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Why has New York by the mid 19th Century clearly become America’s ‘capital of commerce’?

Abstract

The establishment of New York as the capital of commerce in the 19th Century was due to the influx of capital into the region through trade, manufacturing and agriculture. This in turn led to the parallel development of infrastructure and the property sector leading to massive wealth creation in the state. The wealth creation in the state as a result of these industries led to the increased commercial activity and the development of commercial institutions to support those activities. The combination of these factors secured New York’s position as the capital of commerce from the 19th century to the present day.

Introduction

The establishment of New York as the capital of commerce in the 19th century is arguably a combination of effective planning and an influx of capital into the city. There were a number of advancements made in the city during the century which secured the dominance of the city as an economic, social and political powerhouse. All these developments leading up to the culmination of commercial development in New York in the 19th century are important for understanding the prominence of the city during this period. Arguably, the central reason why New York established itself in this manner is largely due to the influx of capital into the city through various means, including trade activity as a result of the Port of New York, the surrounding agriculture and manufacturing sectors, and the technological advancements made possible by the Erie Canal.

Prior to the 19th Century

Prior to the 19th Century, the economic and political situation in New York was somewhat tumultuous with the overthrow of the Dutch colonial powers in 1664 by English forces (Eisenstadt & Moss, 2005). This political change was significant in the development of the economy in New York as it established the state as the lumberyard, breadbasket and centre of refinery for the British sugar colonies in the Caribbean. This industry remained a significant part of the economy in the state for the next three centuries. This dominance of agriculture in the area ensured that the slave population of the state was significant and indeed in the 18th century, the slave population in New York was the highest North of the Mason-Dixon Line (Eisenstadt & Moss, 2005). This flourishing agriculture surrounding the city, coupled with the increasing artisan activity and trade, ensured that New York thrived as a city of commerce in the 18th century. This was reflected in the increased population in the city and the political prominence that was seen in the city.

A combination of the political and economic landscape of the city, due in part to the entry port at New York allowing an influx of trade activity into the city and the families that had historical interest in various different trades, had established New York as a centre of commerce by the 19th Century. It is evident that the establishment of New York as the capital of commerce in the 19th century was due largely to the geographical position of the city being favourable to increased trade activity and the associated benefits, but also due to the increased political concentration which allowed prominent families to prosper based on these economic benefits.

Dominance in the 19th Century

The 19th century marked a turning point for New York as a centre of commercial dominance, due to a number of very important infrastructural and economic developments. The first of these was the exponential growth of the real estate industry in the city by property tycoons such as John Jacob Astor between 1800 and 1828 (Cornog, 1998). Prior to investment in real estate, Astor had established himself as the wealthiest man in America as a result of his thriving fur trade made possible by the port at New York. With the increased population in the city, the real estate market grew comparatively and as a source of commerce, it proved to be a worthy investment.

A final measure ensuring the establishment of New York as the capital of commerce was the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which cemented the economic status of the city, as it provided a powerful means of trade control to its Western neighbours (Klein, 2005). This allowed for the prosperity of merchants in competition with the wealth earned by real-estate families (Melville, 2004). The dominance asserted by New York through the Canal also earned the nickname, ‘the empire state’ –a reference which still exists in modern reference (Klein, 2005).

With the tumultuous politics of the city establishing a new order after the Civil War, the city was found to be the largest in the United States as well as having the most dominant port, the most liquid securities market and the largest commercial banks (Kessner, 2003). In addition to which, the Civil War had provided substantial capital influx into the state because of the large demand of munitions and supplies (Klein, 2005). The Erie Canal during the Civil War exposed the might of New York’s manufacturing sector, as there was substantial reliance on the state for clothing, steel and textiles, as well as grain processing (Eisenstadt & Moss, 2005). The progression from increased trade on the canal included rapid advancement in transportation and communications, which included a series of railroad networks supporting the agriculture and manufacturing sectors alike (Eisenstadt & Moss, 2005). The by-product of the thriving industry in New York had obvious effects on the commercial success of New York as a city, as it meant that the population increased to support these industries and the surrounding services developed parallel to the economy. The introduction of commercial banking and the stock exchange in the city is one such by-product as the wealthy merchants and real-estate tycoons, and supporting industries represent a content of wealth in the city which necessary will create commercial activity (Kessner, 2003).

Conclusion

The establishment of New York as a commercial capital in the United States during the 19th century can be attributed to the natural geographical location of the city which established it as an important port and trade base for access to the Western states from Europe. This allowed for booming trade and as a result, industry and commercial activities grew parallel to the successful trade industry. Entrepreneurs at the time took full advantage of the economic, social and political status of the city, investing heavily in property, commercial banks and manufacturing ensuring an exponential influx of capital into the city. The increased capital resulted in successful commercial growth, which was unrivalled by any other city at the time. Capitalizing on the success of New York as a trade, agriculture and manufacturing power, infrastructure was built to support these industries ensuring the continued reliance on goods and services from the state. The combination of effective planning and natural selection therefore ensured that New York was the capital of commerce in the 19th century continued through to the modern day.

References

Cornog, E. (1998) The Birth of Empire: DeWitt Clinton and the American Experience, 1769-1828. New York: Oxford University Press.

Eisenstadt, P. & Moss, L. (2005) The Encyclopedia of New York State. New York: Syracuse University Press

Kessner, T. (2003) Capital city: New York City and the men behind America’s rise to economic dominance, 1860-1900. Simon & Schuster

Klein, M. (2005) The Empire State: A History of New York. New York: Cornell University Press

Melville, H. (2004) Bartleby: The Scrivener. Gutenberg

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New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

1)      The two leading stock exchanges are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations.  The NYSE began in 1792 with 24 stock owners gathering on Wall street to buy and sell stock. The stock exchange has the largest dollar volume of stock sales in the world, but the NASDAQ  has a larger stock volume.

Membership in the NYSE is through “seats” and seat-holders are guaranteed the right to trade on the floor of the stock exchange.  The NASDAQ was established in 1971 as the first completely electronic trading forum. The NYSE was at the time the largest stock exchange in the world, but in the 1990s it was surpassed in stock volume by the NASDAQ. There are approximately 3300 companies traded on the NASDAQ;  there are 2,764 on the NYSE.

2)      If a firm’s shares grew from $1 to $2 per share over a 10-year period, the total growth over the course of the decade is 100 percent, but that does not mean that the annual growth would be 10 percent.  If fact, because annual growth is based on the beginning price, 10 percent annual growth is simply not a mathematical possibility. The math makes it more clear. If in the first year, stock is $1 then with 10 percent annual growth, the price would $1.10 at the beginning of the second year.

During the second year, ten percent growth would add 11 cents to the share’s price. Share prices would increase 12 cents the third year and so forth. At the end of a decade with 10 percent annual growth per year, the shares would be $2.41. So, it is false to believe that 100 percent total growth in a decade, does not mean 10 percent annual growth.

3)      Simply because the returns of two stocks are negatively correlated does not necessarily mean that one of the stocks is a negative beta.  Though a negative beta would negatively correlate with a stock that performs well during market upturns, it is not required for the negative correlation. Two stocks can have little to nothing in common and both be dependant on the same sort of market action for growth.

For example, stocks previously considered to be totally unrelated all perform poorly when the market takes a major downturn. High tech stocks, housing stocks and retail stocks can all be hit by a sharp market turn regardless of the limited correlation between these types of stocks.  A negative beta does not guarantee that the stock can hold steady during those severe drops.

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New York Stock Exchange

New York Stock Exchange Regulation is strictly dedicated to strengthening market integrity and investor protection. All, the directors in the NYSE Regulation’s board of directors is comprised of a majority of directors unaffiliated with any other NYSE board. As a result, NYSE Regulation is independent in its decision-making. The organization consists of three divisions: Market Surveillance, Enforcement, and Listed Company Compliance.  NYSE Regulation protects investors by enforcing marketplace rules and federal securities laws. NYSE Regulation also ensures that companies listed on the NYSE and on NYSE Arca meet our financial and corporate-governance listing standards.

The NYSE Regulation Board has the following committees: (1) the Human Resources and Compensation Committee;  (2) the Nominating and Governance Committee; and (3) the Committee for Review. The Human Resources and Compensation Committee is appointed by the Board and is charged with duties relating to NYSE Regulation’s human resources policies and procedures, employee benefit plans, compensation and disclosure. The NYSE Regulation Board of Directors is comprised of three NYSE Euronext directors, six otherwise unaffiliated with NYSE Euronext, and the NYSE Regulation Chief Executive Officer.

The CEO of NYSE Regulation has primary responsibility for the regulatory oversight of the U.S. market subsidiaries within NYSE Euronext and reports solely to the NYSE Regulation board of directors. The Regulation Board oversees all compensation decisions for Regulation employees and the nomination of directors to the Board of Regulation.  When it comes to disciplinary actions, the decisions of NYSE Regulation and its Board of Directors are final, although subject to appeal to the SEC.

NYSE Regulation performs regulatory responsibilities for the New York Stock Exchange and NYSE Arca.  It is comprised of a Market Surveillance division that monitors trading activities and investigates trading abuses by member organizations on the Floor and away from the Exchange, an Enforcement division that investigates and prosecutes related disciplinary actions, and a Listed Company Compliance division that ensures that companies listed on NYSE and on NYSE Arca meet their financial and corporate governance listing standards. Market Surveillance is the division responsible for monitoring trading activities on the Floor and trading “upstairs” by member firms, both on a real-time basis and after the fact.

Enforcement cases include: books and records deficiencies,supervisory violations,misconduct on the trading floor,insider trading,market manipulation, and other abusive trading practices. The trading of securities in the U.S. is subject to vigorous regulation. The principal laws governing trading are the Securities Act of 1933 (“the 1933 Act”) and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“1934 Act”).

NYSE rules apply to NYSE member organizations, as well as past and present representatives, and are designed to protect investors and foster fair dealings with customers. Federal Reserve Board Rules  apply to the entire banking sector for the regulation of borrowing and lending requirements.  Individual states in the U.S. have their own state securities laws.  Any offering of securities in the U.S. must be made in accordance with state as well as federal regulations.

Whether Dick Grasso’s compensation was “reasonable” is a matter of opinion. There are some former directors who still declare adamantly that he deserved all he was paid. Most of the world probably thinks differently. He got a payout of $139.5 million in retirement compensation and other benefits. According to insiders Grassos ran the NYSE like a private fiefdom. Mr. Grasso’s friends and allies on the board contributed a lot to the NYSE but the same lot became a symbol of corporate governance gone bad when it was revealed that those same people doled out his big pay package.

The SEC has found that during Mr. Grasso’s reign, specialists repeatedly traded for their own benefit in the place of customers who were ready to trade at the same price. This spurt of questionable trading may have cost investors at least $155 million, according to the SEC staff. That said, it would be a mistake to understate Mr. Grasso’s contributions to the NYSE. His imperious style helped hold together the exchange’s many, often-bickering, constituencies.

Thanks to his spending on additional technology, the NYSE easily handled the high volume and volatility of the recent bull and bear markets, no small task. But in the end it is pertinent to mention that NYSE was a non-profit organization and under no circumstance the Chairman can be considered as a CEO of a big multi national. His primary duty was to protect the national interest and was entitled to get the best compansation comparable to a higher government official and not the huge retirement package that he got.

REFERENCE

1.      http://www.nyse.com/regulation/1089235621148.html

2.      http://www.mindfully.org/Industry/2003/Grasso-NYSE-Deep-Trouble30dec03.htm

 

 

 

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The Failure of New York State Bill AO 3001

The current New York State administration has proposed a bill, AO 3001, that would give the governor control over scholarships to nursing schools.  On its face, this idea seems to have some merit.  The state faces an overwhelming nursing shortage.  By the year 2010, New York State will have 20% fewer nurses than demanded by the capacity of its health care facilities.

This shortage places everyone connected with these facilities at risk, not only patients and their families, but the health care staff as well.  With insufficient nurses available to oversee and to provide adequate care, nurses are forced to work longer shifts or extra shifts during the course of each pay period.  In addition, some care facilities find themselves replacing full-time nursing staff with either part-time or temporary nursing staff, or supplementing the available nursing care provided with nurses’ aides trained to take on lower level nursing tasks.

In addition to the lack of available nursing staff, many of those nurses already employed by New York State are nearing retirement age.  With so many of the currently employed nurses and nurse educators nearing the ends of their careers, it is becoming even more imperative to bring new nurses into the system before these men and women leave it.  However, New York State Bill AO 3001 is not the manner in which to bring new nurses into the nursing field.

According to its summary, the purpose AO 3001 is to provide scholarship and grant funding to individuals who study to enter the nursing profession.  These funds would be provided based on certain criteria and preferences specified in the bill.  Two of these items are similar to that of other awards, in that they call for evidence of academic merit and for evidence of financial need.  However, among other things, preference is given to individuals who have already obtained experience working in a healthcare setting and the “highest degree of preference” will be given “to recipients applying for second or subsequent years of funding” (Title VI, Section 2, subdivision 4-6).

While some degree of selectivity must be given when allotting scholarships and grants to students, it is the provision that the Commissioner of Education will select between candidates should the number of candidates exceed the number of awards that causes some concern.  How will these awards be made and to what criteria?  Can we be certain that the criteria being used will be to the best interest of the nursing profession?

In addition, the Commissioner can also decide where to assign the nurses who accept this funding.  According to Title VI, Section 2, subdivision 7, these nurses must work in a nursing capacity for 18 months or as nurse educators for three semesters at a minimum if they receive these funds, which is a reasonable requirement; however, the nurses must also agree to work in a facility that serves Medicaid beneficiaries or social services client, as well.  It is reasonable to expect nurses, or any scholarship recipient, to perform certain reasonable tasks to fulfill the requirements of a scholarship or grant.  Some teachers, for example, are forgiven their educational debts if they work in certain areas of the country.

However, these teachers choose what areas of the country in which they will teach and with which population of students that they will fulfill the requirements of the agreement.  To limit new nurses to working for facilities in which they may not have access to the equipment and to the funds that will enable them to best use and improve upon the skills that they have attained in their education, particularly when this knowledge is fresh in their minds, will simply hurt their futures in the profession.

Bringing new nurses into the profession is indeed a major problem facing New York State, as well as other areas of the country.  The true difficulty, however, lies with retention once these students have graduated.  Nurses face schedules that leave them sleep deprived and at risk for injuries.  Nurses are often asked to perform their jobs with substandard equipment or with insufficient funding.

In many facilities, nurses still do not receive the respect that their positions as highly trained and educated members of the health care profession demand.  In addition to all of these things, nurses typically receive inadequate pay for the work that they do, even as they attempt to pay back expensive educational loans.  A far better solution to the nursing shortage would seem to be a two-pronged attack.  First, nurses should be paid at the value of their work to ensure that nurses do not leave the field in search of higher paid work.  Second, instead of restrictive scholarships and grants that send nurses to locations decided upon by the Commissioner, a solution similar to that provided for teachers should be offered.  Both solutions would leave the decision of who should be a nurse and where these nurses should practice in the hands of those best qualified to decide: nurses and other members of the health care profession.

Reference

New York State Assembly.  (2007).  New York State Bill AO 3001.  Retrieved 12 August 2007 from http://assembly.state.ny.us/leg/?bn=A03001

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New York: now and then, and the future

New York has the charm to draw the people’s interest from all over the world. New York has been the gateway of immigration in America for centuries has remained the city of dreams for the immigrants; it would not be wrong to call it the. City of American dream. It is the third most populated nation in the US with multicultural population of Italian, Irish, African American, Germany, Hispanic, Asian origin. Living in the city is captivating, because it offers variety of jobs in various areas with higher income and better living conditions.

As the city’s population soared up in 20th century, the city witnessed the City subway opening in 1904 and arrival of the skyscrapers, such as Empire State Building, in 1920’s. During the Jazz age (between World War I and Great Depression) immigrant families moved outside Manhattan, raising the population of Brooklyn, which made Brooklyn more populous than Manhattan. During the WW1 and WWII the growths of women workers increased in garment factories triggering the foundation of International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union. In 1927, Tin Pan Alley opened the first modern musical (Jerome Kern’s Show Boat) in Broadway.

