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Food Health & Nutrition Dissertation Topics

1. Introduction to Food Health and Nutrition

This guide gives you some ideas for dissertation titles. Food Health and Nutrition covers many areas, so there should be plenty to whet your appetite here.Dissertations typically take one of two forms, focusing either upon collecting and analyzing primary data or upon appraising secondary data only. Either type can be appropriate to your area of study. You will also find an overview of how to structure your dissertation in section three below.

2. Categories and List of Dissertation Titles

2.1 Food, Nutrition and Public Health

2.1.1 To what extent is legislation around food and nutrition designed to serve the interests of large corporationsA comparison of recent policies in the UK and USA.

2.2.2 What impact have recent advances in nutrigenomics had on public health policies, and what potential does it have to change such policies in the futureA review of literature.

2.1.3 Safe upper limits: have guidelines from the Food Standards Agency produced in 2003 recommending safe limits for a number of vitamins been incorporated into the public awarenessA quantitative study amongst over 50’s UK women.

2.1.4 Food and nutrition: does class count Does the knowledge of the link between obesity and diet vary between socio-economic groupsA qualitative study amongst parents of school children in the UK.

2.1.5 Can the concept of household food security (HFS) offer an adequate tool for investigating attitudes towards nutrition and foodA review of recent literature.

2.1.6Is an interdisciplinary and partnership approach the best way to tackle the growing problem of obesity in the UKA literature review.

2.1.7 Can food policies in school shape parent’s and children’s attitudesA qualitative study in an inner London comprehensive school.

2.1.8‘Good food is too expensive and hard to find’: Do women living in poverty in the inner city find choices about food most limited by education, geographical location, unemployment or lack of fundsAn qualitative study using techniques of action research.

2.2 Global Food Issues

2.2.1 To what extent are emergency food programmes successful in reaching those people most in needA critical analysis of three recent responses to emergency food situations after natural disasters.

2.2.2 Is an integrated global policy on food health and nutrition more possible now than in the twentieth centuryA review of the literature.

2.2.3 What is the impact of inflation upon nutritional health in developing countries A literature review.

2.2.4 To what extent do concepts of health differ from country to countryA quantitative study assessing attitudes towards notions of ‘eating well’, ‘a good diet’ and ‘food that is good for you’.

2.2.5 How effective have zinc supplements been in improving health in developing countriesA ciritcal review of the World Health Organisation’s recent policies, priorities and programmes.

2.2.6 Women: poorly served in healthWhat impact does gender have on nutrient deficiencies worldwide A qualitative study amongst healthcare workers in developing countries.

2.2.7 What impact does foreign direct investment have on problems of nutrition and diet within the developing worldA review of recent literature.

2.2.8 A Mediterranean diet for health: can eating the traditional diet of Mediterranean regions have a positive impact on weightA quantitative study.

2.3 General Food Health and Nutrition

2.3.1 Can a case be made for a vegetarian diet in terms of the long-term sustainability of farming and animal productsA literature review.

2.3.2 To what extent do the elderly suffer poor diet and nutritional deficiencies in UK care homesA review of the literature.

2.3.3Does consumer understanding of sustainability impact upon food choicesA qualitative study amongst buyers in a UK supermarket.

2.3.4 What is the relationship between the obesity epidemic and sustainabilityA systematic review of the literature.

2.3.5 Can educational interventions offer a way to increase biodiversity in foodA quantitative study amongst UK school children.

2.3.6Wild plants and traditional medicine: to what extent do UK residents originally from Eastern Europe use foraged plants medicinally, and is their knowledge dissiminated amongst other UK residentsA qualitative study.

2.3.7Home grown bacon or children’s petWhat prompts decisions to slaughter home-bred pigs, and are these mitigated by the views of children in the familyA qualitative study amongst 10 families who bought pigs to raise and slaughter for meat.

2.3.8 What is the most effective way to develop a sustainable food supply and avoid malnutrition worldwide A qualitative study amongst experts around the world.

2.4 Food, Nutrition and the Consumer

2.4.1 Consumer perceptions of non-Polish users of specialist Polish food retailers in the UK: is there a relationship between previous travel habits and use of Polish food retailersA quantitative study in Crewe, Cheshire.

2.4.2 Eat healthy: which factor is more influential in choice of food products associated with health – colour, labeling or layoutA qualitative study amongst UK consumers using action research techniques.

2.4.3Is there a link between consumer recall of nutritional labeling information and the effective use of such information A quantitative study.

2.4.4 Do people who exercise regularly read food labeling information more frequentlyA qualitative study amongst members of a running club.

2.4.5 Does the perceived attractiveness of other eaters in a restaurant influence customers towards more healthy or lower calorie choices from the menuA quantitative study in three London restaurants.

2.4.6 Nutrigenomics: a new way of personalizing nutrition, or a passing fadA review of recent literature.

2.4.7 Is purchase behaviour regarding functional foods linked to socio-demographics of consumersA quantitative study amongst shoppers in Tesco.

2.4.8 Is there a relationship between willingness to have surgical treatment for obesity and use of food nutrition labels amongst female consumersA quantitative study amongst morbidly obese women in the UK.

2.5 The Science of Food

2.5.1 Is there adequate evidence that soy phytoestrogen supplements sold commercially have a positive impact upon depression and anxiety in humansA systematic review

2.5.2 To what extent do extraction methods impact on the ability of components of Elettaria cardamomum seeds / pods to produce antioxidant and antimicrobial effectsA review of recent literature.

2.5.3 Can taking Selenium reduce the risk of prostate cancer in menA systematic review of literature.

2.5.4 Has the suggested link between eating garlic and reduced risk of cancer been proven, and, if so, by what mechanisms is this reduced risk possibleA literature review.

2.5.5 Can experiments on animals which suggest that endogenous peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) can regulate appetite have implications for the treatment of problems of over-eating in humansA literature review.

2.5.6 Is the evidence that the by-products of coffee decaffeination (crude caffeine) has antioxidant properties sufficient to use it for health benefits, and, if so, what is the most effective way of using itA review of the literature.

2.5.7 Are organically farmed livestock able to offer superior products in terms of biometric and nutritional propertiesA quantitative study comparing meat from organic and non-organic producers.

2.5.8 Another ‘superfood’ Can Maqui Berry extract be used to treat type II diabetes in humansA review of the literature.

3. How to Structure a Food & Health Dissertation, Tips

For details on how to structure a marketing dissertation, kindly check out the following post:

How to Structure a dissertation (chapters)
How to structure a dissertation (chapters and subchapters)
How to structure a dissertation research proposal

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Evaluation of Public Health and Nutrition Programmes


A proposal for a PhD study looking at the evaluation of public health and nutrition programmes within the UK. The number of such programmes has increased since the late 1990’s, and with them have developed strategies for evaluating their success. However, some suggest that evaluation so far has been flawed. This study aims to review evaluation practice through primary and secondary research, and thus contribute to best practice for future evaluation of health programmes.

1. Introduction

Since the 1980’s there has been growing awareness of the impact of diet and other lifestyle factors on public health, however it is only since the 1990’s that the UK government has started to take an active role in promoting health and nutrition programmes (Caraher et al 2009). Since inception, there have been attempts to monitor and evaluate the success or failure of these programmes, however some have suggested (Hills 2004; Caraher et al 2009) that such evaluation has a number of flaws, particularly gaps in coverage and a lack of cohesiveness.

In the light of this, the following study aims to investigate the positive and negative features of the evaluation programmes which have looked at public health and nutrition programmes in the UK.It will combine a literature review investigating previous evaluations of UK-wide and local programmes with a primary phase gathering information from academics involved in evaluation research regarding their views of the advantages and disadvantages of the programmes. The overall aim of this research is to uncover gaps in evaluation procedure and suggest ways in which these might be addressed, in order to improve future practice.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Why public health and nutrition programmesGovernment Initiatives

Public health programmes have been in existence in the UK only since the 1980’s, and were slow to impact on a population more concerned with cheap, long lasting food products. However, as links between diet and health became more apparent, so did the need for the government to take a more active role (Caraher et al 2009)

This more active role started in the early 90’s, with the publication of ‘The Health of the Nation’ (DoH 1992). This report was followed by others including ‘Eat Well’ (Department of Health 1994) and ‘Our Healthier Nation’ (Department of Health 1998). Early attempts were less than successful, however (Caraher et al 2009).

The 1997 Labour Government, started to make public health programmes a central part of policy. Initially there was a focus upon the role played by the individual in making healthy choices, but this was followed by a recognition of the wider picture, the social, economic and environmental factors involved (Crawley 2008), for example the notion of ‘food poverty’ or ‘food inequality’ (Bunton and Macdonald 2002), the idea that financial poverty, poor diet and increased risk of diet-related illnesses are linked (Faculty of Public Health 2004)

Consequently, the later years of the Labour Government saw the publication of a range of public health and nutrition programmes, for example (in England) ‘Food Matters’ (2008) and in Scotland ‘Recipe for Success – Scotland’s National Food and Drink Policy.

2.2. Evaluation of Public Health Programmes – Strategy and Evidence

There are a number of research initiatives concerned with the evaluation of Public Health and Nutrition programmes in the UK. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issue guidelines on assessment of health programmes, and five UK Clinical Research Collaboration Public Health Centres of Excellence work with a range of stakeholders and partners to examine public health issues. In addition the Social and Public Health Sciences Unit based at Glasgow University uncovers evidence in order to support best decisions about public health (NOO [online] 2011). The NHS also support a Public Health Research Programme with a multi-disciplinary and broad approach (NHS 2011).

The new government have also made changes to public health evaluation programmes, with a commitment to “the best evidence and evaluation” (DOH 2011, p. 8) through establishing a new National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), a School for Public Health Research, and a Policy Research Unit on Behaviour and Health (Department of Health 2010). They claim that previous attempts at evaluation have been insufficient, marked by lack of cohesion and lack of ‘localism’ (Department of Health 2010)

2.3 Evaluation of Public Health Programmes Successes and Failures

To what extent are the suggestions by the new government about current evaluation of health programmes supported by research evidenceSome writers do seem to suggest that policies have been poorly evaluated: A study of policies across Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland and England found a lack of cohesion in policy and poor analysis of provision with gaps in existing evaluation (measurement of attitudinal and behavioural change, but far fewer assessments of changes to health).At the same time, evaluation is insufficiently tied in with guidance on future action, particularly on the way the food industry might be involved (Caraher et al 2009). A review by Hills (2004) suggested that while advances have been made in evaluation, there is still a need to improve on methods.

2.4 Research question

Within the UK, therefore, there has been a vast increase in the number of public health and nutrition programmes, from the large-scale and national to the small-scale and local. There also exist a number of projects concerned to evaluate these programs. However, opinions differ regarding the success of this evaluation, with many suggesting improvements could be made. This study therefore seeks to answer the following research question:

How successful have previous evaluation of public health and nutrition programmes been, and how could these evaluations be improved?

3. Methodology

3.1 Research Philosophy / Research Approach

The study takes a positivist approach, assuming that reality is objective and knowable, and that a deductive, scientific methodology is most appropriate (Babbie 2010).The study rejects an interpretivist viewpoint, or the idea that reality is primarily subjective (Knapp and Powers 2005).

3.2 Research Strategy / Data Collection and Analysis

The study will include both primary and secondary data. Secondary data, or information derived from already published sources (Wrenn et al 2006), will be accessed from government information, academic journals and other publications both online and through libraries. Where online databases are used, clear inclusion and exclusion criteria will be drawn up and appropriate keyword searches will be defined. In addition, the study will include a primary phase, to gather information from a number of respondents involved with the process of assessing public health programmes in the UK over the last 10 years. The primary phase will be shaped by information collected in the secondary phase. Questions will be designed to see if respondents agree with earlier findings, and to investigate areas neglected previously. The primary data will include quantitative, numerical data gathered by a questionnaire consisting of rating scales and single or multiple choice questions regarding experience of assessing public health programmes, tools used and other areas. It will also include a semi-structured element in order to assess in more detail respondents thoughts about the successes and failures of the programmes of which they were a part. Data will be analysed to produce descriptive statistics and analysis of significance. Textual data collected through the semi-structured questions will be subject to content analysis (Babbie 2010) by transferring the data and examining it for emerging themes.

3.3 Access / Significance / Ethical Issues

Access will be made by telephone contact with university departments and government organisations. There may be some ethical issues regarding confidentiality, as respondents may fear that any negative views they might hold about evaluation of public health programmes might filter back to their employer and lead to unwanted consequences. It will therefore be necessary to draw up a comprehensive confidentiality agreement in order to persuade participants and institutions to take part.

3.4 Research Limitations

The research is limited to one point in time, shortly after a new government has introduced new guidelines on the evaluation of public health programmes. A fuller evaluation might only be possible at a later point in time, once the new initiatives have been introduced.

4. Conclusion

The above sets out a framework for a research project concerned with the evaluation of public health and nutrition programmes within the UK. The rationale for the research has been discussed, and a literature review section indicates areas of concern. A methodology sets out the means to be employed in the study.

5. Time Chart
ActivityTime Scale
Research Design
Literature Review
Refine Research Objectives
Design Questionnaires
Contact Organisations
Carry out Survey
Data Analysis
Dissertation Draft
Dissertation Final

6. References

Babbie, E R (2010), The Practice of Social Research (12th edn.), Cengage Learning, Belmont, CA.

Bunton, R and Macdonald, G (2002) Health promotion: disciplines, diversity, and developments (2nd edn.) Routledge, UK

Cahill, M and Fitzpatrick, T (2002) Environmental issues and social welfare
Broadening perspectives on social policy (6th edn.), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxon

Caraher, M, Crawley, H and Lloyd, S (2009) ‘Nutrition Policies across the UK 2009’,

Caroline Walker Trust, Herts

Crawley, H (2008) ‘Public Health Nutrition: challenges for the 21st Century’,The Caroline Walker Trust, Herts.

Department of Health (1992) ‘Health of the Nation: A Strategy for Health in England’, HMSO, London

Department of Health (1994) ‘Eat Well! An Action Plan from the Nutrition Task Force to Achieve the Health of the Nation Targets on Diet and Nutrition’, HMSO, London

Department of Health (1998) ‘Our Healthier Nation: A Contract for Health. A Consultation Paper’, HMSO, London

Department of Health (2008) ‘Food Matters’, HMSO, London

Department of Health (2010) ‘Healthy lives, healthy people: our strategy for public health in England’, HMSO, London

The Faculty of Public Health of the Royal College of Physicians of the United Kingdom (2004) ‘Food Poverty and Health’, FPH, UK

Hills, D (2004) ‘Evaluation of community-level interventions for health improvement:

a review of experience in the UK’, Tavistock Institute / NHS Health Development Agency, UK.

