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Physical Fitness Program

In a recent survey of our associates, over 35 percent requested that we start a physical fitness program. Other companies in our area have already begun similar programs and have seen a decline in absenteeism rates.

After reviewing the services of all local gyms, I have recommended

that we initiate a contract with Jack and Jill’s gym that is conveniently located within two blocks of our building. This gym provides individual fitness evaluations and plans to help each person move toward specific improvement goals. The owners boast of having the latest best-maintained equipment in the area, and they limit their membership, preventing, as much as possible, long waiting lines for equipment use.

Enclosed are several brochures that list services and prices for individual gym memberships. Obviously, we would have to negotiate a group rate. I will call you later this week to arrange a time when we can talk about providing a physical fitness program for our associates. Such a program, in my opinion, would have many benefits for the associates and the company.

Enclosures

 

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“Nature and the Physical World”

Most common attitudes and behaviors today on nature greatly evolved during the Romantic Era. Before, in some European countries, people don’t usually celebrate any occasion related to nature. But today’s society, because Romanticism evolved, it greatly affects our perspective and approach towards nature.

When talking about nature in the Romantic Era, Rousseau is an important figure. He is the man who loves to be associated with nature. He would usually walk and explore nature related sites, climb mountains, and just simply communicate with nature. Rousseau is man of sensitivity, mood and even paranoia. In his time, he explored the agonies of love and the sentimental aspect of it. Love is the most popular feeling celebrated in the Romantic Era. This is known before as a relationship between two individuals and up to now; we use this as a common definition of Love.

As we all know, when we encounter Romanticism, it reflects European society. Before, Europe is surrounded by tragic happenings, emotions not being expressed freely, and places where usually killings would take place. But now, it is safer, less hazardous, and even very much beautiful to explore. Mountains and forest or deep woods are no longer places to be afraid of. Instead these are places that are awesome to commune with nature and to be enjoyed and pondered on. Storms on the ocean are now being used as one of the most interesting subject on paintings, musical tones, poems, and writings.

Before, things such as ocean storms, lightning, deep woods or mountain views are often being feared. No one would dare to draw closer to these things in fear of losing their lives. Another reason is the supernatural beliefs of people that these things were left unexplored.

In the Romantic Era, romantics did not just arouse the sensitivity of emotions, but also it aroused the sensitivity to nature. People have come to realize that communicating with nature could improve one’s lifestyle and belief. Nowadays, people would explore nature and its wilderness, and they usually feel the overwhelming calmness and relaxation that it provides. It has proven that the shift in attitude towards nature is powerful and really can offer long-lasting serenity and positive perception within self.

Another important figure during the romantic era is William Wordsworth. Romantic Era in poetry is centered with man’s relationship with nature and the fascination of man with Mother Earth. For Wordsworth, the definition of Romanticism is the passionate relationship towards nature and its wonder and wilderness. In his time, the word “pantheism” was stated.

Because Wordsworth made to reflect his naturalistic attitude in his works, modern Pantheists described it now that God is called life of all, nature, earth and the universe. Pantheists have deep admiration and respect of all living things around us, even the forces outside the earth or in the universe. But Wordsworth did not focus mainly on these things. What he focused on is the appreciation and love for beauty and exquisiteness of Mother Earth and nature.

Wordsworth, just like Rousseau, would often go for walks, exploring the beauty of life around us. He would also climb mountains and the most common is his paying attention to the things related to nature that an ordinary individual would often miss in his everyday life. What he often witnessed when he is outdoors, was the overall feeling of calmness and serenity in times of agony and loneliness. We could tell that the love, peace and comfort that Wordsworth is getting from nature is actually the feeling we get every time we call for God.

In the Romantic Era, we could probably come across an identical observation, because during this time Industrialization is also emerging and became one of the most attended things by people. Probably, just like Wordsworth, people would also love to go out of the city and search for peace and quietness in one place; just like what Mother Nature provides. These things were what poetry is during these times and even up to now. People tend to find a place where they can relax and be away from all the hard works, materialism, and aristocracies. A place where they can celebrate life and enjoy living as a free individual.

In Wordsworth time, nature as described to provide these things would not probably be accepted; for a reason that during these times Church controls almost everyone and everything. Maybe people have tried but it was not socially accepted and anyone who must have caught doing this was branded as deviating from what society’s norm is dictating.

Rousseau and Wordsworth, as well as some other Romantic poets and figures, have only one inspiration; Mother Nature and all the living things surrounding us. The paintings, poems, pictures and writings done during these times will probably make us realize how important it is to be away, even for sometime in the materialistic world. These things will also be our heaven in seeking comfort, peace and calmness within ourselves. Jut like poets and figures in the Romantic Era, we will perceive nature as the only thing that will give us no worries no matter what we lose, no matter what the circumstance is. It is the only thing that others cannot get from us, because it will just stay within us; in our hearts and in our minds.

References:

http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/hum_303/romanticism.html

http://www.customessaymeister.com/customessays/Poetry/3389.htm

 

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Physical Fitness

Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. Ed. or P. E. ) or gymnastics(gym or gym class) is a course taken during primary and secondary educationthat encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting. Physical education trends have developed recently to incorporate a greater variety of activities. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or Frisbee at an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into adulthood. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga and deep-breathing.

Teaching non-traditional sports to students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their activity, and can help students learn about different cultures. For example, while teaching a unit about lacrosse (in, say, Arizona, USA), students can also learn a little bit about the Native American cultures of the Northeast and Eastern Canada, where lacrosse originated. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social studies from the example above), which may now be required of many P.

E. teachers. The four aspects of P. E. are physical, mental, social, and emotional. Another trend is the incorporation of Health and Nutrition to the physical education curriculum. The Child Nutrition and WIC Re-authorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. While teaching students sports and movement skills, P. E. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum.

This is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Recently most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. With the recent outbreaks of diseases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics. Today many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health courses. Many colleges and Universities offer both Physical Education and Health as one certification.

This push towards health education is beginning in the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self-esteem and stress and anger management. In the USA, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, dozens of sports and hundreds of carefully reviewed drills and exercises, including exposure to the education with the use of pedometer, GPS, and heart rate monitors, as well as state-of-the-art exercise machines in the upper grades.

Some martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia and Malaysia, are taught to teach children self-defense and to feel good about themselves. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students are encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community resources.

In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex.

Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodge ball, flag football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these have on young children. It is, however, important to note that many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education programs have been cut. Technology use in physical education New technology in Physical education is playing a big role in classes. One of the most affordable and effective would be a simple tape recorder.

With the use of a tape recorder students can see the mistakes they’re making in things such as a throwing motion or swinging form[4]. Studies show that students do find this more effective than having someone just telling them what they are doing wrong and trying to correct it. Educators also found the use of other technologies such as pedometers and heart rate monitors very successful, using them to make step and heart rate goals for students. Other technologies that can be used in a Physical Education setting would include projectors, GPS and even gaming systems such as Kinect for XBOX360, Wii Fit and Dance Dance Revolution.

Projectors can be used to show students things such as proper form or how to play certain games. GPS systems can be used to get students active in an outdoor setting and active exergames can be used by teachers to show students a good way to stay fit in and out of the classroom setting[7] Another type of technology that is commonly used in Physical Education is the use of pedometers. Pedemeters do not necessarily track how far a person is going, but it lets them know the number of steps they are making. It will let them know how many steps on average they are making and want to strive to get more the next class. 1] There are many lessons that you can use for many grade levels when you are teaching students to use a pedometer it is important to make it a game, especially for younger students. [2] [edit]Worldwide In South Korea, it is mandatory for pupils to take 3 hours of PE through primary and secondary schools. In Portugal, pupils from primary school could optionally join PE as an extra-curricular activity. From middle school to secondary school pupils must participate in PE classes 2 hours per week. In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every week, except during examination seasons.

Pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, captain’s ball, and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as touchball, fencing, and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, and squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/Inclined pull-ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1. km for primary [10-12 year-olds]/2. 4 km for secondary and junior college levels [13-18 year-olds]). Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze or fail. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country’s compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail. In Malaysia, pupils from primary schools to secondary schools are expected to do 2 periods or 1 hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examination. In most secondary schools, games like badminton, sepak takraw, football, basketball and tennis are available.

Pupils are allowed to bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher. In most secondary schools, physical exams are rarely done, schools record pupils’ heights, weights and how many push-ups they can do. In Scotland, pupils are expected to do at least two periods of PE in first, second, third and fourth year. In fifth and sixth year, PE is voluntary. [citation needed] Indonesian high school students are playing traditional game “Benteng” In Indonesia, students ranging from Kindergarten to High School have PE integrated with their curriculum.

Kindergarten until Grade 3 of Elementary students have gymnastics, starting from Grade 4 of Elementary School, students will be introduced into traditional martial arts Pencak Silat and some team games such as badminton, tennis, soccer, futsal, rounders, basketball, etc. Starting from Junior High School, Both gender are separated during PE class. PE find its place in extracurricular forms, where students can specialize themself in one kind of sports they choose. Sport Festival can be held during vacuum period, usually after examination.

At this time students can compete each other by bringing own class’ flag. Some universities such as ITB include PE in curriculum for freshmen Some countries include Martial Artstraining in school as part of Physical Education class. These Filipino children are doing karate. In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts training into their Physical Education curriculum. [8][9][10][11][12] In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11. [13] In Wales, pupils are expected to do only one hour of PE per fortnight. 14] In Poland, pupils are expected to do at least three hours of PE a week during primary and secondary education. [15] Universities must also organise at least 60 hours of physical education classes at undergraduate courses. [16] In India, Physical Education is an important subject in schools. Many students chose Physical Education as a subject against Language Subject Like English, French, some time official language Hindi and some time local languages like Punjabi, because it is very scoring subject and very interesting. Assignments on Physical education increase the interest in Sports.

Educational Bodies in India like Central Board of Secondary Education and Punjab School Education Board are in those which conduct examination on Physical Education in affiliated schools and collages. [edit]Adapted physical education Main article: Adapted Physical Education Adapted Physical Education or APE, is a sub-discipline and self-control of physical education, focusing on inclusion and students with special needs. Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness (a state of health and well-being), and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects ofsports or occupations).

Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, and enough rest. Contents [hide] 1 Definitions 2 Fitness 3 Training 4 Menopause and Physical Fitness 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links [edit]Definitions Physical fitness has been defined as a set of attributes or characteristics that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. The above definition from Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General is the most common currently used definition of physical fitness.

It was originally used by Caspersen and has been used extensively. An alternative definition by Howley and Frank that provides additional descriptive information is: Physical fitness is a state of well-being with low risk of premature health problems and energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. While either is a good definition, most experts agree that physical fitness is both multidimensional and hierarchical. In previous years[when? ], fitness was commonly defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue.

However, as automation increased leisure time, changes in lifestyles following the industrial revolution rendered this definition insufficient. In current contexts, physical fitness is considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations. [1] [edit]Fitness A US marine performing fitness exercises. The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports — a study group sponsored by thegovernment of the United States—declines to offer a simple definition of physical fitness.

Instead, it developed the following chart: Health relatedSkill relatedSports Metabolic Morphological Bone integrity OtherBody composition Cardiovascular fitness Flexibility Muscular endurance Muscle strength Agility Balance Coordination Power Speed Reaction time OtherTeam sport Individual sport Lifetime Other A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual will probably focus on one or more specific skills,[2] and on age-[3] or health-related needs such as bone health. [4] Many sources[citation needed]also cite mental, social and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness.

This is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical, emotional, and mental fitness. Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging. [5] Working out can also help people sleep better. To stay healthy it is important to engage in physical activity. [6] [edit]Training Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person’s ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports ormilitary service. Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sports.

Examples are: 100 m sprint: in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race. Marathon: in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum. Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job. [7] Soldiers of the United States Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). [8] Hill sprints, this training requires a level of fitness to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles.

The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races. [edit]Menopause and Physical Fitness The menopausal period in women is frequently associated with many subjective complaints including vasomotor symptoms, sleep disturbance, alteration in mood, lowered libido, and musculoskeletal pain. All of these symptoms could lead to a lower quality of life. Physical Fitness has the ability to alleviate or even eliminate the effect of most of these. Women experiencing their menopausal period should engage in regular exercise in order to achieve better physical fitness. [9]

Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Federation Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG). Each country has its own national governing body affiliated to FIG. Competitive artistic gymnastics is the best known of the gymnastic sports. It typically involves the women’s events of uneven bars, balance beam, floor exercise, and vault. Men’s events are floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, vault, parallel bars, and high bar.

Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks, that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills. Other gymnastic disciplines include: trampolining, tumbling, rhythmic gymnastics,aerobic gymnastics and acrobatic gymnastics. Participants can include children as young as four years old doing kindergym and children’s gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of ages 5 and up, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, and world class athletes. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Forms 4 Artistic gymnastics 4. 1 Events for women . 2 Events for men 4. 3 Rhythmic gymnastics 4. 4 Trampolining and tumbling 4. 5 Acrobatic gymnastics 4. 6 Aerobic gymnastics 4. 7 TeamGym 4. 8 Display gymnastics 5 Former apparatus and events 5. 1 Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) 5. 2 Rope climb 5. 3 Flying rings 6 Popular culture 6. 1 Film 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit]Etymology The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective ?????? (gymnos) meaning “naked”,[1] by way of the related verb ??????? (gymnazo), whose meaning is “to train naked”, “train in gymnastic exercise”, generally “to train, to exercise”. 2] The verb had this meaning, because athletes exercised and competed without clothing [edit]History 1908 Summer Olympics in London: Display of the British women’s gymnastics team Exercises of the ancient Greeks began with athletic feats performed by each individual according to his own notion. The youth were encouraged to combine amusement with exercise. In time, this kind of exercise was incorporated into a system that figured prominently in the state regulations for education. In fact, the period for exercise or gymnastics was equal to the time spent on art and music combined. 3] All Greek cities had a gymnasium, a courtyard for jumping, running, and wrestling. The term included stretching exercises and warm-up preparations for athletes (from the Greek athlete ????? athlos, which means “struggle”, “fight”). These tests were based on military exercises. As the Roman Empire ascended, the Greek gymnastics gave way to gymnastics whose purpose was military training. The Romans, for example, introduced the wooden horse. In AD 393 the Emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympic Games, which by then had become corrupt, and gymnastics, along with other sports, declined. For centuries, gymnastics was all but forgotten. 4] In the year 1569, Girolamo Mercuriale from Forli (Italy) wrote Le Arte Gymnastica, that brought together his study of the attitudes of the ancients toward diet, exercise and hygiene, and the use of natural methods for the cure of disease. De Arte Gymnastica also explained the principles of physical therapy and is considered the first book on sports medicine. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Germany, three pioneer physical educators – Johann Friedrich GutsMuths (1759–1839) and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778–1852) – created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they had esigned that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. Don Francisco Amoros y Ondeano, marquis de Sotelo, was born on February 19, 1770 in Valence and died on August 8, 1848 in Paris. He was a Spanish colonel, and the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. In particular, Jahn crafted early models of the horizontal bar, the parallel bars (from a horizontal ladder with the rungs removed), and the vaulting horse. [4] The Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in Liege in 1881. 5] By the end of the nineteenth century, men’s gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first “modern” Olympic Games in 1896. From then on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, gymnastics, that would seem strange to today’s audiences and that included for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping, running, and horizontal ladder. During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events.

The first women’s Olympic competition was primitive, for it involved only synchronized calisthenics, was held at the 1928 Games, in Amsterdam. By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 15) had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. The new medium of television helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics.

Both men’s and women’s gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. Nadia Comaneci received the first perfect score, at the 1976 Summer Olympics held inMontreal, Canada. She was coached in Romania by the Romanian coach, (Hungarian ethnicity), Bela Karolyi. Comaneci scored four of her perfect tens on the uneven bars, two on the balance beam and one in the floor exercise. [6] Even with Nadia’s perfect scores, the Romanians lost the gold medal to the Soviet Union.

Nevertheless, Comaneci became an Olympic icon. In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score (or D score) being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine (excluding Vault). The B Score (or E Score), is the score for execution, and is given for how well the skills are performed. [7] [edit]Forms Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. 1] Aerobic literally means “living in air”,[2] and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. [3] Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobicmetabolism can be performed for extended periods of time. [1] Contents [hide] 1 Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise 2 Aerobic capacity 3 Criticisms 4 Commercial success 5 Varieties of aerobic (cardiovascular) exercise 5. 1 Indoor 5. 2 Outdoor . 3 Indoor or outdoor 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links [edit]Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise This section needs additional citations for verification. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) Fox and Haskell formula showing the split between aerobic (light orange) and anaerobic (dark orange) exercise and heart rate.

Aerobic exercise and fitness can be contrasted with anaerobic exercise, of which strength training and short-distance running are the most salient examples. The two types of exercise differ by the duration and intensity of muscular contractions involved, as well as by how energy is generated within the muscle. In most conditions, anaerobic exercise occurs simultaneously with aerobic exercises because the less efficient anaerobic metabolism must supplement the aerobic system due to energy demands that exceed the aerobic system’s capacity.

What is generally called aerobic exercise might be better termed “solely aerobic”, because it is designed to be low-intensity enough not to generate lactate via pyruvate fermentation, so that all carbohydrate is aerobically turned into energy. Initially during increased exertion, muscle glycogen is broken down to produce glucose, which undergoes glycolysis producing pyruvate which then reacts with oxygen (Krebs cycle) to produce carbon dioxide and water and releasing energy.

If there is a shortage of oxygen (anaerobic exercise, explosive movements), carbohydrate is consumed more rapidly because the pyruvate ferments into lactate. If the intensity of the exercise exceeds the rate with which the cardiovascular system can supply muscles with oxygen, it results in buildup of lactate and quickly makes it impossible to continue the exercise. Unpleasant effects of lactate buildup initially include the burning sensation in the muscles, and may eventually include nausea and even vomiting if the exercise is continued without allowing lactate to clear from the bloodstream.

As glycogen levels in the muscle begin to fall, glucose is released into the bloodstream by the liver, and fat metabolism is increased so that it can fuel the aerobic pathways. Aerobic exercise may be fueled by glycogen reserves, fat reserves, or a combination of both, depending on the intensity. Prolonged moderate-level aerobic exercise at 65% VO2 max (the heart rate of 150 bpm for a 30-year-old human) results in the maximum absolute contribution of fat to the total energy expenditure. At this level, fat may contribute 40% to 60% of total, depending on the duration of the exercise.