One of the most important events in New York history is the Stock Market Crash, that devastated stock market in America in 1929 leading to Great Depression in 1930’s. However, more the finance and business, New York is famous for it politics and politicians. For over eighty years, New York’s politic has been played by the democratic political machine, called Tammany Hal that collapsed after the Republican reformer Fiorello LaGuardia elected mayor in 1934.

The city has great monuments and parks and the master builder has been Robert Moses, who constructed bridges, parks and parkways in the 20th century.

Later in mid-20th century, New York became a hub for high-tech companies and becoming the headquarter GE, IBM, Eastman Kodak, and Xerox like companies.

In   the last quarter of 20th century, the New York population growth has dropped to only 2% (1965 to 1997), from 32% in 1940 to 1965. This drop is caused by the dis-organized city development.  New York is one of the most expensive cities in the world. It has also been associated protectionism and corruption. Another issue is the failure of public welfare as few cheaper rentals are avalible along with affordable quality schools, colleges and public hospitals. Due to lack of the government efforts to cater to these problems, the crime rate is also growing which makes living some where unsafe.

It was the tragedy of 9-11 that changed the city in many aspects. The terrorism act had cost not only thousands of lives, but also huge grief in the hearts of its citizens. After 9/11 the government has tightened up the immigration regulations, however the tragedy has brought suspicions in a multicultural city that always welcome outsiders. Even thought the city at present is working on massive developmental projects, there are poor areas in city which has to be revamped. In order to succeed the city government needs to maintain New York international image by working on more horizontal development rather than vertical development. Such plan will need to reconstruct the older city laying the advanced infrastructure for the poor segment at well. Even though there is no perfect city in the world; New York is still one of the best cities to live in.

Reference:

Lange, Alexandra , Building the (New) New York. Retrieved May 15, 2007, Web site: http://nymag.com/realestate/features/2016/17143/

Malve Von Hassell , (1996). Homesteading in New York City, 1978-1993. Bergin ; Garvey.

Jameson W. Doig, (2000). Empire on the Hudson: Entrepreneurial Vision and Political Power at the Port of New York Authority . Columbia University Press.

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New York Times vs. Sullivan

Issue: Does Freedom of Speech protect a newspaper when it makes false defamatory statements about the conduct of a public official if the statements were not made with knowing or reckless disregard for the actual facts? The holding does not match the issue. If the fourteenth amendment is going to be incorporated in the holding, then it has to be in the issue.

Also, the issue needs to be posted in a constitutional way.  For example: By not requiring Sullivan to prove that the advertisement personally harmed him and dismissing the same as untruthful due to factual errors, did Alabama’s libel law unconstitutionally infringe on the First Amendments freedom of speech and freedom of press protections?

Statement of the Facts: The New York Times published a full page ad soliciting funds to defend Martin Luther King, Jr. In the ad were accusations of brutal force employed by the Montgomery police force against King’s followers. L.B. Sullivan, the police commissioner at the time, claimed the ad maligned his character. He sued for, and won, damages from the lower court.

The Holding/Decision of the Court: The Court held that the First and Fourteenth amendments protected a publisher from libel only if the false and derogatory statements were not made with knowing or reckless disregard for the truth.

Reasons/Rationale: The Court made its decision based on three closely-related facts:

• First, the commercial nature of the advertisement;

• Second, the existence of actual malice; and,

• Finally, the tendency for the alleged libel to be connected to the plaintiff.

The New York Times was paid to publish the ad. However the fact that it was a paid advertisement does not make it a ‘commercial ad’ in that it waives constitutional guarantees of Freedom of Speech. To consider it as such would discourage newspapers from accepting “editorial advertisements” which would have a dangerous tendency to shut out this form of information promulgation. Furthermore, it would curtail freedom of speech and shackle those who do not own publications.  This would be in violation of the First Amendment, which aims to secure “the widest possible dissemination of information from diverse and antagonistic sources”.

There was no actual malice in this case although negligence can be ascribed to the NY Times for not exercising due diligence in ensuring the facts published. The paper had merely published a paid advertisement. The publisher cannot be accused of knowingly publishing falsehoods. Being a public official, Commissioner Sullivan had to accept the reality that his work would be under constant scrutiny. A higher level of proof is necessary to prove that the defendant printed material with intent to malign Sullivan’s character, especially since the alleged criticism was about his official functions as the police commissioner.

Finally, the alleged libelous ad did not bear any mention of his name. While the ad criticized the activities and “brutality of the police”, there was never any direct mention of Sullivan or the office of the police commissioner. It could not then be said that the ad was a directed, defamatory and malicious attack upon him. In fact, the acts described in the ad – the padlocking of the dining hall, among others – were not even directly ascribed to the police, much less the police commissioner. On a side note, there is even suggestion that the commissioner manifested a guilty conscience in respect of the acts protested in the ad.

The court therefore ruled in favor of freedom of speech over the right of a public official to defend himself from attack. Such cases have often been cited as jurisprudence to justify the level of criticism that can be inflicted on a government official. For acts related to his official functions, there is virtually no limit to the attacks that can be levied so long as they are not done with reckless disregard for the facts.

Justice Black concurs on the basis that the 1st and 14th amendments do not merely delimit a state’s power to award damages to officials for criticism of their official conduct but completely prohibits a state from exercising this power.  He is of the opinion that the defendants had an absolute constitutional right to publish their criticisms regardless of whom they were aimed at. It is regrettable that the court stopped short of a holding unequivocally protecting our free press.

Justice Goldberg concurs on the privilege to criticize official conduct, despite the harm which may flow from excesses and abuses and consistent with the prized American right “to speak one’s mind”.

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New York’s Money Drain

ALBANY, NY – Rising energy and health care prices have been slowly creeping their way up the city of Albany’s annual budget, backing a nationwide trend towards higher state expenditures on these basic costs.

Mayor Gerald D. Jennings, in his State of the City Address to the Albany common council mentioned the costs currently appropriated in Albany’s budget.  “Expenses such as State pension payments and health insurance expenses for employees, utility expenses and the like continue to be a challenge,” he said.

Residents of Albany won’t have to fear a deficit or higher city taxes just yet, since according to Jennings, Section 19-a payments, which come from the state of New York, currently offset these increases in city expenditures.

“We’ve succeeded in this regard largely because of the successful efforts to obtain and increase the State payment in lieu of taxes on the Empire State Plaza – our Section 19-a payments,” the mayor said. “During 2006 and again for 2007 through 2010 our 19-a payments will total $22,850,000.”

For the state of New York, however, the problem is mirrored, albeit in a much larger scale.

The State and the Cost of Health

Currently, the state capital Albany allocates fifteen percent of its annual budget of around $175 million on health insurance expenditures for its employees, or around $27 million annually.  Employees of the local government are in pretty good shape however, compared to their private sector counterparts, where employers are facing a rough choice on how to face the escalating cost of health care.

Yet New York is again facing a cut in health care spending, ushered in by then-incumbent Gov. Eliot Spitzer, who had previously proposed a $1.3 billion, cut in the expense last year. Gov. Spitzer resigned last March after an unrelated prostitution scandal, which left the talks with the health care lobby hanging.  Before Spitzer left, discussions about the cut in health care services this year were already ongoing.

In a New York Times interview, Dennis P. Whalen, Spitzer’s deputy secretary for health, commented on the change of mood.  “I think you can see already that the level of discussion and reaction is different this year than it was last year,” said Whalen.  “We’ve been engaged in productive discussions with hospitals about these changes that we’re pursuing.”

While health care budgets are being cut, health insurance has been growing at a steadily alarming rate in recent years.  In 2007, nationwide averages for health insurance premiums increased by 6.1 percent—two times the rate of inflation.

For employees’ insurance, the state isn’t so much squeezed as much as small businesses are.  Private employers are taking the brunt of the action, especially with state mandated benefits which in New York cover more than 30 different instances.  According to the Employer Alliance for Affordable Health Care, New Yorkers pay 26 percent more than the national average for health care.

The Alliance is also pointing fingers at the proposed 2008-09 budget plan for the state, which includes a $140 million increase in the Covered Lives Assessment—a surcharge paid on every insurance policy and premium tax on some health insurers, which the Alliance claims will ultimately be borne by consumer.

“With small and medium businesses in New York struggling to provide health insurance coverage and state leaders who have called for expanding health insurance coverage to all New Yorkers, it doesn’t make sense to propose taxes that will make it even harder for business to offer coverage at all,” said Alliance chair Jeff Leland.

It all makes for a sticky situation, but another potential headache for legislators is simmering within New York’s extensive power supply grid

Rising Energy

Last winter, Gov. Spitzer announced additional emergency home heating assistance to New York’s most vulnerable residents.  That winter, qualified applicants through the Home Energy Assistance Program (HEAP), a federally funded program, issued benefits to more than 719,000 families, totaling more than $178 million.

The government subsidizing energy costs is inevitable however, with the way energy prices are going.  Residents of New York have long paid some of the highest electricity prices in the United States.  According to a conservative think tank, New York should reconsider some of its most ambitious energy policies to keep costs down.

The study, “NY Unplugged?  Building Energy Capacity and Curbing Energy Rates in the Empire State,” was released in March by the Empire Center for New York State Policy, which is a project of the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

“New York will need a lot more power—the equivalent of more than five new 500-megawatt generating plants—to avoid blackouts early in the next decade,” said the study.  “Yet only one new large-scale generating plant, representing barely one-eighth of the required additional capacity, has been proposed in the state since the expiration five years ago of Article X, the landmark state law designed to speed the building of such facilities.”

Donald LaVada, director of marketing and development at the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, said energy spending in New York tops $53 billion annually, and 85 percent of the energy used is imported into the state.  And half of it comes from OPEC nations.  With oil heading towards $120 a barrel, energy spending has nowhere to go but up.

The cost to the local government remains a drain for taxpayer money.  Back in Albany, the 2008 has appropriated around $33 million for operating expenses, the majority of which will go pay for energy consumption by the city.  A policy change, however, remains to be seen in the country’s third largest state.

R E F E R E N C E S

Peters, Jeremy W. (2008). Time Runs Short to Decide Albany Health Care Cuts. The New  York Times. February 22, 2008.

“A Better Albany”. (2007). State of the City Address by Mayor Gerald D. Jennings of  Albany New York. Retrieved May 2, 2008 from http://www.albanyny.gov/Government/

MayorsOffice/StateOfTheCity.aspx

“Governor Spitzer Announces Additional Heating Assistance to Combat Rising Energy  Prices”. (2008). Division of Housing & Community Renewal, New York State.  Retrieved May 2, 2008

“NY Unplugged? Building Energy Capacity and Curbing Energy Rates in the Empire State”.  (2008). Empire Center for New York State Policy. Retrieved May 2, 2008 from  http://www.empirecenter.org/Special-Reports/2008/03/NYUnplugged.cfm

“Proposed Budget Increases Costs to Small Business”. (2008). Alliance Alert. The  Employer Alliance for Affordable Healthcare. Retrieved May 2, 2008 from http://www.employeralliance.com/images/Newsletter_spring08.pdf

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Desciptive New York

New York is one of the United States most known cites. It is also known for it’s sights and attractions. New York has always been my second home since my first home (New Orleans) was struck by a natural disaster. Before I moved back to New Orleans I gained friendships and built on them. Ever since 2008 I’ve been vacationing in New York for at least one month in each summer. It’s something about that 2009 vacation I will never forget. It was overall fun and I had a blast. My 2009 vacation to New York was my best vacation because of the relationships I built on, the parties, and the fashion.

When I landed in New York in the summer of 2009 the atmoshpere just felt different. I seen so many people in the airport that I will probably never see again in my lifetime. I traveled to Brooklyn via train to check in to the place I would be staying the three weeks in New York. Where I was staying was my friend’s apartment that I stayed in the previous year I was there. He asked me to come stay with him for three weeks before he left for school. He wanted me record for his YouTube channel he called “HBTV” (Half-Breeds Televison).

I made an apperance in multiple episodes and directed some episodes. I relived my NYC hooping moments as well. My friend took me to some off our old hangout spots like the YMCA Gym. In there we use to play ball until the sun came up. We were so happy when we saw old faces that still worked at the gym. In there we went to adult night and had a loads of fun. I ended some nights with a nice home cooked meal from my friend’s mother. We were already best friends, but our bond grew tighter over the three weeks.

We were so close, we started finishing each other sentences. i told him if he was ever in New Orleans he would always have a place to stay . New York is also known as the city that never sleeps meaning the lights are always on throught out the city and the party never stops. The parties I went too were outstanding; I don’t think no party in my lifetime will over top those. The difference between New York parties and New Orleans parties is you don’t have to watch your back after the party is over.

What I mean by that is in New Orleans there is always violence during or after the party. i got expose to so many different cultures and I was expose to different music. I danced with so many different people, I also learned how to salsa dance. I met new people and I came out with a few numbers. I came to every party dry and ended up drinched in sweat by the end of the night. Every morning after parties we always discussed what happen that night, how much fun we had, and who did the funniest thing through out the party.

Fashion is a big part of New York City for years. Manhattan is a “fashion burough” in my own words because of a lot of big clothing companys have offices through out the burough. There are also a lot of clothing stores in New York City. When I travel to NYC I always visit Soho. Soho is a spot in Manhattan with some nice clothing spots. Before every party I had to get a new outfit from Soho. Seeing how the culture was in New York it changed my life. I saw everything from Nikes to Reeboks. I loved the fashion so much I adapted into my everyday living.

New York is one of the most known cities and is one of the best in my opinon. New York has the best everything from fashion to food. This trip to New York changed my life comepletly and gave me inspration. It’s the reason I decided to go to college to live my dream and one day live in New York again. Just breathing New York’s air felt good. Visiting New York City was my best vaction because of the parties, fashion, and the relationships I built on. If I could do it all over again I would.

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Free Essays

Willowbrook

I am going to begin this essay discussing some of the ways the human Services field has changed with the developmental disibilities. I am going to discuss ways it has changed from training classes that I have went to and learned from.

Back many many years ago, people with disabilities were looked at in a totally different way then they are today. Today individuals with developmental disabilities are taken very good care of and are watched very closely.

Back in the 1930s there was a place called Willowbrook that was built and was a state run facility for individuals with developmental diabilities. Willowbrook was in the Willowbrook neighborhood in Staten Island, NY. It was opened in the 1930s and closed in 1987. Willowbrook was orginally degisned for 4,000 individuals but eventually ib 1965 it had more than 6,000 individuals. In 1965 it was the biggest state run facility for individuals with developmental disibilites. It was a very bad place for these individuals due to questionable medical practices and experiments. Sen. Robert Kennedy even called it a “snake pit”. In the first decade that it was open individuals were getting hepatitis, it became very common. Most of the individuals developed some type of hepatitis within the first 6 months.

In 1965 when the population was over 6,000 individuals Senator Robert Kennedy toured the facility. It was very overcrowed at this time with 2,000 more individuals than the building was designed for. Senator Robert Kennedy gave some recommendations for improving the conditions after he seen they were “living in filth and dirt, their clothing in rags, in rooms less comfortable and beerful than the cages in which we put animals in a zoo”. Many of the individuals who lived there were abondoned by their families, foster care, and or other system agencies.

In 1972 Geraldo Rivera who was an investigative reporter in New York did some investigation. During his investigations he found “deplorable conditions”. The deplorable conditions were “overcrowding, inadequate sanitary facilities, and physical and sexual abuse”. Rivera then went onto the Dick Cavett Show and showed some film of indiviuals that lived at the school.

On March 17, 1972 a class action law-suit against New York State was filed in federal court. A settlement was not reached until May 5, 1975. It took several years before all of the violation were corrected. Due to the publicity of the case their is now a federal law called the Civil Right of Institutionalized Persons Act of 1980.

In 1983 there were plans to close Willowbrook made by the the state of New York. In 1974 it was renamed Staten Island Develpmental Center. By March 1986 the population was at 250. On September 17, 1987 the last individual left the facility.