Knapp, T R and Powers, B A (2005) Dictionary of Nursing Theory and Research, Springer, NY

National Obesity Observatory (2011) ‘Evaluation Websites’ [online] (cited 11th July 2011), available from National Obesity Observatory 2011 online

NHS (2011) ‘Research to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities in health’, [online] (cited 10th July 2011), available from

Wrenn, B, Stevens, R E and Loudon, L (2006) Marketing research: text and cases (2nd Edn), Routledge, UK

Free Essays

Evaluation and Comparison of School-based Nutrition Programmes in the UK, Saudi Arabia and South-east Asia (Singapore and Malaysia)


This work presents a proposal for suggested research looking at the evaluation and comparison of school-based nutrition programmes in the UK, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and Malaysia. The proposal presents the research question, the aims and objectives, a short background literature review, a suggested methodology and a discussion of the expected outcomes and timetable for the proposed research.

Research question

What are the health problems facing schoolchildren in the UK, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and Malaysia and what impact can school-based nutrition programmes have on these health problems?

Research aims and objectives

The main aims and objectives of the suggested research are to:

-determine what the health problems are that face schoolchildren in the UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Singapore

-understand what school-based nutrition programmes have been implemented to overcome these health problems

-explore the effectiveness of school-based nutrition programmes in addressing the identified health problems

Literature review

As suggested by Abou-Zeid et al. (2006), many children living in certain areas of Saudi Arabia are malnourished and suffer from conditions such as anaemia, which affects their academic performance at school. Research conducted by Al-Mekhlafi et al. (2008) notes that, in certain areas of Malaysia, there are high levels of protein-energy malnutrition in schoolchildren, with this being a public health concern as this type of malnutrition is related to impaired cognitive functioning and lowered educational performance. In other, more affluent, areas of Saudi Arabia, there are high levels of incidence of overweight and obesity in school-aged children, with this negatively impacting their overall health (Al-Almale, 2005). Research shows that there are, similarly, high levels of overweight and obesity in the UK, with certain ethnic groups, such as Black African children, having higher levels of obesity, and these higher levels of obesity being linked to lower socioeconomic status (Karlsen et al., 2013). As Toh et al. (2002) suggest, there are also high levels of obesity in Singapore, amongst certain socioeconomic groups, with this obesity negatively affecting children’s health.

As Bundy et al. (2006) note, school-based nutrition programmes are useful in terms of improving the health of schoolchildren affected by poor nutritional intake, with these programmes being ubiquitous in many different countries, both low and high income countries. The main aims of such programmes are to improve the nutritional intake of schoolchildren in order to improve their overall health and cognitive functioning to be able to improve their overall academic performance (Bundy et al., 2006). Such programs have been successful in encouraging a greater intake of fruit and vegetables in fast food-addicted children and, as a result, in decreasing the incidence of overweight and obesity (Howerton et al., 2007). As Oldroyd et al. (2008) suggest, the effectiveness of nutritional interventions differs according to socioeconomic status with children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds being more likely to drop out of such programmes and being less likely, therefore, to see the benefits of such programmes.

Suggested methodology

It is suggested that a quantitative survey is developed that would be administered to various public health officials in the UK, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Singapore. This survey would be administered with a view to collecting data, which would allow the main aims and objectives of the suggested research to be explored.

Expected outcomes

The main expected outcomes would be the development of the thesis, via the exploration of the research question and the aims and objectives of the research. It is expected that several research articles would also be developed and that conference talks would be given.

Suggested timetable

The research would take place over a period of three years; the first six months would be used to prepare the literature review, with the next year being used to collect the survey data. The following six months would be used for data analysis and the remaining six month period would be used to write up the findings and to complete the written thesis.


Abou-Zeid, A-H. et al. (2006). Anaemia and nutritional status of schoolchildren living at Saudi Arabian high altitude areas. Saudi Medical Journal 27(6), pp. 862-869.

Al-Almale, S.M. (2005). Prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudi adolescents in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal 26(4), pp. 607-611.

Al-Mekhlafi, M.S. et al. (2008). Current prevalence and predictors of protein-energy malnutrition amongst schoolchildren in rural Peninsular Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 39(5), pp. 922-931.

Bundy, D. et al. (2006). School-based health and nutrition programmes, in Jamison et al. (eds.), Disease control priorities in developing countries. World Bank.

Howerton, M.W. et al. (2007). School-based nutrition programs produced a moderate increase in fruit and vegetable consumption: meta and pooling analyses from seven studies. Journal of Nutritional Education and Behaviour 39(4), pp. 186-196.

Karlsen, S. et al. (2013). Ethnic variations in overweight and obesity among children over time: findings from analyses of Health Surveys for England 1998-2009. Pediatric Obesity doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00159.x

Oldroyd, J. et al. (2008). The effectiveness of nutrition interventions on dietary outcomes by relative social disadvantage: a systematic review. Journal of Epidemiological and Community Health 62, pp. 573-579.

Toh, C-M. et al. (2002). School based intervention has reduced obesity in Singapore. BMJ 324, pp. 447-462.

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Nutrition and Dietetics Proposal-Discussion/Conclusion


The main aim of this project was to assess the relationship of CVD risk factors and diet in Cuban Americans. More specifically, this project was aimed to see the association of omega 3 fatty acid with CVD biomarkers, homocysteine and CRP in Cuban Americans with and without type 2 diabetes. These aims were targeted with the views to providing information on cardiovascular disease risk factors and its association with diet and type 2 diabetes.The results suggested positive association between omega 3 fatty acid andhomocysteine quartiles, suggesting the significant role of omega 3 fatty acids in the regulation of homocysteine level. However, the association of omega 3 fatty acid was not found with CRP levels, which suggested the very little or no role of omega 3 fatty acid in lowering the level of CRP. Moreover, diabetic status was not found to be associated with either homocysteine quartiles or CRP levels. This finding concluded that homocysteine and CRP may not be involved in regulating the blood circulating blood sugar.

The result of the statistical t-test showed that waist circumference was directly associated with diabetes, which indicated obesity as a major indicator of diabetes. This finding supported several other previous findings that studied the association between obesity and type 2 diabetes (Daousi, 2006 and Yajnik and Ganpule, 2010).

Interestingly, another CVD risk factor, total blood cholesterol was found to be significantly higher in non-diabetics. However, whether HDL or LDL was higher non-diabetics was not measured, making it difficult to draw any conclusion from this finding. Other factors, such as BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, were not found to be associated with diabetes. These results seemed slightly contradictory as previous studies have found the correlation between these parameters and diabetes (Bays, 2007 and Mancia, 2005)., Interestingly, linkage was found between diabetes and glycosylate haemoglobin and omega 3 fatty acids, which suggested the implication of thee tow factor in diabetes risk. These findings corroborate with similar other findings. Edelman, (2013) reported that high level of HbA1c was associated with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. Similarly, another study by Virtanen, (2013) suggested that intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid was associated with long-term lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

Furthermore, the results showed no association between CRP and diabetes, which contradicted the inflammatory pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (Muqabo and Renier, 2010). Another important finding was that diabetic status was directly associated with the distribution of homocysteine quartiles, which supported the previous findings by Ndrepepa, (2008) and Badiou, (2012) as explained earlier.

Relationship between omega 3 fatty acid and homocysteine

This study showed positive association between omega 3 fatty acid and homocysteine level, suggesting the role of omega 3 fatty acids in regulating the level of homocysteine in the body. As discussed earlier, homocysteine is an important biomarker of CVD and control of which may reduce the risk of CVD. These findings support previous finding by Kulkarni, (2011) who studied the association of omega 3 fatty acid with homocysteine concentrations. In the study they found that altered omega 3 fatty acids (mainly docosahexaenoic acid) may lead to increased homocysteine concentration. However, majority of studies have focused on the association between omega 3 fatty acids and other CVD markers such as LDL, blood sugar and clotting factors (Yeh, 2009; Etherton, 2002). Thus, further long term studies should be done to unravel the possible association between omega 3 fatty acid and homocysteine.


Despite some interesting findings, the study had few limitations. The association of omega 3 fatty acids with homocysteine and CRP was only studied in diabetics and non-diabetics. The study would have given much clearer conclusion if the implication of omega 3 fatty acids and its biomarkers was also investigated in CVD patients. Moreover, although the study found the correlation between cholesterol and diabetes, it did not assess whether HDL or LDL had greater implication in diabetics.

Clinical implications of the findings and future research

Diabetes and CVD disease are two chronic conditions that are the major killers among all the diseases. Preventive measures and early diagnosis remains the key for proper management of the disease. This study suggests the beneficial role of omega 3 fatty acids in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. More so, the study also showed the association of omega 3 fatty acids with CVD markers such as homocysteine, cholesterol, as well as diabetes marker such as HbA1c. Thus, people who are at risk of developing CVD and diabetes can be encouraged to intake diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids. But , the association of omega 3 fatty acid with inflammatory maker, CRP remained inconclusive. Also, whether increased homocysteine in diabetics was associated with CVD was beyond the scope of this project and demands further studies. Future studied should be done to see the effects of omega 3 fatty acids in altering homocysteine level and CRP in CVD patients.


Bays, H.E., Chapman, R.H., Grandy, S. & SHIELD Investigators’ Group 2007, “The relationship of body mass index to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia: comparison of data from two national surveys”, International journal of clinical practice, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 737-747.

Daousi, C., Casson, I.F., Gill, G.V., MacFarlane, I.A., Wilding, J.P. & Pinkney, J.H. 2006, “Prevalence of obesity in type 2 diabetes in secondary care: association with cardiovascular risk factors”, Postgraduate medical journal, vol. 82, no. 966, pp. 280-284.

Edelman, D., Olsen, M.K., Dudley, T.K., Harris, A.C. &Oddone, E.Z. 2004, “Utility of hemoglobin A1c in predicting diabetes risk”, Journal of general internal medicine, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1175-1180.

Etherton, P.M.K., Harris, W.S andAppel, L.J, 2002. AHA Scientific Statement. “Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease”, vol. 106, pp. 2747-2757.

Kulkarni, A., Mehendale, S., Pisal, H., Kilari, A., Dangat, K., Salunkhe, S., Taralekar, V. & Joshi, S. 2011, “Association of omega-3 fatty acids and homocysteine concentrations in pre-eclampsia”, Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 60-64.

Mancia, G. 2005, “The association of hypertension and diabetes: prevalence, cardiovascular risk and protection by blood pressure reduction”, ActaDiabetologica, vol. 42 Suppl 1, pp. S17-25.

Mugabo, Y., Li, L. &Renier, G. 2010, “The connection between C-reactive protein (CRP) and diabetic vasculopathy. Focus on preclinical findings”, Current diabetes reviews, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27-34.

Virtanen, J.K., Mursu, J., Voutilainen, S., Uusitupa, M. &Tuomainen, T.P. 2013, “Serum Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study”, Diabetes care.

Yajnik, C.S. &Ganpule-Rao, A.V. 2010, “The obesity-diabetes association: what is different in indians?”, The international journal of lower extremity wounds, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 113-115.

Yeh, E, Wood, R.D, Leeson, S and Squires, E.J, 2009.British poultry science. “Effect of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on clotting activities of Factor V, VII and X in fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome-susceptible laying hens”, vol. 50, no.3, pp. 582-392.

Free Essays

Nutritional paper

a. How did your recorded protein intake compare with the recommendation of the CNPP?

Well, if my protein intake would be compared to the Nutritional recommendation of CNPP, I am not only doing well, I was able to surpass the requirement. In fact my total protein intake is around three times than the required amount. By having such a high protein diet results to a healthy living because of the following reasons: Protein aids in the proper maintenance of body tissues, Protein composes a large part of our body’s muscles, system organs, enzymes and hormones; without which one’s body can never function properly.

Without significant amount of protein in our body, we can never live because proteins are one of the primary building blocks, specifically hemoglobin, which helps to bring oxygen throughout the body. The body’s enzymes are also composed of Protein, which also composes antibodies to help our body fight against diseases and viruses. Also the body needs a lot of protein to develop well. Without protein the skin will rapture easily because it lacks Elastin, the specific macromolecule that gives elasticity to the skin.

b. If your recorded protein intake was too high or too low, which foods might you change to achieve your goal and keep other nutrients in balance?

Protein can basically be found in fish, meat, poultry, pork, lamb, shellfish, milk, cheeses, eggs, beans, tofu and many more. So basically if I lessen my food intake when it comes to the different kinds of food mentioned above, I can normalize my protein intake. Why normalize my protein intake, considering I mentioned a lot of benefits earlier in this paper? Every time I eat too much protein packed food, I am at risk of having high cholesterol, not only that but it also gives way to kidney complications. Considering that Protein filled foods have cholesterol, it also heightens the risk of having heart attack.

c. Which foods in your recorded daily intake provide protein?

As mentioned above, fish, meat, poultry, pork, lamb, shellfish, milk, cheeses, eggs, beans, tofu and nuts are examples of food that I eat that provides me with more than enough protein for my daily diet.

d. Is the protein in each of these foods complete, or are they incomplete, thus combining to become complementary?

Considering the fact that at the end of the day, I was able to eat tree times the recommended protein intake, I can definitely say that the protein in the food that I eat on a daily basis is complete. Not only that, but the food that I eat with protein has other food groups such as carbohydrates, and fats, hand in hand with vitamins and minerals that is good for my everyday diet.

e. How much of your daily recommended protein intake did you achieve? Were you surprised by that number? If your protein is not where it needs to be, what can you do to bring it into the recommended range? Be specific.

I was able to achieve 165gm (294.64 %) protein intake considering that the normal protein intake is 56gm (100%). I am surprised considering that I ate more than enough protein filled foods that what was recommended. Needless to say, I don’t need to increase my protein consumption but instead lessen it.

f. Why is your protein intake within a recommended range important? What are the effects of too much protein? What happens if you consistently eat too little protein?

If I eat less than what was recommended amount as I was explained above will hinder my body’s metabolism, weaken my muscle structure, weaken my immunity and decrease the amount of oxygen that flows through my blood. Another bad effect of too little protein intake would result to the slow rapture of the skin, and also my internal organs.

g. Did your fiber total meet 100 percent of the recommendation for you as calculated by the CNPP website?

I was only able to achieve a total of 71.79 percent of the goal when it comes to fiber intake. Since I barely passed my fruit and vegetable consumption requirement I was not able to take in enough fiber in accordance to the daily recommendation; considering that vegetables and fruits are the food groups which are considered fiber rich.