Vigorous exercise above 75% VO2max (160 bpm) primarily burns glycogen. [4][5] Major muscles in a rested, untrained human typically contain enough energy for about 2 hours of vigorous exercise. Exhaustion of glycogen is a major cause of what marathon runners call “hitting the wall”. Training, lower intensity levels, and carbohydrate loading may allow to postpone the onset exhaustion beyond 4 hours. [5] Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a relatively long period of time. For example, running a long distance at a oderate pace is an aerobic exercise, but sprinting is not. Playing singles tennis, with near-continuous motion, is generally considered aerobic activity, while golf or two person team tennis, with brief bursts of activity punctuated by more frequent breaks, may not be predominantly aerobic. Some sports are thus inherently “aerobic”, while other aerobic exercises, such as fartlek training or aerobic dance classes, are designed specifically to improve aerobic capacity and fitness. It is most common for aerobic exercises to involve the leg muscles, primarily or exclusively. There are some exceptions.

For example,rowing to distances of 2,000 m or more is an aerobic sport that exercises several major muscle groups, including those of the legs, abdominals, chest, and arms. Common kettlebell exercises combine aerobic and anaerobic aspects. Among the recognized benefits of doing regular aerobic exercise are: Strengthening the muscles involved in respiration, to facilitate the flow of air in and out of the lungs Strengthening and enlarging the heart muscle, to improve its pumping efficiency and reduce the resting heart rate, known as aerobic conditioning Strengthening muscles throughout the body

Improving circulation efficiency and reducing blood pressure Increasing the total number of red blood cells in the body, facilitating transport of oxygen Improved mental health, including reducing stress and lowering the incidence of depression Reducing the risk for diabetes. Burns body fat, while building leaner muscle. As a result, aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular problems. In addition, high-impact aerobic activities (such as jogging or using a skipping rope) can stimulate bone growth, as well as reduce the risk of osteoporosis for both men and women.

In addition to the health benefits of aerobic exercise, there are numerous performance benefits: Increased storage of energy molecules such as fats and carbohydrates within the muscles, allowing for increased endurance Neovascularization of the muscle sarcomeres to increase blood flow through the muscles Increasing speed at which aerobic metabolism is activated within muscles, allowing a greater portion of energy for intense exercise to be generated aerobically Improving the ability of muscles to use fats during xercise, preserving intramuscular glycogen Enhancing the speed at which muscles recover from high intensity exercise Both the health benefits and the performance benefits, or “training effect”, require a minimum duration and frequency of exercise. Most authorities suggest at least twenty minutes performed at least three times per week. [6] [edit]Aerobic capacity Main article: VO2 max Aerobic capacity describes the functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system, (the heart, lungs and blood vessels).

Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during a specified period, usually during intense exercise. [7] It is a function both of cardiorespiratory performance and the maximum ability to remove and utilize oxygen from circulating blood. To measure maximal aerobic capacity, an exercise physiologist or physician will perform a VO2 max test, in which a subject will undergo progressively more strenuous exercise on a treadmill, from an easy walk through to exhaustion.

The individual is typically connected to a respirometer to measure oxygen consumption, and the speed is increased incrementally over a fixed duration of time. The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurance level, the more oxygen has been transported to and used by exercising muscles, and the higher the level of intensity at which the individual can exercise. More simply stated, the higher the aerobic capacity, the higher the level of aerobic fitness. The Cooper and multi-stage fitness tests can also be used to assess functional aerobic capacity for particular jobs or activities.

The degree to which aerobic capacity can be improved by exercise varies very widely in the human population: while the average response to training is an approximately 17% increase in VO2max, in any population there are “high responders” who may as much as double their capacity, and “low responders” who will see little or no benefit from training. [8] Studies indicate that approximately 10% of otherwise healthy individuals cannot improve their aerobic capacity with exercise at all. [9] The degree of an individual’s responsiveness is highly heritable, suggesting that this trait is genetically determined. 8] An aerobics class. This article is about the type of exercise. For the exercise physiology topic, see Aerobic exercise. Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretchingand strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility,muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor (fitness professional), although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment.

With the goal of preventing illness and promotingphysical fitness, practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. Aerobics classes may allow participants to select their level of participation according to their fitness level. Many gyms offer a variety of aerobic classes. Each class is designed for a certain level of experience and taught by a certified instructor with a specialty area related to their particular class. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Aerobic gymnastics 3 See also 4 References edit]History Both the term and the specific exercise method were developed by Dr. Kenneth Cooper, M. D. , an exercise physiologist, and Col. Pauline Potts, a physical therapist, both of the United States Air Force. Dr. Cooper, an avowed exercise enthusiast, was personally and professionally puzzled about why some people with excellent muscular strength were still prone to poor performance at tasks such as long-distance running, swimming, and bicycling. He began measuring systematic human performance using a bicycle ergometer, and began measuring sustained performance in terms of a person’s ability to use oxygen.

His groundbreaking book, Aerobics, was published in 1968, and included scientific exercise programs using running, walking, swimming and bicycling. The book came at a fortuitous historical moment, when increasing weakness and inactivity in the general population was causing a perceived need for increased exercise. [edit]Aerobic gymnastics Aerobic gymnastics, also known as sport aerobics and competitive aerobics, is a type of competitive aerobics involving complicatedchoreography, rhythmic and acrobatic gymnastics with elements of aerobics. 1] Performance is divided into categories by age, sex and groups (individual, mixed pairs and trios) and are judged on the following elements: dynamic and static strength, jumps and leaps, kicks, balance and flexibility. Ten exercises are mandatory: four consecutive high leg kicks, patterns. A maximum of ten elements from following families are allowed: push-ups, supports and balances, kicks and splits, jumps and leaps. Elements of tumbling such ashandsprings, handstands, back flips, and aerial somersaults are prohibited. Scoring is by judging of artistic quality, creativity, execution, and difficulty of routines.

Sport aerobics has state, national, and international competitions, but is not an Olympic sport. [edit]Artistic gymnastics Main article: Artistic gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is usually divided into Men’s and Women’s Gymnastics. Typically men compete on six events: Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars, and High Bar, while women compete on four: Vault, Uneven Bars, Balance Beam, and Floor Exercise. In some countries, women at one time competed on the rings, high bar, and parallel bars (for example, in the 1950s in the USSR).

Though routines performed on each event may be short, they are physically exhausting and push the gymnast’s strength, flexibility, endurance and awareness to the limit. In 2006, FIG introduced a new points system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points. The system is used in the US for elite level competition. [7] Unlike the old code of points, there are two separate scores. An execution score and a difficulty score. In the previous system, the “execution score” was the only score. It was and still is out of 10. 00.

During the gymnast’s performance, the judges deduct from this score only. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1. 00 deduction, in elite level gymnastics. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change. The gymnast’s difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills, or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. Connection bonuses are the most common deduction from a difficulty score, as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements.

It is very hard to connect skills if the first skill is not performed correctly. The new code of points allows the gymnasts to gain higher scores based on the difficulty of the skills they perform as well as their execution. [edit]Events for women Piked Tsukahara vault. Vault In the vaulting events gymnasts sprint down a 25 metres (82 ft) runway, jump onto or perform a roundoff entry onto a springboard (run/ take-off segment), land momentarily, inverted on the hands on the vaulting horse or vaulting table (pre flight segment), then spring off of this platform to a two footed landing (post flight segment).

Every gymnast starts at a different point on the vault runway depending on their height and strength. The post flight segment may include one or more multiple saltos or somersaults, and/or twisting movements. Round-off entry vaults are the most common vaults in elite level gymnastics. In vaults with roundoff entries, gymnasts “round-off” so hands are on the runway while the feet land on the springboard (beatboard). From the roundoff position the gymnast travels backwards as in a backhandspring so that the hands land on the vaulting platform (horse).

She then blocks off the vaulting platform into various twisting and/or somersaulting combinations. The post flight segment brings the gymnast to her feet. In 2001, the traditional vaulting horse was replaced with a new apparatus, sometimes known as a tongue or table. The new apparatus is more stable, wider, and longer than the older vaulting horse—approximately 1m in length and 1m in width—giving gymnasts a larger blocking surface, and is therefore considered safer than the old vaulting horse. With the addition of this new, safer vaulting table, gymnasts are attempting more difficult and dangerous vaults. 8] Gymnast on uneven bars. Uneven Bars On the uneven bars (also known as asymmetric bars, UK), the gymnast performs a routine on two horizontal bars set at different heights. These bars are made of fiberglass covered in wood laminate, to prevent them from breaking. In the past, bars were made of wood, but the bars were prone to breaking, providing an incentive to switch to newer technologies. The width of the bars may be adjusted. Gymnasts perform swinging, circling, transitional, and release moves, that may pass over, under, and between the two bars.

Movements may pass through the handstand. Gymnasts often mount the Uneven Bars using a springboard. Balance Beam The gymnast performs a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in length consisting of leaps, acrobatic skills, somersaults, turns and dance elements on a padded beam. The beam is 125 centimetres (4 ft 1 in) from the ground, 500 centimetres (16 ft 5 in) long, and 10 centimetres (3. 9 in) wide. [9] The event requires, in particular, balance, flexibility, poise and strength. Gymnast doing a stag leap on floor exercise. Floor

In the past, the Floor Exercise event was executed on the bare floor or mats such as wrestling mats. Today, the floor event occurs on a carpeted 12m ? 12m square, usually consisting of hard foam over a layer of plywood, which is supported by springs or foam blocks generally called a “spring” floor. This provides a firm surface that provides extra bounce or spring when compressed, allowing gymnasts to achieve extra height and a softer landing than would be possible on a standard floor. Gymnasts perform a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in the Floor Exercise event.

They must choose an accompanying music piece. In some gymnastic associations such as United States Association of Gymnastic Clubs (USAIGC), gymnasts are allowed to have vocals in their music[10] but USA Gymnastics competitions a large deduction is taken from the score for having vocals in the music. ,[11] The routine should consist of tumbling lines, series of jumps, dance elements, acrobatic skills, and turns, or piviots, on one foot. A gymnast can perform up to four tumbling lines that usually includes at least one flight element without hand support.

Each level of gymnastics requires the athlete to perform a different number of tumbling passes. In level 7 in the United states, a gymnast is required to do 2–3, and in levels 8–10, at least 3–4 tumbling passes are required. [12] Scoring: A gymnast’s score comes from deductions taken from their start value. The start value of a routine is calculated based on the difficulty of the elements the gymnast attempts and whether or not the gymnast meets composition requirements. The composition requirements are different for each apparatus.

This score is called the D score. [13] Deductions in execution and artistry are taken from 10. 0. This score is called the E score. [14] The final score is calculated by taking deductions from the E score, and adding the result to the D score. [15] And since 2007, the scoring system has changed by adding bonus plus the execution and then adding those two together to get the final score. [edit]Events for men Floor Male gymnasts also perform on a 12m. by 12m. spring floor. A series of tumbling passes are performed to demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance.

The gymnast must also show strength skills, including circles, scales, and press handstands. Men’s floor routines usually have four passes that will total between 60–70 seconds and are performed without music, unlike the women’s event. Rules require that male gymnasts touch each corner of the floor at least once during their routine. A boy on the pommel horse Pommel Horse A typical pommel horse exercise involves both single leg and double leg work. Single leg skills are generally found in the form of scissors, an element often done on the pommels. Double leg work however, is the main staple of this event.

The gymnast swings both legs in a circular motion (clockwise or counterclockwise depending on preference) and performs such skills on all parts of the apparatus. To make the exercise more challenging, gymnasts will often include variations on a typical circling skill by turning (moores and spindles) or by straddling their legs (Flares). Routines end when the gymnast performs a dismount, either by swinging his body over the horse, or landing after a handstand. Still Rings The rings are suspended on wire cable from a point 5. 75 meters from the floor, and adjusted in height so the gymnast has room to hang freely and swing.

He must perform a routine demonstrating balance, strength, power, and dynamic motion while preventing the rings themselves from swinging. At least one static strength move is required, but some gymnasts may include two or three. A routine should have a dismount equal in difficulty to the difficulty of the routine as a whole. Vault Gymnasts sprint down a runway, which is a maximum of 25 meters in length, before hurdling onto a spring board. The body position is maintained while “punching” (blocking using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting platform. The gymnast then rotates to a standing position.

In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing. Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle, the kinesthetic awareness in the air, and the speed of rotation in the case of more difficult and complex vaults. Parallel Bars Men perform on two bars slightly further than a shoulder’s width apart and usually 1. 75m high while executing a series of swings, balances, and releases that require great strength and coordination. High Bar A 2. 8 cm thick steel or fiberglass bar raised 2. m above the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold onto as he performs giants(revolutions around the bar), release skills, twists, and changes of direction. By using all of the momentum from giants and then releasing at the proper point, enough height can be achieved for spectacular dismounts, such as a triple-back salto. Leather gripsare usually used to help maintain a grip on the bar. As with the women, male gymnasts are also judged on all of their events, for their execution, degree of difficulty, and overall presentation skills. [edit]Rhythmic gymnastics Irina Tchachina, Russian rhythmic gymnast

Main article: Rhythmic gymnastics Only women compete in rhythmic gymnastics although there is a new version of this discipline for men being pioneered in Japan (see Men’s rhythmic gymnastics). This is a sport that combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance, and apparatus manipulation. The sport involves the performance of five separate routines with the use of five apparatus—ball, ribbon, hoop, clubs, rope—on a floor area, with a much greater emphasis on the aesthetic rather than the acrobatic. There are also group routines consisting of 5 gymnasts and 5 apparatuses of their choice.

Rhythmic routines are scored out of a possible 30 points; the score for artistry (choreography and music) is averaged with the score for difficulty of the moves and then added to the score for execution. [16] International competitions are split between Juniors, under sixteen by their year of birth; and Seniors, for women sixteen and over again by their year of birth. Gymnasts in Russia and Europe typically start training at a very young age and those at their peak are typically in their late teens (15–19) or early twenties. The largest events in the sport are the Olympic Games, World Championships, World Cup and Grand-Prix Tournaments. edit]Trampolining and tumbling Double mini-trampoline competitor Main articles: Trampolining and Tumbling (gymnastics) Trampolining and tumbling consists of four events, individual and synchronized trampoline, double mini trampoline, and tumbling (also known as power tumbling or rod floor[citation needed]). Since 2000, individual trampoline has been included in the Olympic Games. Individual routines in trampolining involve a build-up phase during which the gymnast jumps repeatedly to achieve height, followed by a sequence of ten leaps without pauses during which the gymnast performs a sequence of aerial skills.

Routines are marked out of a maximum score of 10 points. Additional points (with no maximum at the highest levels of competition) can be earned depending on the difficulty of the moves and the length of time taken to complete the ten skills which is an indication of the average height of the jumps. In high level competitions, there are two preliminary routines, one which has only two moves scored for difficulty and one where the athlete is free to perform any routine. This is followed by a final routine which is optional. Some competitions restart the score from zero for the finals, other add the final score to the preliminary results.

Synchronized trampoline is similar except that both competitors must perform the routine together and marks are awarded for synchronization as well as the form and difficulty of the moves. Double mini trampoline involves a smaller trampoline with a run-up, two moves are performed per routine. Moves cannot be repeated in the same place on the double-mini during a competition. Skills can be repeated if a skill is thrown as a mounter in one routine and a dismount in another. The scores are marked in a similar manner to individual trampoline.

In tumbling, athletes perform an explosive series of flips and twists down a sprung tumbling track. Scoring is similar to trampolining. [edit]Acrobatic gymnastics Acrobatic Women’s Pair performing a skill. Main article: Acrobatic gymnastics Acrobatic gymnastics (formerly Sport Acrobatics), often referred to as “Acro” if involved with the sport, acrobatic sports or simply sports acro, is a group gymnastic discipline for both men and women. Acrobats in groups of two, three and four perform routines with the heads, hands and feet of their partners. They may, subject to regulations (e. g. no lyrics), pick their own music.

Throughout the world, there at three FIG levels: Age group (Age 11-16), Junior(12-19) and Senior (15+), which are used in the World Championships and many other events around the world, including European Championships and World Games. All levels require a balance and dynamic routine, Junior and Seniors are also required to perform a final (combined) routine. Currently acrobatic gymnastics is marked out of 30. 00 (can be higher at Senior FIG level based on difficulty): 10. 00 for routine difficulty, (valued from the tables of difficulties) 10. 00 For technical performance, (how well the skills are executed) 10. 0 For Artistry, (the overall performance of the routine, namely choreography) [edit]Aerobic gymnastics Main article: Aerobic gymnastics Aerobic gymnastics (formally Sport Aerobics) involves the performance of routines by individuals, pairs, trios or groups up to 6 people, emphasizing strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness rather than acrobatic or balance skills. Routines are performed for all individuals on a 7x7m floor and also for 12–14 and 15–17 trios and mixed pairs. From 2009, all senior trios and mixed pairs were required to be on the larger floor (10x10m), all groups also perform on this floor.

Routines generally last 60–90 seconds depending on age of participant and routine category. [edit]TeamGym TeamGym (also known as “Gymnastics for All”) has it origins in earliest times. These days, although teams can compete the sport itself was developed to enhance fitness and health in the participants and is accessible to anyone of any age. In 1984 Gymnastics for All was officially recognized first as a Sport Program by the FIG (International Gymnastic Federation), and subsequently by national gymnastic federations world wide with participants that now number 30 million. [17] Floor Programme

All members of the Team take part in the floor program, composed of a mixture of dance, flexibility and skill. The routine has to be skillfully choreographed and the judges look out for changes in shape. There needs to be at least two spins, two balances and two section elements. These section elememts are bodywaves for women’s teams, power elements for men’s teams and lifts for mixed teams. Floor routines are performed to music. Trampette Here a trampette is used. There are two components of this; Vault and the Trampette on its own. There has to be three runs in total. At least one of these runs has to be a vault run.