While I was in a training class for my current job, we had to watch a video by Geraldo Rivera about Willowbrook. The conditions named above were so true but reading about it sounds good compared to actually seeing how these individuals actually had to live. Not only were these individuals already abandoned by their loved ones now they had to live in terrible conditions.

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Free Essays

Jill Lepore, new york burning

New York Burning, by Jill Lepore, is an interesting yet flawed study of a 1741 conspiracy among New York’s slaves, which authorities discovered in the wake of ten fires started by African Americans.  While the work claims to examine the slave revolts and ensuing trials (in which over a hundred blacks were executed by hanging or burning) as evidence of how political opposition formed and functioned, it succeeds much better as a study of race relations and the culture of paranoia.

Lepore’s thesis is that the 1741 conspiracy, while based more on hearsay and forced confessions than on actual evidence, occurred within a climate of political and intellectual ferment that made political pluralism (and, ultimately, the American political system) possible.  Indeed, the New York she describes was already politically divided in the wake of the landmark Zenger trial of 1735, in which printer John Peter Zenger was charged with printing libelous attacks against the arbitrary, heavy-handed colonial governor.

His acquittal laid the foundations for free speech but also caused a political schism, as two rival political factions formed – the Court party, which supported the royal governors, and the Country Party, an opposition group which demanded greater liberties.  (However, she makes clear that liberty was reserved strictly for whites and pertained more to the press and taxation than to individuals, certainly those of color.)  Mutual mistrust between the two parties lingered for years.

The 1741 conspiracy took place, says Lepore, within a rather tense and paranoid context.  It began in March with a fire at the city’s only military outpost, Fort George.  Subsequent blazes over the next few weeks broke out at houses and businesses belonging to Court party members, and these were quickly followed by a series of arrests and trials that lasted into the summer.

Twenty whites and 152 blacks (slave and free) were arrested and over a hundred people executed, including many Country Party members’ slaves and servants.  Lepore claims that the end result of these events was greater acceptance of political opposition, but her work does less to connect the slave plot to politics than it does to describe a place beset by racism and paranoia.

In tracing the plot’s evolution, Lepore offers the reader a detailed description of New York in 1741.  A former Dutch colony with a multilingual population and sizeable slave population, New York had considerable political division and a strangely paranoid culture.  Not only were fears of slave rebellions prevalent and population politically split, but novels and plays about intrigues were common and highly popular.  (She notes that George Farquhar’s The Beaux’ Stratagem was then the city’s most popular play.)

New Yorkers were thus highly sensitive to anything resembling a plot and unusually prone to imagine such things; Lepore writes, “Nothing ‘just happened’ in the early eighteenth century.  There was always a villain to be caught, a conspiracy to be detected.  The century was lousy with intrigues” (51).

In addition, she asserts that the black plotters may have been misunderstood by white witnesses who overheard them in Hughson’s tavern, taking oaths and swearing revenge on New York.

She demonstrates that, much like New England’s slaves staged mock “election days” to both mimic and satirize white culture, the New York plotters may have been imitating their masters, many of whom were Masons (and thus mistrusted in an early America which saw wrongdoing in their secrecy and rituals).  Horsmanden, says Lepore, viewed the trial like a conspiracy novel and, “In an anxious empire, he found monstrous black creatures . . . [and] political plotters” (122) from whom he thought he could save the city.

The 1741 plot was thus tailor-made for the age.  It involved a group of New York blacks who swore oaths to burn down the city, kill its white men, take their wives, and to install a tavern keeper and small-time criminal named John Hughson as the new governor.  After the arsonists were captured and confessions extracted (in some cases with torture, which could not legally be used on whites but was freely used against blacks), the colony’s Supreme Court was eager to demonstrate its authority and regain some of the credibility it lost after the Zenger trial.  In particular, Lepore devotes considerable attention to Daniel Horsmanden, the English judge who prosecuted Zenger and was eager to redeem himself.

Lepore relies heavily on his own journal of the trial, pointing out its biases and distortions, and she comments that Horsmanden considered losing the Zenger trial “a gross humiliation” and that the 1741 plot offered him “an unrivaled opportunity to consolidate the court’s power.  He could make a name for himself” (118).

Indeed, his handling of the trial shows not only his zeal but also how poorly colonial courts handled evidence and how grossly they mistreated black defendants.  Four whites and over a hundred blacks were executed, often in a grisly manner that assuaged the nervous city.  According to Lepore, whites enjoyed public executions and attended “out of hatred, out of obligation, out of fascination” and, “like imprisonment, interrogation, and trial, an execution was a pageant” (105).  Trials and executions of rebellious slaves were especially celebrated, as the racial order was preserved.

Though the book claims to examine the 1741 slave plot’s meaning in terms of politics, is actually spends little time doing this and her analysis is thus somewhat underdeveloped.  However, Lepore offers an excellent picture of colonial New York’s race relations, which were volatile and tense, adding that “however much ‘liberty’ some enslaved New Yorkers might have enjoyed, it was always fragile and nearly always illicit” (155).

Whites so feared blacks that they passed laws regulating their right to gather freely and set grossly unfair standards for sexual conduct (white men could exploit black women without penalty, but black men were sternly discouraged from consensual relations with white women).  It is little wonder, then, that blacks resented their white masters and neighbors.  Also, at the same time, though, the court was quick to attribute the plot’s leadership to Hughson, a smuggler and thief on the side, because few believed blacks intellectually capable of hatching such a scheme.

Lepore ends the book by claiming that the 1741 plot demonstrates how New York’s colonial politics operated.  Horsmanden, who exacted a vicious justice on the conspirators, was stripped of his political offices in 1747 and then became a champion of the liberties he had denied as a judge.  His activities redeemed him and one of his posts was restored to him in 1755.

Lepore uses this, along with the Zenger trial, as evidence of how New Yorkers became more tolerant of opposition politics, but she does not tie this very convincingly to the slave plot.  Indeed, her discussion of New York’s colonial politics pales in comparison to her picture of New York’s social and cultural landscapes.

New York Burning appears to be two different histories in one, with its study of race relations and fear of conspiracies submerged within its examination of how the plot influenced politics.  The political aspects are not as well-developed and Lepore does not argue very convincingly that the Zenger trial and slave conspiracy demonstrate how New Yorkers handled the question of political opposition.

The author devotes much of the book to exploring race and culture, and she creates a vivid, convincing picture of how early New Yorkers combined fear of their slaves with their taste for (and sensitivity to) conspiracy and intrigues.  Had the book been a study of race and paranoia, instead of claiming these were only parts of a developing political culture, it would likely have been a stronger piece of scholarship.  The book succeeds as a cultural history while failing to connect race and culture to the developing political landscape of early America.

Lepore, Jill.  New York Burning.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.

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New York Police Department Recruitment and Challenges

Thesis Statement

Some of this is funny…most of it, if accurate, is outrageous. While some of the latter is verifiable, it is difficult to sort out just how much is simply sour grapes and whining because 40 miles to the East, Suffolk Country MOS have a huge contract. New York Police Department cannot get enough applicants to give a test for Police officers 88% of Port Authority Police Department Academy graduates are from New York Police Department cops, 50% of a new class of NYFD class are from New York Police Department. (Lung Worthy et al, 1986).

Introduction

The New York City Police (NYPD) has over the last years been known to be the largest municipal police force in the world with a vital primary responsibility to enforce the law and carry out investigations within the five boroughs of the New York City, which include Nassau, Suffolk, Westchester etc. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000).

NYPD is dedicated to work towards enhancing the quality of life in the city by working in accordance to the constitution. This is achieved through its mission statement, which is “Enforce the law, preserve the peace, reduce fear and provide for a safe environment”. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000). This in result entails to preventing fear and responding to crime.

In the United States, NYPD is considered as being the first modern style police department being an array of specialized services. It is contracted and dedicated to offering expertise in technical operations, K-9, diving or marine skills, aviation or helicopter skills, bomb disposal technology, counterterrorism technology, intelligence skills, antigang techniques, narcotics detection, public transportation, control and public housing. The NYPD has extensive crime scene investigations and laboratory resources while not also overlooking their units, which assist with computer crime investigations. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000)

Recruitment Requirements for NYPD

To pace afoot into the NYPD academy, the following requirements are a prerequisite: one must be an United States citizen at the time of application; one must possess a valid high school diploma or an educational equivalent; one must have successfully completed either sixty (60) college credits from a credible college or a university with at least 2.0 GPA or two (2) years full time United States Military Service. (Reaves, Brian A., 1996).

However, one could achieve the above qualifications yet be disqualified for admission because of the following factors: – One may have been convicted of an offence, which indicates lack of good moral character, or disposition towards violence or disorder or which is punishable by one or more years of imprisonment; one may have undergone repeated convictions of an offence, which indicates disrespect of the law; one may have been discharged from an employment as a result of poor behavior or inability to adjust to discipline; one may have been discharged in a dishonorable manner from the military service; one may have been convicted of an offence for domestic violence misdemeanor; and lastly, one may have been convicted for committing a felony. (Lung Worthy et al, 1986).

A Practical Situation

Despite all these requirements and all the theoretical expectations from these special, well-trained and skilled cops a great problem looms in their working circumstances. For any person to work there is always expectations of commensurate benefits from the field of occupation necessary for the daily upkeep of the individual and dependants. The standard of life should also have a direct relationship with the rightful inputs of an individual to the workplace.

Future progress should also be projected by the current occupation performance and renumeration. Other workplace related benefits are also very crucial determinants of an employee wellbeing and welfare. All these issues if not properly addressed, will lead to decreased morale, decreased output and poor performance and ultimately high degree of employees’ dropout leading to high turnovers.

This is the critical condition facing the NYPD. In 2005, there was a state arbitration and a panel of judges’ decree covering a contract negotiation between NYPD representatives and state representatives, which came up with a pay decrease for new officers. The new outcomes have been discussed here: – On admission, a new hire during training is supposed to earn $25,100 per year. This continues for the next six (6) months. On the completion of the Police Academy, the respective individual becomes entitled to an annual salary increase up to $32,700. To explain this, the state argues that the salaries were adjusted as a result of inflation. In practice these figures are far much low below the living standards of an employed person and they happen to be the lowest pay levels in history for rookie NYPD cops.

This was a wrong decision by the jurisdiction of lowering the starting pay for new officers at such a time that the officers are most impressionable and this act seems particularly unwise to majority of the people. The salary plunge is blamed on state arbitrator and is seen as a bad public policy to reduce the starting salary. The union officers argued that the city first suggested lower starting salaries to fund the pay raises and arbitration was taken to because the city refused to negotiate across the table. The conventional wisdom when applied tends to purport an inverse relationship between salary and corruption as witnessed in the jurisdiction such as New Orleans. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000).

The issue at hand is very crucial towards motivation of workers. A person of proper orientation cannot even dream or think about joining this career, which is devoid of motivation considering that there exists a high degree of risk in this profession. The situation is further compounded by the fact that out of the meangle pays, the respective officer is expected to purchase virtually all of their belongings and personal items. The items include officers’ uniforms and equipment, which one would expect to get from the Academy or employer. Some issues of quality items in this respect it is worth mentioning.

Due to the fact of fluctuated pay anybody is highly tempted to go for the least expensive item and it is common sense that least expensive is least quality. The practice of officers buying uniforms and equipment for themselves has an outlay that can easily run into thousands of dollars. As a solution, the Municipal Union in 2007 through the Municipal Credit Union began issuing visa credit cards to the Police Academy as a way to borrow the money needed towards the mandatory equipment purchases.

Top pay for experienced officers is no better compared with pay of other potential employers. The recommended top pay for an experienced NYPD officer is $59,588 not including overtime payments and other forms of compensation. The major contributor to these problems is the municipal funding agents, which although it has continually funded other city project.

The new basketball arena in Brooklyn got an approximate 8.3 acres land, which although it was a part of a forest the administration asserts that this is no land grabbing. For the sake of its development it got a further $100 million. (Kleining John, 1996). The Second Avenue Train line got the full funding agreement with a massive $2.5 bond issues and its work expected to follow within weeks to months. (Kleining John, 1996).

The Mayor’s Green Plan is raising quite substantial amount whereby drivers are levied for entering Manhattan at rates of $8 for personal vehicles and $21 for truck operators. Major tugs of war have been evidently available as is the case of the New York Civil Liberties Union (NYCLU), which urged the council members to provide the Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) with adequate funding and to hold it accountable for recent lapses in its performance. NYCLU decried to Mayor Bloomberg’s proposals to cut CCRB funding by $1.2 million eliminating twenty four investigator positions and urged the city council to restore the CCRB’s funding to demand cooperation from NYPD and other agencies involved in the civilian review process.

The NYCLU was actively instrumental in the creation of the independent CCRB in the year 2002, and has been an outspoken advocate for a vigorous and independent civilian review system. As part of this effort, the NYCLU has fought CCRB budget cuts year after year and has been highly critical of NYPD efforts to undermine the CCRB’s work. (Kleining John, 1996). Whereas the policy makers and implementers argue that they are in favor of keeping tabs on the people suspected of unlawful activities, they argue that the police should not be scrutinizing law abiding New Yorkers’ activities without regulations.

Low pay is driving more and more New York’s finest to leave the job despite ranks being bolstered. Especially in 2005 and 2006, 1,769 officers were reported to quit job before their retirement eligibility. (Kleining John, 1996). The numbers have had a real impact on the streets and city hall does not have the courage to solve the problem.

Difficulties Compounding Police Force Issue

Some extremely difficult times were experienced in the city brought about by the economic downturn of the 1970. An arson attack particularly plagued Bronx leading to permeability of an atmosphere of lawlessness in the city. In addition, the city’s financial crisis led to a hiring freeze on all city departments including the NYPD from 1976 to 1980. (Eli B. Silverman, 1990). A crack epidemic of late 1980s and early 1990s followed in suit the arson attack, which is believed most certainly led to the city’s homicide rate to soar to an all time higher. A marvelous record of murder, so great that it has yet remained difficult to break in any other US major city, was recorded in 1990. (Eli B. Silverman, 1990).

The situation was further complicated by continuous thefts associated with drug addiction increasing became common. Furthermore, on September 11, 2001, twenty-three NYPD officers were killed when the World Trade Centre collapsed due to terrorist attack. More lives were lost that year than any other year in the NYPD’s history. (Eli B. Silverman, 1990).

All through history, the NYPD has suffered from numerous allegations of corruption. However, as the many commissions of inquiry convened to inquire about these alleged matters, the results have shown these instances of corruption reflect far greater on the individual’s involved rather than do on a systemic form of corruption. As a matter of fact, the instances of corruption when compared through statistics to the sheer number of the departments as a whole, the NYPD actually has a lower corruption rate than many other departments.

Most commissions on corruption blame low morale and chronically low salary as the large contributing factor. As things sour up to such heights it remains questionable as to the destiny and way out for these unlucky officers. Information permeability is in place of existing training and working condition in other departments of equal capacity as the NYPD.

Situation Outside NYPD

It is crystal clear that in nearby departments’ payments is considerably more ranging from $50,000 for new hires and over $90,000 for experienced officers. Over the last few years hundreds of NYPD city officers have been found to leave for higher paying jobs with other agencies notably the Nassau County Police Department, the Suffolk County Police Department and the Port Authority Police of New York and New Jersey. (Bratton et al, 1998). Discontent over pay issues has become so widespread and so well known that higher paying departments in the lower cost of living areas such as the Rochester New York Police are actively recruiting NYPD officers to join their forces.

Large numbers of NYPD officers have also migrated to the New York City Fire Departments where, although the payments are similar to that of NYPD, work schedules are more attractive and they are privileged to have a more amicable relationship with the public. (Bratton et al, 1998). However, the NYPD is not comfortable with the exodus taken by their trained employees. Resources have been used for the training and therefore the exodus is a big loss to NYPD. Employees’ turnover is also a bad influence facing NYPD as a result of this exodus.

Therefore, to counteract the exodus, the NYPD is using contract changes to forbid the prior practice of allowing police officers who join the fire department to transfer their seniority for a compensation purposes. With all new firefighters now compelled to begin working at the same starting pay, the number of NYPD officials willing to exit over to the FDNY is likely to fall considerably. (Bratton et al, 1998).