Similar: Nutrition

h. Did you think your intake was too high, too low, or just right? Why do you think so?

Fiber rich foods are important because they aid in proper digestion, plus they don’t have any bad effect in our body. So therefore it is not a question of having too much fiber but instead having too little fiber intake. Considering I was only able to reach 71.79 % of the recommended fiber intake, I think it is low and should be improved so that I can at least aid my body in the digestion of everything else I eat.

i. Did your diet meet the minimum number of servings of foods from each fiber-containing group?

Considering I ate enough vegetables and fruits to fulfill the daily requirement, I think I was able to eat enough fiber-containing food. The only problem is that I was not able to eat fiber-rich food.

j. If you did not meet your minimum fiber requirement, which fiber-containing groups (fruits and vegetables) fell short of the recommended intake?

Fruits can be considered the cause since I was only able to eat enough fruits to meet the requirement. Plus, not all fruits are as fiber rich as pineapples.

k. Which specific foods provided the most fiber in your day’s meals? Which provided the least? Identify trends in your food choices that would affect your fiber intakes.

Fruits and a various vegetables provided me with the fiber I needed. Grain has a small chance of having fiber but it still has some. But meat and milk has no fiber at all considering that they complete most of my diet would be the cause for my lack of fiber.

l. What alterations might you make among your vegetables, fruit, meat and alternatives, or grain choices to increase the fiber in your meals?

Possible alterations on my meals would be as follows: Eating oats, brown rice, mountain rice and unpolished rice instead of the normal type of grains; eating high fiber fruits such as Pineapples, Blackberries and Blueberries; eating meat that contains less fats so that my body wont need that much fiber to clean it out of my system; and eating a lot more vegetables, specifically the green type of vegetables.

m. What contributions do meats and milk products make to the day’s fiber total? What advice about fiber would you give to someone who emphasizes meat and milk products at each meal? How would you tell him or her to change his or her diet? What foods would you tell him or her to include in his or her diet?

Meats and Milk does not contain any fiber what so ever. Basically, if one prefers to eat an all meat and milk diet, one will not receive a single ounce of fiber in what they will be eating. Therefore I would suggest that the person increase their fiber consumption by eating unpolished rice, oats, fruits and vegetables.

n. Did your meals include fiber-rich bean dishes such as chili, beans in a salad, or split pea soup? Anyone interested in obtaining fiber should find ways to eat some legumes each day.

Unfortunately my diet does not contain much of all the beans included above, but knowing perfectly that I have to eat legumes such as beans I will decide to include it much more often than I already do.

o. If you chose to drink fruit juice instead of to eat whole fruit, what would happen to the fiber content of your diet? If you chose to drink purchased fruit juice instead of to eat whole fruit, what would happen to the calorie content of your diet?

There are some pros and cons when it comes to drinking fruit juice versus eating whole fruit. First of all, whole fruits contain more fiber than any juice drink can possibly have. On the other hand, fruit juices have fixed amounts of calories, vitamins, and carbohydrates such as fiber, therefore it is much easier to control ones intake of calories than simply estimating it when I eat whole fruits; since fruits are not all have the same sizes and nutritional content.

J. Anderson, S. Perryman and L. Young

Anderson, J., Perryman, S., and Young, L. Dietary Fiber. December 7, 2007 from

North Western Nutrition. Nutritio Fact Sheet: Protein. December 7, 2007 from

Fuchs CS, Giovannucci EL, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:169-76.

Free Essays

Training and Workouts

Erick Johnson is an endurance athlete who trains for the 3,000 metre race.  His training schedule involves steady pace runs, anaerobic threshold training, cruise intervals, pace surge training and repetition training.  Interval training and speed endurance also form part of his weekly workouts (Rogers, 2000).  The steady pace runs are aimed at increasing running efficiency, developing the cardiovascular system and improving the process of capillarization.

For him to be able to tolerate and buffer the rise in lactic acid during running, Erick performs anaerobic threshold training.  Repetition training aims at  developing the pace consciousness of the athlete while pace-surging training involves alternating steady-pace runs with surges r bursts off speed running.  This helps him to be able to adjust to the shifts in the pace during a competition. All these components of his training are also aimed at increasing his endurance by lowering the rate at which lactate acid builds up and enhancing oxygen transportation. The exercises have the effect of increasing his metabolism to higher levels than that of the average human being.

A weekly work out for Erick would be as follows, on a Monday he performs 20 minutes of aerobic threshold training run, followed by build ups and a period of cool-down.  On Tuesday he does an easy run of the 3000 metre race.  On Wednesday he does negative split runs four times, after which he does build-ups.  When doing the negative split run, he starts with five minutes warm up that involves walking briskly and jogging lightly.

He then  runs at a moderate pace for ten minutes and increase his pace over the next ten minutes then he cools down for five minutes.  (  On Thursdays he does five repetitions of the actual race pace but that have been broken down to 900metre races.  Erick does the easy run and practices accelerations which means he is practising to increase his speed on Fridays.  On Saturdays he does his best average speed for the race in 1000metre intervals then on Sundays he does a long run.

His training schedule sometimes changes by the week especially if a competition is close but with basically the same activities though at different frequencies and intervals.

Daily Diet


2 slices whole wheat toast

Grape fruit

1 poached egg

1 tsp butter or vegetable margarine or honey


1 cup clear vegetable soup sprinkled with fresh herbs

Brown rice

1 cup beans

Green salad in season


2 slices meat steaks with vegetable

Crisp bread

25g cottage cheese with fresh herbs

75g fresh fruit salad


1 cup apple juice, canned

½ cup raw black berries

1 piece fruit cake

3 fig bar cookies

Crackles regular wheat                                               (USDA, 2005)

The B complex vitamins are important for an endurance athlete especially because they have increased needs for vitamins due to the higher metabolism rates that are above the normal population.  The B complex vitamins are also involved in formation of red blood cells.  If deficient, red blood cells formation is compromised leading to fewer or poorly formed red blood cells resulting in decreased capacity for oxygen transportation which would compromise the endurance of the athlete (Moore, 2004)

Deficiencies of the B complex vitamin may result in decreased capacity for endurance.  Vitamin B6 takes part in different processes of metabolism involving proteins and glycogen.  A high protein diet will thus result in increased need for vitamin B6.  Vitamin B12 is necessary for the formation of red blood cells and is also important to ensure their normal functioning.  Folic acid is also a requirement for red blood cell formation and metabolism of amino acids (Moore, 2004).


Rogers J, 2000 USA Track and Field Coaching Manual, Human Kinetics, ISBN 0880116048

Moore J, 2004 Vitamins, USMS retrieved from

USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20


Free Essays

Nutritional Value of Menu Items At a Local Fast-Food Restaurant

In my pursuit to investigating the balancing the qualities of healthy choices of fast food restaurants were a challenging venture. During a recent visit to McDonalds, I ordered a healthy menu and then selected a very unhealthy menu. My choices included for the healthy choice a rice shrimp burger, side salad, vanilla reduced fat ice cream cone, and Dasani water.  In my selection of an unhealthy selection I chose a Big Mac, large fries, Mcfurry with Oreo cookies, and a large coca-cola drink. The assessment of my analysis provided an interesting result to the pursuit of a nutritional value meal.

In my selection of my healthy selection, I discovered that McDonalds provided an easier approach to being able to select a more nutritional food selection compared to other fast food restaurants (McDonalds, 2008). The healthy selection calorie intake was less than 500 which on a world platform is a great attribute for McDonalds to develop and incorporate an excellent healthy meal. The healthy selection was tasty and fulfilling that was surprising for a fast food restaurant. However, the ingredients were not sacrificed in order to make the healthy food selection with low calories which was a good marketing decision at McDonalds.

The unhealthy selection posed a greater challenge due to the higher calorie but the taste was slightly more fulfilling with a huge guilt after taste due to the 1,000 calorie meal. The difference was the feeling of self indulgence to an extreme that was both satisfying and somewhat uncomfortable. However, those feelings did not prevent the challenging temptation to stop eating the unhealthy menu selection.

In the future, the fast food restaurants could create a marketing angle that ignites a strong sense of identification and acceptance depending on the social environment. For instance, on the healthy choice a marketing plan that provides an emphasis on a surprising taste of trying something new, rather than the ordinary. The imagery of the marketing ad or commercial should present a creative and alluring concept in order to entice the viewer to indulge in a new experience by making a more nutritional choice.

In regards, to the marketing angle for the unhealthy selection the marketing angle can focus showcasing a back drop of self-indulgency that goes along with the sensation eating the item. In doing so, the viewer can relate the two and make a concise choice to select the unhealthy item over the healthy one. The key is the effective translation of marketing the extreme in either selection that relates to the selection – that encourages participating in enjoying the menu item.


McDonalds Inc. (2008) Official International Website. Retrieved from





Free Essays


When paying close attention to my diet, it becomes obvious very quickly that I do not get enough calcium in my diet. I am slightly low in other area, such as my Vitamin A and iron, but I am drastically low in my intake of calcium. The problem is that I truly don’t like milk. I will drink chocolate milk on occasion and will eat some milk-based products including ice cream, yogurt and cheeses, but I do not eat enough of these to get my recommended daily allowance of calcium.

My intake of fruits is just about right, though it can be a bit on the high side when I choose to drink juice instead of eating whole fruits. I prefer fruit juice as a method of consuming fruits largely because it is simple and quick. Grabbing a glass of juice on the way out of the house in the morning is my favorite form of breakfast. The problem is that most juices also come with more sugar and calories than the raw firm fruit. I have decided to substitute fresh fruit for my fruit juice as a way to minimize my calorie intact and increase my fiber intake.

My fiber content is generally pretty good because I prefer whole grains to white grains, white rice and potatoes. Some days by intake of grains is low because I choose to eat more salads and vegetables, but on other days it can be within the normal range. On average, it is a little on the low side, but not so bad that I think I need to change it. I consume plenty of lean protein, mostly in the form of chicken, so I have not had any problems with my cholesterol or overall far intake.

However, because I consume red meat rarely and do not eat enough dark green vegetables, the amount of iron I consume on a regular basis is not sufficient. I am not willing to eat liver or many other high iron foods, so I had to go searching for new options for iron intake. What I discovered were baby spinach and broccoli. I will eat baby spinach as part of a salad and broccoli is one of the few vegetables that I truly enjoy. I was happy to discover that broccoli is also high in Vitamin A, another nutrient that I did not have enough of in my diet analysis.

I was happy to discover that I probably don’t need the multi-vitamin I have been taking except for the iron supplement. I might need the Vitamin A as well, but otherwise, I seem to be meeting my basic health needs for minerals and vitamins.  I think it is very important to change my iron and Vitamin A intake as both are imperative for blood health and I have recently been told that I might be borderline anemic.

Since I have previously had to take iron pills and found them disgusting and nauseating, I have decided it is important to add iron to my diet in a natural manner. I have changed my lunch menu to include baby spinach salads and added broccoli to several meals per week. I have also decided to add additional red meat to my diet until my iron levels are acceptable. Vitamin A is also an antioxidant, helping to cleanse the body from cancer-causing chemicals and other contaminents. This is another advantage of adding more broccoli to my diet. Broccoli is also very high in Vitamin A which is an added bonus.

These changes have worked fairly well so far and I have not noticed any real difference in my energy levels, but the doctor did say that returning my iron levels to normal would take some time.  What I have noticed is that I am enjoying my meals more. They take slightly longer to prepared, but instead of thrown together meals on the run, I am actually thinking about what I eat and when. Knowing that I am eating healthier makes me feel better about myself, regardless of whether it effects my overall energy level. In addition, I believe it means that I will eventually see the results on the scale and I know that I will see it in my next blood tests.

Now that I have made these changes, my next goals are to eliminate more of the processed food from my diet, substitute whole fruits for juice, and try portion control. Generally, I have not under consumed anything except vegetables and milk and have regularly over consumes fruits, grains and even proteins, depending on the day. Some days I would have too much of one, some days another.

My plan is to actually cook more of my food myself, instead of relying on drive-thrus or grab-n-go food options. By choosing fewer canned foods and more fresh fruits and vegetables, I will cut my intake of unneeded fats and sodium and retain more of the natural vitamins in the foods I eat.

I have also decided that I will replace my fruit juice with whole fruit, even though fruit takes a bit more effort. Again, I will be losing unnecessary additives and retaining more of the natural nutrients of my food.  To supplement this process, I will begin actually eating breakfast rather than drinking soda or juice as my morning meal. My initial intention is to use yogurt and cheese as staples of this meal to both increase my calcium intake and to provide a good protein base for the morning meal.

The third major change I intend to make in my diet is in the form of portion control. I will be subdividing large packages when I buy them as a way to keep from overeating various treats and will be measuring my grains and proteins so that I can be assured that I am eating a healthy amount of these things, not several servings at one time. I believe this will be especially useful with snack foods and cereal which are easy to not measure and eat too much of.

I believe that taking these actions will ultimately lead to wait loss as I teach my body to eat the proper amounts of nutrients and the proper amount of calories, rather than letting my appetite determine what I consume. I have also begun to shop healthier, forgoing potato chips and cookies in favor of carrots and walnuts as quick snacks. I have found that within just a week of making these changes, my desire for sugary and fatty snacks began to fade and I actually wanted to eat vegetables.

The one thing that has been hard to resist has been ranch dressing for dipping the carrot sticks in, but I have begun to appreciate the inherent sweetness of carrots and find myself reaching for them when I want something sweet.  They also have a satisfying crunch that I formerly got from potato and corn chips.

In short, I believe my diet was not particularly bad, but it had room for tweaking and improving. Now, I know that I am getting my recommended daily nutrients without having to take a vitamin supplement and I am enjoying my food more. Previously, I had grabbed food in front of the television or while walking out the door and often did not pay attention to what I was consuming. Now, I am confident that I eat when I am hungry and I am teaching my body to appreciate more than just corn chips and soda.

Free Essays

Nutrition topic

This is one of the vitamins that form food supplement for man: others are Vitamin B1 [thiamin], Vitamin B2 [riboflavin], vitamin B3 [niacin], vitaminB5 [pantothenic acid], folic acid and vitamin B6 [pyridoxine]. These are important supplements that are required for the maintenance of metabolism in the organisms; they act as coenzymes and cofactors in various anabolic and catabolic reactions essential for the survival of cells, and the organism [1.4].