Another run has to include all the gymnasts doing the same move. This is generally the first run. This is also performed to music. Tumbling Again, here there are three runs (rounds) involved. One of which has to include all six gymnasts doing a forwards series. Another run also has to include the gymnasts completing the same move. Each series must have at least three different acrobatic elements. [18] [edit]Display gymnastics General gymnastics enables people of all ages and abilities to participate in performance groups of 6 to more than 150 athletes. They perform synchronized, choreographed routines. Troupes may be all one gender or mixed.

There are no age divisions in general gymnastics. The largest general gymnastics exhibition is the quadrennial World Gymnaestrada which was first held in 1939. [edit]Former apparatus and events [edit]Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) Starting in 2011, the rhythmic apparatus rope will be removed from all FIG events and clubs will be returned to the competition. FIG has a policy of only using four of the five pieces of apparatus and changes them for different Olympic cycles. This will affect World Cups, World Championships, and Olympics. [edit]Rope climb Main article: Rope climbing Generally, competitors climbed either a 6m (6. m = 20 ft in USA) or an 8m (7. 6m = 25 ft in USA), 38mm (1. 5″) diameter natural fiber rope for speed, starting from a seated position on the floor and using only the hands and arms. Kicking the legs in a kind of “stride” was normally permitted. Many gymnasts can do this in the straddle or pike position, which eliminates the help generated from the legs. [edit]Flying rings Main article: Flying rings Flying rings was an event similar to still rings, but with the performer executing a series of stunts while swinging. It was a gymnastic event sanctioned by both the NCAA and the AAU until the early 1960s.

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Physical Abuse Letter

Shondra Gant 91-1413 Halahua St. Kapolei, HI 96707 (123)456-7890 [email protected] com October 7, 2012 Theo Bark Writer TheBoomBox. com 770 Broadway New York, NY 10003 Dear Mr. Bark, Your article written on October 5, 2012 concerning the Chris Brown and Rihanna matter, writing how her father approves of their reconciliation is not a subject that should just be taken lightly.

Abusive relationships are a serious matter and stating that it is okay to continue a relationship with your abuser is the wrong message to be sending to people, including those that are in abusive relationships and won’t speak up about what they go through. Considering that 80% of girls in abusive relationships continue to be in the relationship with their abuser( Bhatti paragraph 7, statistic 2), ending a relationship and starting it back up again is the same circumstance. Writing this article IS NOT the correct message that you should be sending.

That ultimately the people that hurt you once can change and won’t hurt you again, “He used to hit her…. He swore that it wouldn’t happen again but it only got worse;”( Sparks, P. 64). 33% of teenagers do not speak up if they are being abused( Bhatti paragraph 6, statistic 3), 24% of women ages 18-35 haven’t said if they were being harmed in an abusive relationship( Glamour magazine). When Rihanna spoke up about he matter, they said goodbye, there was a hearing, and they stopped speaking.

Now these rumors of a reconciliation are bringing up memories and making this a hot topic again. And now coming out, saying her father approves of this, that this event between them is just a ‘mistake, and everyone should be forgiven once'( Bark, paragraph 3). People who continue to forgive abusers realize they shouldn’t have, and by writing this article this is what you are saying: Just go ahead and forgive! Abusive relationships are a major issue, but seeing how these are music professionals that people listen to and look up to, this hits home much more.

The children that look up to these individuals will think, “well she took him back! I can too!!! ” Do you have kids Mr. Bark? I don’t, but I have 6 younger siblings, seeing your article that a family member approves of an abuser getting back together with the abused, and every other article stating they are back together IS NOT something I want my siblings thinking is acceptable in society. Thank you for your time in reading my letter on what I thought of your article. Sincerely yours, Shondra Gant

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Data Security and Integrity: Software and Physical Restrictions

Table of Contents Page # Introduction Introduction Maintenance of data security and integrity in reference to: Software Access Restrictions These are inserted for the purposes of protecting computer software. A few forms of software access restrictions are as follows: Passwords Definition: -A string of characters that allows access to a computer, interface or system. How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity? When a person creates a password for access to a computer, folder, program etc. they are creating a code that must be implemented every time they wish to access the software. This means that if any unknown or unauthorized personnel were to attempt to view the material and were unaware of the password then they would be unable to do so, thus securing the data.

The integrity of the data is also highly protected when using a password because if any unknown or unauthorized personnel attempt to access any data that is password protected without knowing the password, they will be denied access. Thus the data cannot be altered in any way and its trustworthiness would remain the same. * Data Encryption Definition: -This is the encryption (encoding) of data for security purposes. How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity? By encrypting, we change the original plaintext version of data into ciphertext, which is an unreadable format that will protect against unauthorized parties.

Only those who possess the key to trigger the algorithm that will decrypt the data, hence making it readable, can access it. A higher bit encryption is much more secure than a lower bit encryption, for example a 256 bit encryption is much more secure than a 128 bit encryption because a hacker will need to try out more possibilities when trying to breach the encryption. Once data is encrypted the integrity of it is safeguarded just as long as it isn’t breached by a hacker or accessed by any unauthorized party who somehow got the key to the algorithm, and was able to decrypt the data. Virus Protection Definition: -This is the protecting of a system from a file that replicates itself without the consent of the user. How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity? Typical anti-virus software protects a computer system from viruses, Trojan horses, worms etc. by means of routinely or manually scanning files and programs to check for the aforementioned malware and if any malicious content is found, it either notifies the user of its presence and suggests steps that can be taken to remove it, or automatically starts doing so by itself.

Any malware that is located early enough by anti-virus software can usually be removed before it can cause any irreversible damage to data. Though there are viruses that can take effect almost immediately and corrupt data very quickly before the virus protection can take action or even notice it. In this case having better virus protection software is necessary. * Firewall Definition: -This is an integrated collection of security measures designed to prevent unauthorized electronic access to a networked computer system.

How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity? A firewall protects a computer system or network from any malicious activity from the internet, for e. g. hackers, viruses and Trojan horses. They do so by filtering any incoming packets of data to decide which data will be let through the firewall and which will be discarded. This means that data already on the computer or network will be better protected against hackers, viruses etc. and any incoming data will be ‘clean’ i. e. without any malicious software attached.

Firewalls assist in maintaining data integrity by its ability to filter data. As long as the firewall prevents malware from entering a computer system or network the data will not be adversely affected thus maintaining its trustworthiness. Physical Access Restrictions These consist of biometric systems as well as other forms of physical access restrictions that are used to protect data. A few forms of physical access restrictions are: * Voice Recognition Definition: -This is a device used for the identifying of individuals by the sound of their voice.

How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity? Voice Recognition is a biometric system i. e. it identifies individuals by a unique human characteristic, their voice. The way this aids in protecting data is as follows: if someone wishes to gain access to something, in this case data, they would need to verify to a computer that they are permitted to view or manipulate the data by speaking. If they are not registered to gain access to the data then the computer would deny them the ability to view or interact with it, thereby maintaining its integrity.

If the speaker is registered with the voice recognition, then it would grant the speaker access. This allows data to be viewed by authorized personnel only. Voice recognition is considered to be more secure than passwords because of the fact that, instead of depending on a secret string of characters to gain entry to the data, it identifies them by their voice hence removing the possibility of guessing. * Retinal Scan Definition: -This is the biometrical identification of individuals by scanning the retina of the eye.

How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity? A retinal scan operates similarly to voice recognition, this is because they are both biometric systems. The way this assists in securing data is as follows: The retina of the eye, which is unique to everyone, is scanned. The computer can identify people by the use of camera technology which can differentiate individuals from one another because of the subtle differences in their retina. If the person is recognized as authorized personnel, then they are allowed to view the data.

If however, they are not authorized to view the data, they will be denied access from doing so as well as from manipulating it, this allows for the safekeeping of data and the maintenance of its integrity. * Fingerprint Recognition Definition: -This is the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints. How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity? This is another biometric system, and the most popular one at that. Fingerprint recognition is widely used for the protection of data because of its accuracy and dependability in identification.

Just as there are no two people who share the exact same voice or retina, there are no two people who share the exact same fingerprints. Because of this, fingerprint recognition can be used to allow someone access to data once the person accessing the data places his finger onto the scanning device. If his fingerprints match those that are registered then he/she is allowed access to the data, otherwise access will be denied. * Fireproof Cabinets Definition: -A fire resistant cupboard/box which can house computer hardware that contains data. How does it assist in securing data and maintaining its integrity?

Data is located inside software, however software cannot function without hardware. Therefore, in order to protect the software which houses data, we must also protect the hardware which houses the software. Fireproof cabinets are an excellent way of doing so. They assist in securing the hardware by allowing it a special area so that it is not lost or misplaced. Also, if there is a fire which could potentially be disastrous, the fire resistant cabinets will protect the hardware from being destroyed while also indirectly protecting the data. Summary Bibliography

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Motivation and Learning in Physical Education

Physical Education is undoubtedly important in the total development of the individual pupil. It is beneficial not only in the physical sense but also in the intellectual and emotional aspect of the child. In the physical sense, the child’s physical self-concept is influenced by the results and accomplishments in exercise and sports. Jarmo Liukkonin pointed out that the resulting self-concept “relies heavily on social comparison process, this means that the reference group and the class environment contribute to the developing self concept” (p 137).

In view of the above, this paper intends to provide an overview of the learning situation in the physical education as well as an analysis of the issues in motivational learning in physical education, particularly on how effective are the different approaches to learning and teaching. This paper will also discuss on the application of the different theories about whether or not they are useful in the classroom instruction. At the last part, is a case study of a particular student featuring particular issue on the student’s physical, intellectual, and emotional growth.

In general the paper will be more on analysis of the motivational and learning process in physical education involving all the different factors such as teachers, students, the different approaches used, and the relevance of the different theories in physical education.

Overview

Research and knowledge in Physical Education has been in rapid expansion over the last twenty years concerning the many factors that influence the learning and teaching of the Physical Education. Colin A. Hardy and Michael Mawer pointed out that this learning and teaching “include such issues as the context in which physical education teachers work, what teachers think about when they are teaching and planning their teaching, and the knowledge they require to teach effectively” (p. 1). Colin Hardy and Michael Mawers view seemed to be pragmatic yet analytical of the learning situation of the physical education.

They were quite critical also of the enormous years spent on research yet it was only in recent years that the real emphasis on physical education was put on the limelight. They contend that despite of such amount of time spent on research, Hardy and Mawer contends that it is only in current years that research has begun to provide an insight into what physical education teachers feel about their role and their lives in teaching, and what pupils themselves feel about the physical education they experience in schools.

In order to understand fully the importance of physical education subject, the question ‘why is physical activity valued’ deserves an answer. Katherine T. Thomas cited the health benefit associated with physically active lifestyle as will as other physical advantages resulting from physical exercise. Thomas pointed out,

“One reason we value physical activity is the health benefit associated with physically active lifestyle. Other reasons are the developmental need to explore and master our environment, to express our selves through movement, and to feel satisfaction resulting from successful movement. Physical activity also provides an opportunity for affiliation. Being part of a group—as a fan, a team member, or a walking partner—meets human need” (p. 5)

Thomas thinking on this subject is certainly practical and seemingly based on actual personal experience. Her statement sounds to be a good advice for anyone whose health condition is not in the best state. Indeed, physical education truly brings a lot of physical benefit to our physical body.

Other authors however emphasized the achievement of goal in order to understand the motivation and behavior of physical activity such as in sport. Robert Daniel Steadward, Elizabeth Jane Watkinson, and Garry David wheeler noted some authors such as Nichols (1984, 1989) and Harters (1978) which pointed out the goal concept theory. According to them, the concept of the achievement goal theory, refer to how people evaluate their competence. It assumes that individual are driven to demonstrate competence, and that perceptions of competence are critical determinant of motivated behavior.

Analysis of the Issues in Motivational Learning in Physical Education

The issue that I found interesting is “how effective are the different approaches to learning and teaching.” Susan Piotrowski noted that there is no single approach is going to be the most effective way to cater for progression and continuity. She pointed out that several or all of these approaches need to be used together to achieved effective progression and continuity in the transfer from primary and secondary school. Piotrowski stated that “what will work in any one situation depends on a number of factors, including the schools and their transfer structures and procedures, the head teachers, primary and secondary education teachers and their ability to work together collaboratively” (p. 204).

Piotrowski further stated that local conditions, facilities, expertise, and policies have a bearing on the type of curriculum that can be realistically offered in both primary and secondary in any given area. It is quite easy to accept Piotrowski’s view as it draws a practical option. Regardless of how others would look at the learning process, I believe it is complicated in the sense that physical education students have different level of intelligence, different cultural orientation, and physical and emotional developments, which affects their own learning process.

Thus Piotrowski wisely stated ‘that there is no single approach is going to be effective, and that combining two or more of the various approaches may be more effective.’ On the other hand, Colin Hardy suggested that more pupil-centered and less direct teaching approaches would allow pupils to take a more independent and active role in decision making in physical education lessons. Ken Green and Ken Hardman, quoting Kane, (1976), Underwood (1988), and Wright (1995) identified differences in teaching approaches used in physical education; either due to the demands of different activities or different intended out comes.

Green Hardman pointed out that the recommendation, which suggest that in order to achieve the range of the learning outcomes, “teachers should employ a variety of teaching strategies to cater for differences in pupils’ abilities, attainment, needs, and ages” (p. 112). Green and Hardman also recognized that there is a need for employing variety of teaching strategies. But they noted that this is because of the demands of the different activities, or the different intended outcome.

Regardless of the reason, it is clear that there is a need for teachers to employ variety of approaches in the motivational learning in physical education, to insure progressive learning process. These approaches, however, must be suited to the local conditions, expertise of the teacher, facilities, and policies, all of which have bearing on the type of curriculum.

An Application of the relevant theories from each topic

Theories on motivation and learning in physical education have been formulated in an attempt to extend our understanding of the teaching and learning process. Among these theories, the theory of constructivism, the theory of behaviorism, and the theory of cognitive mediation are particularly helpful in understanding the learning process in physical education.

Stephen J. Silverman and Catherine D. Ennis explained that Cognitive Mediation Theory “recognizes the significance of reinforcement activities in the learning process.  This explains that what students do in classes is an important step, or mediating factor, between what teachers do and what students learn” (p. 151). According to them, what the students do in classes affect also what teachers do.  Basically, these activities shape teacher’s lesson and students’ understanding of the lesson.  Here is the full explanation of Silverman and Ennis regarding this theory

“Although this modification seems so simple, it is a powerful reconceptualization of the role of the teacher. Rather than directly causing learning, as inferred in the process product paradigm, the teacher from this perspective has the job of structuring the learning environment in a way that encourages students to think and act in ways that will, in turn, enables them to learn” (p. 151)

The main architect of the constructivism theory is Von Glasersfeld (1987), which views students as active agents in their learning. According to this view, students brings with them to an educational setting prior “knowledge and experiences from which they interpret and give meaning to their present experience” (p. 151).

Silverman and Ennis noted that in this theory, knowledge is not something transmitted from the teacher to the students but learner constructs knowledge through her or his interpretation of events from the framework of prior experience, in effect, building or constructing knowledge that has individual meaning.   To apply this theory, teacher must relate the lesson on students’ sphere of experience and allow students to explore the given knowledge utilizing their own experience.  As a result, students will gain meaningful experience out of the new knowledge learned in the classroom.

On the other hand, adherents of behavioral theory emphasized that the study of learning focused on the memorization of simple and rote elements and on the behavior of the learner. Silverman and Ennis pointed out, “This view of learning focuses on the learner as a rather passive responder to externally imposed factors” (p. 134).  Silverman and Ennis stated that this theoretical lens views students as recipients and accumulators of knowledge, able to learn by listening to lectures, by reading or by rote drill and practice of isolated decontextualized skills.

This particular theory is very significant in most studies wherein students have to gain basic understanding of theories of studies before finding the general concept; such as in the case of nursing in which fundamental issues such as anatomy and health ethics must be memorized well before finding its relevance to the field of work.

Learning all these theories provide ample understanding as to how students could learns best the subject of physical education. It means that teachers must employ the use of these theories in their teaching strategies in order to ensure efficient learning process.  Physical Education as a subject is not that interesting for many students; and in that case, teachers must make every learning situation a worthwhile experience.  Hence, applying these theories can help learning enjoyable and fruitful.

In the cognitive theory, students learn through the activities. It means, the physical activities in the physical education provide the pupils learning opportunity. In many cases, this subject is most of the time seventy-percent activities with thirty-percent lectures.  Students are expected to learn from physical exercise of the techniques with occasional coaching from the instructors.  They learn from trying and from their mistakes.

Using Constructivism Theory, students learn by utilizing their own interest and socialization in the learning process.  By relating physical exercises in their own experience will result to students’ acceptability of the learning situation, which may result to higher learning of the subject.

Behavioral Theory could be applicable in terms of learning the theories of the subject.  Here, students are expected to memorize different terminologies and techniques of the subject as well as history and rules of the game.

Below is a case study of a student in high school who has an obvious intelligence yet performing just above average student.

Case Study of a Student

Rick is a high school with obvious sophisticated intelligence but performs merely just above average student in most of his academic subjects in school.  Although, he excelled in Mathematics, but his ratings in his physical education class has been poor because he is not participating in all the physical education activities class.  He has a lung problem that is why he does not participate in his physical education class.

According to the theory of cognitive mediation, reinforcement activities in school such as physical activities in the physical education class, shape the teachers’ lesson and the student understanding. The theory of cognitive mediation implies that student learning can be cause by these activities too. In the case of Rick, although he has obviously sophisticated intelligence, yet his academic performance reflects merely that of above average student. Ricks problem is that because of his inactive physical condition, his learning potential is not fully consummated. Learning coming from his experience of the physical exercise is lacking.

The theory of constructivism also teaches that ‘experience provides learning aside from the class room instructions. The theory of constructivism emphasized that ‘knowledge is not something transmitted from the teacher but learner constructs their knowledge through their experience. Rick’s knowledge has been only a result of spoon-feed learning. He could have excelled in all his subjects had he tried himself to be involve in the physical activities in his physical education class. On the other hand, Rick can be a good model in the behavioral theory of learning as the behavioral theory emphasized that students are passive responder of the externally imposed factors.

In general, the theories of learning have been great help in the learning process.

Work Cited

Capel, S. & Piotrowski, S (eds). 2000. Issues in Physical Education.  London: Routledge.