Some NYPD officers charge that the department leadership is seeking to stem the flow of officers to other jurisdictions by administrative means. In January 2006, 35 NYPD officers seeking to move to the Port Authority Police sued the NYPD claiming that it was refusing to make their personal records available to Ports Authority Police Department (PAPD) background investigators. The plaintiffs won the injunction at the trial level but the appellate division in January 2007 overturned that ruling and ordered that case to trial. (James T. Hamilton, 2000). For its part, the NYPD claims that its actions are merely in line with the personnel practices of any other employers and that there is no “stealth” effort to prevent officers from moving elsewhere.

Nonetheless, it is a fact that no NYPD officers have been included in the last PAPD Police Academy as a result of the deliberate confinement of their background records by their employer NYPD. Despite these obstacles, there are signs that the exodus from the NYPD may become accelerating. In 2006, 902 officers resigned before eligibility for retirement. The number had been 867 in the previous year (2005) and 635 in the other previous year (2004), which contributes for an attrition rate of around 2%. (James T. Hamilton, 2000).

While the Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly insists that the figures compares positively with the turnover rates in private industry, police union officials note that the proper comparison should be with prior years on the NYPD records in past years. For example, in 1991 only 15% officers left early thus recording an attrition rate of less than one half of one percent. (James T. Hamilton, 2000).

The unfair state in NYPD has impacted negative picture of the Academy. Recruits and skilled officers are expected to take care of their transport costs. They are also supposed to cater for costs of their duty belts, handcuffs, flashlights etc. whenever they wear out. The cost of maintaining fresh supplies has been uncatered for by the Academy. The supervisors treat recruits and officers like children and the harsh manner of the supervisors create disrespect in the Academy. Recruits are taken for field experience and during the occasion they are given up to supervisory jobs. Due to the frequent turnover some identified officers and recruits are forced to act on supervisory capacity without an extra pay.

At the end of it all participation in unions is crippled due to crippled financial status. They are also incapacitated to play meaningful roles in the society and their background society issues are very poor.

The potential recruit of NYPD should expect to earn the lowest pay while working in the most dangerous environment in the tri-state area and should also expect picayune disciplinary action with a trial room having nearly 100% conviction rate. Dozens of civilian complaints from criminals and then complaints are investigated by cop hating, democratic club hacks. The recruit should also expect to be a great “white defendant” seeking publicity, grand-standing district attorney have their life ruined when they make a good faith mistake they become financially destroyed plus their families by paying huge money in legal fees.

The cop expects the boss ever behind while executing duties, any civilian complaint with a controversial case falls on the cops shoulders. The supervisors of the cops are ready to protect politicians at the expense of their junior cops. The members of the department above the rank of lieutenant are ready to earn promotion through suppression of their juniors. The NYPD cop members are the most demoralized army group. They give protection to millions of liberal, unappreciative citizens and democratic officers who hate them.

The cops are also vilified by phony ministers who command huge sums of government poverty money to aid and assist crime. The cops transcend through six months of training then in disquiets join other police departments leaving their leaders searching for reasons of the exodus. As senior members of NYPD shift to other departments, such as Suffolk County Cop, a vacancy opening leaves a promotion slot quickly.

Conclusion

The result of poor funding in NYPD is a poor social economic structure. This leads to exit and exodus of those who enter NYPD Academy leading to brain drain and employee turnover. The lack of funding has created a huge salary disparity between NYPD and other same category departments. Any well-qualified person fears any indulgence with NYPD. Although their entry requirements are well outlines, a number of recruits gain entry into the Academy without the possession of valid driving licenses, relevant credentials possibility of suffering some disqualifications creates problems of retention of probationary employees since discontent and lack of motivation is the cause of exodus to a better place.

References

Bratton, William J. & Knobler Peter (1998) Turnaround: How American Top Cops Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House.

Eli B. Silverman (1990) NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing. North Eastern University Press. ISBN-13:978-15555340011.

Fred. M. Rafilson (2000) Police Officer Arco; 13th Ed. ISBN-13:978-0028637419.

James T. Hamilton (2000) Channeling Violence. Princeton University Press. New Ed. ISBN-13:978-0691070247.

Kleining John (1996) The Ethics of Policing. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lung Worthy, Robert H. (1986) The Structure of Police Organizations. New York. Praeger.

Reaves, Brian A. (1996) Local Police Departments. Diane Pub Co. ISBN-13:978-0788130076.

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Free Essays

New York Metropolitan Transportation Authority

Introduction

Traditional market structure suggests that all market decisions should be based on utilitarian theory. We often witness market decisions which neglect other important aspects of the market activity. As a result, we appear under the impact of one-side unbalanced decisions which ultimately neglect the principles of morality and moral theology of the marketplace.

Rising fares and tolls by MTA

“After an unusually vigorous and spirited debate, the board of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority voted to raise fares on subways, buses and commuter railroads and tolls on bridges and tunnels” (Chan, 2007a). Why is it so surprising that not all members of the MTA board wanted to turn into the proponents of fares and tolls’ increase? Does this mean that more and more political and business players realize the importance of morality in taking market decisions?

Evidently, the situation is much worse than one may imagine. One may initially think that increasing the fares will lead to less traffic congestion, and will urge more people to use public transport; yet, the public transport fares are being raised, too. From the viewpoint of those who vote for raising fares and tolls in New York, this decision is the first step towards “fiscal responsibility. The authority had for long applied windfalls and real estate taxes hoping that someone would bail us out and turning a blind eye to our responsibility to put this MTA on a firm future monetary structure” (Chan, 2007a).

Simultaneously, from the viewpoint of morality and theology of the marketplace, commercial activity is not limited by rational market decisions, but also “confronts us with the moral predicaments” (Gregg, 2004). The major concern within this situation is that the decision to raise fares has completely neglected the position of those whom we traditionally consider to be vulnerable populations. The representative of Working Families Party is confident that raising fares will seriously hit working people (Benjamin, 2007). “Today, once again middle class New Yorkers and those struggling to make it, are bearing the cost”, Rep. Anthony Weiner said (Benjamin, 2007).

“A fare hike now is the wrong choice for New York. It would hit many people who are struggling hard to make ends meet and hurt the region’s economy. […] This fare hike will hit 86 percent of the riding public who use fare discounts. These include pay-per-ride bonus MetroCards and 7- and 30-day unlimited-ride passes. It’s also a double whammy for most L.I.R.R. and Metro-North commuters whose railroad fares would go up!” (Chan, 2007b)

The discussed fare hike will also cause the bonuses’ decrease for riders (from 20 to 15 percent), and the discounted fare will cost $1.74 instead of $1.67 (Chan, 2007b). The problem is that New Yorkers pay more than they have to for the transport they use. “In 2005, riders paid 55 percent of the costs of running the subways and buses” (Chan, 2007b). Objectively, this is much higher that the riders in other cities pay: those in Boston do not compensate more than 29 percent of the discussed costs, and those in Philadelphia pay no more than 37 percent (Chan, 2007b).

As the M.T.A reports $140 million reductions, does this mean that they will make the riders pay this amount through higher fares and tolls? Doubtlessly, the suggested fares and tolls increase will help compensate the under-financing of the MTA by the state Government, but if the decision framework remains unchanged, this compensation will actually take place for the account of the already mentioned vulnerable populations. “To rely upon utilitarianism as the moral – philosophical foundation of the case for the market creates tremendous difficulties for Catholics” (Gregg, 2004).

The utilitarian desire to find the greatest good and to satisfy the masses does not meet the ethical and moral criteria of religion. Those who were taking the decision to raise the fares and tolls in New York have neglected one essential aspect in their decision making: when one looks for the means to produce the greatest pleasure for the greatest number of people, one has to perform numerous calculations and to produce the decision which satisfies everyone. From the viewpoint of moral theology, such calculations in market decision-making are simply impossible.

“No person can make such an assessment without admitting a tremendous degree of ignorance about all the possible effects that might proceed from a freely chosen act” (Gregg, 2004). The MTA governors have evidently gone beyond their reasonable abilities, trying to persuade us that that the future with raised fares and tolls for everyone was better than other possible alternatives. The MTA board members view the increased tolls and fares as the means to close the gaps in MTA’s budget and to provide safe and reliable system of transportation for the New York’s citizens. However, it is not the ultimate goal for those who use public transport and belong to vulnerable layers of the city population.

Conclusion

The moral theology of marketplace rejects any uniform measures in defining the goals of decision making. This is why the governors should have considered the financial opportunities of those who cannot afford paying more for using public transport. The diversified structure of prices would resolve all moral and ethical issues, and would not create serious obstacles on the way towards better functioning of the city’s transportation systems.

References

Chan, S. (2007a). Board approves subway and bus fare increase. The New York Times.

Retrieved February 17, 2008 from https://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/19/mta-board-approves-fare-and-toll-increases/

Chan, S. (2007b). Hundreds stranded online by botched M.T.A. “Webinar”. The New York

Times. Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/10/mixed-reaction-to-new-mta-fare-plan/?hp

Gregg, S. (2004). Ethics and the market economy: Insights from Catholic moral theology.

IEA Economic Affairs, June, pp. 4-10.

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Free Essays

New York and Nebraska

In this world no two places can be considered to be same. All the places have a certain amount of distinctness, a certain flavor and a very dominant persona. If we consider two places, New York and Nebraska, there are a lot of similarities and contrasts, as they are the states of a same country, i.e. United States of America. Both the states have discrete histories but have common grounds on the basis of European Settlers. Nebraska became officially part of United States of America only in 1812 after Missouri Treaty bill.  New York on the other hand was dominant by the point of British and it was an important place in terms of the revolution for Independence.

Comparisons between New York and Nebraska

New York and Nebraska are both large states of America and have lot of importance to the country. Both the states being large on their own are blessed on natural terms. On the whole the two states have similarities on the basis of its large parks and greenery. Also both the states are blessed with the amount of voluminous rivers flowing through them. Nebraska and New York have a very good base in agriculture and have large share of their economy dependent on agricultural products. On a religious point of view too, both the states comprising have similarities in terms that both have a maximum population of Christians than any other religions. The states also are very rich in its heritage and culture and the no. of museums both have are outstanding, as both the states have a view of protecting and highlighting their culture.

Contrasts between New York and Nebraska

Firstly the climate of both the states is very different, and their discreetness is so high that the state of Nebraska has in fact two climates in its region. The state is grossly divided between a humid climate and a steppe climate. Also the effect of Global warming though being everywhere in the world is marginally higher in Nebraska compared to New York. This is assessed by the following:

‘Nebraska is home to an incredible diversity of native wildlife species, including 346 birds, 83 mammals, 87fish, 47 reptiles and 13 amphibians. Rising temperatures in the state will likely change the makeup of entire ecosystems, forcing wildlife to shift their ranges or adapt. Global warming could contribute to a 20-50 percent decline in forested area, particularly in eastern Nebraska, where grasslands and savanna could replace forests and woodlands’.

(Courtesy: Myra Wilensky, “Global warming and Nebraska”. Retrieved on May 4, 2008 from http://www.nwf.org/globalwarming/pdfs/Nebraska.pdf#search=%22%22global%20warming%22%2C%20Nebraska%22)

Both the states have a massive difference in the terms of economy as the state of New York is one of the key finance providers of the nation compared to Nebraska. One of the major contrasting feature of the two states politically is Nebraska is a religious Republican follower while the state of New York is avidly a Democratic supporter.

Conclusion

Both the states have their own theories of running the economy and are well blessed with flora and fauna. The comparison between the two states assesses the fact that how much ever two places might be distinct or similar, both of them are unique in their own way.

Reference:

1)      Myra Wilensky, “Global warming and Nebraska”. http://www.nwf.org/globalwarming/pdfs/Nebraska.pdf#search=%22%22global%20warming%22%2C%20Nebraska%22

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Free Essays

Mass Media and New York

Racism and Ethnic Bias in the Media Is a Serious Problem Mass Media , 2010 “Journalists who think they know communities of color end up writing stereotypical stories. ” In the following viewpoint from her interview with Lena-Snomeka Gomes, Elizabeth Llorente states that unequal and inaccurate representations of minorities still persist in the media, and media professionals who are minorities continue to face prejudice in the industry. In Llorente’s view, reporters of color often feel unwelcome when entering white communities. In addition, she claims other journalists continue to draw upon harmful ethnic and religious stereotypes.

Diversity and opportunities for minorities in newsrooms also are lacking, she contends, compounding these problems. Llorente is an award-winning senior reporter for The Record in Bergen, New Jersey. A former newswriter, Gomes is a program support specialist at the Homeless Children’s Network in San Francisco. As you read, consider the following questions: 1. According to Llorente, why is covering one’s own ethnic community not necessarily easier? 2. What barriers do reporters face when reporting on immigrants, in the author’s view? 3. Why are there still very few minorities in newsrooms, in Llorente’s opinion?

Elizabeth Llorente, senior reporter for The Record in Bergen, New Jersey, was recently honored with the Career Achievement Award from the Let’s Do It Better Workshop on Race and Ethnicity at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. Llorente was honored for her more than 10 years of reporting on the nation’s changing demographics. Her series, “Diverse and Divided,” documented the racial tensions and political struggles between Hispanic immigrants and African Americans in Patterson, N. J. Llorente spoke with NewsWatch about the nuances of reporting on race and ethnicity.

Lena-Snomeka Gomes: What are some of the major barriers journalists face, especially journalists of color when writing about race and ethnicity? Elizabeth Llorente: Well it depends on what they look like. For example, I know that some of the African American reporters that I have worked with have spoken about feelings of being unwelcome, especially when they’re covering white areas. And there are also other reporters who feel different because they stand out from the time they walk into a room. People make assumptions about them. I have been told that it’s hard to tell what my race is.

Is this positive or negative? Maybe it helps when I’m doing a story about tension and whites are part of the tension. Sometimes, I suspect, they open up more because they don’t know that I am Hispanic. Perhaps, they would not have been as candid had they known. However, it’s not necessarily easier to cover stories in your own ethnic community or communities similar to yours. If you criticize people and they didn’t like it, they are usually less forgiving. They take it personal and see you as a traitor, especially when the stories involve a politically charged group.

Do you think journalists of color are resistant to writing about race and ethnicity because they don’t want to be typecast so to speak? There are people who believe that and I don’t blame them. Sometimes that’s all the papers will let them do, and the papers don’t value their work. In that regard, it’s a thankless job. When you come back with a great story, they don’t see the skill and the talent it took to report and write that story. They think, of course, you wrote well because you’re one of them. They automatically assume it was easy for you to get the story.

They may even question your objectivity. But, when [Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist] Rick Bragg went to the South to write about the life he knew, no one said, of course its easy for him because he’s from the South. No, they said, wow he’s a great writer. Do you think stories about race and ethnicity still face being calendared for special events or has there been more sustained coverage and focus? It’s gotten much better. Stories used to be covered for Black History Month or Cinco de Mayo, but now beats have been created around race and ethnicity.

Beat reporters have to write all year. Reporters are interested in writing about race and ethnicity. They want to cover these issues. Now the next level journalism needs to go to is to spread the responsibility of covering race and ethnicity among all reporters, in all sections of the paper, business section, education, transportation, and municipal. Coverage has to be more comprehensive. It cannot be reserved for certain reporters, because race and ethnicity is such a huge area. Immigration Stories How do stories about immigration differ from other stories about race and ethnicity?

If you’re writing about second or third generation Cubans, you’re writing about Americans, a minority group that has some stake here. With immigrants, you’re writing about people who are newer, who don’t necessarily feel American. They are still transitioning into this national culture. They are rebuilding their identities. For example, they may not have a sense of (their) civil rights here or of American racism. What skills do journalists have to master in order to report fairly and accurately on immigrant communities? First of all, you need to have a completely open mind.

