Cipriani Boulevard in honour of Andrew Arthur Cipriani contribution in Trinidad and Tobago nationalism. Additionally, many countries migrated to foreign investment for economical stability to maintain their nation shows that this form of modern consciousness has been developed. A contribution of nationalism that is currently growing throughout the Caribbean is loyalty.

People are becoming more and more devoted to their individual countries which are seen especially around independence time. For instance, in Grenada most buildings are decorated in their national colours and children are being educated about the history of Grenada. This gives them a sense of who they are as a country. Before, people of various countries would wear their flags in an unmannerly fashion and no one would say anything but now they wear it with pride. This modern form of consciousness also brought about by the political directorate and the trade unions. Individuals such as Dr.

Eric Williams of Trinidad and Tobago, T. A. Marryshow of Grenada and Jacob of Guyana are but a few who promoted self-reliance and walking together for the betterment of each other and it played a profound role in Caribbean identity. Some of the things within the Caribbean that contribute to the identity of the Caribbean people are education, sports, CARICOM/ CSME and the CCJ. In education there are areas such as University of the West Indies (UWI) and Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) which contributed to the Caribbean identity and who we are today. In sports there are areas such as cricket.

The West Indies cricket whether they are winning or losing is a major factor that influenced Caribbean identity. Dr. Hon Denzil Douglas the Prime Minister and St. Kitt’s and Nevis stated that , the West Indies cricket team removed the Caribbean from the clutches of colonialism and that is the real form of nationalism Nationalism, a modern form of consciousness, has contributed to the motivation of the Caribbean people. For instance, after the abolition of slavery ex-slaves educated themselves to the highest level possible as well as their children because they did not want them to be like them.

Many times I questioned why it is my parents are pushing us to attain the highest possible educational level and now after reading and researching for this paper I see the importance of an education. They also were motivated to cease free labour and to acquire better paying jobs so that they can provide for their families. I concur that nationalism played an important role in the shaping of the people of the Caribbean. The Caribbean people rebelled against their oppressions for betterment. Thus, it can be said that nationalism a modern form of consciousness did play apart in the development of Caribbean countries identity.

Bibliography Gellner, E. (1964). Nationalism. Greenfeld, L. (1992). Nationalism as the Cultural Foundation of Modern experience. 3-87. Greenfeld, L. (1992). Nationalism as the cultural foundation of modern experience . 3-26. Greenfeld, L. , & Malczewski, E. (2006). Nationalism as the cultural foundation of modern experience . 64-92. Hobsbawm, E. (1994). Nationalism. References Nation. (n. d. ). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from Dictionary. com website: http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/nation

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In What Ways and with What Results Did 19th Century Nationalism?

During the 19th century, nationalistic thoughts began to infiltrate Europe, which eventually lead up to unifications, as well as the First World War. Nationalism began as each ethnicity began to feel a sense of individuality and identity. Nationalism was the start of independence and revolutions, even after the Congress of Vienna, which sought to continue conservative ways. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th, it catalyzed many wars including World War One.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the Congress of Vienna was a reaction to the French Revolution, in which they wanted to preserve the monarchies in Europe as well as conservative ways. Nationalistic ideas were surfacing across Europe however the Congress of Vienna did not prevent the nationalism uprisings of 1848. By combining the Netherlands with Belgium, and continuously not giving Poland it’s freedom, the Congress only furthered the nationalistic movements. Revolutions began to take Europe during the year of 1848, the year of Revolutions.

Up until then, different ethnic groups began to pride themselves in nationalism, and in their identities. Countries such as Poland, Belgium, Italy, and Germany started revolutions in order to gain independence. Each country was fighting for nationalism with their new sense of identity however many of them failed. Nationalism ultimately caused the independence of countries such as Germany and Italy. It encouraged people of each state to think about their ethnicity as well as identity. Even though many states benefited, other states were suppressed and unable to break free.

This is one of the factors that led up to the First World War. As the Ottoman Empire began to decline, it was right in the 19th -20th century, which was the prime time of nationalism. States wanted freedom from their reigning countries due to their national pride, yet the reigning countries were uncooperative. The Balkan areas were under the Austria-Hungary Empire’s rule, yet Serbia wanted to create a new country with states that mostly contained Serbians. Their nationalism became ultra-nationalistic which led to the assassination of the crowned prince of Austria-Hungary.