Green, K. & Hardman, K. 2005. Physical Education: Essential Issues. London: Sage Publications Company

Hardy, C.& Mawer, M. 1999. Learning and Teaching in Physical Education. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd.

Liukkonen, J. 2007.  Psychology for Physical Educators: Students Focus, 2nd Edition. USA: Human Kinetics.

Silverman, S. & Ennis, C. 2003. Student Learning in Physical Education: Applying Research to Enhance Instruction. USA: Human Kinetics.

Steadworth, R.,Watkinson, E. & Wheiler, 2003. G. Adapted Physical Activity. Canada: University of Alberta Press.

Thomas, K.  2003. Physical Education Methods for Elementary Teachers 2nd Edition. USA: Human Kinesics.

 

 

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Logical and Physical Data Models

The Physical Data Model (PDM) describes how the information represented in the Logical Data Model is actually implemented, how the information-exchange requirements are implemented, and how the data entities and their relationships are maintained. There should be a mapping from a given Logical Data Model to the Physical Data Model if both models are used. The form of the Physical Data Model can vary greatly, as shown in Figure 31. For some purposes, an additional entity-relationship style diagram will be sufficient.

The Data Definition Language (DDL) may also be used. References to message format standards (which identify message types and options to be used) may suffice for message-oriented implementations. (Getting information from the LDM in form of file) Descriptions of file formats may be used when file passing is the mode used to exchange information. Interoperating systems may use a variety of techniques to exchange data, and thus have several distinct partitions in their Physical Data Model with each partition using a different form.

The figure illustrates some options for expressing the Physical Data Model and an other table (in the original document) provides a listing of the types of information to be captured. A physical data model (or database design) is a representation of a data design which takes into account the facilities and constraints of a given database management system. In the lifecycle of a project it typically derives from a logical data model, though it may be reverse-engineered from a given database implementation.

A complete physical data model will include all the database artifacts required to create relationships between tables or to achieve performance goals, such as indexes, constraint definitions, linking tables, partitioned tables or clusters. Analysts can usually use a physical data model to calculate storage estimates; it may include specific storage allocation details for a given database system. As of 2012 seven main databases dominate the commercial marketplace: Informix, Oracle, Postgres, SQL Server, Sybase, DB2 and MySQL.

Other RDBMS systems tend either to be legacy databases or used within academia such as universities or further education colleges. Physical data models for each implementation would differ significantly, not least due to underlying operating-system requirements that may sit underneath them. For example: SQL Server runs only on Microsoft Windows operating-systems, while Oracle and MySQL can run on Solaris, Linux and other UNIX-based operating-systems as well as on Windows.

This means that the disk requirements, security requirements and many other aspects of a physical data model will be influenced by the RDBMS that a database administrator (or an organization) chooses to use. Overview Logical data models represent the abstract structure of a domain of information. They are often diagrammatic in nature and are most typically used in business processes that seek to capture things of importance to an organization and how they relate to one another. Once validated and approved, the logical data model can become the basis of a physical data model and inform the design of a database.

Logical data models should be based on the structures identified in a preceding conceptual data model, since this describes the semantics of the information context, which the logical model should also reflect. Even so, since the logical data model anticipates implementation on a specific computing system, the content of the logical data model is adjusted to achieve certain efficiencies. The term ‘Logical Data Model’ is sometimes used as a synonym of ‘Domain Model’ or as an alternative to the domain model.

While the two concepts are closely related, and have overlapping goals, a domain model is more focused on capturing the concepts in the problem domain rather than the structure of the data associated with that domain. History The ANSI/SPARC three level architecture, which “shows that a data model can be an external model (or view), a conceptual model, or a physical model. This is not the only way to look at data models, but it is a useful way, particularly when comparing models”. [1] When ANSI first laid out the idea of a logical schema in 1975,[2] the choices were hierarchical and network.

The relational model – where data is described in terms of tables and columns – had just been recognized as a data organization theory but no software existed to support that approach. Since that time, an object-oriented approach to data modelling – where data is described in terms of classes, attributes, and associations – has also been introduced. Logical data model topics Reasons for building a logical data model * Helps common understanding of business data elements and requirements * Provides foundation for designing a database Facilitates avoidance of data redundancy and thus prevent data & business transaction inconsistency * Facilitates data re-use and sharing * Decreases development and maintenance time and cost * Confirms a logical process model and helps impact analysis. Modeling benefits * Facilitates business process improvement * Focuses on requirements independent of technology * Facilitates data re-use and sharing * Increases return on investment * Centralizes metadata * Fosters seamless communication between applications * Focuses communication for data analysis and project team members * Establishes a consistent naming scheme

Logical & Physical Data Model A logical data model is sometimes incorrectly called a physical data model, which is not what the ANSI people had in mind. The physical design of a database involves deep use of particular database management technology. For example, a table/column design could be implemented on a collection of computers, located in different parts of the world. That is the domain of the physical model. Logical and physical data models are very different in their objectives, goals and content. Key differences noted below. Logical Data Model| Physical Data Model|

Includes entities (tables), attributes (columns/fields) and relationships (keys)| Includes tables, columns, keys, data types, validation rules, database triggers, stored procedures, domains, and access constraints| Uses business names for entities & attributes| Uses more defined and less generic specific names for tables and columns, such as abbreviated column names, limited by the database management system (DBMS) and any company defined standards| Is independent of technology (platform, DBMS)| Includes primary keys and indices for fast data access. Is normalized to fourth normal form(4NF)| May be de-normalized to meet performance requirements based on the nature of the database. If the nature of the database is Online Transaction Processing(OLTP) or Operational Data Store (ODS) it is usually not de-normalized. De-normalization is common in Datawarehouses. | A logical data model describes the data in as much detail as possible, without regard to how they will be physical implemented in the database. Features of a logical data model include: * Includes all entities and relationships among them. All attributes for each entity are specified. * The primary key for each entity is specified. * Foreign keys (keys identifying the relationship between different entities) are specified. * Normalization occurs at this level. The steps for designing the logical data model are as follows: 1. Specify primary keys for all entities. 2. Find the relationships between different entities. 3. Find all attributes for each entity. 4. Resolve many-to-many relationships. 5. Normalization. The figure below is an example of a logical data model.

Logical Data Model Comparing the logical data model shown above with the conceptual data model diagram, we see the main differences between the two: * In a logical data model, primary keys are present, whereas in a conceptual data model, no primary key is present. * In a logical data model, all attributes are specified within an entity. No attributes are specified in a conceptual data model. * Relationships between entities are specified using primary keys and foreign keys in a logical data model.

In a conceptual data model, the relationships are simply stated, not specified, so we simply know that two entities are related, but we do not specify what attributes are used for this relationship. Logical Model Design Physical Model Design Figure 5. A logical data model (Information Engineering notation). You also need to identify the cardinality and optionality of a relationship (the UML combines the concepts of optionality and cardinality into the single concept of multiplicity). Cardinality represents the concept of “how many” whereas optionality represents the concept of “whether you must have something. For example, it is not enough to know that customers place orders. How many orders can a customer place? None, one, or several? Furthermore, relationships are two-way streets: not only do customers place orders, but orders are placed by customers. This leads to questions like: how many customers can be enrolled in any given order and is it possible to have an order with no customer involved? Figure 5 shows that customers place zero or more orders and that any given order is placed by one customer and one customer only.

It also shows that a customer lives at one or more addresses and that any given address has zero or more customers living at it. Although the UML distinguishes between different types of relationships – associations, inheritance, aggregation, composition, and dependency – data modelers often aren’t as concerned with this issue as much as object modelers are. Subtyping, one application of inheritance, is often found in data models, an example of which is the is a relationship between Item and it’s two “sub entities” Service and Product.

Aggregation and composition are much less common and typically must be implied from the data model, as you see with the part of role that Line Item takes with Order. UML dependencies are typically a software construct and therefore wouldn’t appear on a data model, unless of course it was a very highly detailed physical model that showed how views, triggers, or stored procedures depended on Logical Data Models (LDMs) represent data table (Entity Type) relationships. Logical Data Model Notations Entity Type Entity Type refers to a group of related data placed in an RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems) table.

An entity is an instance of an entity type represented as a single row in a data table. Relationships and Multiplicity Relationships illustrate how two entity types are related. Cardinality specifies how many instances of an entity relate to one instance of another entity. Physical data model represents how the model will be built in the database. A physical database model shows all table structures, including column name, column data type, column constraints, primary key, foreign key, and relationships between tables. Features of a physical data model include: * Specification all tables and columns. Foreign keys are used to identify relationships between tables. * Denormalization may occur based on user requirements. * Physical considerations may cause the physical data model to be quite different from the logical data model. * Physical data model will be different for different RDBMS. For example, data type for a column may be different between MySQL and SQL Server. Steps For Physical Data Model * Convert entities into tables. * Convert relationships into foreign keys. * Convert attributes into columns. * Modify the physical data model based on physical constraints / requirements. Physical v/s logical Entity names are now table names. * Attributes are now column names. * Data type for each column is specified. Data types can be different depending on the actual database being used. Data modeling is the act of exploring data-oriented structures. Like other modeling artifacts data models can be used for a variety of purposes, from high-level conceptual models to physical data models (PDMs). Physical data modeling is conceptually similar to design class modeling, the goal being to design the internal schema of a database, depicting the data tables, the data columns of those tables, and the relationships between the tables.    | presents a partial PDM for the university – you know that it isn’t complete by the fact that the Seminar table includes foreign keys to tables that aren’t shown, and quite frankly it’s obvious that many domain concepts such as course and professor are clearly not modeled. All but one of the boxes represent tables, the one exception is UniversityDB which lists the stored procedures implemented within the database. Because the diagram is given the stereotype Physical Data Model you know that the class boxes represent tables, without the diagram stereotype I would have needed to use the stereotype Table on each table.

Relationships between tables are modeled using standard UML notation, although not shown in the example it would be reasonable to model composition and inheritance relationships between tables. Relationships are implemented via the use of keys (more on this below). Figure 1. A partial PDM for the university. When you are physical data modeling the following tasks are performed in an iterative manner: * Identify tables. Tables are the database equivalent of classes; data is stored in physical tables. As you can see in Figure 1 the university has a Student table to store student data, a Course table to store course data, and so on.

Figure 1 uses a UML-based notation (this is a publicly defined profile which anyone can provide input into). If you have a class model in place a good start is to do a one-to-one mapping of your classes to data tables, an approach that works well in “greenfield” environments where you have the luxury of designing your database schema from scratch. Because this rarely happens in practice you need to be prepared to be constrained by one or more legacy database schemas which you will then need to map your classes to.

In these situations it is unlikely that you will need to do much data modeling, you will simply need to learn to live with the existing data sources, but you will need to be able to read and understand existing models. In some cases you may need to perform legacy data analysis and model the existing schema before you can start working with it. * Normalize tables. Data normalization is a process in which data attributes within a data model are organized to increase the cohesion of tables and to reduce the coupling between tables. The fundamental goal is to ensure that data is stored in one and only one place.

This is an important consideration for application developers because it is incredibly difficult to stores objects in a relational database if a data attribute is stored in several places. The tables in Figure 1 are in third normal form (3NF). * Identify columns. A column is the database equivalent of an attribute, and each table will have one or more columns. For example, the Student table has attributes such as FirstName and StudentNumber. Unlike attributes in classes, which can either be primitive types or other objects, a column may only be a primitive type such as a char (a string), an int (integer), or a float. Identify stored procedures. A stored procedure is conceptually similar to a global method implemented by the database. In Figure 1 you see that stored procedures such as averageMark() and studentsEnrolled() are modeled as operations of the class UniversityDB. These stored procedures implement code that work with data stored in the database, in this case they calculate the average mark of a student and count the number of students enrolled in a given seminar respectively.

Although some of these stored procedures clearly act on data contained in a single table they are not modeled as part of the table (along the lines of methods being part of classes). Instead, because stored procedures are a part of the overall database and not a single table, they are modeled as part of a class with the name of the database. * Apply naming conventions. Your organization should have standards and guidelines applicable to data modeling, and if not you should lobby to have some put in place.

As always, you should follow AM’s practice of Apply Modeling Standards. * Identify relationships. There are relationships between tables just like there are relationships between classes. The advice presented relationships in UML class diagrams applies. * Apply data model patterns. Some data modelers will apply common data model patterns, David Hay’s (1996) book Data Model Patterns is the best reference on the subject. Data model patterns are conceptually closest to analysis patterns because they describe solutions to common domain issues.

Hay’s book is a very good reference for anyone involved in analysis-level modeling, even when you’re taking an object approach instead of a data approach because his patterns model business structures from a wide variety of business domains. * Assign keys. A key is one or more data attributes that uniquely identify a row in a table. A key that is two or more attributes is called a composite key. A primary key is the preferred key for an entity type whereas an alternate key (also known as a secondary key) is an alternative way to access rows within a table.

In a physical database a key would be formed of one or more table columns whose value(s) uniquely identifies a row within a relational table. Primary keys are indicated using the stereotype and foreign keys via . Read here for more about keys. Although similar notation is used it is interesting to note the differences between the PDM of Figure 21 and the UML class diagram from which is ti based: 1. Keys. Where it is common practice to not model scaffolding properties on class models it is common to model keys (the data equivalent of scaffolding). 2. Visibility. Visibility isn’t modeled for columns because they’re all public.

However, because most databases support access control rights you may want to model them using UML constraints, UML notes, or as business rules. Similarly stored procedures are also public so they aren’t modeled either. 3. No many-to-many associations. Relational databases are unable to natively support many-to-many associations, unlike objects, and as a result you need to resolve them via the addition of an associative table. The closest thing to an associative table in is WaitList which was introduced to resolve the on waiting list many-to-many association depicted in the class diagram.

A pure associative table is comprised of the primary key columns of the two tables which it maintains the relationship between, in this case StudentNumber from Student and SeminarOID from Seminar. Notice how in WaitList these columns have both a PK and an FK stereotype because they make up the primary key of WaitList while at the same time are foreign keys to the other two tables. WaitList isn’t truly an associative table because it contains non-key columns, in this case the Added column which is used to ensure that the first people on the waiting list are the ones that are given the opportunity to enroll if a seat becomes available.

Had WaitList been a pure associative table I would have applied the associative table stereotype to it. Logical Versus Physical Database Modeling * March 14, 2001 * By Developer. com Staff * Bio » * Send Email » * More Articles » After all business requirements have been gathered for a proposed database, they must be modeled. Models are created to visually represent the proposed database so that business requirements can easily be associated with database objects to ensure that all requirements have been completely and accurately gathered.

Different types of diagrams are typically produced to illustrate the business processes, rules, entities, and organizational units that have been identified. These diagrams often include entity relationship diagrams, process flow diagrams, and server model diagrams. An entity relationship diagram (ERD) represents the entities, or groups of information, and their relationships maintained for a business. Process flow diagrams represent business processes and the flow of data between different processes and entities that have been defined.

Server model diagrams represent a detailed picture of the database as being transformed from the business model into a relational database with tables, columns, and constraints. Basically, data modeling serves as a link between business needs and system requirements. Two types of data modeling are as follows: * Logical modeling * Physical modeling If you are going to be working with databases, then it is important to understand the difference between logical and physical modeling, and how they relate to one another.

Logical and physical modeling are described in more detail in the following subsections. * Post a comment * Email Article * Print Article * Share Articles Logical Modeling Logical modeling deals with gathering business requirements and converting those requirements into a model. The logical model revolves around the needs of the business, not the database, although the needs of the business are used to establish the needs of the database. Logical modeling involves gathering information about business processes, business entities (categories of data), and organizational units.

After this information is gathered, diagrams and reports are produced including entity relationship diagrams, business process diagrams, and eventually process flow diagrams. The diagrams produced should show the processes and data that exists, as well as the relationships between business processes and data. Logical modeling should accurately render a visual representation of the activities and data relevant to a particular business. Note| Logical modeling affects not only the direction of database design, but also indirectly affects the performance and administration of an implemented database.

When time is invested performing logical modeling, more options become available for planning the design of the physical database. | The diagrams and documentation generated during logical modeling is used to determine whether the requirements of the business have been completely gathered. Management, developers, and end users alike review these diagrams and documentation to determine if more work is required before physical modeling commences. Typical deliverables of logical modeling include * Entity relationship diagrams An Entity Relationship Diagram is also referred to as an analysis ERD.

The point of the initial ERD is to provide the development team with a picture of the different categories of data for the business, as well as how these categories of data are related to one another. * Business process diagrams The process model illustrates all the parent and child processes that are performed by individuals within a company. The process model gives the development team an idea of how data moves within the organization. Because process models illustrate the activities of individuals in the company, the process model can be used to determine how a database application interface is design. * User feedback documentation

Physical Modeling Physical modeling involves the actual design of a database according to the requirements that were established during logical modeling. Logical modeling mainly involves gathering the requirements of the business, with the latter part of logical modeling directed toward the goals and requirements of the database. Physical modeling deals with the conversion of the logical, or business model, into a relational database model. When physical modeling occurs, objects are being defined at the schema level. A schema is a group of related objects in a database. A database design effort is normally associated with one schema.

During physical modeling, objects such as tables and columns are created based on entities and attributes that were defined during logical modeling. Constraints are also defined, including primary keys, foreign keys, other unique keys, and check constraints. Views can be created from database tables to summarize data or to simply provide the user with another perspective of certain data. Other objects such as indexes and snapshots can also be defined during physical modeling. Physical modeling is when all the pieces come together to complete the process of defining a database for a business.

Physical modeling is database software specific, meaning that the objects defined during physical modeling can vary depending on the relational database software being used. For example, most relational database systems have variations with the way data types are represented and the way data is stored, although basic data types are conceptually the same among different implementations. Additionally, some database systems have objects that are not available in other database systems. Implementation of the Physical Model| The implementation of the physical model is dependent on the hardware and software being used by the company.

The hardware can determine what type of software can be used because software is normally developed according to common hardware and operating system platforms. Some database software might only be available for Windows NT systems, whereas other software products such as Oracle are available on a wider range of operating system platforms, such as UNIX. The available hardware is also important during the implementation of the physical model because data is physically distributed onto one or more physical disk drives. Normally, the more physical drives available, the better the performance of the database after the implementation.