Of peculiar interest for this article is Vitamin B12. The reason for choice of this, among other things is because of the devastating medical cases including neural tube defects, irreversible Vitamin B12 neuropathy that may arise as a result of deficiency. It would be considered under the following headings: source, metabolism [structure, absorption, transport, biochemical function] and deficiency.


The vitamin is only available in animal sources. It is synthesized by microbes; animals acquire it by eating other animal foods, by internal production from intestinal bacterial flora. Its sources include food of animal origin, such as meat, fish, dairy products, liver. It does not occur in plant sources: cereals, fruits or vegetables [1].


STRUCTURE [1]: There are a variety of forms in which Vitamin B12 exists: as methylcobalamin in human plasma, as deoxyadenosylcobalamin in human tissue, as hydroxocobalamin for treatment, and cyanocobalamin in study of Vitamin B12 activity. All have the same basic structure: cobalt is at the centre of a corrin ring which is attached to a nucleotide.

ABSORPTION: A normal diet contains a large excess of vitamin B12 compared with daily needs. B12 is combined with the parietal cell-produced glycoprotein, intrinsic factor. The IF-B12 complex binds to a specific receptor in the distal ileum called Cubilin. Vitamin B12 is absorbed here at the distal ileum.

TRANSPORT: Vitamin B12 is absorbed into portal blood through the circulation from the intestine to the liver via the portal vein. Here it becomes attached to the plasma-binding protein transcobalamin II [TCII] which delivers B12 to the bone marrow and other tissues, where it is utilized for biosynthetic functions [4].

BIOCHEMICAL FUNCTION: Vitamin B12 is a coenzyme for two biochemical reactions in the body. First, it acts in the form of methylcobalamin as a cofactor for methionone synthase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine; methyl tetrahydrofolate

is used as methyl donor during the reaction. Second, it acts as deoxyadenosylB12 where it acts as cofactor for the conversion of methylmalonyl conenzyme A to succinyl coA [4].


CAUSES: In this part of the world, perincious anemia is the commonest cause of Vitamin B12 deficiency [3]. In this condition, autoimmune reactions on the gastric mucosa cause production of antibodies against parietal cell products, intrinsic factor and its receptors; females are more affected and it is usually associated with other autoimmune conditions such as vitiligo, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis, etc. Other causes include malabsorption secondary to gastrectomy, congenital abnormailtiy of the IF, chronic tropical sprue, Crohn’s disease, intestinal stagnant loop syndrome such as stricture [4].

EFFECTS: Vitamin B12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anaemia [2]; it features include signs and symptoms of anaemis such as anorexia, easy fatiguability, pallor of skin and mucous membrane and malaise. Others are glossitis, angular stomatitis, purpura and lemon-tint jaundice.

Severe Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause a progressive neuropathy affecting the peripheral sensory nerves and dorsolateral columns of the spinal cord [4]. The neuropathy is usually symmetrical and affects the lower limbs than the upper limbs. These changes are irreversible. The cause of this is usually accumulation of s-adenosyl homocysteine in nervous tissue. In a pregnant woman, the fetus is predisposed to neural tube defects [4].

LABORATORY FINDINDS: Blood file shows macrocytosis; the mean corpuscularf volume > 95fL. The macrocytes are oval. There are hypersegmented neutrophils, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia [1].

TREATMENT: Diagnosis is confirmed by absorption tests including schilling test. treatment is by taking Vitamin B12 preparations [1].


Vitamin B12. 

Chanarin I. [1970] The Megaloblastic anaemias. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Toh B-H, Van Driel I.R and Gleeson P.A. [1997] Pernicious Anaemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 337: 1441-8.
Mehta A.B.  and Hoffbrand A.V. Haematology at a Glance. 2000.

Free Essays

Nutrition paper

How do you feel about the dietary intake for the day you recorded?

A feeling of both happiness and sadness flows within me as I study my dietary intake for the day. When we study my vegetable intake, I was able to take in a substantial amount; but barely enough to meet the required food intake. Happily I was able to take in more than enough fruits and milk to meet the expected requirement. When it came to my Meat, Beans and Grain intake, I was overwhelmed to see that I was able to take in more than double of what was expected. Also when it came to the fat intake, I was able to take in more than enough but still in the norms. Basically when we look at the over all food intake that I had, I was able to eat more than the daily requirement for almost all the food groups in the pyramid; which makes me happy. I was happy because I know that I have met most of the daily requirements.

Similar: Chemical components in domestic activities

Did you consume the recommended minimum number of servings from each of the food groups of the food pyramid?

Unfortunately, when it came to my vegetable consumption, I was only able to eat 75% of the required amount. Meaning I lack 25% of the vitamins and minerals that I could have acquired from various vegetables that I should have consumed on that day. Happily I was able to eat more than the required amount when it comes to meat, beans, grains, fruits and milk for the day. Which means I am compensated for what I lack in vegetable consumption; at least I’d love to think I am.

c. Which groups of foods are underrepresented or overrepresented in your diet? If you did not consume the number of servings from each group, discuss some reasons why you did not consume the number of servings.

As was mentioned earlier, I lack vegetables in my food intake. And I barely passed when it came to the appropriate amount of fruits in the food pyramid that I should have consumed. In addition, when it came to Beans, Meat, and Grains, I ate two times the requirement. Grains are readily available in any meal, whether it be pasta, bread or rice.

Therefore, unless I decide to follow a certain diet that prohibits me from eating carbohydrates, it is impossible for me to avoid eating a substantial amount of that food group in every meal. Grains in itself lacks appropriate taste that is why it is always a good idea to add another food group to it; Meat or Vegetables. Whether it be crab meat, fish meat, lamb chops, poultry, pork or beef, it is most definitely more palatable than vegetables. Any type of grain tastes much better when eating it with a type of meat since it is more palatable and tasty. Since meat contains enough salinity to give taste to any type of grains, and it may be cooked in a various number of ways that vegetables cannot.

Aside from this, vegetables aside from tomatoes, eggplants onions and potatoes all taste monotonous. It is very hard to distinguish one from the other, which is why it is so dull to eat. Vegetables would be great to eat when you add salad dressing or cook it with a type of meat. Although vegetables are healthy and refreshing to eat because of all its vitamins and fiber, it is simply hard to get a person to eat it. On the other hand, fruits are very sweet and delicious, that is why it is so easy to include it on my diet. Fruits are very hard to make it into a full meal, but it is very easy to include it as a dessert in every meal, or a snack when hungry.

d. Did your diet provide an adequate variety of foods, or were your choices monotonous? See how you met the various food pyramid groups. If you did not eat a variety of foods, how can you expand your field of choices?

I can never say that my food intake was monotonous, because in one day, I was able to eat Vegetables, Meats, Grains, Fruits, and Milk. All food groups are present in my daily diet, there fore none of them are unrepresented, but simply Overrepresented if not underrepresented.

The things that I need to improve with my daily diet are increasing my vegetable intake and also decreasing the carbohydrates and Proteins that I eat. But then again, my intake of food may be considered normal since, I may eat a little more than what is required for my daily nutrition, but I can never say that it hasn’t been enough for me to live a healthy lifestyle. My food intake can be summarized by saying that it is High Protein, High Energy and Low Fiber Diet.

Stradley, L., Nutritional Chart. December 3, 2007, from

United States Department of Agriculture. Food Guide Pyramid: Dietary Guidance: Food and Nutrition Information Center . December, 3, 2007, from

Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Food and Nutrition. December, 3, 2007, from


Free Essays

Nutrition concepts and controversies

Mammals, like humans, have a unique way of bearing an offspring. They carry this offspring in their womb for several days or months until their offspring are ready to face the world. This process is called pregnancy. In scientific terms, pregnancy is the phase from conception until birth wherein a fertilized develops into a fetus inside a mother’s womb. Pregnancy is a delicate situation, and needs utmost care and attention. During pregnancy, a mother is exposed to a lot of risks, so risky practices should be avoided.

One practice that should be avoided is doing strenuous sports, particularly sports with risks of falling. A fall would cause an impact, and this impact may initiate the separation of placenta from the uterus, a condition known as placenta abruptio. This might cause an excessive loss of blood to the mother. Death to the unborn child would be the other risk. Another habit that should be avoided is smoking. This increases the risk of miscarriage for the mother, and possible health problems and lower birth weight for the offspring.

This might also trigger an event known as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).  Another practice that should be avoided is drinking alcohol. A drunken mother is more prone to accidental fall which may trigger a miscarriage, and therefore excessive loss of blood or death of the unborn child. The child might also have some health problems after birth like a heart problem. Drinking great amounts of caffeine are also strictly prohibited for pregnant mothers. Caffeine affects the nervous system, making you more nervous, irritable and unable to sleep. Too much caffeine in a pregnant mother’s body might increase the likelihood of a miscarriage.

This would either lead to excessive bleeding and loss of blood to the mother, and death to the offspring. Lastly, a pregnant mom should also avoid hot bath tubs and sauna baths/steams. These practices increase the core body temperature of the mother. This would increase heart rate to increase the blood flow on the body. It makes the heart work even harder and therefore might result to fainting. The increased heat in the environment of the fetus might also have a significant impact on the health of the child after birth.


Children and Youth Health. (2007). Pregnancy – risks. Retrieved May 1, 2008 from


Free Essays

The Importance of Healthy Eating

The importance of healthy eating and the knowledge that I am not eating properly has impacted the way I look at food, but it has not yet translated into my daily food intake. Because I prefer grains and dairy products, I tend to snack and base my meals on these foods and have not yet added the necessary fruits and vegetables into my diet.

According to the basics of the food pyramid (2007), I should be getting 5 servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Because I do not like the texture or taste of these food products, I have not yet increased my intake. Even though I know that increasing these items in my diet will help improve not only my overall dietary requirements, but also improve my nutrient consumption, I have not been able to force myself to eat things that I do not like. Instead, I have chosen to begin taking a multi-vitamin supplement to make certain that I am meeting my nutritional needs.

One of the other drawbacks I had noticed in my diet was that I did not consume enough lean mean and beans on a regular basis. I am willing to eat more lean beef and chicken and have improved this some, my protein intakes are still lower than they should be on most days.  Using the pyramid tracker online (2007), I have discovered that my enjoyment of carbohydrates is leading to my exceeding the recommended calorie intake for me and have not been meeting my nutritional needs.

One of the things I was surprised by was that I was not getting sufficient fiber. I discovered this was because I was eating white breads and crackers and carbohydrates made from processed grains instead of whole grains. I have been able to rectify this somewhat by simply changing to whole wheat crackers and bread. I have also added peanut butter to my crackers as a mid-morning snack and added another glass of milk with my crackers to make certain that I am meeting my dietary dairy needs.

Because of this class, I am more aware of my food choices and have made a conscious effort to include more of the fruits into my diet. I had hoped at the beginning of the class that I would be able to modify my eating schedule and add fruits as a form of breakfast. I have not yet been able to do this. I am considering purchasing fruit juice to keep as a drink; Even if I only drink a few ounces of juice, this would be an improvement in that I don’t eat breakfast at all currently and I consume too few fruits.

As I do not like vegetables in general, I am also considering the possibility of juices like V8 which are fortified with vegetables. Though I dislike this flavor as well, it avoids the texture issue I have with eating vegetables and it means I can reach my recommended daily allowance of vegetables without having to actually eat them.

Furthermore, I have decided to keep baby carrots as a snack and attempt to eat them instead of crackers at some snack times in an effort to increase my vegetable consumption. I have also tried sliced apples with peanut butter as a snack to increase both my fruit consumption and my protein consumption. I have not particularly enjoyed these snack changes and have found that I fall easily back into my old eating patterns. Because I prefer grains and dairy, I have found that my fat and cholesterol intake are not terribly high, but neither is my nutrition (Tracker, 2007).

Switching to whole grains has improved my fiber intake and because many grains are fortified, I am making inroads toward meeting my nutritional needs. I am currently doing so via taking a multi-vitamin, but because of this class, I am aware that it is much healthier to get my vitamins through food instead of pills. As such, I am trying to modify my diet to eat more iron-rich foods including red meat and vegetables, but I find that eating vegetables is very difficult.

I have managed to force myself to begin eating smaller meals more frequently as a way to manage hunger and blood sugar levels, preventing binge eating and over-eating. I am hoping that these modifications to my diet will help to improve my overall energy levels and health.

I have also been trying to get more exercise on the weekends as a means of improving my overall health and controlling weight gain. Based on my analysis of my diet and activity levels at the beginning of the class, it is clear that I have been gaining weight regularly because I take in almost 700 calories per day more than is recommended for me. Furthermore,  my lifestyle is more sedentary than even I realized and that contributes to both my lack of energy and my weight gain.

Through the week I get some exercise via work, including a lot of walking, but on the weekends when I am largely devoted to my studies, my time is spent mostly working on a computer and studying. Neither of those activities use significant amounts of calories and help me to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Recently, to combat this I have begun taking a break every three to four hours from studying or other leisure activities on the weekend and going for a short walk. The 15 minutes walk helps reenergize me and clear my mind for the next bout of studying.

I am also hoping that as I continue to do this I will be able to significantly increase my energy levels so that I do not feel so drained when I come in from work at night. I sued to enjoying working out with weights and believe that I could enjoy this again if I could simply motivate myself to go. Usually, by the time I am finished with a day’s work, I am more interested in relaxing than worrying about my health and fitness level. As I am not a morning person, the idea of getting to the gym before work in the morning is out of the question.

Instead, I have decided to try to add a relaxing stroll either on my lunch hour or after dinner in the evenings as a way of increasing my overall fitness. I believe that improving my base fitness levels will lead to more energy and more desire to continue to increase my level of activity. As it stands now, I rarely get anything more than light activity and then only in short bursts. I believe that based on the things we have learned, if I increase each of those activities each day, I will soon be to the point where I can add moderate activity at least a few days a week.

The most important things I have learned from this class is an eyes-open evaluation of my life. While I have not chosen yet to modify my lifestyle to what it needs to be, I am aware now of my failings and what steps will need to be taken to improve my lifestyle. I realize that my low energy levels are caused by my eating schedule and poor nutrition and that by improving what and when I eat, I can give myself more energy and be more active. I realize that every time I choose inaction over action I allow my body to become less fit and that fitness contributes to energy levels. I have found the resources, via the food pyramid and pyramid tracker on line to keep daily records and evaluate my progress. In short, this class has given me the tools necessary to live a healthy life and now I simply need to motivate myself to do it.

List of References, USDA Food & Nutrition Information Center, June 17, 2007., June 17, 2007. , June 17, 2007.