This was one of the reasons of World War I starting up-nationalism. The seed of nationalism in Europe not only created many new independent nations but also created a sense of identity within states. Without nationalism uprisings in Europe, many of what the world looks like now would not be here and unified countries such as Germany and Italy may still be tiny states instead of a large country. Nationalism shaped Europe’s geographical state, and the course of events that led up to the 20th century.

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Effects of Nationalism After French Revolution

After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era, people were brought together by the French army marching through their country. During the nineteenth century nationalism became a great aspect of life. Both writer and artist works were greatly influenced by nationalistic ideals and brought people together. Nationalism became a very popular thing after the Napoleonic Era, when people saw how the French carried themselves as a people of a nation. This is when other nations started to strive for links between their people.

One major forerunner was language. People saw language as one way to unify as a nation, and create a brotherhood between its people. The whole idea of roots and back story also influenced the literature of the nineteenth century as well. Many writers works were influenced from the nineteenth century was influenced by Nationalistic ideals. One set of writers who showed the idea of nationalism were the Brothers Grimm in their Grimm’s Fairy Tales. Grimm’s Fairy Tales is a collection of German fairy tales all in one book.

They used these collection of fairy tales to create a German identity, by saying these were the tales passed on from generation to generation in German culture. Another writer that shows nationalism is Aleksandr Pushkin in his work The Bronze Horseman. The Bronze Horseman tells the tale of Evgenii and how he ends up going mad and getting killed by the statue of Peter. This shows nationalism in the fact that in the introduction of the poem, he talks about the founding of St. Petersburg and how great Russia is. Artist also had many works that portrayed nationalistic ideals.

One piece of art that without a doubt showed nationalism was La Liberte guidant le peuple by Eugene Delacroix. This painting depicts “Mother France” leading her people into battle during the French Revolution. It shows Mother France with torn clothes and a French flag above her head which show how she wanted to bring her people all under the French flag and join them together. Another painting that depicts nationalism is The Bard by John Martin. This painting shows a Welsh bard running from a massacre that had just happened in a town off in the background of the painting.

This showed nationalism in the idea that no matter what the English would send upon the Welsh they would always stand strong as a people and never give in to the English repression. All these different works show different aspects of nationalism. The Brother Grimm with the Grimm’s Fairy Tales, showed German nationalism in the fact that it created German folklore for people to come around. Aleksandr Pushkin’s The Bronze Horseman showed nationalism in that it tells how great Russia is and no matter what happens it will forever keep its greatness.

Eugene Delacroix’s painting La Liberte Guidant le people shows French nationalism in that it shows the French people all coming together under one flag to fight alongside Mother France and were willing to die for her. In The Bard by John Martin shows Welsh nationalism in that no matter what the English did to them they would never give in. In sum, nationalism became a major aspect of life in the nineteenth century. People came together and many new nations began to form in response to these new ideals of nationalism. Nationalism led to many great things, like the unification of Germany in 1871.

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Liberalism and Nationalism

In the late 18th and 19th centuries there where two ideologies that was fueling the revolutions during this time. These two ideologies are liberalism and nationalism. Liberalism is a belief in gradual social progress by changing laws, rather than by revolution. It is also sated to be the belief that people should have a lot of political and individual freedom. Nationalism is the desire for political independence of people who feel they are historically or culturally a separate group within a country.

It is often associated with the belief that a particular nation is better than any other nation, and in this case is often used showing disapproval. Liberalism first became a powerful force in the Age of Enlightenment. In the 19th century liberal governments was established in many nations across Europe, Latin America, and North America. Liberal power increased further in the 20th century, when liberal democracies “triumphed” in two world wars and survived major ideological challenges from fascism and communism.

The term nationalism was coined by Johann Gottfried Herder (nationalismus) during the late 1770s. Where Nationalism emerged from is difficult to determine, but its development is closely related to that of the modern state and the push for popular sovereignty that came to a head with the French Revolution and the American Revolution in the late 18th century. Since that time, nationalism has become one of the most significant political and social forces in history. Other forms of nationalism are revolutionary, calling for the establishment of an independent state as a homeland for an ethnic underclass.