This is especially important when you’re covering immigrant communities. So many of us think that we know the immigrant groups, but many of us only know the stereotypes. Too often we set out to write stories that end up marginalizing people in harmful ways because the stories tend to exacerbate those stereotypes. Or we ignore the stories that do not conform to the stereotypes. For example, if we’re going to write about Hispanic communities, instead of looking for Hispanics in the suburbs, we tend to go where we can most readily find them, in Miami, Spanish Harlem, and in the Barrio.

We keep telling the same stories and giving it the same frame, because it’s an easy thing to do when you’re on a deadline. The result is an ok story. But immigration stories are diverse. They are not only in enclaves, but also in places we never thought about finding them in, such as in once exclusively white suburbs and rural America. Perhaps Hispanics in the barrio is a valuable story, but that is no longer the Hispanic story. It is a Hispanic story. Okay, once you find (immigrant communities) how do you communicate with them? It’s tough.

Not knowing the language can be difficult. But the key is to start out with the attitude of not settling for less. Start out speaking with the leaders, but only as a vehicle to reach the other people who are not always in the papers. Too many of us stop with the leaders and that is not enough. Ask them to introduce you or ask them if you can use their name to open up a few doors for you to speak with others in the community. However, covering immigrant communities doesn’t mean encountering a language barrier. Many people have a basic knowledge of English.

You can still conduct an interview with someone who only speaks survival English. But, you will also run into a lot of people who don’t speak English. If you make the effort, if you’re patient, if you speak slower and are conscious of the words you use, if you make sure they understand what you are asking them, if you tune in, you’ll make the connection. Finally, if language is a barrier and you’re not comfortable, find someone who is bilingual to help you interpret. How can journalists write balanced stories if they operate from the stereotypes?

Ask the person you’re interviewing to break down those stereotypes. You can tell the person that there is a particular stereotype and ask them if it is true or not. Journalists have the unique role and power to help break the stereotypes down. What does receiving the Career Achievement Award mean to you? I was hoping that it would mean that I could retire and go sailing and write my novels from a log cabin. After I checked my retirement savings, I realized, that ain’t gonna happen for a long time. Its nice to get awards, but when you get one it’s usually for a certain story or project.

This is like a wonderful embrace that says, you know, you hit the ball out of the park again and again. You set a standard in this business. At a career level, you have done great work. It’s just a nice sweeping kiss and hug to me. The Culture of Journalism Tell me some of the successes Let’s Do It Better has had and some of the ways in which it has impacted the culture of journalism. I think one wonderful thing they did, under Sig Gissler (original founder), was that they targeted the gatekeepers. His model approach was to go directly to the top management.

Gissler wanted to show them good reporting that reached a higher level and how stories about race were more nuanced. He wanted them to read the stories and then to talk to the folks who wrote them so they could learn how to do these types of stories. Did the top respond? Yes! I saw conversions. People who started out cynically were changed by the last day. They were beginning to look at race and ethnicity stories critically. They were going to raise their standard. They left the workshops believing that their news organizations needed more diverse voices.

Why, are there still so few people of color in newsrooms today? Too many employers are prejudiced. Too many minorities are still being hired under a cloud of doubt. I don’t think many minorities are hired with the notion that they will be star reporters. They are not nurtured. Then when minority journalists leave it’s seen as a betrayal, but when whites leave, it’s considered a good career move. I have worked with many white reporters who have had many opportunities in training and promotions, and nobody says they’re ungrateful s. o. b. ‘s when they leave.

Can we keep doing it better? Of course. There are still so many stories we are not getting that are out there. Journalists who think they know communities of color end up writing stereotypical stories and they use photos to make people look exotic. In fact, we need to pay more attention to photojournalism. A story can be fair and balanced, but if that picture projects the exotic stereotype, the story loses its value. Don’t bypass a photo of a person because they don’t look ‘ethnic enough. ‘ Take a picture of the blonde Mexican or the Muslim women wearing Levi jeans.

Further Readings Books * Bonnie M. Anderson News Flash: Journalism, Infotainment, and the Bottom-Line Business of Broadcast News. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004. * Ben Bagdikian The New Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004. * Michael A. Banks Blogging Heroes: Interviews with 30 of the World’s Top Bloggers. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, 2008. * Pablo J. Boczkowski Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. * L. Brent Bozell Weapons of Mass Distortion: The Coming Meltdown of the Liberal Media. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2005. Asa Briggs and Peter Burke A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Polity, 2005. * Thomas de Zengotita Mediated: How the Media Shapes Our World and the Way We Live in It. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2005. * David Edwards and David Cromwell Guardians of Power: The Myth of the Liberal Media. London: Pluto Press, 2006. * Robert Erikson and Kent Tedin American Public Opinion: Its Origins, Content, and Impact. Updated 7th ed. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2007. * Dan Gilmore We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People.

Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, 2006. * Tom Goldstein Journalism and Truth: Strange Bedfellows. Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 2007. * Doris A. Graber Media Power in Politics. 5th ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2007. * Neil Henry American Carnival: Journalism under Siege in an Age of New Media. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007. * Henry Jenkins Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: NYU Press, 2006. * Steven Johnson Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Popular Culture Is Making Us Smarter. New York: Riverhead Trade, 2005. Lawrence Lessig Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity. New York: Penguin, 2004. * Charles M. Madigan, ed. 30: The Collapse of the American Newspaper. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2007. * David W. Moore The Opinion Makers: An Insider Exposes the Truth Behind the Polls. New York: Beacon Press, 2008. * Patrick R. Parsons Blue Skies: A History of Cable Television. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2008. * Neil Postman Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. 20th anniversary ed.

New York: Penguin Books, 2005. * Metta Spencer Two Aspirins and a Comedy: How Television Can Enhance Health and Society. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2006. Periodicals * Dennis AuBuchon “Free Speech and the Fairness Doctrine,” American Chronicle, March 19, 2009. * Greg Beato “The Spin We Love to Hate: Do We Really Want News Without a Point of View? ” Reason, December 2008. * Jeffrey Chester “Time for a Digital Fairness Doctrine,” AlterNet, October 19, 2004. * Edward W. Gillespie “Media Realism: How the GOP Should Handle Increasingly Biased Journalists,” National Review, April 6, 2009. Nicole Hemmer “Liberals, Too, Should Reject the Fairness Doctrine,” Christian Science Monitor, November 25, 2008. * R. Court Kirkwood “What Did or Didn’t Happen at Duke,” New American, September 18, 2006. * Richard Perez-Pena “Online Watchdog Sniffs for Media Bias,” New York Times, October 15, 2008. * Eugene Robinson “(White) Women We Love,” Washington Post, June 10, 2005. * Joseph Somsel “Megaphone Envy and the Fairness Doctrine,” American Thinker, March 19, 2009. * Adam Thierer “The Media Cornucopia,” City Journal, Spring 2007. * Evan Thomas “The Myth of Objectivity,” Newsweek, March 10, 2008.

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Free Essays

An Artistic Story of New York City in 1932

November 17, 2012 Essay II, Word Count: 2268 An Artistic Story of New York in 1932 The purpose of this essay is to discuss the ways Stuart Davis uses the elements of art and principals of design in his painting, New York Mural, 1932. In the beginning of this essay, there is a description of Davis’ biological information and what was happening in New York during the years preceding the painting. It will discuss three elements of art to include: line, shape and color. The principals of design that will be discussed are unity, balance, and variety.

It will close with my personal reflection and experience that was gained from the analysis and research of the painting. Davis was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1892 to parents that were artists. His father was a newspaper art director and his mother was a sculptor. His family moved to East Orange, New Jersey when he was nine years old. He attended school in New Jersey and left high school in 1909 before graduating to attend Henri’s School of Art in New York City. He became acquainted and formed friendships with mentors, John Sloan and George Luks. These men were all part of “The Eight”.

These men were all part of the Realist Art Movement and focused on poverty and the realities of urban life for real people. He began exhibiting his art in 1910 and had his first exhibit in New York City. In 1912, he was employed by a left leaning journal that under the direction of Sloan. While he was there, participating in the groundbreaking Armory Show. His work still was in the realist mode until 1916 when he went on his own to become more of an abstract artist. He was drafted and stayed in United States as a cartographer creating maps for the US Army Intelligence Department.

Fortunately, that was short-lived and he began using a Cubist style on his work. He made a series with this Cubist style of works based on a tobacco series. He began an eggbeater series while having Edith Halpert of New York’s Downtown Gallery of Art. This series began his journey away from European influenced Cubism to his own development of his own abstractive modernist style without human presence in his works. He went to Paris in 1928 and upon returning in 1929, he became fascinated and intrigued with the industrialism and post war architecture in New York City.

His words were quoted by Karen Wilkin, “On my arrival I New York I was appalled and depressed by its gigantism. Everything in Paris was human size, here everything was inhuman. It was difficult to think either of art or oneself as having any significance whatever in the face of this frenetic commercial engine. ” (Wilkin, 127). At this time, the Great Depression he created relatively few works, but he constantly changed scale, medium and method, making easel paintings, ink drawings, murals and lithographs (Wilkin, 127). His art reflected social issues and his works were pictures that tell a larger story.

New York Mural was his most ambitious treatment of the city in which he touched upon the issues of prohibition, government corruption and the affairs of Al Smith (Weber, 10). His journals and historical data during these few years in the New York City political scene are confirmation of the journalistic story he told through New York Mural. It was an outrage that many foreign artists were commissioned to do work in the United States. The Museum of Modern Art in New York organized an exhibit of contemporary murals. This show is why Davis created the New York Mural.

It stirred much controversy because of the story it told about New York’s economic, social and political climate. Davis wrote in his personal papers, now in collection at Harvard University: Modern art is a reflection of the advanced modern technology. Modern Art in turn has changed to industrial design (Weber, 10). In 1932, Davis painted the piece that is the topic of this essay, New York Mural. He used oil which did not dry quickly and gave him the ability to change and modify colors and lines days later. Oil paint is flexible and it was easy for him to achieve a rich luminosity while having smooth effects with a high level of detail. DeWitte, Larmann, and Shields, 186). His paintings were now made up of modern industry images with free association and with a decorative pattern that created an optical vibration (Weber, 13). The most dominant principle of design used in this piece is variety because of the artist’s use of various elements of art to include: line, shape, color, form and space. Each element has many purposes to hold the views attention. As you look at the picture, these elements are effective in bringing your attention to every detail as you look around the work of art.

Variety makes this picture of the skyline diverse and like no other picture of New York City. The use of lines is complimented by the variety of color used in the painting. The oil provides a shiny surface that allows the lines to be hard and well defined. Within each line are many colors hues of color. The solid primary colors give the lines true definition. Many of the colors are complementary which seems to help contract the objects while achieving depth, especially between the buildings. Some areas of the picture have both crossed-hatching and hatching and neutral solid spaces and shapes.

This helps create darkness and lightness in the details of many of the objects. Along with solid black and white areas, the hatchings create shadows and make the picture appear three-dimensional. The buildings appear in the background and random objects in the foreground because of the black surrounding the bottom images in the picture. When you are standing back from the picture you know it’s a building facade but cannot see the defined shapes of the building. The cross hatching and neutrals colors help this happen as if you were in the city looking at distant buildings.

The colors are all basic colors of the spectrum with the exception of black and white in the foreground and background to create a dramatic sense of depth and value. These hues are in different shades and saturations. For example the yellow in the banana and tigers’ head is close to its highest level of saturation. The yellow building is a lower saturated yellow because it is mustard in color by having brown mixed into the paint. The black used in the background, lines and inside the buildings help show the defined shapes of the objects in the piece.

The white achieves many of the same things while this absence of color is used to show brightness and the feeling of daylight where it is in the background. There is an obvious contrast by the black and white that creates the symbolism of night and day. With these neutral colors there is no need for implied lines as your eyes wonder around the picture. The directional lines are used to bring your eyes upward in the painting to the tallest building in the center which could be considered the main focal point. It is almost in the centerline of the piece which helps to achieve symmetry and balance.

This building is recognizable as the Empire State Building, the newest and tallest building in New York in 1932. Horizontal Lines bring your eyes up into the skyline while the vertical and diagonal lines create depth and dimensions. The curved lines with both thin and thickness to them help you to notice various symbols that explain the story Davis is trying to tell of that time. The foreground has many shapes utilizing volume and space that take time to identify. These contour shaped images create volume and space in the foreground.

While the yellow banana is recognizable, it has a an organic shape that makes you look closely to make sure that is what he is showing the viewer. The green banana is not as recognizable because of its dark hue of green even though it is analogous to yellow. There are mostly geometric shapes in the city’s skyline. The only curved line and shape is in the shape of a funny face with a hat at the top of the purple building to the right where the three orange circles look two eyes and a nose. Symmetry is achieved through a well balanced picture.

Both sides are equally filled with positive shapes and vary with and same amount of negative space. There are concentric geometric shapes for the windows in the buildings, this creates contrast between the different buildings heights and widths. It also gives symmetry to each individual building. The six large rectangles behind the gas pump make it recognizable as a gas station with the garage door in front. The use of colors and lines help the entire picture to appear balanced. The principle of design, proportion, is used throughout this piece of art. The tiger’s head and tail are recognizable in a cartoon like image.

If you did not have the research and narrative of what was going on in this time period of the artist’s life, you would not understand why it is randomly placed to the right bottom of the closest building in the foreground of the buildings. The entire painting has the cartoon like feel to it. Especially with the exaggerated proportions of the hats, bananas and what looks like a butterfly on the right side boarder. These things are not to scale with the rest of the parts. The scale is in different proportions and it is mostly dramatic between the foreground and the skyline which appears father away.

The best example in the foreground is the proportion of the bananas, tire and hat. It would be a very small tire and hat or a very large banana in realistic. Davis uses scale to exaggerate some of the messages that he is trying to tell about the many things that were taking place during this time. Many of these images are defined further through many of Davis’ later paintings that are enlarged and elaborated versions of this original painting. In a genius way, Davis achieves unity through this picture when you view it as a whole.

There is a direct message that the whole is greater than the sum of its individual parts (DeWitte, Larmann, and Shields, 121). He splatters various colorful shapes and organic images to tell the story. Upon first glance, the draw to this picture was because the noticeably recognizable skyline of New York City. I love New York City more than any other place that I have ever lived, worked or played. After gazing around it for a few moments, I could see many random objects beautifully tied and linked together through symbols made of shapes, space, lines and many bright, shiny colors.

It was puzzling because I did not know specific facts of history. It was obvious to me that each thing placed in the painting was deliberate and told a story. I was very interested to hear why these random objects surrounding the geometric shaped skyline were of significance to the artist at that moment in time. It is very busy, but also balanced achieving unity and balance. After reading about the artist and his other works, I was fascinated by his ability to not only tell a story but to practically expose the negative and positive events and achievements of that time.

His ego and boldness was obvious to me when I realized the offending nature of some of the references he was making representing specific people he knew and was around in New York City. I feel as though I have read a book about New York City’s growth and struggles after the crash of the stock market in 1929 through the early 1930’s. I am also grateful, to the authors of books and articles that explain what was happening and researches what the artist meant with different aspects of their pieces of art. I am a new fan of Davis because I love his bright shiny pictures depicting the city I love and am interested in.

He loved New York and enjoyed it while noticing some of the growth and change making the city less intimate and large and filled with the potential and realities for corruption. I believe he admired and was impressed with the new buildings and infrastructure in the city while acknowledging that it had to come at a price of greed and a degree of coldness rather than prosperity and warmth. This essay makes me more interested in the stories behind the pieces of art and the artists that created them. The thoughts, history and personal situations are fascinating and give me a different appreciation for New York Mural.

I am going to stay mindful and open to enjoy a piece of artwork just for its beauty and the talent that it took to create rather than the book of truth and theoretical information behind it. Works Cited Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larrman, and M. Kathryn Shields, Gateways to Art, 2012, Tharmes & Hudson Weber, Bruce. Stuart Davis’ New York, 1985. Norton Gallery of Art, West Palm Beach Wilkins, Karen. Stuart Davis, 1987. Cross River Press, ltd. Davis, Stuart. New York Mural. 1932. Oil on Canvas. Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach. 84 inches x 84 inches, signed and dated Date viewed: November 4, 2012

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New York Police Department Recruitment And Challenges

Some of this is funny…most of it, if accurate, is outrageous. While some of the latter is verifiable, it is difficult to sort out just how much is simply sour grapes and whining because 40 miles to the East, Suffolk Country MOS have a huge contract. New York Police Department cannot get enough applicants to give a test for Police officers 88% of Port Authority Police Department Academy graduates are from New York Police Department cops, 50% of a new class of NYFD class are from New York Police Department. (Lung Worthy et al, 1986).