Free Essays

Nutritional Assessment

The Body Mass Index (BMI) is the ratio of weight to height and is used to classify people as being “underweight,” “normal,” or “obese” (BMI Classification, 2007). Using the international classifications, a BMI of 32.2 would be considered as Obese Gr. 1. The case being answered is why is a person who eats normally at 4-5 fairly healthy meals every day, satisfies the recommended allowances classified as obese?

Many factors must be considered when answering this case. Most important among these is whether the measurement of the BMI is done under normal conditions, that is, if the body type, health status, body composition and metabolic function of the patient are considered. Truly, there are some instances when the BMI classification is not applicable.

It must be noted that the Body Mass Index is a standard for determining the risk of normal people. It cannot be used for people who have high muscle mass. Muscle is considered as heavier compared to fat and a more muscular person would naturally be higher in body weight compared to his or her “more normal” counterpart. Two persons, for example may have a 32.2 BMI but may have different body compositions: one may appear “fat” because of greater body fat composition and the other may appear really lean and healthy because his or her body composition is mainly of muscles.

A bodybuilder may always be classified as “overweight” or “obese” if BMI standards are used; when Arnold Schwarzenegger won a certain competition, his BMI was 31 (Whitney, Cataldo and Rolfes, 2002). As it is, the definition of the BMI must be kept in mind—it only considers the person’s weight and height and not the person’s body composition. In other words, in assessing the health risks of a person using a BMI, the body composition or body type of a person should be considered first because the results may erroneously represent the real status of the individual.

The results of the Body Mass Index can also be influenced by the water composition in the body. If the person is retaining water, for example, he or she should not be classified using the BMI standards because the weight is affected by the unnecessary water that is retained inside the body. If water is retained and the person is measured, the BMI would naturally result to a higher value which would not represent the person’s true health status. Edema or water retention can sometimes happen to people with kidney failure, and to women who are pregnant.

The BMI classification should also not be used to pregnant women because in measuring the BMI, the weight of the unborn child is not considered which could also erroneously increase the true value of the index. The result would then, not become representative of the true health status of the individual.

If however, the patient is not “muscular”, the relatively high BMI of the person, despite his or her normal intake can be attributable to the person’s rate of metabolism. There is a possibility of the person having low metabolism as a result of previous abnormalities in dietary practices and intake or possibly a thyroid disorder. Hypothyroidism can decrease the rate of metabolism of a person by as much as 30%. At such rate, the person, no matter how healthy his or her eating habits are, is at risk to gaining more weight, having higher BMI and thus, being at risk to the diseases associated with higher BMI.

These factors must be considered first in assessing whether there is something significant in the BMI of the patient under study.  The 32.2 BMI of the person may not be signifying a risk in health but a mere indication of erroneous use of the classification without considering the body composition, water retention, or pregnancy. But if these factors are considered, the person must really be at risk for high fat deposition as a result of low rate of metabolism. The person should then consider doing more physical activity or consulting a doctor on how to normalize the thyroid function.

Works Cited

BMI Classification. (2007). World Health Organization. Retrieved 26 Feb 2007 from,

Whitney, Cataldo and Rolfes. (2002). Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. 6th ed. Stamford, CT: Wadsworth Thomson Learning.

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Nutrition/Diet Therapy Project

Health is an important aspect for the people as this manifests as the foundation of their lives and welfare. Ideally, good health can be maintained through adhering to a strict discipline and a physically nurturing lifestyle. Having proper nutrition, adequate rest, regular exercise and avoidance from vices can lead to a healthy personal development bringing forth longer with a pleasant condition.

Among the three approaches to a healthy living, the aspect of diet and nutrition commonly manifests as the most influential factor as this can significantly affect the general development of the physical body. Healthy body condition can be maintained through adhering through a proper diet even the prevention and resistance to many health ailments such as heart diseases. Indeed, heart diseases are serious problems which must be given sufficient attention as they are mostly life-threatening. One common approach for reducing treatment ad prevention of heart diseases is adhering to a proper diet and nutrition therapy.

Nutrition is mainly taken through eating and drinking. The body extracts the needed vitamins and minerals from the food and water taken in to properly maintain the basic processes vital for a healthy living. In the aspect of treating or preventing heart diseases, the value of the foods taken in terms of vitamins and minerals play much significance.

Naturally, the origin of heart disease also has other factors such as hereditary as determined from the history of the family lineage. For cases wherein a person indeed has history of heart disease cases running down his or her family, the value of the dietary nutrition can have preventive effects to the probability of the development of heart ailments for the said individual.

To further elaborate the significance of the said health recommendation, an actual study health study will be implemented wherein the author of this paper will establish a personal dietary recommendation in relation to his health information. As this author has determined, a significance percentage of heart disease has to be considered, as the problem is present in the family history. As gathered through intrinsic research, the risk factor is associated with the case of the subject’s father dying from a heart attack, which is likely due to high cholesterol level similar to the case of the subject’s grandfather.

Considering the present health status of the subject, there is still no sign of heart disease symptoms and the cholesterol is still regular within the normal level. From these informations, it can be ruled that heart disease in terms of hereditary and congenital nature however, a consideration for precaution is still necessary. Thus, this dietary recommendation project will be significantly focused on the development of preventive approach and maintenance of healthy condition.

In preventing heart disease ailments, it is important to consider the nutritional value of the diet being taken by the subject. In this project, three particular diet elements are highly recommended namely:

emphasize on fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products
inclusion of lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts on the regular diet and
reduction in saturated fats, cholesterol, sodium and, added sugars.

A strict adhesion to these three diet factors is important in the aspect of preventing health ailments as their nutritional benefits are incremental thus aiding the proper development of the body. The health values gain from this diet works mainly in two ways namely first through promoting the development of the body’s health and natural defenses, and second through reducing the likely diet causes of heart problems. It must be noted that cases of high cholesterol level are present in the family background and the likely contributor to the development of the heart problem of the subject’s father, thus, it must this diet recommendation project wishes to emphasize the elimination of this factor.

This health diet project has also considered the said factor through eliminating the food sources of cholesterol. Reduction of cholesterol is addressed through eliminating saturated fats on the diet and focusing more on fruits, vegetables, grains, wheat, and other. Indeed, this diet recommendation eliminates the risk factor determined from family history and promotes the development of a healthy lifestyle for the subject.

To better realize the effect of the recommendations of the mentioned diet project, it is also important to adhere to a healthy lifestyle particularly regular exercise and sufficient rest. In this project, an emphasis on cardiovascular exercises on a regular basis is recommended namely the basic jogging, simple stretching, and brisk walking. This form of exercises develops the capacity and healthy condition of the circulatory system particularly the heart, lung, and blood vessels. In addition, these exercises also promote proper waste removal from the body through perspiration and the maintenance of the cholesterol level.

These exercises must be done at maximum of thrice a week for maintenance purposes. As additional recommendations, exercise done with mechanical assistance such as treadmill and tension bikes is also recommended but not necessary as these will require additional expense for the project. Having sufficient rest periods is also important in this health project. Insufficient rest can reduce the capacity and health of the muscles in the body and this effect has detrimental consequences mainly on the heart organ. Thus, to maintain the benefits from the food recommendations and exercise, proper rest periods ranging within 8 to 10 hours must also be given consideration.

In general, this diet recommendation project is not solely focused on heart diseases as the benefits in this program can also address other health problems. It is a general emphasis on this program to develop a strong and healthy body for its subject through maintaining a proper healthy lifestyle.

By adhering to a nutritious and healthy diet, a regular exercise, and adequate sleep program, the subject can easily improve his or her physical well-being and natural defenses, enabling the subject to prevent numerous health problems particularly heart diseases. Indeed, in the approach of preventing health problems, the primary approach for this aspect is to develop a strong body through a healthy lifestyle throughout his or her life.


Lee, Dennis & Stoppler, Melissa Conrad (2007). Disease Prevention Through Diet and Nutrition. MedicineNet, Inc. September 7, 2007.

Medical Update (1993). Take heart – and save it, too! (preventing heart disease with healthy diet). Benjamin Franklin Literary & Medical Society, Inc. Vol 17, Page 2.

Mirkin, Gabe (2003).The Healthy Heart Miracle: Your Roadmap to Lifelong Health. Collins Publication. 1st Edition. ISBN-10: 0060196807

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Nutrition Information

1. Nutrition.Gov is a US Federal Government Organization that presents the latest and excellent nutritional data.  The information provided on the website can be utilized by both professional and the general public to gain reliable, valid, current and precise knowledge regarding the latest findings in food and nutrition, physical fitness, diet, healthy eating and food safety.  The data provided on the website is evidence-based and hence is highly recommended for use by the general public who want to develop healthy food habits, reduce the chances of developing nutrition-related illnesses and reduce obesity and malnutrition.

The nutritional data provided is specific to various age-groups such infants, children, adolescents, adults, women and elders.  The topics are classified according to the audience-level (such as professionals, parents, teachers, children, researchers, etc), subtopics or the age group.  All information provided on the is thoroughly referenced and can be validated.  The authors name or the authority of source along with the credentials is provided on the website.

Data about physical fitness and food supplements are also provided.  The website also presents useful, updated and trustworthy links which could help the user to get more information if they are interested.  The website also provides contact information about the owner of the website (such as name, contact address, telephone and fax numbers, and email address) which permits the user to get their doubts clarified.  The website also posts the latest new in the field of food and nutrition in an attractive manner.

2. The British Nutrition Foundation is a British-based charity organization that provides the latest scientific data for educational purposes for the public (in the UK and Europe).  The website does not promote the products or the services of a particular organization and hence is recommended for use by the general public.  The website presents the latest news, research findings, healthy nutrition and diet, recipes, health and physical fitness.  The website distributes evidence-based information for use by the public and the professionals, and hence is recommended for use.

This evidence-based data is obtained by the British Nutritional Foundation through research conducted with universities, academic organizations, research institutes, NGO’s, and Governmental organizations.  The information presented on the British National Foundation website is current, valid, precise and verifiable, and details of the authority of source are also presented.  The website also provides a search box to permit the user to search for accurate information, quickly.

3. The American Dietetics Association (ADA) is the Largest Nutrition Organization in the US that has more than 65, 000 members who are nutritional professionals.  These members are making an effort to interpret the latest data and finding of professional findings of nutrition into results that can be applied by the public and utilized for developing a healthier living.  Nutritional experts belonging to several Universities and organizations based in the US are members of the ADA.

More: Nutrition

The website is recommended because it provides the latest findings which can be utilized because the information available on the Website is accurate, valid, current and precise.  THE ADA conducts a lot of professional research and publishes these findings which the public could access in its website.  Some of the aims of the organization include bringing about healthy body weight of children and reducing the incidences of obesity and malnutrition through research and education.  The website is user-friendly as a search engine is present on the homepage which can be used to search for precise data.

The search engine enables to the user to obtain accurate data rapidly.  Professional data is also available for members and professionals.  The ADA gives a lot of concern to child health and nutrition, food safety, food technology, geriatric health and nutrition, obesity and reforms in the field of health and nutrition.  The organization had invested about US$ 270, 000 for conducting professional research and education for the benefit of the public.


Free Essays

Nutrition Assessment

As a 38-year old, married female with two kids, I try to put balance in every aspect of my life.  I work full-time from 2 p.m. to 10 p.m., from Monday to Friday.  I also go to school from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m., every Tuesday and Friday.  To keep in shape, I run on the treadmill at least 30 minutes, five times a week.  I also do some of the household chores, including cooking, and I do gardening on my spare time.  As for my family, providing them with sumptuous and nutritious meals has always been on top of my list.  What I cook doesn’t depend on my personal preferences or tastes, but rather, I take into account the needs of my children and a hypertensive husband.  The foods that we eat at home are generally low in fat

— mostly devoid of pork and beef — and high in fiber.  Nuts, seeds and dry beans are main fixtures in my family’s diet.

Iron Deficiency

Iron, one of the most abundant metals on Earth, is an important part of normal human physiology.  It is an essential component of proteins that is responsible for transporting oxygen and regulating cell growth and differentiation.  The forms of dietary irons are heme and nonheme.  Heme iron delivers oxygen to cells, and is found in red meat, fish and poultry.  Nonheme iron is derived from lentils and beans.  The body absorbs heme iron better than nonheme iron.

For every 10 mg to 20 mg of iron ingested, only 1 mg is absorbed by the body.  A person unable to take in enough iron may suffer from iron-deficiency anemia, resulting to less oxygen delivered to cells.  Iron absorption is hindered by phytic acid, oxalic acid, high fiber, high calcium and polyphenols.  As a result, an iron-deficient person may

experience fatigue, perform poorly at work, and have lower immunity, among others.  Too

much iron in the body is also discouraged for it can be fatal, leading to organ damage and respiratory collapse.

Based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance, iron requirement for a 38-year old

female, weighing 118 lbs. is 18 mg.  My normal iron consumption is measured at

10.36 mg, or just 59% of what my body requires.  This condition has resulted from

the type of foods my family normally eats.  Because I put more preference on grains

and meat-substitutes, like beans, I have kept myself from natural sources of iron.  In eliminating pork and beef from our meals in consideration of my hypertensive husband, I have inadvertently excluded foods that are rich sources of heme iron.

Potassium Deficiency

Potassium is one of the essential minerals in our body.  It maintains fluid and electrolyte balance in the system, and allows muscle contraction and nerve-impulse sending.  Potassium deficiency may result to a fatal condition known as hypokalemia, which is characterized by muscle weakness and myalgia, disturbed heart rhythm, and arrhythmia.  While it is encouraged to have a high potassium diet, it is also not right to have too much of the mineral in your blood.  If potassium level in the body is too high, irregular heartbeat or a heart attack could occur.  Signs that potassium in the blood has come to a dangerous level are manifested through weakness, numbness, and tingling.

In my case, I consume about 76%, or 3568.05 mg , of the 4700 mg of potassium that is  recommended for my age and weight group.  The deficiency, I believe, has resulted from sometimes skipping breakfast on some days because I need to go to school, or eating too little because of household chores that I need to attend to.  To correct this, breakfast will be the first agenda on my list.  I will have rice, eggs, and milk in the morning, or muffins, mangoes and bread.  This would mean waking up earlier, but this small concession is necessary in order to provide my body with 100% of its potassium needs.


Due to the considerations I take in preparing my family’s meals, I have overlooked the possibility that some important minerals may not be included in our diet, resulting to significant levels of deficiencies.  As a woman and a working mother, my iron and potassium needs should not be less than what are recommended for my age and weight group.  Without getting enough iron and potassium from the food I eat, my health could be seriously impaired, affecting my family, work, and studies.