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Nationalism

Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age With research and resources you will learn about Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age. Nationalism because it is a political idea that involves a tough recognition of a set of individuals by way of a political being defined in nationalized conditions, for example a nation. And Modernity, because it is a take action of why and how thing develop and progress all the way through history. Because of these changes occurring allows us to exist in a modern society.

Modernity is relating to the history or traits of a period extending from a relevant remote past to the present time “Since the term “Modern” is used to describe a wide range of periods, any definition of modernity must account for the context in question. Modern can mean all of post-medieval European history, in the context of dividing history into three large epochs: Antiquity, Medieval, and Modern. Likewise, it is often used to describe the Euro-American culture that arises out of the Enlightenment and continues in some way into the present.

The term “Modern” is also applied to the period beginning somewhere between 1870 and 1910, through the present, and even more specifically to the 1910-1960 periods”. Nationalism is what most groups of citizen’s feel for their countries a sense of devotion, loyalty. To the citizens their country is the best it is a sense of pride “What does the term nation mean? In what ways is it distinct, if at all, from closely related terms like state, people, and ethnic group” (418-423). Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age

Nationalism is uniquely modern in that throughout history to the present cultures, technology, are always being studied and compared to the present “In recent years, the study of nationalism has attracted growing attention from scholars in a range of disciplines-sociology, anthropology, history, politics, even literature and philosophy” . Nationalism is studied throughout the course by studying Western civilizations or cultures from the early modern age to the Late Modern Age.

All through history there have been examples of nationalism the largest example being Wars in Germany such as World War II, when the Germans felt they were better then Jewish people. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day “So it was determined to exterminate all the Protestants, and the plan was approved by the queen. They discussed for some time whether they should make an exception of the king of Navarre and the prince of Conde. All agreed that the king of Navarre should be spared by reason of the royal dignity and the new alliance.

The duke of Guise, who was put in full command of the enterprise, summoned by night several captains of the Catholic Swiss mercenaries from the five little cantons, and some commanders of French companies, and told them that it was the will of the king that, according to God’s will, they should take vengeance on the band of rebels while they had the beasts in the toils. Victory was easy and the booty great and to be obtained without danger. Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age

The signal to commence the massacre should be given by the bell of the palace, and the marks by which they should recognize each other in the darkness were a bit of white linen tied around the left arm and a white cross on the hat” . The beginning of Nationalism took place during the early ages before we had states, and most countries were still developing, groups of religions (Catholic, Christian etc) are what people were loyal to and before technology became as advanced as it is now.

One of the first examples of Nationalism is when Christopher Columbus discovered America; he brought disease and slavery to the Native Americans causing them to lose their home and subjected to cruelty treatment “It appears to me, that the people are ingenious, and would be good servants and I am of opinion that they would very readily become Christians, as they appear to have no religion. They very quickly learn such words as are spoken to them.

If it pleases our Lord, I intend at my return to carry home six of them to your Highnesses, that they may learn our language”. Before the Modern age, nationalism studied the early religions, the forming of states and countries, changes in technologies “Studying the nineteenth century around the conflict between the culture of the westernizing, cosmopolitan elite and the traditions of the people, rooted more deeply in their regions” . Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age

As countries and states have grown stronger with government and developing their laws and beliefs; Nationalism has also transformed having been loyalty to religions it is stronger through the people and their loyalty for their countries, laws, religions in the Modern Age. During the Revolutionary War, if one was found to side with the rebels, they were tortured, jailed, banned from their groups” Shadrack Furman, a free black Virginian who worked for the British as a provisionary and guide, was captured by patriot troops, given 500 lashes, and then blinded and rendered mentally deranged by an axe blow to the head” .

When a country within a country declares independence from the bigger country they are found disloyal to their mother country causing a war or a ethnic cleansing Bosnia, Serbia, Yugoslavia “They attacked Bosniak-dominated town in eastern Bosnia, including Zvornik, Foca, and Visegrad, forcibly expelling Bosniak civilians from the region in a brutal process that later was identified as “ethnic cleansing. (Ethnic cleansing differs from genocide in that its primary goal is the expulsion of a group of people from a geographical area and not the actual physical destruction of that group, even though the same methods–including murder, rape, torture and forcible displacement–may be used. )” . Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age Wars, attacks, Ethnic cleansing are examples of nationalism of citizens fighting for their countries, religions etc. A group that has a strong sense of loyalty is Al-Qaeda.