Some software products now are Java-based and can run on virtually any platform. Typically, the decisions to use particular hardware, operating system platforms, and database software are made in conjunction with one another. | A logical data model describes your model entities and how they relate to each other. A physical data model describes each entity in detail, including information about how you would implement the model using a particular (database) product. In a logical model describing a person in a family tree, each person node would have attributes such as name(s), date of birth, place of birth, etc.

The logical diagram would also show some kind of unique attribute or combination of attributes called a primary key that describes exactly one entry (a row in SQL) within this entity. The physical model for the person would contain implementation details. These details are things like data types, indexes, constraints, etc. The logical and physical model serve two different, but related purposes. A logical model is a way to draw your mental roadmap from a problem specification to an entity-based storage system.

The user (problem owner) must understand and approve the logical model. A physical model is the roadmap from the logical model to the hardware. The developer (software owner) must understand and use the physical model. ERD Consider a hospital: Patients are treated in a single ward by the doctors assigned to them. Usually each patient will be assigned a single doctor, but in rare cases they will have two. Heathcare assistants also attend to the patients, a number of these are associated with each ward. Initially the system will be concerned solely with drug treatment.

Each patient is required to take a variety of drugs a certain number of times per day and for varying lengths of time. The system must record details concerning patient treatment and staff payment. Some staff are paid part time and doctors and care assistants work varying amounts of overtime at varying rates (subject to grade). The system will also need to track what treatments are required for which patients and when and it should be capable of calculating the cost of treatment per week for each patient (though it is currently unclear to what use this information will be put).

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Metaphysical Language: Does it have any Meaning?

When we speak of something as metaphysical, we speak of something that is usually characterized as supernatural or something that is not perceptible by our senses.  When we talk about the things that our minds’ eyes see and not the things that our physical eyes see, we are talking in the language that is metaphysical.

This is one of the things that the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein looks into in his book Tractatus Logico Philosophicus.  Wittgenstein argues that metaphysical language does not have any meaning.  They are as good as words that do not signify anything.  He even contends that the metaphysical statements should not be said:

The right method in philosophy would be this. To say nothing except what can be said, i.e. ,the propositions of natural science, i.e. something that has nothing to do with philosophy: and then always, when someone else wished to say something metaphysical, to demonstrate to him that he had given a meaning to certain signs in his propositions. This method would not be satisfying to the other –he would not have the feeling that we were teaching him philosophy—but it would be the only strictly correct method. … Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent. (Wittgenstein, 6.53-7)

This does not mean that metaphysical propositions are all automatically false.  What Wittgenstein means is that it is beyond the realm of logic for us to understand metaphysical language.  This is not because they are profound or beyond our reality or beyond our senses but because, for Wittgenstein, they have no sense.

To illuminate, let us take for example this scenario.  I saw a huge Blue Heron flying in front of me and the next day, my neighbor won the lottery.  Another day, I saw a Blue Heron again and two days after that, an accident happened in front of my house.  Now, I see a Blue Heron the third time and I conclude that the Blue Heron is a sign of something will happen.  Nobody knows what will happen but I am sure that the sign means that something will happen because I see it in my mind’s eyes, my soul.  My metaphysical statement is that the Blue Heron is a sign that things will happen.  It is like saying that when we see a black cat, bad things will happen to us.

For Wittgenstein, it does not have any sense to say that a situation is a result of my perception of a Blue Heron or a bad luck is the result of my seeing a black cat.  He says that sentences like these work like a picture.  Since it is very difficult to explain, let me explain it through an example.  A map of the United States, for example, is a picture that points to the land of the United States.  The map shows that New York is more or less in the Eastern side of the map and Washington is in the Western side of the map.

If we are in the Central part of the United States and we want to go to Seattle, we will fly eastward.  We will not fly westward because the map which pictures for us the location of Seattle tells us that Seattle lies east of the United States.   This is what Wittgenstein means when he says that “there must be something identical in a picture and what it depicts” (Wittgenstein 2.161).  The map mimics the way reality is structured.  It mimics the way the real locations in the US are placed beside each other.

Language works like a picture.  It tells us what the situation is.  Wittgenstein says, “We picture facts to ourselves” (2.1).  For him, the meaning of a statement is whatever it pictures.  The meaning of the statement tells the situation of the world but like the picture, it can not tell us if it is actually true of false.  When we make a statement for example and we feel that it is meaningful, what the sentence is doing is that it is just pointing to a possible situation in the reality but it may be true or false.

When we say, for example that a Blue Heron causes things to happen like it is the cause of our neighbor’s winning in the lottery or accident, the statement’s meaning pictures to us situations that can be true but we cannot be really sure because there is nothing in the sentence that makes it true.  Wittgenstein says, “In order to tell whether a picture is true or false we must compare it with reality” (Wittgenstein, 2.223).

If we apply this with the statement, “The Blue Heron causes things to happen, things like winning a lottery or being the cause of people’s car accident”.  A Blue Heron is a big bird that lazes around the shallow part of water.  By definition, it has wings.  It can fly.  It has a beak, it can catch fish.  It can walk for a few steps.  It can swim.  These are the capabilities of a Blue Heron.  In reality, nothing in its definition or physical make-up can tell us that it can make a man win a lottery or be in a car accident.

So the statement that “The Blue Heron causes things to happen, things like winning a lottery or being the cause of people’s car accident” does not have any sense.  As Wittgenstein says, “There is no compulsion making on thing happen because another has happened.  The only necessity that exists is logical necessity” (Wittegenstein 6.37).  We can understand the statement but it is nonsensical if we analyze it following Wittgenstein.

In the same way, Wittgenstein would say that it does not have any sense to talk about a ‘soul’ or ‘a good life’.  We do not know what a soul is.  Nobody has seen a soul.  Nobody has reported that he or she sees a soul getting out of the body of a person who has just died.  We cannot find a correspondence for the world ‘soul’ in reality.  We have a sign for soul but we do not have a referent for the sign.

When somebody dies and we say that he/she has lived a ‘good life’, it is also nonsensical.  What is a good life to one is not automatically the good life to another.  There is no single referent for what the sign ‘good life’.  It is also nonsensical when people at the funeral say about the dead person that lives were changed because of him.  Again, value statements like these are subjective and are not verifiable.  How can this statement be analyzed if there nothing that can be the referent for the sign.  The referent has died.  For Wittgenstein says, “The world of the happy man is a different one from that of the unhappy man. . .  Soo too at death the world does not alter, but comes to an end” (Wittgenstein 6.43-6.431).

 

 

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Caribbean Studies

Today, education programs at all levels face intense criticism, and physical education programs are no exception. In fact, as school budgets shrink and administrators cut “frills,” physical education may be one of the first programs to go. If we are to secure a place for physical education in the school curriculum, we must answer two questions: (1) What are the physical, psychological, and intellectual effects of physical education upon the total development of the child? and (2) Given these effects, can physical education be considered a frill?

What are the physical benefits of physical education? Recent research has shown that degenerative diseases begin in early childhood. As Kaercher (1 98 1) wrote, “There’s increasing evidence in youngsters of high cholesterol in the blood, high blood pressure, obesity and other conditions that are associated with heart disease, stroke and other disorders” (p. 20). Bucher (1982) stated that medical specialists blame deaths due to heart disease, cancer, and stroke largely on “changes in lifestyle characterized by factors over which doctors have little or no control” (p. 13).

Research suggests that regular physical activity, begun in childhood, may help prevent degenerative diseases. According to Hanson (1974), “The necessity of physical activity for a growing child is well-documented in terms of growth and fitness needs. Physical activity increases muscle tone, improves respiration and circulation, benefits digestion, aids in controlling obesity, promotes rehabilitation after illness and surgery, and stimulates proper growth and development. Physical benefits alone could be sufficient reason for supporting physical education programs… ” (p. 2).

And Reiff (1977, p. 26) reported that high school students involved in an eight-week program of physical activity showed gains in fitness. In addition, Fentem and Bassey (1982) pointed out that “Exercise is a valuable adjunct to dietary control in prevention and treatment of obesity because it increases energy expenditure and improves energy balance” (p. 2). Studies indicate that children in free play settings will not engage in physical activity vigorous enough to produce physical benefits or enhance health, thus supporting the need for physical education (Reiff 1977, p. 6).

What are the psychological/social benefits of physical education? Physical activity enhances a person’s life both socially and psychologically. Studies have shown that physical activity may modify anxiety and depression (Sachs 1982, p. 44). Layman (1972, p. 5) gave evidence that poor physical condition predisposes individuals to poor mental health. Hanson (1974, p. 2) stated that “physical activity contributes to the general feeling of well-being ….

It is an avenue for expression of anger, aggression and happiness . . a means for discovery of self as well as a social facilitator. ” Moreover, according to Espenschade (1960), “The status of the elementary school child with his peers is dependent to a great extent on his motor skills and his behavior in game situations” (p. 3). Clarke (1982, p. 10) added to these statements, suggesting that the child’s realization of personal and social effectiveness relies heavily on guidance within the physical education experience.

Guidance helps the individual adopt desirable modes of behavior and improve interpersonal relationships. What are the mental//intellectual benefits of physical education? Research shows a positive relationship between physical activity and academic achievement. In one study, begun in 1951 in an elementary school in Vanves, France, the school day was divided so that four hours were devoted to academics and one to two hours to physical education, art, music, and supervised study (Bailey 1976).

By 1960, not only were health, fitness, discipline, and enthusiasm superior in the experimental program, but academic performance also surpassed controlled classes. Similar experiments in Belgium and Japan produced comparable results (Carlson 1982, p. 68), illustrating the importance of physical education to a successful academic program. How does physical education affect children’s development of wholesome recreation habits? The importance of wise use of leisure time was supported as early as 1918 in the Seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education (National Education Association).

Children need recreational skills and a positive attitude toward exercise to enhance their use of leisure. Indeed, “Research indicates that motor skills learned in physical education classes may be the stimulus for increased activity during leisure time (Seefeldt 1977, p. 3). Gilliam and others demonstrated that physical education programs involving vigorous activities encourage participants to use leisure time more actively (p. 3). Thus, physical education can play a major role in promoting an active, healthy lifestyle.

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Houses: Shelter to the Physical and Emotional Well-Being

Sandra Cisneros’  “The House on Mango Street” is not just another coming-of-age story; it is also a story that has been written to conquer the personal difficulties of a Latina writer.   Being Latina, she does not have many “Chicano role models” (Klein 21), but she has strived to express herself in writing, nonetheless.  In the 1988 collection of fifty four vignettes, Cisneros makes the narrator, Esperanza, come alive through experiences ultimately caused by being poor, female, and a minority, while giving the house the title role as it encompasses the dreams of families from any race: having a home to call their own.

It is Cisneros’ way of dealing with the issues she herself has faced as a Latina is through her perseverance that they do not remain mere issues (O’Malley 35), but full-blooded experiences of a girl named Esperanza.  In the short story with the same name, Cisneros focuses on the dream of acquiring a home.  Therefore, this coming-of-age short story emphasizes on the importance of the physical house to the emotional growth and identity of its residents.

Esperanza relates the many times her family has to move from rented house or apartment to another:  “We didn’t always live on Mango Street.  Before that we lived on Loomis on the third floor and before that we lived on Keeler.  Before Keeler it was Paulina, and before that I can’t remember. But I remember most was moving a lot” (Cisneros 290).

Mango Street is a change from all the moving because the family finally does “not have to pay rent”; the house is supposed to be theirs  (Cisneros 291). However, the house still has some disappointments in store for Esperanza and her family.  The house is not what Esperanza imagines a real house that they can proudly call their own to be.

“In the United States in particular, the house is more than just shelter; it is a national institution almost as sacred as the American flag.  In home ownership, the American dream and the American way are manifest: the civic values of individualism, economic success and self-sufficiency are asserted” (Kaup 361).

Esperanza and her family are striving to reach that American dream, to stop being substandard citizens who get to be asked disbelievingly by people “You live there?” (Cisneros 291).  According to Esperanza the way it was asked made her “feel like nothing”.    This is how sometimes people are judged by the house they live in.  The house also affects the psyche of its residents.  A clean, well-kept house may contribute to a clearer outlook while a house which reflects poverty can be a cause for shame, such as in the case of Esperanza and her family’s house on Mango Street (Klein 23).

The short story “The House on Mango Street” may be very brief, but according to Thomas O’ Malley, an English teacher, he considers “Cisneros’ writing” as “poetry” and thinks that “her characters speak poetic dialogue” that has not been heard “since Shakespeare moved out of the hood (O’Malley 35). It is probably Cisneros’ identification with Esperanza’s experiences that make her write them vividly and with the right tone.

She understands what Esperanza is going through, and she makes sure that she uses simple language as appropriate to that of a little girl’s. It is also important to note that like other Latin American writers, Sandra Cisneros emphasizes on the “reinvention” of the English language when put side by side with other languages (Wolf 61).  Esperanza is not just a little girl, she is also a bilingual girl therefore there are two reasons behind the use of simple language.

The story being added to a curriculum may be questioned by some English Literature students (Romero and Zancanella 26), but studying the story is not a waste of time at all even for non-Latinos.  In fact, other students are curious about “the line between fiction and reality” in the short story, having known Sandra Cisneros’ somewhat similar background (O’Malley 37). It not only opens the eyes to the world of Latinos but also expresses the universal need to feel secure with both shelter and identity.  The house on Mango Street is not a useless location for the story; it develops a character of its own.   It is used as a symbol for a person’s status in life, and possibly the person’s emotional state.

The House on Mango Street relates a story of poverty and of a family’s search for a home to call their own.  However, what makes this story worth reading is that although there are many trials for Esperanza’s family, their story ends with Esperanza thinking hopefully:  “I knew then that I had to have a house.  A real house. One I could point to.  But this isn’t it.  The house on Mango Street isn’t it.

For the time being.  Mama says. Temporary, says Papa.  But I know how things go” (Cisneros 291).  The last sentence diminishes that hope but the desire to have a real house is already in Esperanza’s heart.  She has the desire to improve her family’s situation and she does not want to remain trapped in rented houses, or even houses like the house on Mango Street.  However, this does not mean that Esperanza does not recognize the irony in what her parents have promised.

Rudolfo Anaya is another Chicano writer who, like Cisneros, creates “protagonists who, like themselves, have no models, but were possessed by destiny, by inclination and by courage (Klein 22)…” to reach their goals.  He differs from Cisneros in his more active childhood and his stories which focus more on the development of a male protagonist.

Related article: Arguments Made in Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry

As a conclusion, “The House on Mango Street” is a story that does not only explore the development of a young girl called Esperanza, it also tells how the different houses she has lived in, including the house on Mango Street, contribute to her emotional growth and recognition of self-worth.  The house on Mango Street is not only present to provide a literal roof over the head of Esperanza’s family, it affects their very identity.

Works Cited

Cisneros, Sandra. “The House on Mango Street.” n.d. 290-291.

Kaup, Monika. “The Architecture of Ethnicity in Chicano Literature.” American Literature,       Vol. 69, no. 2 (June 1997): 361-397.

Klein, Dianne. “Coming of Age in the Novels of Rudolfo Anaya and Sandra Cisneros.” The     English Journal Vol. 81, No. 5 (September 1992): 21-26.

O’Malley, Thomas F. “A Ride Down Mango Street.” The English Journal Vol. 86, No. 8

(December 1997): 35-37.

Romero, Patricia Ann and Don Zancanella. “Expanding the Circle: Hispanic Voices in

American Literature.” The English Journal, Vol. 79, No. 1 (January 1990): 24-29.

Wolf, Dennie Palmer. “Of Courses: The Pacesetter Initiative and the Need for Curriculum-Based

School.” The English Journal, Vol. 84, No. 1 (January 1995): 60-68.

 

 

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History of Physical Education

PREFACE To provide a meaningful background of physical education and sport in modern society it is helpful to have a clear understanding of its role in the past and how it emerged. The purpose of this assignment is to outline the history of physical education since time immemorial. The text begins with the beginning of the humankind engaging in physical activities, showing the history of physical education and sport being a rich tapestry of people, places, events and social forces from early civilization to the present time through transitional periods. INTRODUCTION

The ground of education as a whole is going through remarkable challenges to serve the needs of the individual and the society, and this trend is reflected in physical education also. The history of physical education goes back to the earliest times, if we think of it in the simple terms of fitness and has existed since human society in one form or other. Since early history, even before the dawn of civilization and culture, physical exercise has been a very important aspect of human existence and it was not so long ago that it was called” physical culture” or “physical training”.

THE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD Primitive humans began life in the “Stone Age. ” What can they be called? Paleolithic people, Stone agers, primitive humans or cave men. They were hunters and gatherers. They hunted wild game and fished; they gathered veggies, berries and nuts. Primitive humans depended entirely on nature for food. Primitive men moved according to their satisfaction, needs and necessity. They needed to be fit to be able to go through their journey to hunt for food and water. Being nomads and hunters, they were people who had to be persistently hunting and gathering food for survival.

Their trips regularly lasted for one-to-two days for food or water and were meant for regular physical activity to be produced. When they successfully hunted, they would travel many miles and miles to celebrate with family and friends. Physical activities were not organized by them. The necessity for survival which is the protection against hostile environment and wild beasts, and sometimes the engagement in murder to insure their protection, motivated these men to keep themselves physically ? t and strong enough compared to stronger forces of nature. In those days there were no machines to help people in their work.

That is why they had to depend exclusively upon their physical powers and physical skill. They considered their body to be their prize possession, so their primary concern was to maintain and protect their body. The order of the day was the survival of the most fit. Their sociable nature was inborn and drew only by mating and propagation that gave them the desire to dance and play, which were not being organized. Men lived in such a state for thousands of years. There was neither any organization nor system. Most of their acts were learnt by the young generations by the competence of imitation rather than instruction.

This lifestyle created many physical activities and a high level fitness which defined human life. THE NEOLITHIC TRANSITION Neolithic people lived during the “New Stone Age”, from 9000 to 8000 B. C. This was the transitional period in which pre- historic societies began to control their surroundings and form civilization. The two most significant developments were the domestication of animals and farming. Their society was different from Paleolithic culture because they lived in established communities, domesticated animals and cultivated crops.