It is apparent that the meals I prepare are not enough to supply the right amount of iron and potassium that my body needs. To correct this, I would be increasing the amount of lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts in our meals.

The best way for me to get an adequate amount of potassium is including in my family’s meals a variety of foods, such as, broccoli, orange juice, potatoes, bananas, soybeans,  avocados,  apricots, and pomegranates, among others.  According to studies, high potassium in diets can reduce the risk of hypertension, an added advantage for my husband.

Getting a clean bill of health does not guarantee that one’s nutritional needs are fully met.  A nutritional assessment of this kind is very helpful in ensuring a more healthy way of living.

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Suitable Nutritional Care

Any sports played or even trainings and exercises may be beneficial to anyone unless done with in good condition. It may lead to development and improvement may it be physically or mentally. On the other hand it may also lead to body exhaustion in particular for those who do it on a regular basis, the athletes. This is why suitable nutritional care must be made to ensure that an athlete is competitive all throughout his career.  He must know how to develop good physical condition through proper diet.

For every competition, trainings and exercises, an athlete must not fail to remember not to eat before and after the activities. Eating after the game or the post game nutrition is extremely essential. We must choose the right kinds of diet to fasten body recovery. After the activity, it is recommended that we eat rich in carbohydrates foods and beverages which can reload glycogen stores. For the lost fluids, replace it by drinking 2 cups of fluids especially cold water, it is more rapidly absorb by the body than warm waters. Beverages and sport drinks may also be taken in exchange for the fluids lost.

Caffeine and alcohol containing fluids must be avoided.  The body fluids lost must be replaced within the period of 2 hours after any athlete’s activity. Replacement of the fluids lost benefits the body by eliminating the general discomfort not only the thirst and to regulate the body. Potassium and sodium were also lost during the activity, to replace it eat more fruits and vegetables for the replacement of potassium and salty foods for the sodium lost. (

Proper pre-game and post game meals must be observed to ensure anyone’s not only for normal athlete’s health and body development. Pre-game nutrition is needed for the body to prepare the body for a strenuous activity. It provides additional body strength.  Post-game nutrition is more important, significantly helps out for exhausted person to recover and restore all nutrients and fluids lost in the body. It helps to normalize the body as well as the organs. It will be a good method to reestablish the body’s strength and shape and performance in order to perform any regular body activities.



Free Essays

Nutrition and food science: energy balance

Nutrition in general is a concern for adolescents, who are entering a stressful, confusing, and sometimes frightening time of social, emotional, and physical development. Healthy diet and regular physical activity help children and adults feel better, learn and work more effectively, and avoid developing a variety of risk factors for disease. The key to weight control or weight management is keeping energy intake (food) and energy output (physical activity) in balance; that is energy balance.

Read also: Domestic Activities and Chemicals

When you consume only as many calories as your body needs, your weight will usually remain constant. If you take in more calories than your body needs, you will put on excess fat. If you expend more energy than you take in you will burn excess fat. The relationship of energy balance to body weight can be summarized by the following equations:
Energy Intake = Energy Output = Weight Maintenance

Energy Intake > Energy Output = Weight Gain

Energy Intake < Energy Output = Weight Loss

Weight management means keeping your body weight at a healthy level. Regular exercise and a healthy diet are a must when it comes to controlling your weight. A weight management plan depends on whether you are overweight or underweight. Many people mistakenly believe that they only “burn calories” when they exercise. In fact, your body is burning calories all of the time (yes, even when sleeping!). Calories are used to keep

basic body functions going, to metabolize the foods you eat, and to do any form of physical activity. Exactly how many calories people need varies, depending on such factors as gender, current body size, activity level and body weight goals a wise choice to achieve a healthy weight. A safe, tried-and-true method for long-term weight loss is to reduce calories by decreasing portion sizes when people tend to eat. When trying to lose weight or hold steady at a desired one, there’s no need to turn to the latest “diet” or outcast your favorite foods. Small changes to your diet and exercise routine can make a big difference.

A healthful eating plan can include all your favorite foods if they are in reasonable amounts and balanced out with daily physical activity. Aerobic physical activity, if no health prohibitions, will assist in increasing muscle tissue and also in burning calories. However, care should be taken not to exercise more frequently and more intensely that is required for good health or to compete well.

Physical activity should be balanced with diet to maintain a desired weight. Experts have come to believe that this approach of weight management is reasonable and promising. No proven side effects, however, success of weight efforts should be evaluated according to improvements in chronic disease risk factors or symptoms and by the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, not just by the number of pounds lost/gain.

But if you are over 40, have been inactive for some time, suffer from shortness of breath or weakness that interferes with daily activities, or suffer from a chronic condition, you should consult a physician before you begin any effort to reduce your weight or increase your activity level. Education may be necessary for an understanding of energy balance and basic nutrition principles.


Atkins, R. (1981). Dr.Atkins: Nutrition breakthrough. New York, U.S.A: Bantom Books.





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Nutritional Habits

Diabetes is a very serious physiological disorder that is rather assuming an epidemic proportion the world over. It is caused by the inability of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin to work on the sugar (glucose) that has been ingested. It is treated by putting the patient on supplementary insulin and can be controlled by controlling the diet of the person afflicted with diabetes. This means reducing carbohydrate and increasing protein intake.

The most important things in maintaining nutritional health of diabetics is to keep the blood glucose, blood lipids (fats) and blood pressure within an acceptable range. The acceptable range is shown thus:

1.Blood glucose should be 6-7% during fasting and before meals; and 90–130 mg/dl 2 hours after the start of a meal: <180 mg/dl:

2.Blood pressure should be kept under 130/80 mmHg:

3. Blood cholesterol, for Low Density Lipoprotein (LDP), should be kept under 100 mg/dl. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), for men above 40 mg/dl, above 50 mg/dl for women above 40. Triglycerides: under 150 mg/dl.

A key to achieving healthy status and to feeling good and preventing long-term complications of diabetes is healthy eating. This how ever may be difficult to do.

Studies have shown that losing ten to twenty pounds can help diabetics get their blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure into better control. This may allow them to stay off of some blood glucose-lowering medications for a time or take smaller doses or fewer medications. The same is true for managing diabetics’ blood lipids and blood pressure. Regardless of the medications taken to manage diabetes, a healthy eating plan should always be an important part of the diabetes care plan.

For a woman 5 4” tall and weighing 158 pounds, the body mass index limit has been exceeded which means she is obese or mildly put, overweight. Thus she needs to lose about 20 ponds to stay within the right/healthy weight.

The important plan she has to implement is to get active and start doing some real physical job to increase the rate at which food is burned. She also, as a matter of priority, have to create a dietary plan that ensures she attains a suitable body mass.

Good dietary plan ensures she sticks with the healthy eating recommendation for all Americans. These include: Eating a variety of foods within and among the basic food groups while she stay within her caloric needs; controlling the amount calories she eats to get to and stay at a healthy body weight; she eats whole grain starches that provide fiber and more nutrition without added fats and sugars; eats more fruits and vegetables; she fits in more non-fat or low-fat milk and milk products into she diet each day; she chooses and prepares foods with little salt and buys fewer processed foods; she keeps the amount of saturated fat and trans fats she eats as low as possible.

When she uses fats and oils, she chooses those that contain mainly polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats; if she consumes alcoholic beverages she should do so with moderation. Maybe a glass of wine before meals will do.

In choosing physical activities to engage in it is good look at those physical activities that are of interest to her. This will make her to do them without reluctance but with a lot of zest and enthusiasm. If she is a type that likes to dance, she can be encouraged to take up aerobics or regular dancing sessions.

When she gets more active, probably takes strolls in the evening and visits the gym at least thrice a week, she increases cardiovascular activity and thus puts the heart into good condition. Increasing physical activity also takes the mind off food and thus consumption rate reduces and so the dietary plan may be followed through.

1. American Society for Nutrition J. Nutr. 136:1453-1456, June 2006

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Nutrition of Young Athletes

Nutrition for Young Athletes Heather Rushing Houston Community College November 11, 2011 Abstract Research surrounding the nutrition of young athletes suggests that they are at risk for becoming deficient in most of their vital nutrients. Most parents agree there is concern for this issue, but they fear they do not have enough information on how to fix the problem. This literature review includes several professionals and experienced groups’ opinions and highlights the ways to tackle the issue of nutritional deficiencies and the many pressures young athletes face. Nutrition for Young Athletes

Young athletes face a multitude of challenges especially those that surround their diet. The social, emotional, and physical aspects of their growing bodies can present unique dilemmas that parents of young athletes may not know how to approach. When training them on the proper techniques to be an all-star player it should always include a well-balanced diet along with positive affirmations. For those who are looking for solutions to a proper diet for young athletes, busy lifestyles, pre and post activity meals and emotional pressures dietitians and doctors are finding the right information.

It may be demanding for parents when one or more of their children are athletes. This can challenge their abilities to multi-task and unhealthy food choices may result from a hectic family sporting lifestyle. Carmen, a mom and article writer from gatorade. com, gives the busy parent helpful tips on how to choose better options from fast-food menus. Treating the family does not have to consist of greasy burgers and fries every time one visits McDonald’s, but choosing one of their snack wraps loaded with grilled chicken and the salad with no dressing will only amount to 300 calories (Carmen, 2011).

Even Starbuck’s now offers on-the-go choices that include fresh fruit plates with cheese and protein packed plates that include hard boiled eggs and peanut butter. It is important to remember that proteins are just one of the many nutrients needed to complete a well-balanced diet for budding athletes. The University of Waikato in New Zealand offers plenty of information for a parent in search of what particular nutrients are needed and in what amounts. The nutrients that should compose young athlete’s diet are under two categories, Micro and Macro.

Under the micronutrient category are calcium, iron, B-complex vitamins, and zinc. These vitamins and minerals are only needed in small amounts but are essential to the growth and development of children including their immune functions (The University of Waikato, 2011). Macronutrients, which are needed in large amounts, include the energy supplier’s carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (The University of Waikato, 2011). Current research suggests that more young athletes are showing deficiencies in all of these nutrients (Nisevich, 2008).

To gain the proper amounts of vitamins and nutrients one should look first to food sources. Although there are vitamin supplements for young children, supplements are not the ideal source for these nutrients. Calcium rich foods such as milk, broccoli and other green vegetables support the growth of bones and increase their mass; they also help in the contraction of muscles and the impulses of nerves (Nisevich, 2008). Iron, which can be found in meat and beans, is “a major player in the role of energy metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fats” (Nisevich, 2008, para. ). Zinc and B-complex vitamins which include folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, B6, B12 and thiamin are used primarily to help the blood. Zinc supports tissue growth and wound healing while B-complex vitamins help to keep muscles from getting sore and maintain cognitive brain function (Nisevich, 2008). If a diet is well-balanced in meats, fish, beans, and diary those vitamins and minerals should be in adequate levels within the body. Consciously selecting what goes in the bodies is the key to living and performing at one’s best.

When young athletes are exposed to strenuous workouts pre and post activity meals as well as proper hydration are all crucial for their bodies. Activities lasting for at least one and half to two hours should be considered strenuous, especially sports such as rowing, cross-country running, and competitive swimming (Gavin, 2011). On a big day of activities meals should be given three hours prior to the event that deliver ample amounts of carbohydrates and low fats (Gavin, 2011).

These types of food are converted into energy and the body will utilize them throughout the activity. Adding good carbohydrates such as whole grain cereals with low fat milk, peanut butter on whole wheat toast with half an apple, or lean meat on a pita with orange juice are ways to pack energy boosting foods into snacks (Baylor College of Medicine, 2004). Planning a healthy snack can benefit young athletes especially during performances. Before, during, and after an event are times when it is crucial to hydrate. It is needed on many levels for the body to function properly.

Water supplies energy, strength as well as coordination and parents, coaches and young athletes should know that “even mild dehydration can affect performance” (Gavin, 2011, pg. 2). According to Collins (2007), a noted dietitian, drinking 5-9 ounces of water every 15-20 minutes depending on age and size is recommended. Collins (2007) also mentions that parents can weigh children before and after an event to determine how much fluid has been lost, drinking one cup per half pound they have lost will replenish their bodies.

According to a known medical educator, Mary Gavin (2011), “after exercising for sixty to ninety minutes, the body has used up its readily available sources of energy; so sports drinks may be a good choice for kids who participate in strenuous activity for more than an hour” (p. 2). The nutrients in sports drinks such as sodium and potassium are exactly what athlete’s need when they are active for long periods to replace what was lost through sweat, but water should still be their main source of hydration (Gavin, 2011). Sports have long been associated with proving how tough you are through stamina and strength.

In my opinion, these attributes can be helpful as well as harmful to an impressionable child athlete. Teammates that seem “stronger and better” can create a poor self-image within a young athlete who doesn’t feel he or she fits the physical criteria that coaches are looking for. Devastating effects can result from forcing the body to achieve optimal appearance. Athletes may increase weight and mass by overeating to try and reach desired outcomes while unknowingly putting their selves at risk. “When a person overeats, the food the body can’t immediately use gets stored as fat” (Gavin, 2011, p. ). Other types of athletes may try crash diets to lose weight for sports like wrestling, gymnastics, swimming and dance. This behavior leads to “less strength and endurance and poor mental concentration” (Gavin, 2011, p. 2). It is easy to buckle under the pressures of sports, but an emphasis on positive self talk and giving pats on the back for a job well done go a long way in a child. Reminding a child that it is just a game and everyone gets hurt and feels pain can bring feelings of lowered self-confidence into perspective.

When the media splashes drug use and misconduct of famous athletes who children idolize in the news can create challenges for the child and the parent. It may help to explain the hard realities of the pressures to performance to a child by instilling simple values that shape their existence. In my opinion, simple values will give them a firm footing in life and a level head when they are faced with challenging life decisions. The list of questions concerning nutritious foods and sports pressures are endless.

The known facts about micro- and macro-nutrients help tremendously when it comes to preparing snacks for young athletes and their sporting events. Fast-food choices can now be made without ruining the waistline from meals that contain excess calories and fat, therefore giving relief to busy parents of young athletes. Overeating and under eating are becoming a higher priority among doctors, dietitians and parents. As the pressure to perform is increasing, the need to educate young athletes and their parents on proper nutrition is paramount.

The parent’s ability to obtain accurate information about nutrition from trusted bloggers, doctors, and dietitians can make the process of raising healthy young athletes much easier. References Baylor College of Medicine (2004, November 4). Proper nutrition should be part of training young athletes. Retrieved from Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center website: http://www. bcm. edu/cnrc/consumer/archives/athletes. htm Carmen 5, CafeMom user (2011, October 11). Articles & Advice [Supplemental material]. Healthier Fast Food Options.