Their members attack others in their own country, other countries by suicide bombings “12 October, 2000, Attack on US warship in Yemen kills 17 sailors. Two suicide attackers ram a boat carrying explosives into the USS Cole in Aden port killing 17 American sailors. In 2004 six suspected Al-Qaeda militants are charged in connection with the attack by a Yemeni court. ” . With the evolution of nationalism during the modern age there have been many changes in the civilizations of the world.

A few of those changes are the people within the civilizations (women’s rights), the advancement of technology, and the worsening of wars. “For the vast majority of women in early modern Europe, the most important change in their lives was marriage. The choice of a spouse, whether made by themselves or their parents or a larger kin group, determined their social and economic status and place of residence. Divorce was illegal, living separately from an abusive spouse was illegal without court approval, and only way out of marriage was death of a spouse.

No thought as to a women’s intellect” . Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age In the late modern age women are free to choose whom they marry, divorce is legal although few religions still frown upon it, and most women have gone to college or know a trade. As nationalism has evolved the technology has also evolved in advancement of warfare through the modern age “Despite their ostensible enthusiasm for violent revolution, Engels and many socialists actually came to fear the growing destructive power of modern war and the threat it posed to Western Civilization ”.

An important reason why nationalism is important in the modern age is the studying of early modern age we can learn what civilizations did and how they ran, and in the modern age we can learn from them and build upon what we learn. Nationalism has been witnessed throughout history. Through the decades with the changes of people, religions, technology, the acts of Nationalism have changed as well. As you have read the following sources were used to determine these facts because, was an example of how later technology and the loyalty of the people of the group have changed in the later Modern age.

Burke, P. (1978) this was an example of the Modern age and how it affects the civilizations. was used to describe some of the cruelty of choosing the rebel side during the Revolutionary war and what would happen if you weren’t loyal to the country. Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age this journal extracts were an example of the early Modern age nationalism with the Native Americans taken for slavery and forced to accept Christianity over their religion if they had one.

Delanty, G. K. (2006). SAGE Handbook of Nations and Nationalism . London: SAGE Publications. This quote was used as an example of how unique nationalism is to the modern age. This was an example of the Modern age and how it affects the civilizations. Gay, C. M. (1998). The Way of the (Modern) World: Or, Why It’s Tempting to Live As If God Doesn’t Exist. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. This quote was used to define the meaning of modernity and provide an example. rovide the example of an ethnic cleansing of the Protestants whom were not good for the enough for the country or the citizens, an early example of nationalism before the Modern Age. This article was used to define what Nationalism is with some examples shown through history. And because, in this article, there is an example of Modern Age nationalism when Bosnia is declaring independence from Yugoslavia, causing an ethnic cleansing, rape all examples of what happens when there is not a sense of loyalty to a certain group. Weisner, E. M. 2000 second edition). Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This quote was used in describing what life was like living in Europe during early modern age for women. Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age With the provided research and resources we have learn about Nationalism throughout History and the Modern Age. Again because Nationalism is a political idea that involves a tough recognition of a set of individuals by way of a political being defined in nationalized conditions, for example a nation.

And Modernity, because it is a take action of why and how thing develop and progress all the way through history. Because of these changes occurring allows us to exist in a modern society. References BBCNews/SpecialNews/Timeline: Al-Qaeda. (n. d. ). From British Broadcasting Corporation: http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/3618762. stm Colley, L. (2011 ??? 18-February). The Guardian. Liberty’s Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World by Maya Jasanoff – review . Columbus, C. M. (1996). Journal Extracts.

Medieval Sourcebook Christopher Columbus . Getz, T. R. & Brooke, J. E. (2012). World history: The human experience from 1500. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. J. H. Robinson, e. (1906). The Massacre of St. Bartholomew’s Day. In H. C. Brian Cheek, Readings in European History 2 vols. Hanover Historical Texts Project (pp. 179-183). Boston: (Boston: Ginn). Tamir, Y. (1995 ??? April). The Engima of Nationalism. World Politics , pp. 418-423. Topics. (2012). From History. com: http://www. history. com/topics/bosnian-genocide