Introduction

The New York City Police (NYPD) has over the last years been known to be the largest municipal police force in the world with a vital primary responsibility to enforce the law and carry out investigations within the five boroughs of the New York City, which include Nassau, Suffolk, Westchester etc. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000).

NYPD is dedicated to work towards enhancing the quality of life in the city by working in accordance to the constitution. This is achieved through its mission statement, which is “Enforce the law, preserve the peace, reduce fear and provide for a safe environment”. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000). This in result entails to preventing fear and responding to crime.

In the United States, NYPD is considered as being the first modern style police department being an array of specialized services. It is contracted and dedicated to offering expertise in technical operations, K-9, diving or marine skills, aviation or helicopter skills, bomb disposal technology, counterterrorism technology, intelligence skills, antigang techniques, narcotics detection, public transportation, control and public housing. The NYPD has extensive crime scene investigations and laboratory resources while not also overlooking their units, which assist with computer crime investigations. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000)

Recruitment Requirements for NYPD

To pace afoot into the NYPD academy, the following requirements are a prerequisite: one must be an United States citizen at the time of application; one must possess a valid high school diploma or an educational equivalent; one must have successfully completed either sixty (60) college credits from a credible college or a university with at least 2.0 GPA or two (2) years full time United States Military Service. (Reaves, Brian A., 1996).

However, one could achieve the above qualifications yet be disqualified for admission because of the following factors: – One may have been convicted of an offence, which indicates lack of good moral character, or disposition towards violence or disorder or which is punishable by one or more years of imprisonment; one may have undergone repeated convictions of an offence, which indicates disrespect of the law; one may have been discharged from an employment as a result of poor behavior or inability to adjust to discipline; one may have been discharged in a dishonorable manner from the military service; one may have been convicted of an offence for domestic violence misdemeanor; and lastly, one may have been convicted for committing a felony. (Lung Worthy et al, 1986).

A Practical Situation

Despite all these requirements and all the theoretical expectations from these special, well-trained and skilled cops a great problem looms in their working circumstances. For any person to work there is always expectations of commensurate benefits from the field of occupation necessary for the daily upkeep of the individual and dependants. The standard of life should also have a direct relationship with the rightful inputs of an individual to the workplace. Future progress should also be projected by the current occupation performance and renumeration. Other workplace related benefits are also very crucial determinants of an employee wellbeing and welfare. All these issues if not properly addressed, will lead to decreased morale, decreased output and poor performance and ultimately high degree of employees’ dropout leading to high turnovers.

This is the critical condition facing the NYPD. In 2005, there was a state arbitration and a panel of judges’ decree covering a contract negotiation between NYPD representatives and state representatives, which came up with a pay decrease for new officers. The new outcomes have been discussed here: – On admission, a new hire during training is supposed to earn $25,100 per year. This continues for the next six (6) months. On the completion of the Police Academy, the respective individual becomes entitled to an annual salary increase up to $32,700. To explain this, the state argues that the salaries were adjusted as a result of inflation. In practice these figures are far much low below the living standards of an employed person and they happen to be the lowest pay levels in history for rookie NYPD cops.

This was a wrong decision by the jurisdiction of lowering the starting pay for new officers at such a time that the officers are most impressionable and this act seems particularly unwise to majority of the people. The salary plunge is blamed on state arbitrator and is seen as a bad public policy to reduce the starting salary. The union officers argued that the city first suggested lower starting salaries to fund the pay raises and arbitration was taken to because the city refused to negotiate across the table. The conventional wisdom when applied tends to purport an inverse relationship between salary and corruption as witnessed in the jurisdiction such as New Orleans. (Fred. M. Rafilson, 2000).

The issue at hand is very crucial towards motivation of workers. A person of proper orientation cannot even dream or think about joining this career, which is devoid of motivation considering that there exists a high degree of risk in this profession. The situation is further compounded by the fact that out of the meangle pays, the respective officer is expected to purchase virtually all of their belongings and personal items. The items include officers’ uniforms and equipment, which one would expect to get from the Academy or employer. Some issues of quality items in this respect it is worth mentioning.

Due to the fact of fluctuated pay anybody is highly tempted to go for the least expensive item and it is common sense that least expensive is least quality. The practice of officers buying uniforms and equipment for themselves has an outlay that can easily run into thousands of dollars. As a solution, the Municipal Union in 2007 through the Municipal Credit Union began issuing visa credit cards to the Police Academy as a way to borrow the money needed towards the mandatory equipment purchases.

Top pay for experienced officers is no better compared with pay of other potential employers. The recommended top pay for an experienced NYPD officer is $59,588 not including overtime payments and other forms of compensation. The major contributor to these problems is the municipal funding agents, which although it has continually funded other city project. The new basketball arena in Brooklyn got an approximate 8.3 acres land, which although it was a part of a forest the administration asserts that this is no land grabbing. For the sake of its development it got a further $100 million. (Kleining John, 1996). The Second Avenue Train line got the full funding agreement with a massive $2.5 bond issues and its work expected to follow within weeks to months. (Kleining John, 1996).

The Mayor’s Green Plan is raising quite substantial amount whereby drivers are levied for entering Manhattan at rates of $8 for personal vehicles and $21 for truck operators. Major tugs of war have been evidently available as is the case of the New York Civil Liberties Union (NYCLU), which urged the council members to provide the Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB) with adequate funding and to hold it accountable for recent lapses in its performance. NYCLU decried to Mayor Bloomberg’s proposals to cut CCRB funding by $1.2 million eliminating twenty four investigator positions and urged the city council to restore the CCRB’s funding to demand cooperation from NYPD and other agencies involved in the civilian review process.

The NYCLU was actively instrumental in the creation of the independent CCRB in the year 2002, and has been an outspoken advocate for a vigorous and independent civilian review system. As part of this effort, the NYCLU has fought CCRB budget cuts year after year and has been highly critical of NYPD efforts to undermine the CCRB’s work. (Kleining John, 1996). Whereas the policy makers and implementers argue that they are in favor of keeping tabs on the people suspected of unlawful activities, they argue that the police should not be scrutinizing law abiding New Yorkers’ activities without regulations.

Low pay is driving more and more New York’s finest to leave the job despite ranks being bolstered. Especially in 2005 and 2006, 1,769 officers were reported to quit job before their retirement eligibility. (Kleining John, 1996). The numbers have had a real impact on the streets and city hall does not have the courage to solve the problem.

Difficulties Compounding Police Force Issue

Some extremely difficult times were experienced in the city brought about by the economic downturn of the 1970. An arson attack particularly plagued Bronx leading to permeability of an atmosphere of lawlessness in the city. In addition, the city’s financial crisis led to a hiring freeze on all city departments including the NYPD from 1976 to 1980. (Eli B. Silverman, 1990). A crack epidemic of late 1980s and early 1990s followed in suit the arson attack, which is believed most certainly led to the city’s homicide rate to soar to an all time higher. A marvelous record of murder, so great that it has yet remained difficult to break in any other US major city, was recorded in 1990. (Eli B. Silverman, 1990).

The situation was further complicated by continuous thefts associated with drug addiction increasing became common. Furthermore, on September 11, 2001, twenty-three NYPD officers were killed when the World Trade Centre collapsed due to terrorist attack. More lives were lost that year than any other year in the NYPD’s history. (Eli B. Silverman, 1990).

All through history, the NYPD has suffered from numerous allegations of corruption. However, as the many commissions of inquiry convened to inquire about these alleged matters, the results have shown these instances of corruption reflect far greater on the individual’s involved rather than do on a systemic form of corruption. As a matter of fact, the instances of corruption when compared through statistics to the sheer number of the departments as a whole, the NYPD actually has a lower corruption rate than many other departments. Most commissions on corruption blame low morale and chronically low salary as the large contributing factor. As things sour up to such heights it remains questionable as to the destiny and way out for these unlucky officers. Information permeability is in place of existing training and working condition in other departments of equal capacity as the NYPD.

Situation Outside NYPD

It is crystal clear that in nearby departments’ payments is considerably more ranging from $50,000 for new hires and over $90,000 for experienced officers. Over the last few years hundreds of NYPD city officers have been found to leave for higher paying jobs with other agencies notably the Nassau County Police Department, the Suffolk County Police Department and the Port Authority Police of New York and New Jersey. (Bratton et al, 1998). Discontent over pay issues has become so widespread and so well known that higher paying departments in the lower cost of living areas such as the Rochester New York Police are actively recruiting NYPD officers to join their forces. Large numbers of NYPD officers have also migrated to the New York City Fire Departments where, although the payments are similar to that of NYPD, work schedules are more attractive and they are privileged to have a more amicable relationship with the public. (Bratton et al, 1998).

However, the NYPD is not comfortable with the exodus taken by their trained employees. Resources have been used for the training and therefore the exodus is a big loss to NYPD. Employees’ turnover is also a bad influence facing NYPD as a result of this exodus. Therefore, to counteract the exodus, the NYPD is using contract changes to forbid the prior practice of allowing police officers who join the fire department to transfer their seniority for a compensation purposes. With all new firefighters now compelled to begin working at the same starting pay, the number of NYPD officials willing to exit over to the FDNY is likely to fall considerably. (Bratton et al, 1998).

Some NYPD officers charge that the department leadership is seeking to stem the flow of officers to other jurisdictions by administrative means. In January 2006, 35 NYPD officers seeking to move to the Port Authority Police sued the NYPD claiming that it was refusing to make their personal records available to Ports Authority Police Department (PAPD) background investigators. The plaintiffs won the injunction at the trial level but the appellate division in January 2007 overturned that ruling and ordered that case to trial. (James T. Hamilton, 2000). For its part, the NYPD claims that its actions are merely in line with the personnel practices of any other employers and that there is no “stealth” effort to prevent officers from moving elsewhere.

Nonetheless, it is a fact that no NYPD officers have been included in the last PAPD Police Academy as a result of the deliberate confinement of their background records by their employer NYPD. Despite these obstacles, there are signs that the exodus from the NYPD may become accelerating. In 2006, 902 officers resigned before eligibility for retirement. The number had been 867 in the previous year (2005) and 635 in the other previous year (2004), which contributes for an attrition rate of around 2%. (James T. Hamilton, 2000).

While the Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly insists that the figures compares positively with the turnover rates in private industry, police union officials note that the proper comparison should be with prior years on the NYPD records in past years. For example, in 1991 only 15% officers left early thus recording an attrition rate of less than one half of one percent. (James T. Hamilton, 2000).

The unfair state in NYPD has impacted negative picture of the Academy. Recruits and skilled officers are expected to take care of their transport costs. They are also supposed to cater for costs of their duty belts, handcuffs, flashlights etc. whenever they wear out. The cost of maintaining fresh supplies has been uncatered for by the Academy. The supervisors treat recruits and officers like children and the harsh manner of the supervisors create disrespect in the Academy. Recruits are taken for field experience and during the occasion they are given up to supervisory jobs. Due to the frequent turnover some identified officers and recruits are forced to act on supervisory capacity without an extra pay.

At the end of it all participation in unions is crippled due to crippled financial status. They are also incapacitated to play meaningful roles in the society and their background society issues are very poor.

The potential recruit of NYPD should expect to earn the lowest pay while working in the most dangerous environment in the tri-state area and should also expect picayune disciplinary action with a trial room having nearly 100% conviction rate. Dozens of civilian complaints from criminals and then complaints are investigated by cop hating, democratic club hacks. The recruit should also expect to be a great “white defendant” seeking publicity, grand-standing district attorney have their life ruined when they make a good faith mistake they become financially destroyed plus their families by paying huge money in legal fees. The cop expects the boss ever behind while executing duties, any civilian complaint with a controversial case falls on the cops shoulders.

The supervisors of the cops are ready to protect politicians at the expense of their junior cops. The members of the department above the rank of lieutenant are ready to earn promotion through suppression of their juniors. The NYPD cop members are the most demoralized army group. They give protection to millions of liberal, unappreciative citizens and democratic officers who hate them. The cops are also vilified by phony ministers who command huge sums of government poverty money to aid and assist crime. The cops transcend through six months of training then in disquiets join other police departments leaving their leaders searching for reasons of the exodus. As senior members of NYPD shift to other departments, such as Suffolk County Cop, a vacancy opening leaves a promotion slot quickly.

Conclusion

The result of poor funding in NYPD is a poor social economic structure. This leads to exit and exodus of those who enter NYPD Academy leading to brain drain and employee turnover. The lack of funding has created a huge salary disparity between NYPD and other same category departments. Any well-qualified person fears any indulgence with NYPD. Although their entry requirements are well outlines, a number of recruits gain entry into the Academy without the possession of valid driving licenses, relevant credentials possibility of suffering some disqualifications creates problems of retention of probationary employees since discontent and lack of motivation is the cause of exodus to a better place.

References

Bratton, William J. & Knobler Peter (1998) Turnaround: How American Top Cops Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House.

Eli B. Silverman (1990) NYPD Battles Crime: Innovative Strategies in Policing. North Eastern University Press. ISBN-13:978-15555340011.

Fred. M. Rafilson (2000) Police Officer Arco; 13th Ed. ISBN-13:978-0028637419.

James T. Hamilton (2000) Channeling Violence. Princeton University Press. New Ed. ISBN-13:978-0691070247.

Kleining John (1996) The Ethics of Policing. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lung Worthy, Robert H. (1986) The Structure of Police Organizations. New York. Praeger.

Reaves, Brian A. (1996) Local Police Departments. Diane Pub Co. ISBN-13:978-0788130076.

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Free Essays

New York MTA

Traditional market structure suggests that all market decisions should be based on utilitarian theory. We often witness market decisions which neglect other important aspects of the market activity. As a result, we appear under the impact of one-side unbalanced decisions which ultimately neglect the principles of morality and moral theology of the marketplace.

Rising fares and tolls by MTA “After an unusually vigorous and spirited debate, the board of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority voted to raise fares on subways, buses and commuter railroads and tolls on bridges and tunnels” (Chan, 2007a). Why is it so surprising that not all members of the MTA board wanted to turn into the proponents of fares and tolls’ increase? Does this mean that more and more political and business players realize the importance of morality in taking market decisions?

Evidently, the situation is much worse than one may imagine. One may initially think that increasing the fares will lead to less traffic congestion, and will urge more people to use public transport; yet, the public transport fares are being raised, too. From the viewpoint of those who vote for raising fares and tolls in New York, this decision is the first step towards “fiscal responsibility. The authority had for long applied windfalls and real estate taxes hoping that someone would bail us out and turning a blind eye to our responsibility to put this MTA on a firm future monetary structure” (Chan, 2007a).

Simultaneously, from the viewpoint of morality and theology of the marketplace, commercial activity is not limited by rational market decisions, but also “confronts us with the moral predicaments” (Gregg, 2004). The major concern within this situation is that the decision to raise fares has completely neglected the position of those whom we traditionally consider to be vulnerable populations. The representative of Working Families Party is confident that raising fares will seriously hit working people (Benjamin, 2007). “Today, once again middle class New Yorkers and those struggling to make it, are bearing the cost”, Rep. Anthony Weiner said (Benjamin, 2007).

“A fare hike now is the wrong choice for New York. It would hit many people who are struggling hard to make ends meet and hurt the region’s economy. […] This fare hike will hit 86 percent of the riding public who use fare discounts. These include pay-per-ride bonus MetroCards and 7- and 30-day unlimited-ride passes. It’s also a double whammy for most L.I.R.R. and Metro-North commuters whose railroad fares would go up!” (Chan, 2007b)

The discussed fare hike will also cause the bonuses’ decrease for riders (from 20 to 15 percent), and the discounted fare will cost $1.74 instead of $1.67 (Chan, 2007b). The problem is that New Yorkers pay more than they have to for the transport they use. “In 2005, riders paid 55 percent of the costs of running the subways and buses” (Chan, 2007b). Objectively, this is much higher that the riders in other cities pay: those in Boston do not compensate more than 29 percent of the discussed costs, and those in Philadelphia pay no more than 37 percent (Chan, 2007b).