As they improved their society they developed skills like spinning, weaving and building. They also made tombs and religious items. Men and women gave up hunting gathering as the only sources of living and learnt to produce their own food. Agriculture and the raise of cattle were discovered and increased to a productive economy. Many villages were built generally located next to rivers. Then came the creation of the plow, so the difficult tasks being done by the animals and other agricultural development brought the beginning of a less active lifestyle.

Social organization became more complex in the first villages, and then towns. Different kind of chiefs appeared and gave rise to a political system. There was class system whereby society was divided into rich and poor. A specialization of work took place. Apart from peasants and cattle farmers, new economical activities such as craftsmanship (fabric, pottery) were born. This era in history symbolizes the beginning of a more sedentary lifestyle, as man began to lessen some hardships of life while simultaneously decreasing daily physical activity.

ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS (2500-250 B. C. ) (i) China In China, the participation of regular physical activity was encouraged by the philosophical teachings. There were no such words in the Chinese vocabulary entirely corresponding to the Western terms of “sport” and “physical education”. Such physical exercises as wrestling, swordplay, archery, charioteering and horse-racing were all incorporated in the military training and therefore came under the general term of “wuyi,” or “martial arts. ” Kung Fu gymnastics was developed to keep the body in good and working condition.

It consisted of various stances and movements, patterned by separate foot works and imitations of different kind of animals’ fighting styles. (ii) India India has a long recorded history of civilization but physical activity was not encouraged because of the religious teachings over there. The teachings of Buddha restricted most of the sports and games practiced by other early civilizations. However, an exercise programs known as “yoga”, same as the Chinese Cong Fu gymnastics, was developed and some other physical activities as well. According to the Hindu priests, Yoga signifies the development of body, mind, and spirit.

The Ancient Indian philosophers recognized the health benefits of Yoga, which consisted of the proper functioning of organs and the whole well-being. There have been many physical activities but were never treated as a part of general education, they were mostly an entry to military career. ANCIENT GREECE: THE HEART OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION & SPORT (2500-200 B. C. ) The western civilization began with the Greeks. They were the first one to provide a methodical and philosophical attitude toward education, physical education and sport. It is believed that no other civilization has held fitness in such appreciation as the ancient Greece had.

The admiration for beauty of the body and importance of health and fitness throughout society is one that is beyond compare in history. For the Greeks, the development of the body was equivalently as important as development of the mind. They believed that the physical well-being was crucial for the mental well –being. During that period, the Greek states were frequently at war with each other. The Fighting abilities were very much associated with physical fitness levels, therefore making it very important for the people to maintain high level of fitness.

Athens and Sparta were the two most famous city-states and dominant force of the Greek civilization. Sparta was already militaristic by 700 B. C. Spartans were derisive of intellectualism. They were generally suspicious and conventional. All that mattered to the Spartans was being a warrior. Athens was the more democratic of the two city-states. Both city-states served the people and their needs although they were very different. Being a potential warrior was all that mattered to the Spartans. Athens was the more democratic of the two city-states. SPARTA

The Spartan system was much more autocratic. Male children were taken at the age of seven to learn the basic military skills while living in barracks. Little emphasis was placed on the arts, sciences, philosophy and literature. Physical activities such as gymnastics, running, jumping, boxing, wrestling and pankration (a brutal combination of boxing and wrestling) were provided to produce powerful warriors. When the children reached the age of fourteen, they were taught group fighting tactics which would allow them to succeed while in the military from the ages of twenty to thirty.

Girls did not live in public military barracks like the boys, but they participated in discuss, gymnastics, horse riding, javelin, swimming, running, and wrestling at separate training grounds. The objective for women’s physical education was to enable them to produce healthy and strong potential warriors. At the age of thirty, the men could then marry women who were fit and healthy so that they could make strong babies, therefore future warriors. ATHENS For the Athenian -The motto for education was “a sound mind in a sound body” (mens sana in corpore sano) Athens was quite different compared to the Sparta.

The Athenian culture was a very much more freethinking and democratic society specially noted for its art, literature, philosophy as well as its political system. There were citizens, foreign settlers and slaves but only the citizens were provided with educational opportunities. When compared to Sparta, education was very different in Athens. Women had no physical education compared to Sparta. They put much more emphasis toward intellectual quest. Their objective was similar to Sparta that is preparing male warriors.

Athenian education was a balance between music (including poetry) and gymnastics which enveloped a range of physical activities. Physical education was provided to the students with a series of graded activities at the Palestra, which consisted of an indoor facility for gymnastics, and to an outdoor space for boxing, discus, javelin, running, jumping, pankration, pentathlon and wrestling. Many of these athletic events were part of the four great sport and religious festivals which consisted of the Olympic, Isthmian, Pythian and Nemean Games.

These games started as simple athletic contests dedicated to Greek gods, but the Olympic Games, in particular, over 1000 years, became increasingly complex encompassing events for boys and men in running over different distances, pentathlon, wrestling, races in armour, chariot races, and pankration. As of education more broadly, the clear objectives of physical education in Athens were to educate the mind and the body and to produce a well integrated person. ROMANS The political ambition of Rome incorporated physical education into a national program for the preparation of military.

Therefore, similar to the Greeks, sports, games and physical recreation were meant to prepare boys and young men for military service. Physical education for the Romans was about athletics, which was entertainment above all. All Roman citizens between the ages of 17 and 60 had to be fit for the military service, so it was very important for all the citizens to maintain good physical condition and be prepared. Military training consisted of activities such as running, marching, jumping, and discus and javelin throwing. The fitness levels of the general Roman population declined as individuals became attracted to wealth and entertainment.

People were forced to fight to the death, and oftentimes fed to lions. Women were not as marginalized in Rome as they were in Greek city-states. Some sporting events were organized for young women such as swimming, dancing, and light exercise was common, especially among the privileged classes. THE DARK (476-1000) AND MIDDLE AGES (900-1400) The Middle Ages saw the fall of the Roman Empire which was conquered by Barbarians from Northern Europe, whereby the lavish lifestyles of the Romans had resulted in the complete decay of the society’s fitness level.

There was the rise of Christianity, and the Christian’s influence brought about a denial of physical activity for anything other than manual labor. They viewed physical play as immoral, so they halted the Olympic Games in 394. The barbarians from Northern Europe were similar to the primitive humans. Their way of life consisted of hunting and gathering food, so physical activity and fitness were fundamentals for survival. Thus, despite the downfall of the Roman Empire, fitness experienced a revival during the Dark and Middle ages because survival during these challenging times required it. THE RENAISSANCE (1400-1600)

During the Renaissance, a renewed appreciation for human life evolved creating an environment which was ready for the widespread development of physical education; revival of ancient Greek ideals throughout Europe. There were many people which included the religious leader;Martin Luther, the philosopher; John Locke, physical educators; Vittorino da Feltra, John Comenius, and Richard Mulcaster carried on that high fitness levels improved intellectual learning. But in the 1600s people believed that if it did not have any specific purpose than just a waste of time. PHYSICAL EDUCATION AS FROM THE 1700S

There was a big change in physical education during the 1700’s which can be mostly accredited to three people: Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johan Simon, and Guts Muths. Rousseau was the first person to promote education for the people and he also concluded play as being educational and stressed the importance of physical education to the development of a strong body. In the mid 1700s, Johan Simon became the first physical education teacher and stressed on the fact that physical education should be taught along with reading and writing. Simon believed physical education should include a lot of physical effort.

Guts Muths developed a series of gymnastic apparatuses and believed that very important social skills are developed through physical education. These people of that time and the things they did began to pave the road to where we are today. In 19th-century, the first indoor gymnasium was built in Germany and some countries such as Europe, Sweden and Germany developed systems of gymnastics that were adopted internationally. A gymnasium was also build in Finland where exercise was for the first time seen as a way to achieve physical treatment. In connection to exercise, students started to study anatomy and physiology.

Denmark was among the first countries to require physical education in schools. By the 1820s, some American schools offered gymnasium and physical education. The physical education included the development and care of the body, and training in hygiene, callisthenic exercises, gymnastics, and the performance and management of athletic games. CONCLUSION Physical education has a cultural heritage and background which started at the dawn of civilization. Primitive human being had to be very active and physically to survive. Farming began in its primitive form and made people have more physical activity from only working in the fields.

People fitness levels changed here and the also began seeing a more sedentary lifestyle. Ancient Greek culture depended upon preparing its young men for war. Training for battle was not an option, but a prerequisite. Ancient physical education programs concentrated exclusively on activities that trained soldiers. The significance of physical education no longer concentrates solely on training soldiers for battle and ancient athletes for victories but for the wholesome development of a person. It began in ancient Greece and made its way around the world. REFERENCES S. E. Smith. (). What was the Neolithic Period?. Available: http://www. isegeek. com/what-was-the-neolithic-period. htm. Last accessed: 30th Oct 2012. Charles A. Bucher. (1983). Historical foundations of physical education and sport. In: Nancy K. Roberson Foundations of physical education and sport. US: The C. V. Mosby Company. P133-155. http://www. cals. ncsu. edu/agexed/aee501/rousseau. html http://prezi. com/ieokiwmde3ni/history-of-physical-education/ Howel et al. 1994. History Of Sport And Physical Education. In: Foundations of Physical Education,pp. 17-117 A. Bruce Frederick. (). Gymnastics. Available: http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/250277/gymnastics#ref700589. Last accessed: 01st nov 2012.

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Nursing Physical Assessment

Physical Assessment Lab 120-103 1. General Survey ! Level?! Awake & Alert a. Orientation to person, place, time? b. Ability to Communicate in full sentences with clear speech? c. Posture: upright and erect, shoulders level and symmetrical? d. Personal Hygiene: Clean & neat, no odor, dresses appropriately for the weather. 2. Integumentary System: a. Color: Uniform color – pink, tan, brown, olive. Slightly darker on exposed areas. There are normally no areas of bleeding, ecchymosis, or increased vascularity. No skin lesions should be present except for freckles, birthmarks, or moles, which may be flat or elevated. . Temperature: Warm and dry bilaterally. Hands and feet may be slightly cooler than the rest of the body. Skin surfaces should be non tender. (use back of both hands on patient’s forearms) c. Textures: Skin should feel soft/fine or coarse/thick. d. Turgor: When the skin is released, it should instantly recoil, no tenting. Best place to assess: Ant. ?Chest or abdomen. **Verbalize: I will integrate the integumentary system throughout the rest of the exam through checking and observing. 3. Head, Face, Neck a. Cranium: The head should be normocephalic, midline, and symmetrical.? . Scalp: The scalp should be white to light brown, shiny, intact, and without lesions or masses, flaking, or pidiculi (lice)? c. Hair: Pale blonde to black, thick or thin, curly or straight, coarse or fine, shiny or dull.? d. Frontal Maxillary Sinuses: Should be non palpable and non tender (must ask “did that hurt? ”) e. Cervical Lymph Nodes: Should be non palpable and non tender, non visible or inflamed. (Preauricular, postauricular, occipital, submental, submandibular, tonsillar, anterior cervical chain, posterior cervical chain, supraclavicular. e. Best place to assess: Ant. Chest or abdomen. **Verbalize: I will integrate the integumentary system throughout the rest of the exam through checking and observing. Physical Assessment Lab 120-103 f. Carotid Artery: Has visible pulsation (should be in front of the sternocleidomastoid muscle), palpable bilaterally (not at the same time!!! ), no bruits (soft blowing or wooshing sound from constriction of plaque) g. Temporal Artery: Should be palpable and equal bilaterally h. TMJ: Glides smoothly, no clicking or crepitus. i. Trachea: Midline, Thyroid: non palpable, non tender (ask) j.

Neck: ROM & Muscle Strength: Stand behind the patient, touch the chin to the chest, look up at the ? ceiling, move each ear to shoulder (without elevating the shoulder), turn head to each side to look at the shoulder. The Cervical spine’s alignment is straight, the head is held erect. Normal muscle strength allows for full, complete, voluntary joint ROM against both gravity and moderate to full resistance. Muscle strength is equal bilaterally. There is no observed involuntary muscle movement. Say: “full active ROM with no restrictions” k.

Thyroid: Palpation: have the patient lower the chin slightly in order to relax neck muscles. Place your thumbs on the back of the patient’s neck and bring the other fingers around the neck anteriorly to rest their tips over the trachea on the lower portion of the neck. Move the finger pads over the tracheal rings. Gently move trachea over to the side, then have patient swallow. Feel for any consistency, nodularity, or tenderness. 4. Eyes? a. Eyelids: Palpebral Fissure are symmetrical, no ptosis or lid lag.? b. Lacrimal Glands: Pale pink, patent, no excessive tearing, dryness, drainage, or edema.? . Eyelashes: Evenly distributed no ectropion no entropion.? d. Eyebrows: Even and equally bilateral? e. Conjunctiva: clear, pink, moist, without lesions? f. Sclera: white & intact? g. Cornea: Surface should be moist and shiny and without discharge, cloudiness, opacity, and irregularity.? h. Iris: round, symmetrical, and colored: green, blue, brown, hazel, violet, honey, etc.? i. Pupils: PERRLA (Pupils are Equal, Round, Reactive to Light and Accommodation) Check pupil reflexes. check twice each eye, direct/consensual, then bring penlight toward nose to assess for accommodation. . Ears? a. Pinna: Non tender, symmetrical bilaterally, without lesions or masses, (top of pinna should always be equal to outer canthus) – palpate simultaneously? b. Tragus: non tender, without lesions? c. Mastoid Process (piece of bone inferior posterior ear): non tender, no swelling, equal bilaterally (if one is different, ask for how long)? d. Tympanic Membrane: Pearly gray, shiny, intact (sometimes will see some white-cottage cheese looking bumps = scarring) MAKE SURE TO CHANGE SPECULUM BTWN EARS FOR PRACTICUM Adult: pull back and up, look anterior.

Child pull down) **know how to use equiptment!! Instructors/proctors look for this!!! *** e. Umbo: (Part of the Stapes) Make sure this is present, Protruding = dehydrated, Not present = fluid behind eardrum. f. Cone of Light: Tiny triangle anterior inferior on tympanic membrane = healthy. 5:00 on the right ear, 7:00 on the left ear. Physical Assessment Lab 120-103 6. Nose? a. Nares: patent, have patient occlude one nostril and gently blow out air on back of hand to test patency. Mucosa: pink, moist, without lesions, edema, drainage? b. Septum: without deviation.

Best was to assess is to push tip of nose up – shows if deviation is present. ! ***If nares are pink = allergies. If nares are bright red = cold. Saline shortens cold as it washes it ! down to stomach, where stomach kills the virus. 7. Mouth/Lips? a. Lips: pink, moist, intact, without lesions? b. Teeth: 32 including 4 wisdom. White with good repair, without caries? c. Tongue: pink, moist, papillae intact, midline, full mobility (ask pt to stick tongue out move left, right, up, down), without lesions? d. Oral Mucosa: pink, moist, without lesions (use tongue depressor & penlight) no red, no swelling? . Gingiva: pink, moist, intact, no bleeding? f. Uvula: Midline, rises symmetrically with soft palate when patient says “Ahhh” If absent patient will be sensitive to gagging. If long may be a sign of sleep apnea? g. Tonsils: Pink, symmetrical. They are graded from “absent – +4) +1 = peeking, +4 = kissing h. Hard/Soft Palate: pink, intact. Soft palate is pinker than hard Write: “What you would expect to see” If not, must state what you see. Are the eyelids covering the top of the iris? Always compare OD to OS. First begin assessment with visual acuity.?

Corneal Light Reflex: Shine penlight 12-15” away toward eyes (at midline) Should get right reflex in same position in each eye. If asymmetric they have strabismus (weak eye muscle) Ears: Use tuning fork? Weber Test: Hit on palm Hold at tip head (hairline) Should be able to hear equally in each ear. Rinne Test: hearing acuity. Hit prongs on palmar, put it on mastoid process until can’t hear it any longer, then move it to holding it in front of the ear canal. ***Air conduction should be twice as long as bone conduction*** Semicircular Canals: control balance and equilibrium

Vertigo can be caused by a foreign body which has been dislodged and landed in semicircular canals. Native Americans and Asians can have “Torus Palantitis” looks like mountain ranges on palate this is a benign condition. 8. Sensory Neuro (answer to most cranial nerve testing is “intact”) *verbage: Physical Assessment Lab 120-103 a. Sensation – light touch, sharp/dull, intact? a. Upper Extremities – use cotton ball, & sharp & dull sides of broken tongue depressor use 3 spots: finger, back of hand, arm. * ! b. Abdominal Reflex * ! ! Positive or not present * ! . Lower Extremities – use cotton ball & sharp & dull sides of broken tongue depressor use 3 spots: toe, top of ! foot, and shin.? b. Deep Tendon Reflexes – (smack deep tendons using flat side of hammer) *These are graded 0-4 “What you would expect to find +2/4”) ? a. Biceps – place thumb at patient’s elbow (antecubital) to hold their arm. Hit own thumb with the hammer. ?b. Triceps – hold patient’s muscle so patient’s arm can swing freely. Hit hammer above funny bone. ?c. Brachial Radialis – Hold pt’s hand then hit hammer midway btwn wrist & antecubital. d.

Patellar – Find tendon right above patellar bone, hit hammer on tendon? e. Achilles – About 2” above heel, support foot, relax leg. Will have plantar flexion.? f. Plantar or Babinski ?????????? = severe brain damage “abduction”. So we say “Positive plantar ? flexion, no abduction” ?????????? we only expect to find in babies. How to test: use metal side of hammer and trace the outer margin of the foot and across top, under toes. ?babinski or ????????? f. Best place to assess: Ant. ?Chest or abdomen. **Verbalize: I will integrate the integumentary system throughout the rest of the exam through checking and observing.

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School Physical Plant Management

School Physical Plant Management What do you understand with the term school plant? The school plant is the totality of all things that make up a school system. It involves the physical and material facilities in form of buildings, school site and the environment that embody the school. Moreover, a school plants include the site, the building and equipment and this include the permanent structures like workshop, libraries, classrooms, laboratories and semi permanent structures like the educational system itself.

The school facilities consist of all types of buildings for academic and non-academic activities, equipment for academic and non- academic activities, areas for sports and games, landscape, farms and gardens including trees, roads and paths. Others include furniture and toilet facilities, lighting, acoustics, storage facilities and packing lot, security, transportation, ICT, cleaning materials, food services, and special facilities for the physically challenged persons. Describe the 2 major functions of school plant?