Retrieved from http://www. gatorade. com Collins, K. (2007, May 25). Nutrition Notes [Supplemental material]. Fuel your young athlete for peak performance. Timing, size and type of meals matter—so do fluids. Retrieved from http://www. msnbc. msn. com Gavin, M. L. (2011, November). Feeding Your Child Athlete. Retrieved from The Nemours Foundation, Kids Health website: http://www. kidshealth. org/parent/nutrition_center/dietary_needs/feed_child_athlete. html# Nisevich, P. M. (2008, March). Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes: Vital to Victory. Today’s Dietitian, 10, no. 3, 44. Retrieved from

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Causes of over Eating

Early Tuesday morning this young lady was walking home. The young lady all of a sudden she fell out on the ground. She was rushed to the hospital. The doctor told her that she was eating too much junk food and not enough health foods. The food she was eating wasn’t giving her enough energy. This is just to show how over eating unhealthy foods can affect you over all health. Over eating unhealthy foods cause serious health problems such as, heart problems, diabetes, and high blood pleasure.

First, over eating can be so dangerous towards a person’s health. Heart problems are the worst sickness a person can have; in fact it’s one of the leading causes of death due to unhealthy eating. Whereas to avoid having heart problems by eating health and exercising. Greasy food causes fluid to crowd around the heart other body organs. It’s important to take care of the body so that there wouldn’t be health problems like this. Because who wants to have heart problems they get old in age no one does. Heart conditions are major issues.

Second, diabetes comes from eating a lot of sugar, not burning calories, and fried foods. People with diabetes have to watch what they eat at all times. A person might look health on the outside but is unhealthy on the inside. Diabetes is a huge responsibility to withhold. A person with diabetes have to give there self a shot at least twice a day in the stomach, that’s very painful to go through. It’s obvious that people who find out that they have diabetes can’t leave a normal life anymore.

Third, high blood pressure is one of the major causes of over eating. People seem to eat their pain away and its causes them to have all kinds of health problems. Dealing with high blood pressure and eating unhealthy food can really make a person have a nervous breakdown. In addition, high blood pressure it causes stress makes a person want to just eat more and more. The stress of this over eating make a person blood pressure goes up so high that it causes them to be hospitalized. Over eating isn’t good for a person with high blood pressure. Most seem to beat themselves down or just eat their hearts out because of their health problems.

When people over eat the foods that they know is bad for them, in contrast its makes them have health issues. Heart problem are no good for those who have over eating addictions. Diabetes can get worse if a person continue to over eat unhealthy food. High blood pressure is very hard to deal with knowing that self is the cause of this bad health condition. Overall the cause of over eating has its down falls on a person’s way of living there life on a day to day bases.

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Concept of Long Term Care

The New York Times has reported that eating fish in a regular diet has more benefits. The article explains that the Harvard Women’s Health study says people that eat fish once a week had a 42 percent less likelihood to develop macular degeneration that was age related than people that ate fish less than once a month. Macular degeneration is an inflammatory disease and fish has the omega 3 fatty acid that reduces the inflammation (Rabin, 2011). The study was based on 39,876 women that were in their mid-life which was 99 percent of these women participating.

The participants were handed a questionnaire in 1993 that had a detailed food frequency to fill out. These questionnaires needed these women to list an average of consumption over the past year of different foods with a specific portion size. These foods that needed to be listed were how much of tuna fish, mackerel, salmon, sardines, bluefish, and swordfish were eaten. These women were told to record how much, on an average, was eaten over this past year. The study took 10 years to follow up and only 235 of the 39,876 people developed macular degeneration.

This is an eye disease that is progressive and is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly population (Rabin, 2011). The study findings were that the intakes of w-3 and w-6 fatty acids along with other dietary fats had been adjusted for the total of the energy intake using the residual methods. The intakes were categorized into tertiles that enhanced the stability estimates. The categories were an overall basis on the distribution of nutrients of all the women’s intakes. Tertiles were also adjusted for trans-unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat. sided P-values and 95 percent of CI’s were also calculated.

Also performed were the tests of interaction to evaluate the null hypothesis. These tests were of no differences in the association of the w-3 and the w-6 fatty acids (Rabin, 2011). The women that reported eating one or more servings of fish a week had a 42 percent less chance of developing macular degeneration than the women that ate less once a month per serving of fish. The most benefits that were found were by eating dark meat fish and canned tuna.

These studies are prone to have a measurement of error which tends to have an underestimate in any association of diet with the risks of AMD. Any changes of the dietary intakes would likely be nondifferential to the AMD end point and would have a true association. The end point was based primarily on the self report of the participants. The data was based on a large population of many different women that had no prior diagnosis of any AMD’s and that regular intake of EPA, DHA, and fish had a significant reduction of risk of AMD.

This appears to be the strongest evidence that support the role of the w-3 fatty acids and reduced the number of people that had advanced AMD (Rabin, 2011). The findings in this article were appropriate in the findings that eating fish once a week reduced the risk of the development of macular degeneration and slowed the progression of some that had early signs of the disease. The hypothesis along with the P-value that was used played a big part in determining the out come of this study. In conclusion, this study has proven that eating fish once a week can and will help to prevent the eye disease Macular Degeneration (Rabin, 2011).

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How to Get a Fit Body

Stop moaning about being overweight and get moving! Everyone cares about their health but to be fit lots of hard work is required. To approve your aim, you must follow three difficult but necessary steps. Willpower, eating less and excercising daily are the most important things that you can do for ensure beautiful body. Belief in yourself is the first step to be fit. As we know doing nothing and just stupidly dreaming can’t help you with your plans. And of course you will waste your time.

Firstly what you can do is to be confident that you will fulfill your aim. And of course if you begin to doubt you must submit all the advantages which could help you to support your body in balance. After all if you don’t do that it will be hard to continue your right way to be healthy and refuse to eat the sweets. One of the main responsibilities on diet is to restrict yourself from fatty food and sweets. The menu must be followed in all cases because you might not have another chance to make it up.

Make sure you eat right and systematically because your body has adapt this kind of regime it is important for your health especially for strength. And if by any chance you still seem to be lazy to do that, then just shut your mouth. If you eat a lot, it certainly will be very dangerous and very difficult to lose weight by sport. The most effective way of burning calories is by excercising daily. By this man removes all shortcomings from the different part of body. You can have strengthen muscles, long beautiful legs and of course six or eight packs.

That’s sounds great! Don’t lie front of the TV, don’t be so lazy and gloomy everything is possible to change in our world. Healthy diet is the best way to be fit. It is very important in our life because today people have a lot of different illnesses which can lead to death. It is very pity everyone can cure himself but not everyone can care about it. You need just think about. These advices will help you to be more satisfied and happy. Just belief yourself, eat more fruits and vegetables and do some sport. That’s all you need for perfect life. Take care!

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Food Macromolecules

“Macromolecules are a source of fuel. There are four major types of macromolecules-proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids. This process plays important roles in the life of a cell. (Macromolecules, 2002). The macromolecules that was present in the packaged food product Lipids which are fats. According to (Alters & Alters 2009, p. 49) Fats also provide more energy in our diets that do equivalent amounts of carbohydrates or protein. Protein was also present on the packaged food.

Proteins transport and rovide muscle contraction. Alters & Alters 2009, p. 51) Proteins build, maintains, and replaces the tissue in our body. Tissue meaning: muscles, organs, and your immune system. They are also important for the movement of lungs, legs, and protecting you from disease. (Learning about proteins,2008). How much protein do we need each day? Adults should get a minimum of 0. 8 grams of protein for every kilogram of body weight per day. Increasing protein intake helps reduce the risk of heart disease. (The Nutrition Source: Protein, 2011).

Carbohydrates are also present in the packaged food. Carbohydrates provide the body with fuel for physical activity and proper organ function. The best sources of carbohydrates -whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and beans- promote good health. (The Nutrition Source: Carbohydrates, 2011) Lipids are also present in the packaged food. Lipids are a group of molecules that consist of fats, phospholipids, and cholesterol. This packaged food is a part of a heart healthy diet because it has carbohydrates, low saturated fats, and proteins.

Carbohydrates are important for fuel, breaking these bonds and releasing energy to sustain life (Alters & Alters, 2009, p. 47). Large amounts of saturated fats may lead to clogged arteries and risk of heart disease. (Alters & Alters, 2009, p. 50). The product I have chosen to use is Quaker Oatmeal. I consider carbohydrates to be the most important thing listed on the label. Knowing the amount of carbohydrates is important because carbohydrates turn into sugar, and there is only one gram of sugar in this product.

When carbohydrates turn into ugar this increases the risk of diabetes if there is to much carbohydrates in your diet. I have never been a health fanatic, but after doing this essay I need to be a little cautious of what I am eating. I have found that reading labels helps us to eat healthier and to make the right choices our life style. I never really understood how carbohydrates work. Now I know the understanding of good and bad carbohydrates. Heart disease runs in my family. I do have a healthy heart but after doing the research for this essay I hope to continue to stay healthy.


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Effects on Eating Fast or Processed Foods

Today, many people eat fast and processed foods instead of a home cooked meal. Most people think that fast food is fast, cheap and convenient. However, at the same time, fast food is contributing to a big social problem in the United States. In the US alone eight out of ten adults over the age of 25 is overweight due to fast and or processed foods, and not eating the right types of food. It’s important to obtain a healthy diet or the effects can be horrific of many chronic health risks such as: obesity, heart disease, Insulin Resistance, diabetes, and or even death.

The number of fast food restaurants has doubled in more than 30 years in the United States. From Numberof. net, “There are 160,000 fast-food restaurants in America. These restaurants serve more than 50 million Americans daily”. From McDonalds, Burger King, Pizza Hut, to Wendy’s, the oils alone cause immense amount of health problems. The average calorie intake for an adult is from 2000-2500 calories per day, depending on height and weight. At Burger King alone, just for one Bacon Double Cheeseburger Deluxe is 700 calories, that’s not counting a medium soda and fries.

Big Breakfast Platter from McDonald’s, which contains 1370 calories and nearly 65 grams of fat. Most restaurant meals are loaded with fat, sugar, and calories. Fast food is one of the main reasons for the rapid increase in the rate of obesity. Over Two-thirds, more than 190 million Americans are overweight or obese, due to fast foods. As from theyesword. com, “through studies into the question of whether fast food causes obesity, researchers have found that families that choose fast food as a meal three or more times a week do run a higher risk of obesity”.

People can go through the drive-thru window order food without having to get out of their cars. This poor diet and lack of exercise increases obesity. According to the American Medical Association, “being obese means that 30% of your ideal body weight is constituted by fat”. All the excess fats can lower your energy levels which in turn lowers the amount of exercise activity. In turn, many more people with obesity in the United States could carry $1,500 more each year on health care, about 41 percent more than an average-weight, healthy person would.

Everybody knows that fast food isn’t healthy but few realize exactly how unhealthy it truly is. Children who commonly eat fast foods have the same risk of developing clogged arteries as an adult five times their age. According to WebMD, “Heart disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the U. S”. To prevent heart disease you must keep your cholesterol low. Which is a waxy substance produced by the liver and found in certain foods, like: Whole-milk dairy products, butter, cream, ice cream, Cream cheese, ect.

Most of processed food is made up of sodium, salt, which is an ingredient companies put in fast food to make meat and dairy products last longer. Too much sodium causes 35 percent of cardiac attacks in the world, show the results of the research of Canadian scientists. Canadian research scientists, which included 52 countries, showed that people who applied “westerly diet” based on meat, eggs and fast food, most cases of heart attack, while the risk was much lower in those who ate more fruits and vegetables.

Insulin Resistance is a step before diabetes; is when the body is unable to us the cells of the body to respond to insulin. Meaning the body can’t break down the sugars from the carbohydrates of the food. It then can’t run the energy off the fat cells, similar to Diabetes. Many Americans can also get this from bad dieting. To prevent this someone must eat less fat and calories; less highly sweetened drinks and more high fiber foods is an important part of a healthy life.

With all the high cholesterol, sodium, eating high amounts of sugars, and not exercising can cause type two diabetes. Stated from Mayoclinic, “Type 2 diabetes is when your body is resistant to the effects of insulin. Untreated, the consequences of type 2 diabetes can be life-threatening”. People would argue that eating healthy could become expensive, depending on where you live, what you eat, and how well you cook; it’s possible that dining out is more cost effective than preparing your own meals.

Eating at home also requires more planning, but in the long run it’s more healthy then eating out. “In the United States, more than 50,000,000 people depend on fast food. Over 110 billion dollars are spent by Americans alone for different types of fast food…,” Stated SweetAdditions. Net. Talked about on HealthTree, “The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (2010) monitored the eating habits, recreation and activity levels of 3,021 young adults over 15 years.

The results suggested that fast food can cause extensive health issues, and that the connection goes beyond fast food and obesity. ” Also, “The study also proved that regular fast food consumption increased the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. ” If the fast food chains don’t make a difference in their high processed, greasy foods; we’re going to have a big problem. Not only being in chronic health risks such as: obesity, heart disease, Insulin Resistance, diabetes, and or even death, bigger, but the world will never know till it happens.


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Nutrition and Stronger Workouts

In today’s society it seems that everyone wants to loose weight and see immediate results. The trend of using dietary supplements increases constantly because of this factor. The market for these supplements is skyrocketing every year as the demand for the so-called miracle pills continues to grow. Much research has been done on many of these drugs and has proven that many are not all as great as they are advertised on television or in magazines. The truth is many contain dangerous ingredients that lead to severe side effects and can even cause death. They prove to be more harmful than healthy. This is why before ever deciding to by any type of dietary supplement, it is crucial to examine every ingredient and know what exactly each one is to see if it is dangerous or safe to ingest.

One dietary supplement that seems to be popular at the moment is Hydroxycut. It is supposed to promote fat and weight loss, increased energy and stronger workouts, increased metabolism, and decreased appetite (Hydroxycut Side Effects and Hydroxycut Benefits 1). These added benefits do not come without a price though. There are many severe side effects that can result from using Hydroxycut. Some may include increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, headaches, light-headedness, and dizziness. Others are loss of appetite, feel restless and hyper active, nose bleeds, blurred vision, and outbreak of acne (1). It seems there are more side effects than benefits. It is up to the individual to decide how much pain it is worth going through just to lose a few pounds.