As the M.T.A reports $140 million reductions, does this mean that they will make the riders pay this amount through higher fares and tolls? Doubtlessly, the suggested fares and tolls increase will help compensate the under-financing of the MTA by the state Government, but if the decision framework remains unchanged, this compensation will actually take place for the account of the already mentioned vulnerable populations. “To rely upon utilitarianism as the moral – philosophical foundation of the case for the market creates tremendous difficulties for Catholics” (Gregg, 2004).

The utilitarian desire to find the greatest good and to satisfy the masses does not meet the ethical and moral criteria of religion. Those who were taking the decision to raise the fares and tolls in New York have neglected one essential aspect in their decision making: when one looks for the means to produce the greatest pleasure for the greatest number of people, one has to perform numerous calculations and to produce the decision which satisfies everyone. From the viewpoint of moral theology, such calculations in market decision-making are simply impossible. “No person can make such an assessment without admitting a tremendous degree of ignorance about all the possible effects that might proceed from a freely chosen act” (Gregg, 2004).

The MTA governors have evidently gone beyond their reasonable abilities, trying to persuade us that that the future with raised fares and tolls for everyone was better than other possible alternatives. The MTA board members view the increased tolls and fares as the means to close the gaps in MTA’s budget and to provide safe and reliable system of transportation for the New York’s citizens. However, it is not the ultimate goal for those who use public transport and belong to vulnerable layers of the city population.

Conclusion

The moral theology of marketplace rejects any uniform measures in defining the goals of decision making. This is why the governors should have considered the financial opportunities of those who cannot afford paying more for using public transport. The diversified structure of prices would resolve all moral and ethical issues, and would not create serious obstacles on the way towards better functioning of the city’s transportation systems.

References

Benjamin, E. (2007). MTA fare hike reactions (updated). Daily News. Retrieved February 17,

2008 from http://www.nydailynews.com/blogs/dailypolitics/2007/12/mta-fare-hike-reactions.html

Chan, S. (2007a). Board approves subway and bus fare increase. The New York Times.

Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/19/mta-board-approves-fare-and-toll-increases/index.html?hp

Chan, S. (2007b). Hundreds stranded online by botched M.T.A. “Webinar”. The New York

Times. Retrieved February 17, 2008 from http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/12/10/mixed-reaction-to-new-mta-fare-plan/?hp

Gregg, S. (2004). Ethics and the market economy: Insights from Catholic moral theology.

IEA Economic Affairs, June, pp. 4-10.

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Free Essays

New York and Nebraska

In this world no two places can be considered to be same. All the places have a certain amount of distinctness, a certain flavor and a very dominant persona. If we consider two places, New York and Nebraska, there are a lot of similarities and contrasts, as they are the states of a same country, i.e. United States of America. Both the states have discrete histories but have common grounds on the basis of European Settlers. Nebraska became officially part of United States of America only in 1812 after Missouri Treaty bill.  New York on the other hand was dominant by the point of British and it was an important place in terms of the revolution for Independence.

Comparisons between New York and Nebraska

New York and Nebraska are both large states of America and have lot of importance to the country. Both the states being large on their own are blessed on natural terms. On the whole the two states have similarities on the basis of its large parks and greenery. Also both the states are blessed with the amount of voluminous rivers flowing through them. Nebraska and New York have a very good base in agriculture and have large share of their economy dependent on agricultural products. On a religious point of view too, both the states comprising have similarities in terms that both have a maximum population of Christians than any other religions. The states also are very rich in its heritage and culture and the no. of museums both have are outstanding, as both the states have a view of protecting and highlighting their culture.

Contrasts between New York and Nebraska

Firstly the climate of both the states is very different, and their discreetness is so high that the state of Nebraska has in fact two climates in its region. The state is grossly divided between a humid climate and a steppe climate. Also the effect of Global warming though being everywhere in the world is marginally higher in Nebraska compared to New York. This is assessed by the following:

‘Nebraska is home to an incredible diversity of native wildlife species, including 346 birds, 83 mammals, 87fish, 47 reptiles and 13 amphibians. Rising temperatures in the state will likely change the makeup of entire ecosystems, forcing wildlife to shift their ranges or adapt. Global warming could contribute to a 20-50 percent decline in forested area, particularly in eastern Nebraska, where grasslands and savanna could replace forests and woodlands’.

(Courtesy: Myra Wilensky, “Global warming and Nebraska”. Retrieved on May 4, 2008 from http://www.nwf.org/globalwarming/pdfs/Nebraska.pdf#search=%22%22global%20warming%22%2C%20Nebraska%22)

Both the states have a massive difference in the terms of economy as the state of New York is one of the key finance providers of the nation compared to Nebraska. One of the major contrasting feature of the two states politically is Nebraska is a religious Republican follower while the state of New York is avidly a Democratic supporter.

Conclusion

Both the states have their own theories of running the economy and are well blessed with flora and fauna. The comparison between the two states assesses the fact that how much ever two places might be distinct or similar, both of them are unique in their own way.

Reference:

1)      Myra Wilensky, “Global warming and Nebraska”. http://www.nwf.org/globalwarming/pdfs/Nebraska.pdf#search=%22%22global%20warming%22%2C%20Nebraska%22

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Reconstruction Era of the United States and New York Times

Allison Hwang Swanson 10:30 11/16/2012 Reconstruction’s Failure Although the Civil War finally managed to come to a close, the end of the war wasn’t exactly met with celebration. Instead, the Civil War brought up many new problems that were left unresolved. In order to solve these problems, the congress took responsibility and worked its way to “reconstruct” our nation. The main purpose of the “Congressional Reconstruction” was to ‘establish and protect the citizenship rights of the freedmen’.

However, the Congress’ Reconstruction efforts did not last too long and came to an end by the year of 1877. The main reasons for the failure of the reconstruction efforts were due to the conflicting views and factors upon the purpose of reconstruction. There were much political opposition from the north and the south as well as from the republicans and the democrats, the entire nation was facing economic hardships, and the attempt to place the freedmen in the same social level as the white southerners caused so much tension that the efforts of the Congress’ Reconstruction gradually failed.

Even though the 13th and the 14th Amendments were ratified in 1866, which ensured equal rights of all citizens, many of the white population continued to treat the former slaves with inequality. Ignorance was one of the biggest factors that led to the failure of the efforts of the congress reconstruction. Although the former slaves were not granted liberty and freedom, they were still treated with inequality because many of the white men continued to believe that the black men should not have the equal rights as the white men. Pennsylvania Congressman Benjamin Boyer, a Democrat, said, “it is not the complexion of the negro that degrades him…. race by nature inferior in mental caliber…the negroes are not the equals of white Americans, and are not entitled…to participate in the Government of this country…” In his speech, Congressman Boyer basically denies the right of the African Americans to vote simply due to his belief that black men falls short of the white and that they aren’t smart enough. In the excerpt in the New York Times it reads, “‘Ku Klux Klan’ …its grand purpose being to establish a nucleus around which ‘the adherents of the late rebellion might safely rally. ” The Ku Klux Klan was an organization that was formed in order to go against the purpose of the congress and lynch black men. Such activities were racially and violently performed, which undermined the Congress’ efforts to ensure equal rights to freedmen. In the excerpts from the editorial, Atlanta News, it says, “If the white democrats of the North are men, they will not stand idly by and see us borne down by northern radicals and half-barbarous Negroes. But no matter what they may do, it is time for us to organize. ” This editorial displays the racism that was demonstrated during the 1870s.

The editorial is advocating the southern and the democratic whites to come together to stop the black. It refers to the black men as “half-barbarous negroes” which racially displays the belief of the whites of how the black men are far inferior compared to them. Racism was one of the big factors that led to the failure of the reconstruction. Another main factor that played a key role in the downfall of the congress reconstruction was the political opposition from the north and the south as well as against the democrats and the republicans. In an excerpt from The Era of Reconstruction it reads, “In May 1872….

Congress passed a general amnesty act which restored the right of office holding [and voting] to the vast majority of those who had been disqualified. ” The restoration of the voting rights to the white Southerners undermined the efforts to preserve and protect the voting rights of the freedmen. This was so because when they gave back the rights to vote to the white southerners, the Congress increased the number of white voters. Thus these voters took more political positions away from the freedmen. Also in November 1974, the headline text from the New York Times read, “DEMOCRATIC VICTORY; CONGRESS TO BE DEMOCRATIC. The victory of the Democratic only further affected the downfall of the efforts of the congress’ reconstructions. Their victory helped undermine the Congress’ efforts to help the freedmen because the democrats were simply against the reconstruction. The opposing political viewpoints amongst the nation only further adds to why the Congress’ Reconstruction efforts to ensure equal rights to the freedmen failed. The final main factor that played a big role in the downfall of the Congress’ Reconstruction was the economic hardships that both the north and the south had to face after the Civil War.

The civil war left the nation in ruins as far as being economically devastated. Although the slaves were finally granted their freedom after over 200 years of fighting, they did not know what to do the moment they actually achieved their freedom. Although some blacks took advantage and became successful, there were many others who were left on the streets with no source of income to fend for themselves. In an excerpt from a book written by Dr. W. E. E. DuBois it reads, “But the decisive influence was the systematic and overwhelming economic pressure.

Negroes who wanted work must not dabble in politics… in order to earn a living, the American Negro was compelled to give up his political power. ” According to Dubois, the freedmen were “convinced” to stop voting or taking part in political events because they were under economic pressure. They weren’t to “dabble in politics” if they wanted to increase their income and to earn a living. The economic pressure of the slaves could also be seen in an interview with a man named John McCoy. He was born in 1838 and had lived 27 years as a slave in Texas.

In the interview he says, “Freedom wasn’t no different I knows of. I works for Marse John just the same for a long time. He say one morning, “…. I’ll feed you and give you clothes but can’t pay you no money. I ain’t got none. ” Humph, I didn’t know nothing what money was, nohow, but I knows I’ll git plenty victuals to eat, so I stays…” This recollection by John McCoy displays the idea that the slaves may have even been better off to actually stay with their owners who will feed them and clothe them. This goes against the whole idea and purpose of the entire Civil War and the Congress’ Reconstruction.

Due to the economic hardships during the 1870s, John decided to stay with his owner despite being granted his freedom because he did not even have knowledge as to what money was and was simply grateful for the food and the clothing that his owner would provide for him in exchange for labor. There were a lot of different reasons that led to the failure of the efforts of the Congress’ Reconstruction to ensure equal rights to the freedmen. The three main reasons that affected the Congress’ Reconstruction efforts the most were political oppositions, economic hardships, and racial differences.

The constant conflicts between the different viewpoints of the democrats and the republicans undermined the purpose of the Reconstruction efforts. Racism played a big role in that the white men continued to look down on the black men and always felt superior compared to them. Economic hardships were also very important in the failure of the reconstruction efforts in that some slaves felt as though staying with their owners despite their gained freedom was better than fighting for survival alone on the streets. In the end, despite all the efforts of the congress, the reconstruction came to an end in 1877.

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Free Essays

Providing Free Wi-Fi to New York City

Providing Free Wi-Fi to New York City Defining the Solution: New York City is a city with a large population of people, lots of skyscraping buildings, numerous businesses, and a lack of available free WI-FI service. Today we will be working on developing a way to provide free WI-FI to all of New York City. First we have to look at the reasons, resources needed, and problems which will be on the road to providing such service to New York City. To define the problem a little in depth, we need to find out the necessities needed. 1.

There needs to be a study conducted to figure out how a system can be placed in a city that is so rich in life, but cluttered with buildings and minimal available space for equipment installation. 2. The city needs to campaign a project, letting the people know what they are trying to do to bring such service to them. 3. Bring in network companies to provide the service. 4. Chart a project cost budget: i. e. -material cost, man power, and location cost. 5. Survey areas where service will be needed most. 6. Survey and gather information from the population on what service provider they use and service plans are used most.

This will ensure that there are no network conflicts when the free WI-FI project is completed. 7. Schedule meeting with companies and experts in these technical areas to gather information. This will be information that can be charted or graphed. 8. Analyze all information, graphs, and charts that they have, to see problem areas and solutions to other problem areas. I am expecting that there will be many roadblocks to the road success. There will be many obstacles that will have to be problem and we will overcome these problems.

But to develop a way to make WI-FI available to all of New York City will be tough project. It will be a tough project, however with great organization it can be a successful project. I believe with reliable and professional teamwork, it will be available in the future. Generating a Solution: Defining the problem for developing a solution to provide free WI-FI for all of New York City has been addressed. We have categorized where the problems lay and discussed what is needed to show the problems that exist. Now that the problems are defined, solutions need to be generated to piece together he problems. In order to generate a solution, a team comprised of technology professionals, state officials, city officials, private and non-profit developer organizations, the voice of the people, and a list of detail equipment needed and the cost of the equipment will need to be brought together as one. First is to assemble a group of broadband and wireless experts, so we can gather possible answers to the defined problem. After getting a starting point, data needs to be portrayed on charts, reports, and diagrams. This information can then be brought to the attention of city and state officials.

The voice of the people can be a key to what is being used and what is needed to suit their needs for wireless connection. So surveys need to be sent out, public hearing need to be set up, and gather information from wireless companies to see what is being used today by the people. When setting up a public hearing, a panel of expert will be needed to answer the question that the people may have. Also to seek answers the experts will have for the people so they can configure the amount of technology is needed to make the project possible.

The roles of the city government and the private and non-profit developers can be a major factor on how and where to start the wireless project. We would need the approval from these groups to have a starting point. Also we would see what resources the city already have and what is needed to included in a report for financial purposes. The financial report is essential to show what is already available for use in the project and what resource is needed plus the cost for the needed equipment. Then a starting location(s) will be needed to begin the project.

Possible locations (ie: city parks) for wireless hotspots can be a good starting expansion point. To generate a solution we need: 1. Broadband and Wireless Experts 2. Approval from the City Government 3. Private and Non-Profit Development Organizations 4. State Agency Resources 5. The voice of the people 6. Locations 7. Financial Resources 8. Financial Report of Resource and Equipment Cost The next step is to gather all the possible solution information and analyze the data. Deciding a Course of Action:

In generating a solution, we have learned that there are a variety of resources that have to be looked at in order for a solution to be found. We found that a team of technical professionals (ie: wireless carrier companies, IT organizations, and city electrical development department) is needed for wireless development. The voice of the people; to see what wireless carriers are being used, to survey where they use it more, and where they would like to use the wireless service at. State and city officials are needed to help implement the project by vote of approval. Private and non-profit organizations are needed to fund this project.

Last is to purchase the equipment for wireless capability. Deciding a course of action for the solution means that we need to take a look at what is at the top of the priority list. At the top of the priority list would be to speak with technical professionals, to see if it is possible to supply the wireless without any possible signal problems to disrupt the use of wireless service. Through this we can generate a list of resources that are needed. After speaking with various technical professionals, we see that location is also a factor when it comes to wireless service.

After conducting a grid survey, a decision is made to use local and state parks as areas for project development. Through this detailed reports and charts are made for state and city officials and private and non-profit development organizations to view the results. Next a survey is sent out to the people to see if the technical professionals and grid survey team studies are correct. As the surveys are collected and read, it is determined that the studies are correct and the parks will be accurate locations for project development. With the completion of the surveys from the people, the information is then added to the project report.

In addition to the report, survey charts are created to show the mapped locations for possible WIFI development service. Plus, bar and line charts will show why these locations were chosen, as well as additional charts to show the results of the surveys sent out to the people. Third course of action is to petition to speak with the state and city officials and present the report that can provide the Free WIFI access to the city and its people. By doing this, we can seek approval to start the development and to seek the both private and non-profit development organizations.