An Environment to Facilitate Learning The primary purpose of the teaching and learning process is to bring about in the learner desirable change in behavior through critical thinking. This process does not take place in a vacuum but rather in an environment structured to facilitate learning. Hence, this environment of an organization as all elements relevant to its operation and they include direct and indirect action elements. School facilities, constitute the major components of both direct and indirect action elements in the environment of learning.

Feature Article – Country School – Allen Curnow

These facilities play pivotal role in the actualization of the educational goals and objectives by satisfying the physical and emotional needs of the staff and students of the school. Knezevich (1975, p. 563) emphasized that the physical needs are met through provision of safe structure, adequate sanitary facilities, a balanced visual environment, appropriate thermal environment, and sufficient shelter space for his work and play. His emotional needs are met by creating pleasant surrounding, a friendly atmosphere, and an inspiring environment.

The educational system has undergone tremendous changes in the form of its philosophy, broadened goals and objectives, new approaches to service delivery and architectural design, quantum leap in school enrolment, multiplicity of curricula programmes and extra-curricula activities, introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and expanded academic support services such as guidance services to students, teachers and the community, integration of the school and community. 3. In what ways does instructional program influence the nature of school plant? Schools exist for the purpose of teaching and learning.

Human and material resources are deployed for this purpose. School facilities are the material resources provided for staff and students to optimize their productivity in the teaching and learning process. The realization that the transfer of knowledge does not only take place in the four walls of the classroom from the teacher to the students but rather that learning takes place through discovery, exploration, interaction with the internal and external environment has necessitated the creative and innovative development of teaching and learning facilities that reflect these changes.

Schools exist to serve socio-economic and political needs of the ever-changing society, consequently, they are in constant interaction with their external environment. They receive inputs from the external environment in the form of human and material resources, processes them and empty same into the society as finished products and services. The quality of the products bears a direct relationship with the quality of the facilities deployed in the process of the production.

This demands that state of the art facilities are provided in schools to prepare school leavers for life in the global village. Several studies have shown that a close relationship exists between the physical environment and the academic performance of students. Nwagwu (1978) and Ogunsaju (1980) maintained that the quality of education that children receive bears direct relevance to the availability or lack thereof of physical facilities and overall atmosphere in which learning takes place.

For example, research findings have shown that students learn better when a combination of methods and materials are employed during teaching. Furthermore, emphasis has shifted towards giving individual attention to students as against teaching large classes which presupposes that all students in a class have the ability to learn at the same pace. The implication of the foregoing is that in designing school plant, provision should be made for individual and small group interaction and for large groups for academic and social activities.

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Physical Disorders and Health Psychology

Chapter 9: Physical Disorders and Health Psychology •psychosomatic medicine- psych factors affect physical function •behavioral medicine- applied to prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical problems •health psychology- psych factors that are important to the maintenance and promotion of health opsych and social factors: •(1) affect biological processes •(2) long-standing behavior patterns put ppl at risk for certain disorders o50% of deaths from top 10 leading causes in US can be traced to lifestyle behaviors •poor eating habits, smoking, lack of exercise, General Adaption Syndrome (GAS)- Selye oalarm- response to immediate danger or threat oresistance- mobilize coping mechanisms to respond oexhaustion- body suffers permanent damage •chronic stress may cause permanent body damage and contribute to disease •stress= physiological response to stressor •HPA Axis ohypothalamus- pituitary gland- adrenal gland oimportant for stress ocortisol= stress hormone •baboon case study odominant males have less stressful lives due to predictability + controllability olower males experience stress from bullying, higher cortisol levels osense of control important stress, anxiety, depression related osimilar underlying physiological processes oself-efficacy: sense of control and confidence that one can cope with stress or challenges •stress can lead to decreased immune system functioning oincreased rates of infectious diseases, mono, colds, flu, •Immune system oeliminates antigens- foreign maerials, bacteria, viruses, parasites o2 main parts: •humoral> B cells, antibodies neutralize antigens •cellular> T cells, destroy viral infections + cancerous processes owhite blood cells do most of the work (leukocytes) microphages= first line of defense •autoimmune disease oimmune system overactive, attacks body cells •rheumatoid arthritis- too many suppressor T cells, body subject to invasion by antigens •HIV- human immunodeficiency virus ?AIDS-related complex first: minor health problems before AIDS diagnosis w. pneumonia, cancer, dementia, wasting syndrome… ? treated w/ highly active antiretroviral therapy •reducing stress, social support, CBT help •psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) opsych influences on neurological responding implicated in immune response •Cancer psychoncology- psych influences in development of cancer otherapy can help treatment to reduce stress, improve mood, alter important health behaviors, supportive relationships •reduce cancer recurrence and dying •influence support + development of cancer o“benefit finding”- deepening spirituality, changes in life priorities, closer ties to others, enhanced sense of purpose opsych procedures important to manage stress especially w/ children who undergo surgery •Cardiovascular problems ocompromise heart, blood vessels and control mechanisms cardiovascular disease ostrokes ocerebral vascular accidents- temporary blockages of blood vessels to brain cause temporary/ permanent damage ohypertension- high blood pressure, risk factor for other heart probs •blood vessels constrict, heart works harder, pressure •essential hypertension- no verifiable physical cause •“silent killer” •blacks more at risk than whites •genetic influences •anger + hostility increase blood pressure ocoronary heart disease •heart disease in #1 cause of death in western cultures •blockage of arteries supplying blood to heart muscle chest pain •plaque •deficiency of blood to a body part •heart attack- death of heart tissue when artery clogged •stress, anxiety, anger contribute (+lack of coping skills and low social support) •myocardial stunning- heart failure as a result of severe stress oType A behavior pattern •excessive competitive drive, sense of pressured for time, impatience, high E, angry outbursts •at risk for CHD (although cultural diffs significant) oType B behavior pattern •more relaxed, less concerned about deadlines, seldom pressured, •Reserve capacity model associations among environments of low socioeconomic status, stressful experiences, psychosocial resources, emotions and cognitions> increase risk for CHD •Pain oacute- follows an injury, disappears once injury heals ochronic- begins w/ acute episode but does not go away osubjective term pain vs. pain behaviors= manifestations of exp oemotional component= suffering oseverity of pain doesn’t predict reaction b/c of psych factors •Phantom limb pain oppl who have lost an arm or leg feel excruciating pain in the missing limb •operant control of pain pain behavior under control of social consequences oie critical family members may become sympathetic •gate control theory of pain onerve impulses from painful stimuli travel to spinal column then to brain odorsal horns of spinal column= gate osmall fibers open gate, large fibers close •brain inhibits pain oendogenous opiods- naturally exist within body> endorphins oshut down pain, runner’s high after exercise, •men and women exp pain differently omen have stronger endogenous opiod systems owomen have additional pain-regulating mechanisms odiff areas more prone to pain Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) olack of E, fatigue, variety of aches and pains oneurasthenia- lack of nerve strength, old diagnosis oprevalent in western world and China •Pain can kill you… oincreases rate at which certain cancers metastasize ocan weaken immune system response by reducing natural killer cells opain> stress>vicious cycle •Biofeedback omake patients aware of specific physiological functions that ordinarily not be consciously aware of •heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension in specific areas, electroencephalogram rhythms, patterns of blood flow •(1) conscious awareness (2) learn to control them oinstill sense of control over pain •progressive relaxation obecome acutely aware of tension, relax specific muscle groups •transcendental meditation ofocus attention on repeated syllable, or mantra •relaxation response- silently repeat mantra to minimize distraction by closing mind to intruding thoughts •Coping mechanisms oprescription drugs, reduced effectiveness over time odenial oimproved attitudes, realistic appraisals thru CBT •4 leading causes of death in Us oheart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease AIDS prevention ocontraception ochanging high-risk behavior is only effective prevention strategy •smoking is epidemic in china omyths: tobacco is symbol of personal freedom, important for social interactions, health effects can be controlled, important to economy, •Stanford Three Community Study o1 community- assessed risk factors for CHD and smoking o2 community- media blitz on risk factors o3 community- face to face interventions, most successful at reducing CHD risk factors Chapter 10: Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders gender identity disorder- psych dissatisfaction w/ one’s biological sex, disturbance in identity •sexual dysfunction- difficult to function while having sex, ie no orgasm •paraphilia- arousal due to inappropriate objects/ individuals ophilia- strong attraction opara- abnormal •male female sex differences omen masturbate more and admit it ofemales associate sex w/ romance + intimacy rather than male physical gratification omen have diff attitude toward casual premarital sex omen show more sexual desire/arousal omen’s self-concept characterized more by power, independence, aggression owomen’s sex beliefs are more plastic/ changeable women emphasize relaitonships •sexual self schemas- core beliefs about sexuality •Cultural differences oSambia in Papua New Guinea •adolescent boys encouraged to engage in homosexual oral sex b/c semen valued… wtf •Homosexuality omight run in families, genetic component? odifferential hormone exposure in utero ogreater probably of being left handed or ambidextrous olonger ring finger than index ofraternal birth order hypothesis- each additional older brother increased odds of being gay by one third •Gender identity disorder oa persons physical gender is not consistent with persons sense of identity tapper in a body of the wrong sex otranssexualism odifferent from transvestic fetishism- sexually aroused by wearing clothing of opposite sex odifferent from intersex individuals- hermaphrodites, born with ambiguous genitalia, hormonal or physical abnormalities oautogynephilia- when gender identity disorder begins with strong sexual attraction to fantasy of oneself as a female, then progresses to becoming a woman ogenetic component suspected •gender nonconformity oboys behaving femininely or females behaving masculinely •sex reassignment surgery controversial to directly alter gender identity to match physical anatomy oin order to qualify, must live in opposite sex role for 1-2 yrs to be sure omust be stable psychologically, financially, socially ogynecomastia- growth of breasts •intersex individuals- born w/ physical charactersitics of both sexes o5 sexes: •males •females •herms •merms- more male than female but have some femal genitalia •ferms- ovaries but possess some male genitalia •Sexual dysfunction oinability to become aroused or reach orgasm o3 stages of sexual response cycle: desire, arousal, orgasm opremature ejaculation vaginismus- painful contractions in vagina during attempted penetration olifelong or acquired ogeneralized or situational odue to psych factors or medical condition •Hypoactive sexual desire disorder olittle or no interest in any type of sexual activity •sexual aversion disorder othought of sex or brief casual touch may evoke fear, panic or disgust •male erectile disorder and female sexual arousal disorder oproblem is not desire, problem is physically becoming aroused •inhibited orgasm oinability to achieve orgasm despite adequate desire and arousal (common in women) ofemale orgasmic disorder- difficulty reaching orgasm retarded ejaculation- cumming delayed oretrograde ejaculation- shoot back into bladder rather than forward •premature ejaculation- more common, 20% of males •sexual pain disorders odesire, arousal, orgasm present opain so severe that behavior disrupted odyspareunia- no medical reason found for pain •vaginismus- pelvic muscles in outer third of vagina involuntarily spasm oripping, burning, tearing sensations during sex •Assessing Sexual behavior o(1) interviews- and questionnaires o(2) thorough medical eval- rule out medical conditions o(3) psychophysiological assessment penile strain gauge- picks up changes as penis expands •vaginal photoplethysmograph- measures light reflected from vaginal walls •Causes of sexual disorders obiological contributions •nuerological diseases •diabetes •arterial insufficiency- constricted arteries •venous leakage- blood flows out too quickly for a good boner •prescription drugs ?anti-hypertensive medications for high blood pressure ?antidepressants ?SSRIs mess w/ arousal and desire •elicit drugs- cocaine •cigarettes opsych contributions •anxiety- can increase or decrease desire •distraction men who are dysfunctional report less sexual arousal •inducing positive or negative mood directly affects arousal •performance anxiety, 3 parts: ?arousal, cognitive processes, negative affect •erotophobia- negative cognitive set about sexuality, viewed as negative or threating ? learned early in childhood from families, religious authorities ? early sexual trauma, rape victims •script theory- we all operate by following “scripts” that reflect social and cultural expectations and guide our behavior •sexual myths/ misperceptions •Treatment for sexual dysfunction education is very effective, dispel myths and ignorance about sexual response cycle otherapy, increase communication b/t dysfunctional partners osensate focus and nondemand pleasuring- exploring and enjoying each others bodies thru touching, kissing, hugging, massaging •1st phase no genitals or boobs •2nd phase genitals but no sex or orgasm •3rd sex once aroused osqueeze technique- squeezing tip of penis to reduce arousal and gain control over ejaculation omasturbation training and porn! omedical treatments •oral medication (Viagra) •injection of vasoactive substances directly into the penis? •surgery •vacuum device therapy •Paraphilia if exists, individuals normally exhibit multiple paraphillic patterns oassociated w/ deficiencies in consensual adult sexual arousal, social skills, sexual fantasies •frotteurism orubbing against someone in a crowded public place until point of ejaculation •festishism operson sexually attracted to nonliving objects o(1) inanimate object o(2) source of specific tactile stimulation… rubber o(3) body part… foot •voyeurism obeing aroused by observing unsuspecting individuals undressing or naked •exhibitionism osexual gratification from exposing genitals to strangers orisk + anxiety can increase arousal oassociated w/ lower levels of edu transvestic fetishism osexual arousal from cross-dressing •sexual sadism oinflicting pain or humiliation •sexual masochism osuffering pain or humiliation •hypoxiphilia- oself strangulation to reduce flow of oxygen to brain to enhance orgasm •pedophilia osexual attraction to kids oincest when own family •Psychological treatment ocovert sensitization- carried out in imagination of patient, associate sexually arousing images w/ reasons why behavior is harmful or dangerous •orgasmic reconditioning opatients instructed to masturbate to usual fantasies but substitute more desirable ones just before ejaculation •Drug treatments “chemical castration”- eliminates sexual desire + fantasy by greatly reducing testosterone levels ocyproterone acetate + medroxyprogesterone ouseful for dangerous sexual offenders who do not respond to alternative treatmens Chapter 11: Substance-related and Impulse-control disorders •impulse control disorders- inability to resist acting on a drive or temptation osteal, gamble, set fires, pull out hair •polysubstance abuse- using multiple substances •substance use oingestion of psychoactive substances in moderate amounts that does not impair social, educational or occupational functioning •intoxication- getting high or drunk oimpairs judgment, mood changes, lowered motor ability •substance abuse ohow much ingested is problematic •addiction- substance dependence ophysiologically dependent on the drug requires increasing amounts to experience same effect (tolerance) onegative physical response when substance no longer ingested (withdrawal) oNicotine is arguably most addictive drug in the world, more so than meth! •5 substance categories o(1) depressants- sedation + relaxation… alcohol o(2) stimulants- active + alert… caffeine o(3) opiates- analgesia + euphoria… morphine o(4) hallucinogens- alter sensory perception… weed, LSD (5) other drugs- don’t fit neatly into categories… steroids •Depressants odecrease central nervous system activity, reduce levels of physiological arousal omost likely to produce dependence, tolerance, withdrawal oalcohol •reduces inhibition, motor coordination, reaction time, judgement •esophagus>stomach>small intestines>bloodstream>heart (+other major organs)> liver •influences GABA receptors –anxiety •influences glutamate system- excitatory, memory, blackouts •withdrawal delirium- frightening hallucinations, body tremors •liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disorders, brain damage •dementia- loss of intellectual abilities Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome- loss of muscle coordination, confusion, unintelligible speech •fetal alcohol syndrome- when pregnant mothers drink, fetal growth retardation, behavior problems, learning difficulties, physical signs •alcohol dehydrogenase- enzyme that breaks down alcohol •3 million ppl dependent in US ostages of alcoholism •pre alcoholic- drinking occasionally, few consequences •prodromal stage- drinking heavily, outward signs of a problem •crucial stage- loss of control, binges •chronic stage- primary daily activities involve drinking odrinking at early age is predictive of later abuse alcohol linked to violent behavior oBarbiturates •sedatives, help ppl sleep •highly addictive •overdosing> suicide •influence GABA obenzodiazepines •reduce anxiety •highly prescribed in US •alcohol amplifies effect oStimulants •most commonly used psychoactive drugs in US •amphetamine use disorders ?reduce appetite ?narcolepsy, ADHD, Ritalin ?stimulants illegally abused by college students… no shit •crystal meth •MDMA- ecstasy ococaine use disorders •alertness, euphoria, increase blood pressure + pulse, insomnia, loss of appetite •paranoia, heart probs nicotine use disroders •withdrawal- depression, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, increased appetite •more prone to depression •Opioids oopiate natural chemicals in opium poppy have narcotic effect o“downers” •Hallucinogens ochange sensory perception osight, sound, feelings, taste, smell omarijuana oLSD •Other drugs oSpecial K osteroids oPCP •Family and genetic influence •neurobiological influence opleasure pathway in brain mediates experience of reward odopamine- pleasure oGABA- inhibitory NT •Psych dimensions opositive reinforcement negative reinforcement- use drugs to cope/escape from bad feelings and difficult life circumstances oopponent-process theory- an increase in positive feelings will be followed shortly by an increase in negative feelings and vice versa •cognitive factors oplacebo effect oexpectancy theory •social dimensions opeer pressure omarketing omoral weakness model of chemical dependence- drug use is seen as a failure of self-control in the face of temptation odisease model of dependence- drug dependence cause by an underlying physiological disorder •cultural factors oacculturation- adapt to new culture omachismo •neuroplasticity brains tendency to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections ocontinued use of substance…. decreased desire for nondrug experiences •Treatment obiological •agonist substitution- take a safe drug that has a chemical makeup similar to the addictive drug ? methadone instead of heroin ?cross-tolerance: they act on same NTs •substitution ?nicotine gum instead of cigs •antagonist drugs- block or counteract effects of psychoactive drugs •aversive treatment- prescribe drugs that make ingesting abused substance extremely unpleasant opsychosocial •therapy •inpatient facilities •alcoholics anonymous- 12 steps •controlled use- controversial covert sensitization- negative associations by imagining unpleasant scenes •contingency management- decide on reinforces that will reward certain behaviors •community reinforcement approach •motivational interviewing- empathetic and optimistic counseling •CBT •relapse prevention •Impulse control disorders ointermittent explosive disorder- episodes where act on aggressive impulses •serious assaults or destruction of property •influenced by NT levels okleptomania •recurrent failure to resist urge to steal things not needed for personal use or monetary value •high comorbidity with mood disorders opyromania •irresistible urge to set fires pathological gambling otrichotillomania •pulling out ones hair from anywhere on body oothers •compulsive shopping-oniomania •skin picking •self mutilation •computer addiction Chapter 12: Personality Disorders •personality disorders- enduring patterns of thinking about ones environment and self that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts oinflexible, maladaptive and cause significant impairment or distress ohigh comorbidity •Axis I= current disorder •Axis II= chronic problem •5 Factor model oextroversion- talkative + assertive vs passive and reserved oagree-ableness- kind trusting vs hostile selfish conscientiousness- organized thorough, reliable oneuroticism- even tempered vs nervousness moody oopenness to experience- imaginative curious •Cluster A: odd or eccentric oparanoid oschizoid oschizotypal •Cluster B: dramatic, emotional, erratic oantisocial (m)- irresponsible, reckless behavior oborderline (f) ohistrionic (f)- excessive emotionality and attention seeking onarcissistic •Cluster C: fearful, anxious oavoidant odependent oobsessive compulsive •Biases ocriterion gender bias- criteria biased oassessment gender bias- assessment measures biased

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The Pros and Cons to Physical Education

The Pros and Cons of Physical Education Most of us remember gym class. For many of us, it was the most hated or the most anticipated class. Those that were a little bit heavier or not as athletically inclined may remember the class as a nightmare, while others may remember it as the most exciting time of the day. Either way, physical education was required. Today, however, the necessity of physical education classes is up for debate. Parents, faculty, council members, and even the government are weighing the pros and cons of allowing physical education in school.