Hydroxycut is composed of both healthful and harmful ingredients. It is based on something known as the ECA stack, which consists of ephedrine, caffeine, and aspirin (Hydroxycut Information 1). Ephedrine, as most know, has received much negative attention over the past few months. It is derived from the plants of the genus

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Diet Pills and Women

How would you like to lose 10 pounds in one week? These words ring out through the media, newspapers, magazines, commercials, and many other advertisements that we are inundated in our society today. A model walks down the runway with her collar bones protruding, flat stomach, and protruding pelvic bones. When she weighs in, and is one pound over the expected weight, starves herself, or takes diet pills to shed the excess weight. The same pertains to young females. The desire to be thin at any cost causes physical, mental, and emotional problems. This is a lack of self-worth.

It is easier to swallow a diet pill which involves no will power. Finding a diet that is right for them is not an option. They want a quick fix. Nutritionists and scientists have debated over these issues for years. Scientists have the belief that diet pills will take the weight off not acknowledging where the dangers lye. Whereas nutritionists believe that cutting out the “bad” carbohydrates and eating from the five food groups will help with healthy weight loss as opposed to taking diet pills. Eating “good” carbohydrates will make a difference in one’s weight loss.

Many Doctors readily prescribe diet pills without caring about the dangerous effects they have for the person taking them. Women want to be thin, so the doctor helps them to achieve their goal. This is the mentality of many doctors; it is also for some women. Some diet pills whether prescribed or otherwise can have dangerous side effects. Most women who are desperate to lose weight do not care about the side effects, only about the weight loss. The danger of taking diet pills is that many cause emotional and physical dependence.

Diet pills can also interfere with one’s metabolism. Diet pills suppress the appetite, which causes one to take in fewer calories. While taking in fewer calories, the metabolism also slows down and causes fat to store in the body. Diet pills are also associated with many health conditions such as: increased heart rate, high blood pressure, dizziness, possibility of seizures and or strokes. Even though, it is suggested to consult your doctor, many women do not care because they are desperate to lose the weight quickly.

Becoming thin is the goal for the women who take the pills, they may not consult their doctor in fear that the doctor may not agree with their decision to take the diet pills. If prescribed diet pills are taken, it can help start a diet along with a healthy eating program, but too many women are not interested in doing this. They prefer to let the diet pill do the work and therefore starving themselves and their bodies. Some people do not have self- discipline to implement an eating program along with the diet pills. For example, Alli is an orilstat which when taken remains in the stomach.

It does not affect the heart. When one eats any foods with fat, the Alli causes 25% of the fat to be eliminated from the body. Alli does not suppress one’s appetite. Some women want a “quick fix” when taking diet pills. However, with Alli the idea is to implement a healthy eating regiment when taking it with each meal. When Alli is taken on an empty stomach, does nothing. It must be taken with meals and is effective in helping with weight loss, as it reduces fat absorption in and requires a cut down on fat intake (around 15 grams).

The only unpleasant side effects are oily discharge, loose stools and an immediate urge to have a bowel movement. This particular diet pill, Alli, is not an at risk diet pill like many of the others. It does not suppress the appetite, nor cause heart palpitations. It may take up to one year to lose the weight desired, where as taking another type of diet pill that appeases the appetite will cause a person to lose five to ten pounds in a week. However, it states that you must take a vitamin in the evening because minerals are depleted from the body. There are many people who have taken diet pills have died.

There is a health risk with diet pills and should always be carefully assessed before taking them. If an individual chooses to take diet pills, doctors suggest following a healthy plan and exercising. In most cases, women, teens and young adults, do not want to take the time, but would rather pop a pill and lose weight quickly, and do not consider the ramifications in their haste. The way we look plays a big role in our lives. It determines the way that others see us and from that, it will determine how we feel about ourselves. The major issue here is our weight.

We constantly see images of sexy women which remains in our minds that this is the way to look in order to be beautiful, and because of this, we subject ourselves to abusing our health and bodies just so we can look like the sexy women the media shows and we hear about constantly. Skinny is beautiful. Or at least this is what is on billboards, in magazines, and television, as most women idealize becoming thin. There are many ways to lose weight, but taking diet pills is less of an effort and more convenient a quick fix. This is what the media tells us, lose weight fast! No need to exercise.

Many people think that diet pills are safe and effective, but the truth is they are not. In many cases people have died for the simple reason of wanting to lose weight fast because diet pills stimulate the nervous system, can be addictive, and can lead to abuse. The Food and Drug Administration issued a proposal that manufacturers of the diet pills include a warning to the customers about the dangers of their use. The doctor that prescribes diet pills for the safety of an individual, who is obese, also makes certain this person follows a program of exercise and healthy eating.

Many doctors who dispense diet pills are careful. But, there are many who have diet clinics where all an individual needs to do is pay a fee and obtain their diet pills without a follow up. The women who are eager to lose weight quickly are in danger of hurting their bodies, especially the young females who do not research and do not care. They are only concerned with being thin and fast weight loss results. With the media screaming to the women, teens, and young adults that the only way to look beautiful is to be thin, will not hinder a woman to lose weight fast, look beautiful at any cost. The cost may result in death.

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Eating Out

Eating out is a fun way to celebrate a birthday, anniversary, or other special occasion. However, eating out should not be a part of your regular diet. If you are attempting to lose weight or maintain a healthy lifestyle, it is almost impossible to do so if you are eating out on a regular basis.

Appetizers and rolls are the first reason why eating out is bad for your health. When you cook at home, you usually do not prepare additional appetizers to eat before the main course because it is more work, but waiters at a restaurant push the appetizers, which can easily add an additional 500+ calories to your meal depending on what you order and how much you eat, just so that they can cushion their tip and make the restaurant more money. Restaurants also provide free rolls with butter. Eating two rolls can add another 300 calories to your meal.

A seemingly healthy salad is the next disastrous course when eating out. A salad by itself is healthy, but many restaurants will add croutons, bacon bits, cheese, and fatty dressings to the lettuce and a couple other vegetables. The result is enough fat to fulfil your fat content for the entire day. If you’re going to indulge in a salad, avoid the croutons altogether and opt for apple cider or balsamic vinegar or oil and vinaigrette.

Between the appetizer, rolls, salad, and first round of drinks most people have already consumed more than they ever would by cooking a meal at home. The problem is that all of these items are pushed by the waiter or their eating companions, making it even more difficult for someone struggling with their diet to say no.

The main course finally comes and you thought you ordered something healthy, fish, and steamed veggies, but what they don’t mention on the menu is that vegetables are almost always soaked in butter and the fish is covered with a high calorie sauce to disguise the fact that it has been overcooked.

The problem with eating out is that everything is so readily available with no work on your part. If given the choice most people don’t want to spend the time to prepare a five course meal at home, this is reserved for holidays like Thanksgiving, but when presented with the opportunity for that five course meal without having to do any of the work involved it makes it all too easy for people to say yes.

You finish your meal and the waiter comes over and makes a point of asking if you’d like dessert. Then the waiter will chatter on about all of the desserts available, you think that if you split the dessert with someone else at the table it will keep you from consuming too many calories. The problem is that you have already consumed too many calories before the dessert menu has even been presented. Also, even if you do split a desert you can easily be consuming another 500 calories.

When all is said and done, your one meal out most likely contains more calories than you should be consuming in an entire day. It is best not to test your will power when it comes to your diet. The next time someone suggests eating out; quickly think of a delicious meal that can be cooked at home for a fraction of the calories. This will give you control over how your food is prepared, not to mention that eating at home will also save you hundreds of rupees per month.

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American Diet

America today is in the middle of a nutritional crisis. Throughout the country, the obesity epidemic has struck every population demographic. According to recent projections made by the United States Government, 63. 9 percent of Americans are either overweight or obese. That is over half of the population! What exactly is the culprit behind this crisis? How can someone fix this issue? The answers lie in the average American Diet. The diet consumed by Americans is one of, if not the worst diet in terms of saturated fat, trans fats, lack of carbohydrates, over consumption of protein, and overall malnutrition.

Recommended Dietary Allowances adopted by nutritionists around the globe and countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia tell us that the American diet fails to come even close to proper nutritional consumption. However, the problem with the American diet is actually easily fixable if people start making smart, informed choices about their food. By properly educating the general public about nutrition and health, the obesity epidemic can be controlled and cured, leaving America with happier, healthier citizens.

In order to understand why obesity is so prevalent in America today, the average diet of American citizens must be taken into account. According to data provided by The United States Department of Agriculture, Americans today consume too much red meat and sugar and too little vegetables and carbohydrates (grains). Because we consume so much red meat, which is high in saturated fat, calories and cholesterol, our diets are inherently riddled with fat and calories. Our sugar consumption also is a glaring issue.

By consuming far more simple carbohydrates than we need from sugar, Americans are providing themselves with empty calories that spike blood glucose. This is compounded with the fact that the average American diet lacks proper consumption of complex carbohydrates, which come from whole grains and wheat products. That is a lot of information to digest (no pun intended), but what does it all mean.

Well, according to the panel of nutrition specialists who set the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the U. S. nd Canada, the over consumption of red meat and sweets along with the under consumption of complex carbohydrates and fruits and vegetables has cause an increase in numerous diseases for the average American. These diseases include: Coronary Heat Disease, Diabetes, Obesity, Heart Attack, Stroke, and numerous forms of cancer, among other things. The most obvious of these in the American public is obesity and diabetes. However, increases in the previously mentioned diseases have been connected with American’s poor dietary habits as well. So how does one correct their eating habits?

Instead of consuming red meats and foods rich in sugar and simple carbohydrates, Americans should make alternative choices that will provide them with adequate nutrition and energy. For example, instead of having a burger for dinner, which judging by the average American diet is probably loaded with red meat, cheese, and other products high in saturated fat and cholesterol, a person should go instead with chicken breast or fish as their meat source for dinner. Chicken breast provides just as much protein, if not more than red meat, contains little to no saturated fat, and is a good source of other essential vitamins and minerals.

Fish shares all the good qualities of chicken breast and contains many essential oils such as Omega-3 and Omega-6, which have been shown to reduce cholesterol and lower body fat content. Instead of choosing soda to go along with a meal, people should choose water or non-fat milk instead. And for goodness sake, people need to put their sandwiches on wheat bread. White bread has lower levels of protein, iron, fiber, and complex carbohydrates and has higher levels of sugar and simple carbohydrates than wheat bread. Another issue is our consumption of vegetables and fruits.

The average American should obtain around 3 cups of vegetables and 2 cups of fruits every day. Most Americans don’t bother to take in half of this recommended amount, which is clearly an issue. Again, the solution to this is fairly simple and easily obtainable. Instead of having fries with a meal, a salad or a side of broccoli and carrots is a simple alternative. For dessert, cake can be replaced with a banana or an apple. These small differences in the diet really do make a large difference in the long run. Vegetables provide us vitamins, antioxidants, enzymes, minerals, and fiber.

While fruits also provide the body with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants, they also provide the body fructose, which is later converted to glucose for energy. Changing the average American diet is not as difficult as it sounds. Providing the public with proper information about food and what is actually in it, along with making healthy food choices readily available to the average citizen will go a long way to curbing and preventing the obesity epidemic. The benefits of eating healthy are monumental. A longer, more active, healthier future is in store for those who change their eating habits.

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Nutritious Eating Habits

1/ I think one of the social criticisms of marketing’s impacts on individual consumers is the price. Because of the expensive costs of developing such as “long lead times, the need to enlist the help of nutritional experts around the world, and the need to develop products that appeal to the local population’s tastes” (598) Vitango and Nutristar have high price that is out of reach of people in those poor target countries such as Botswana and Venezuela. Moreover, fortified products are also criticized for containing large amount of harmful substance such as fat and sugar that could lead to obesity. For example, high consumption of Nutristar when combined with McDonald can cause health issues to its customers as those products contain a large amount of fat, sugar, salt and cholesterol.

2/ In my opinion, political power is a social criticism of marketing’s impacts on society. Big companies want to promote and protect their interests. As a result, they don’t want to lose profit if they offer the product at a reasonable price, so Coca Cola and P&G want to work with the governments for favorable tax and tariffs.

However, either those companies are distrusted or those governments either cannot afford or don’t have sufficient resources to educate their people about fortified food, makes those companies seek for help from non-profit organizations such as GAIN to help lobby for lower tax rates and promote their products by giving those governments money to create more demands. Although fortified food is promoted to deal with deficient nutrient, they cannot completely stop malnutrition; as a result, they create false wants for people in those countries.

Through non-profit organization, big companies educate target population about fortifies food and other beverage drinks, but not educating people about nutritious eating habits which is the real needs for those countries. Nutristar sold with McDonald’s happy meals does not help fight nutrition deficient, but it creates worse eating habit with fast food, which can lead to obesity or other health problem.

3/ Products such as Vitango and Nutristar are not considered enlightened marketing. First, those products ignore societal marketing, they see societal problems such as starvation or political corruption in poor countries as opportunities to promote and sell their products. Instead of educating people in those countries about nutritious food, those companies try to promote their products’ benefits. Vitango and Nutristar are pleasing products which deals temporarily with nutrition deficiency; but in the long run, it can stop malnutrition. When customers depend on supplement products, their interests such as health are affected.

In addition, many big companies place its mission in products and profits over broad social terms. In Vitango and Nutristar case; such fortified products is to create an image of the company in order to earn the market and increase profits by selling other products such as snack or juices in the future. 4/ In my opinion, the development and marketing of fortified products are unethical. As discussed above, the development and launching of fortified products are just a small part of a bigger marketing plan.

First, those companies try to allure people in poor countries by helping them deal with nutrition deficiency with fortified products, but that is just the base to selling other products. Besides, through non-profit organizations, they educate those people about their products’ values rather than educate them about the need of nutritious eating habits. Secondly, through funding and lobbying with the local governments, those companies can have influence over the market and the governments that could lead to many serious problems in politic.

4/ In my opinion, in order to succeed with product such as Vitango, Coca Cola must consider many factors beside the price. First, in poor countries where malnutrition is a major concern, it must place societal missions ahead by helping non-profit organizations educate people about the needs of nutritious eating. Besides, they should educate people about fortified food as a supplement, not a substitute against nutrition deficiency. Last but not least, Coca Cola has to find a solution for the price problem; they have to adjust the price, so Vitango is purchasable in poor countries.

When the product is accepted and well-know, the company can earn a lot of profits without conducting unethical actions. Another thought about the case, although Vitango and Nutristar are criticized because of many ethical issues, I think that is a trade-off. To satisfy stockholder’s expectations, those companies always have to find a way to maximize profits, and that profits have to be traded with some critics. From the corporate viewpoint, those critics may not cost the company a lot, so there is no reason they would not conduct such negligent actions.