These development organizations will help finance the development project and make it a reality. After attending numerous meetings with state and city officials, technical professionals, development organizations, and getting the approvals that is needed to start development. The last course of action is to purchase the equipment that will provide the WIFI service. The WIFI project will only give access in state and local park areas, this type of WIFI access service will be considered Hotspots or Hotzones for the free WIFI access. Implementing the Solution:

Deciding the course of action has shown what the top priorities are and has helped develop the steps to getting started. Next is to implement the solution to make it a reality. A proposal was submitted to address state officials and local city council about the proposed project development. In turn we received a response from these governing offices that we will be heard on the subject of providing the Wi-Fi service to the city. Before we attend the scheduled day, we must overlook the project report and charts, to see that all the information is correct and formal.

By going back and double checking everything will help us be more confident when we sell the idea, plus we will be well prepared to answer any questions that may be addressed. After looking over all the charts and the project report, it was noted that a project schedule timeline and a budget chart was not created. So we decided to send out a research team to determine how much time will be needed to complete the project and at what cost. First a Gantt chart is created to show the activity process, along with the months and year that each activity will be taking place.

We can also have a visual schedule to see what task is in development and at when the deadline should be. Next is to create a budget list (chart). The chart will show the cost for employment of personnel (salaries& contracted personnel), equipment use (purchased or rented), Travel expenses (if any), technology supplies and equipment, and last is to show the projects overhead cost. A budget chart is vital when speaking to government officials and organizations funding the project. The project budget cost can be a factor if we get the funding and/or approval.

Now that project report is completed and all the required information is within the report, we are now ready to present it to the government officials. As the day comes and all the important variables are presented to the council of officials, we wait till they discuss the development project. The development project finally receives the approval, which moves the project to the next part of the implement stage. Checking the Gantt chart, we see that we need to employ a development team. This team needs to consist of IT experts and professionals, project managers, and a team of hands on working professional.

We also need to purchase all the necessary technological (laptops, desktops, software, and communication devices) and development equipment needed to start the project. Next we need to schedule several meeting with the major wireless carriers to introduce to project in development and to try to influence them to be the wireless provider company. In order to choose the right companies to contact, we will schedule a public meeting to speak with NYC residents. By doing this we can see who is the major providers that the public use.

Through several public meetings, we find out that AT&T and Verizon is the two providers that are used to most. So we call and schedule a meeting with the board of directors from both companies. Plus we have to schedule the proper flights to get to the corporate offices for these companies. After several physical and telephone conference meetings, both corporate providers agree to be involved in the development and would immediately put together a team to assist our development team in installing the necessary networks that we need. Through this, a change is made on the Gantt chart to include these companies and their team.

Plus any cost will also include into the budget chart. With all the project resources that is needed for this project have been brought together, the deployment stage of the project needs to be started. Several meetings are set up to introduce all the executives, project management, government officials, and funding organizations. Construction crews and technical personnel need to be hired. Equipment needs to be ordered and purchased before the start of the project. Checking the development location charts, it has been determined that wireless systems need to be placed on high level areas.

So checking city maps and blueprints, we choose city skyscrapers that have the high altitude we need. Checking with the buildings management and owners, we started to implement the wireless system construction. As the project goes through the various stages of the development; we consistently monitor the Gantt chart to make sure that the project is on schedule, continue to check for any potential paradigm shifts that can cause a delay, make sure that there is coordination of all tasks and personnel, and evaluate each completed task along the way.

Experimental test are conducted throughout the development stages, to make sure that all equipment if properly functioning and compatible with our needs. To avoid any possible setbacks, contingency plans are implemented and alternate plans are made. Any changes to the project must always be reported and charted to keep all departments updated and informed. As we can see, this development project has many variables while implementing any solutions. We have to keep on track during the process and evaluate all solutions as they presented.

Evaluate the Solution With the implementation of the project development, we need to consistently evaluate the solution. By doing this we will see: if the solution is logical and solves the real problem, if the solution is (economically, environmentally, politically, and ethnically) responsible and safe, does it meet all the criteria and constraints, is it blunder-free, have we argued the positive and negative sides of the project, and check the procedure and logic of the arguments.

We also have to create an ethics checklist to see if it is legal (will it violate civil law or company policy? ), will it be a win/win situation, will it be fair to all concerned in both the short term and long term, and will I be proud during the development stages and/or conclusion. We also have to remind ourselves about “purpose”. What is the purpose of why we started this project and what is the purpose of seeing this thru till the end? I see this as a motivation tool to make sure that we maintain the excitement of the project.

While we are evaluating the solution, we need to implement a contingency plan for each stage of the development process. This will ensure that there is a back-up plan if we experience a paradigm shift or the project is at a development down fall. After conducting a thorough evaluation of the solution and development process, we come to the conclusion of the project. By taking the steps to seeing the project through from defining the solution to evaluating the

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Science: Tsunami and New York

Dependent Variable: Velocity of wave (wave velocity) Constants: Plastic storage container Piece of wood Height from which the wood is dropped and the way it is held before each time it is dropped Gravel-like substance that creates an uneven bottom—this includes both its physical material and the amount of it that is placed on the bottom of the tank during each treatment Time at which the stopwatch is started after the wooden block is dropped and a wave is created Problem: It is a known fact about tsunamis that if the level of the water is higher, then the velocity of the wave will be greater.

How does an uneven bottom affect the velocity of tsunami waves at different water levels? Hypothesis: I believe that an uneven bottom will still result in the velocity of the wave being greater when the water level is higher. 5 MLA References with Annotations: 1. Michelle, Maranowski, PhD. “The Science Behind Tsunamis: Study the Effect of Water Depth on Wave Velocity. ” Science Buddies. Science Buddies, 2005-2012. Web. 13 Sept 2012. http://www. sciencebuddies. org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/OceanSci_p014. html#background •This electronic source inspired my project idea, and provided me with the materials and procedure that I would need to execute my project. In addition, it helped me understand exactly what the original project would be testing, and also how I could make it my own. 2. “What are Tsunamis? ” CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Radio Canada, 29 Sept 2009. Web. 13 Sept 2012. http://www. cbc. ca/news/world/story/2009/09/29/f-tsunami-forces-of-nature. html •This electronic source provided me with basic tsunami information.

I believe that it is important to have as much information as possible about my topic, so that I am able to get the most out of my project and understand it to the fullest. 3. “Tsunamis. ” National Geographic. National Geographic Society, 1996-2012. Web. 13 Sept 2012. http://environment. nationalgeographic. com/environment/natural-disasters/tsuna mi-profile/ •This electronic source was helpful to me by providing me with even more background information on tsunamis and their effects. In addition, a video on National Geographic allowed me to view a real tsunami in action. 4.

Luhr, James F. Earth. Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. New York, New York: DK Publishing, 2003. Print. (P. 123, 143, 151, 190, 192, 271, 429, 501) •This printed source helped me understand the different things that can cause a tsunami. This includes a variety of submarinal conditions, and-although this is rare- those reasons related to meteors. 5. Cramer, Deborah. Ocean. Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. New York, New York: Collins Publishing, 2008. Print. (P. 62) •This printed source was very helpful, because it showed me a tsunami’s effect on the whole ocean.

This is an important thing to note, because it helps put into perspective how a tsunami is not only devastating once it hits shore, but also before it hits shore and is still a violent wave uncontrollably speeding across the ocean toward the shore, destroying almost everything in its path. Materials: 1. Plastic storage box (at least 40 cm long x 5 cm deep) 2. Source of water 3. Small gravel or pebbles (to be spread over bottom of storage box as representation of an uneven bottom in the ocean) 4. Piece of wood (2 in thick x 4 in wide x 8 in long) 5. Sharpie permanent marker 6. Metric ruler 7. Digital stopwatch . Bright ceiling light (above location of experiment) 9. Hand towel 10. Volunteer to run stopwatch 11. Lab notebook 12. Graph Paper Procedure: 1. Find a well-lit location at which to execute experiment (favorably indoors and free of commotion) 2. Remove any items away from location that could be damaged by potential splashing water from storage box 3. Place storage box on white sheet and under bright ceiling light with no surrounding lights in order to see waves as clearly as possible 4. Cover bottom of storage box with layer(s) of gravel/pebbles as needed until bottom of box cannot be seen 5.

Fill storage box with a few centimeters (cm) of water 6. Draw small line with sharpie on a shorter end of the box’s exterior, approximately 2. 5 cm below rim of box (this marks the spot from where piece of wood will be dropped) 7. Begin practicing making and tracking waves 8. Line up bottom of wood at marked line and drop, immediately thereafter watching for resulting wave traveling from one end of tank to the other 9. Begin executing real experiment once comfortable creating and tracking waves 10. Empty/fill water tank after practice runs until 1 cm of water is left in tank. Use metric ruler for accuracy.

This water depth will be used as the measurement for the first treatment 11. Create appropriate data table in lab notebook 12. Notify volunteer with stopwatch when they should start and stop timing the wave’s path (those times should be as soon as wooden block is dropped and wave is formed, and as soon as wave returns and hits other end of box) 13. Record the time in data table from lab notebook 14. Repeat step 11 nine more times (nine more tests), always waiting for water to settle before dropping wood again from consistent position each test 15. Fill box with water depth 2 cm (confirm with ruler) 16. Repeat steps 11-13 17.

Fill box with water depth of 3 cm (confirm with ruler) 18. Repeat steps 11-13 19. Empty box and repeat steps 9-16 four times so that end result is 5 trials (10 tests per trial) for each of the 3 depths 20. Analyze data for each water depth for each trial across the 10 tests and record data in notebook 21. Average time data across the three trials from the numbers calculated in step 19 22. Measure and record distance between where wave was created (leading edge of mark from where wood was dropped) and other end of box 23. Divide distance by average time it took for wave to move from one end of tank to the other for each water depth.

The answer recorded in notebook will be wave velocity 24. Plot data (x-axis=water depth, y-axis=wave velocity) 25. Answer the following questions: •What is the relationship between the water depth and the wave velocity? •Is it a linear relationship? •Does the wave velocity increase or decrease with increasing water depth even with an uneven bottom? •Does this result make sense to you according to the research that you have done on tsunamis that seems to state that, in general, if the level of the water is higher then the velocity of the wave will be greater? If it does not match, then the conclusion should be that an uneven bottom does affect the velocity of tsunami waves. 26. Equation 1, below, shows the mathematical relationship between the wave velocity in shallow water as a function of water depth. Equation 1 states that velocity is the square root of the product of the acceleration of gravity and the water depth: V = vgd V = Velocity in meters/second (m/s) g = Acceleration of gravity (9. 8 meters/second2) d = Water depth in meters (m) 27. Using equation 1, plot wave velocity as a function of water depth. How does the plot compare to results from the storage box/model-tsunami?

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Urban Farming in New York

Ilona Mukhisnova ENG 1101 10/22/2012 Prof. Alatriste Home Paper #2 – Argumentative Essay Urban Farming for Providing NYC with a Sustainable Food System ?Nowadays, a life in a huge megalopolis like New York can be very advantageous for a person in things like an easy access to business, culture, politics, and entertainment. However, live in the big city can has its own negative sides. Scott Stringer, in the report “Food NYC: A Blueprint for Sustainable Food System” points out serious nutrition and pollution issues in the city.

Indeed, there are a lot of problems that New Yorkers have to face with, but a lack of “affordable and healthy” food is one of things that the City’s residents suffer most from. The report contains ideas and recommendations that New York can adopt to “balance health, economic, and environmental needs. ” According to the report, it could be reached by changing processes of producing and consumption of food such as the use of efficient and energy-saving technologies which may lead to reducing NYC’s GHG emissions.

I think that sustainable food system could be developed by means of promotion of local agriculture and encouraging residents and businesses to consume locally produced food. ?There are a lot of problems that make the developing of local agriculture in the city difficult. One of such problems is the high CO2 production. In his report, Stringer says that “the city has committed to reducing its GHG emissions by 30 percent by the year 2030,” if it sticks to Mayor Bloomberg’s PlaNYC initiative.

However, a lot of people think that it’s really a low percentage of improvements for almost twenty-year period, but I believe that it’s way better than no improving at all, and that there’s some other ways to improve the environmental situation the city. One of the ways to reduce such problems as CO2 emission is to increase the number of parks and gardens in the city. According to Stringer’s report, some people consider gardens as “a transitional use of land, available until the land is ready for urban development. I find this point of view wrong, as these green oases in the middle of the concrete jungles help to keep our city healthier by both “absorb[ing] carbon through photosynthesis” and, thus, preserving the environment and being a place for community activities. Lubie Grujicic-Alatriste, the author of the article “New York City Community Gardens Are in Full Bloom,” says community gardens “bring so much needed relief from urban pollution. I agree with the author’s view that local residents’ help in maintaining community gardens are one of the best examples of people’s efforts to save the green “plots of land,” and this, most importantly, can help decrease the negative impacts of food sector. ?One of the biggest stoppers of developing urban agriculture in New York City is a lack of available for gardening and farming lands. In a built-up city like New York, the demand on land is great.

There are some groups of people such as construction companies who are against securing the City’s land for agriculture purposes. They all need land for developing new projects and getting large profit. I think the City Government should create proper legislation to regulate the City’s land use and protect existing parks and gardens from being replaced with buildings. Also, the land demand keeps the prices on land extremely high, what makes it difficult to do business by growing fruits and vegetables; farms’ profits not always can cover the costs of production.

Danielle Sonnenberg writes in her article “Interest Grows in Urban Farms: City’s Green Movement Has Ear of Wall Street” that “real estate costs are high”, and that the City and community organizations should increase the interest of Wall Street to invest in urban farming. The author points out that agriculture companies like NewSeed Advisors and Gotham Greens find urban farming profitable. Examples of these companies show that projects like hydroponic greenhouse are actually “commercially viable. That makes Wall Street consider urban farming as a good source of investment. All of the above reasons bring us to the point that we should consider new ways of city farming. According to the “Food NYC”, urban agricultural growth may be achieved by considering opportunities of using of “underutilized spaces, such as rooftops, basements, or warehouses. ” In the article “Huge Rooftop Farm is Set for Brooklyn”, which appeared in the New York Times on April 5th, 2012, the author (Lisa W.

Foderato) tells about a new project of “Bright Farms, a private company that develop greenhouses,” the world’s largest rooftop farm in Sunset Park, Brooklyn. The farm is going to work on the hydroponic technology, – “vegetables are [going to be] grown in water rather than soil. ” Rooftop farms are not a novelty for New York: there are already farms in Long Island City, the Greenpoint, etc. Thus, the development of alternative urban farms may encourage city residents to consume locally produced food.

The supporting and developing untraditional type of urban farming will bring affordable fresh produce to the City’s counters. Locally produced food with the use of modern technology can improve the overall health of the City’s population, lower the food’s costs, and reduce negative environmental impact. Securing the land for parks and gardens use can also improve NYC environment. Promoting urban agriculture and encouraging residents to consume locally produced food can help the City Government to provide New Yorkers with sustainable food system.

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Herbert Hoover’s New York City Speech

Document: Herbert Hoover’s “New York City Speech” (1928) 1. What type of document is this? (Ex. Newspaper, telegram, map, letter, memorandum, congressional record) This document must have been excerpt from a record of Hoover’s Speech,”New York City,” in The New Day: Campaign Speeches of Herbert Hoover, 1928. This speech was published in Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1928), pp. 149-76. 2. For what audience was the document written? Herbert Hoover is speaking to the general population of the United States and given in New York. 3.

What do you find interesting or important about this document? The main concept of the speech is the United States has its own unique social/ government system known as liberalism. That liberalism allows us citizens’ freedom, equality, and opportunity. 4. Is there a particular phrase or section that you find particularly meaningful or surprising? Quote, “If anyone will study the causes of retarded recuperation in Europe, he will find much of it due to the stifling of private initiative on one hand, and overloading of the Government with business on the other. This phrase uses the word retarded out of all the other word choices out there. I believe Hoover used “retarded” to relate to the audience and catch their attention. 5. What does this document tell you about life in this culture at the time it was written? This document provides certain aspects of the culture around 1928. War was justified but feared because it could have the potential to destroy America’s system and freedom.