I believe that even though the funding being used to pay for equipment and gymnasiums could be better spent on books and materials for other classes, physical education should stay in school because it provides healthy exercise for children and teens. It also gives the less fortunate but deserving children a chance to play and excel in sports. Obesity is a huge concern in America today. We see more children, teens and adults eating unhealthy foods and not receiving enough exercise than any other point in history.

According to the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry website, in 2008 between 16% and 33% of children and teens were considered obese . That is approximately one in four children who is over the suggested body fat limit for their age. What causes these children and adolescents to become overweight? Lack of exercise and a healthy diet are the main reasons. “In the 2009 edition of America’s Health Rankings™, it is estimated that obesity will cost the United States about $344 billion in medical-related expenses by 2018, eating up about 21 percent of the nation’s health-care spending. (National Association for Sport and Physical Education. 2009) Though school system cannot control what these children do and eat at home but they can control the food they eat at school . The school system can also provide the minimum amount of exercise needed in a child’s life. By insisting that they attend and participate in at least 60 minutes of physical education a day, the school system is ensuring that each child is given a chance to exercise and a chance at a healthier lifestyle. Children, especially when started at a young age, are easy to mold.

If they participate in daily physical exercise they are more inclined to establish a lifelong habit of daily exercise that will help to prevent obesity in adulthood and reduce the chance of expensive medical bills due to health issues in the future. There is, of course, a down side to physical education. Many children, but especially teens have self-esteem issues. If they happen to be a little bit overweight or advancing through puberty more rapidly than others or sometimes, for no reason at all these children feel the need to hide themselves.

Unfortunately, a class like physical education is not the best place to hide. No parent wants his or her child to be miserable, which is why some parents are saying that they believe the physical education class should not be mandatory. JoAnne Matthews-Saunders, a creative movement specialist, states that “few individuals, whether or not they have a disability, are willing to try new conce pts, and they are even less likely to try them while surrounded by their peers. The idea of “failing” is not a concept that anyone embraces. I, as an adult, have a difficult time when it comes to failing or not measuring up to some of my peers, especially when it concerns sports. Teens and children are the same but many, as yet, do not have the skills to accept the fact that they will not always be the best. This leads to feelings of defeat and again, low self esteem . Added to that, there is always peer criticism, which is very hard at any age but imagine a young person entering middle school or high school and being told that they would have to shower and dress with the other students of their gender .

That alone could cause anxiety but for those students with self-esteem issues, in their mind it would be close to torture . There are, however, parents, teachers and other professionals who believe that physical education will raise a child’s self-esteem. Professionals have stated that “youth receiving additional physical activity ten to show improved attributes such as increased brain function and nourishment, higher energy/concentration levels, changes in body build affecting self esteem, increased self esteem and better behavior… (Cocke, 2002)(Tremblay, Inman, & Willms, 2000)(Dwyer, Coonan, Leitch, Hetzel, & Baghurst, 1983)(Shephard, 1997)(Scheuer, Mitchell, 2003). As one can see, there are conflicting opinions on the subject of allowing students to choose whether they want to participate in physical education. It would seem that the health benefits outweigh other arguments but parents and psychologists still suggest that the physical education class raises psychological issues. Another issue that has been raised is the cost of physical education classes.

Many parents, faculty and concerned taxpayers believe that the money used to provide gym equipment, uniforms, fields, gymnasiums and the like could be better spent in different areas of the school There are so many schools that are lacking in materials, books and computers , the money being spent in physical education classes could be used to provide these items and perhaps give a child a better education then he or she may have otherwise received . According to the 2010 Federal Budget Update on US Department of Education Grants, the President is proposing a $78,000,000 budget towards the Carol M.

White Physical Education Program. The website does state, however, that “the President has proposed a budget, but no Congressional action has been taken on the 2010 Education budget yet. At this point in the process, it we do not yet know which programs will materialize and at what amount. Congress may reject or change part or all of the proposed budget, though the President’s suggestions do seem to be more in line with Congressional efforts in recent years than the previous administration’s education proposals . ” (2009) As one may be able to see, even Congress is debating the cost of school programs.

There is no information stating how much of that funding would be going toward physical education classes but the question still remains of whether it should be used toward providing for other programs. While the placement of funding is still up for debate the fact that physical education classes provide a chance to play sports is not. At the private school I attended the school paid for the field and transportation for our sports but equipment, such as soccer balls, had to be donated or we would need to provide our own. My uniform, for example, and all other equipment I needed for my position as goal keeper, my parents had to purchase.

Policies are different at every school and most state-funded schools supply the equipment needed. Even though some schools may, not every school provides transportation to and from home to extracurricular activities. For children whose families are unable to shuttle them back and forth to their practices and games when other transportation is unavailable, physical education is the only time they have any chance to play a spor t. It provides children and teens a chance for competitive exercise, companionship, teamwork and a desire to participate in sports and healthy activities outside of school.

In the end everything boils down to the same question: Should physical education be mandatory? According to a report from Education. com “physical activity produces overall physical, psychological and social benefits. Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps children with controlling weight, reducing blood pressure, raising HDL (“good”) cholesterol, reducing the risk of diabetes, and improved psychological well-being, including gaining more self-confidence and higher self-esteem. ” (n. d. This statement as well as others that have been provided show that there are more benefits to mandatory physical education in schools such as health benefits, sports, and teamwork but the cost of the class and possible emotional stress still leave many questioning its necessity. I personally believe that the class should be mandatory. Children and teens should be allowed to make certain choices in their young live s but in this case I believe that it is in their best interest to participate physical education classes.

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Physical Changes on a Flower

[pic] The Stages of a Flower from Seed to Bloom (The process by which flowers changed physically) It usually takes at least seven weeks for a flower propagated from a seed to bloom. The growth and development of flowers occurs over several weeks from the germination of seeds planted in the ground to the time in which flowers bloom. The entire process happens in about five stages for most flowers. Although different flower species have various bloom periods, the general growth and development process is basically the same for all flowers.

Moderate variations in the length of time of certain stages may differ by flower species. Stage 1: Days 1 Through 5 The seed begins the germination process soon after being planted. During day 3 of the initial growth and development stage, imbibition starts whereby the dry seed takes in water from the ground. Shortly after this occurs, the radical (root) emerges from the seed coat on or about day 4. On day 5, the radical begins to extend and develops a root system at one end and a stem at the other end.

The stem starts the process of making its way upward and eventually past the soil’s surface. Stage 2: Days 6 Through 26 Stage 2 is the stage in which a flower’s leaves develop. Leaf development usually begins on day 6 and continues to day 26. Leaves begin as tiny rosettes (leaf buds). As the stem begins growing leaves, the development of a flower’s primary root structure also culminates usually sometime after day 14. Even though leaf growth does not officially happen until stage 3, the first leaf buds may begin growing after day 18 and continue until day 26. Stage 3: Days 19 Through 30

Slight leaf growth overlap exists between stages 2 and 3 to account for the time period in which the initial leaf buds embark on growth. However, stage 3 officially marks the entire leaf growth period. During this stage all of the leaf buds grow until each one reaches full maturity at about day 29. It’s also possible for stage 4 to begin during the latter part (day 26) of the leaf growth stage. Stage 4: Day 26 Day 26 is the day in which most flowers experience inflorescence emergence. In other words, flower buds start appearing on the stem, signifying stage 4 of development.

It often occurs toward the end of stage 3 leaf growth; however, it is treated as a separate stage, because the period indicates the growth and development exclusively of flowers. Stage 5: Days 31 Through 49 Stage 5 commences the flower production phase. On approximately day 31, the first flower bud opens. Additional flower buds continue opening throughout a roughly 18-day bloom period until day 49 at which point flower production typically ends. Why some chemical changes are important? Without chemical reactions, chemical processes and chemical changes could not occur.

Without chemical processes, life is not possible. Anything alive is alive (at least in part, if not in sum) because of the biochemical processes going on in the organism. No chemistry equals no life. All living things are (without exception) biochemical mechanisms or biochemical machines. [pic]

References:

1. The Stages of a Flower From Seed to Bloom | eHow. com http://www. ehow. com/list_7576728_stages-flower-seed-bloom. html#ixzz2BpA87y46

2. http://wiki. answers. com/ Q/ Why_ are_ chemical_ reactions_ important_ in_ living_ things

3. http://www. oogle. com. ph /imgres? um=1&hl= fil&biw= 1024&bih =505&tbm= isch&tbnid= ZAM01aVdTEe4zM :&imgrefurl= http://www. usnon. com/ incidence- of-hypertrophic -scars- physiology -of-vitamin -d-3. htm &docid =k3rsn FHNOJIXuM&imgurl = http://www. usnon. com/ wp-content/ uploads/ 2009/1 0/ Figure

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Biophysical Interactions on the Reef

Ecosystems At Risk Reefs are important ecosystems as the are home to an immense amount of biodiversity and are essential in the cycle of life The Role of the Atmosphere Many reefs are located in the cyclone zone due to the necessary conditions they require to grow. For as long as reefs have existed they have been shaped by cyclones and intense storms. The severity of the storms and cyclones is determined by the length and intensity of the storms, which determines how much damage will be inflicted onto the reefs. The cyclones and storms generate large waves and strong winds, which do most of the damage to the reefs.

The waves have the power to rip apart soft coral and chip and damage the harder coral. Sometimes cyclones may result in large amounts of the reefs systems being buried by sediment. Reefs are very delicate and need very precise conditions to live and grow, the amount of rain that is associated with intense low systems can flood the reef with fresh water and reduce the salinity levels. During the storms the turbidly of the water also increases so the sunlight cannot reach the coral reducing its ability to produce food.

Tropical cyclone Larry (2006) showed that reefs could benefit from storms. The waves that were produced by Larry removed sediment that had accumulated and reduce the water temperature to the ideal level. The Role of the Lithosphere The role of the lithosphere in forming and transforming the reef ecosystem is very important. The reefs build themselves, this works because when the coral dies it produces limestone which the new coral grows on. The limestone is also weathered down and redistributed to other parts of the ecosystem to create a range of other landforms.

Through the production of limestone coral reefs are able to withstand the erosive power of waves. Overtime individual corals will of course die but this will allow the growth of new coral on the stable limestone structures the leave behind. Sediment is also an important influence on the reef. Sediment such as sand and mud can cloud the water creating high turbidity. High levels of turbidity can reduce the suns ability to penetrate the water and thus effecting zooxanthellae’s photosynthesis. Coral reefs may also be smothered by sediment especially were the possibility of high runoff is likely.

This is why in monsoonal areas and areas with high precipitation levels there are not many fringing reefs as they would struggle to cope with the change in salinity levels from the fresh water and the sediment increasing the turbidity levels. The Role of the Hydrosphere Coral reefs grow best in high wave energy areas. Reefs are very effective at interfering with wave energy. The structure of the reef is such that the seaward part of the reef absorbs much of the energy leaving an area of calm water behind it.

The amount of water that flows across the reefs is so enormous that it is measured in cubic kilometres. The flow of the currents is very important to the reef ecosystem. When the currents flow in a direction that they bring warm waters, high saline levels and high levels of nutrition that is a huge contributor to the biodiversity that makes the reefs so important and unique. The Role of the Biosphere There are more then 330 species of coral that can be found in any one reef. The coral is a living animal called Polyps.

Polyps are primitive organisms that consist of little more then a digestive sac and an out skeleton made from limestone. The Polyps feed by pulling food into its mouth through tentacles. Within the polyps lives an alga called zooxanthellae, the algae produces sugars and oxygen through photosynthesis. The polyps provide shelter for the algae and in return receive nutrients and the alga is also what gives the coral the distinct colours. Each coral reef begins as a single polyp, which reproduces itself to create a colony.

Apart from coral reefs are highly diverse systems made up of thousands of species. The amount of nutrients created by the plants and algae on the reef is several times that made in the open ocean. Because of the high levels of nutrients available on the reef there are thousands of fish species that feed on the nutrients produced and even the coral. Due to the abundance of fish some top order predators such as sharks and dolphins come to the reef. There are many different species living on reefs that work to keep the balance of life on the reef.

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Differnce Between Online and Physical Shopping

Introduction Online shopping or online retailing is a form of electronic commerce whereby consumers directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet without an intermediary service. An online shop, eshop, e-store, Internet shop, webshop, webstore, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-and-mortar retailer or shopping centre As we know that online shopping is the easy way shopping but also there are certain advantages as well as disadvantages.

To overcome the technological challenges as well as global challenges most of the business organizations are running towards ecommerce or e-business. For the shopping of the two items I choose malla emporium and muncha. com to buy Saree and amazon. com and GS electronics to buy watch. While going to shopping I was unknown that what kind of saree to buy so I went in muncha. com for online shopping of saree . There I got different types of saree which can fulfill my requirement. So I choose chiffon saree with blouse set. After then I moved to malla emporium for shopping of same that type of saree.

There they show almost all kind of saree but I couldn’t find the saree like that which I got in muncha. It was so difficult to select saree and quality of it and while selecting there is a loss of time also but while doing by online it was easy and less time consuming. Another good that I would like to buy was watch. For watch I went to amazon. com which is a much known online business site. When I moved to amazon. com I was confused that which kind of watch I should buy. So I search watch at first then I saw titan watch which I like very much so I select that.

To buy watch I went to GS electronics where there is showroom of watch. There I looked for the same watch but it was too difficult. I got titan watch but I couldn’t get the same one and the price rate was so different. 2. Shopping Comparison between Online and Physically In this world human being always prefer change. And by keeping in view this thing, there is another drastic change we see in shopping. Now a day we saw two types of shopping. The first is done by physically and the second is done by online. Attributes of shopping modes Characteristics

Attributes Physical Shopping Online Shopping Information/Gathering ShoppingTravel cost- When I go to malla emporium for shopping there is a requirement of travel cost. No travel cost- While I do shopping through ebay, travel cost is not required. I can get a service in one click. Travel time- In the physically shopping we’ve to reach upto that store so there is loss of time. No travel time- As we do shopping by online then we can do shopping by one click in our home itself so time will be saved. More shopping fun- person have different view point.

So while doing shopping physically we can enjoy. Less shopping fun- Online shopping is done by one click staying at a place so it’s not so fun. Less information certainity- That’s not sure that every shopkeeper tells the truth about the product so we cannot get full information about the product. More information certainity- We can get the real information that we want about the products in online shopping. Purchase/ TransactionHigher Purchase Price- When we do shopping by physically we’ve to charge high price because there is hidden cost like rental, inventory, labor cost.

Lower purchase price- Online shopping help us to get a services in a reasonable price then physically shopping. Less distrust feelings caused by transactions. More distrust feelings caused by transactions. Transactions are mostly made by cash but in some place there are used of visa, debit cards. Transactions only occurred through master cards, credit cards, visa, debit card. Delivery timeNo delivery time- We can get the services by hand to hand so no delivery time is required.

Delivery time- While doing shopping through online there is requirement of time for delivering of goods to us. Less inconvenience caused by delivery. More inconvenience caused by delivery. 3. Conclusion/ Recommendation Based on the project leading individuals to reallocate their time and money resources, this study examined the time and cost attributes of shopping modes, and explored the tradeoff between these two attributes, i. e. , the value of time, by assuming that consumers were faced with a shopping mode choice between physical store shopping and e-shopping.

The final estimated value of time include two types: the value of travel time to shopping places, physical stores as far as this study concerned, and the value of waiting time for the delivery of purchased products. Of course consumers’ concern toward e-shopping is not only about time and cost. Some psychological aspects, such as information uncertainty and transaction security, have been playing an important role in dominating consumers’ e-shopping behavior, and have been even more widely discussed in the literature.

However, ecommerce continues to advance, in speed and security in particular, it is generally believed that online information will be to a great extent improving both in quantity and quality in the near future. By that time, consumers’ negative perceptions towards e-shopping, such as information uncertainty and transaction security, may fade away. If this is going to be true, then consumers’ psychological concern over e-shopping may gradually be disappearing in the future. On the other hand, the economic concern over the travel problem; i. . , travel time and travel cost, about physical store shopping, and product delivery problem about e-shopping will ever exist. This makes the value of travel time is more costly then the value of delivery time, this study estimates worth noting. Moreover, this study also found that purchasing online to save travel time and travel cost, which is worth more for avoiding a shopping trip can be very inviting to consumers, even though it is at the cost of waiting for a delivery of purchased products, which is worth an average monetary value.

While delivering goods there arises problem. Delivery charge differs according to the goods. First, the value of product delivery time seems to highly depend on the types of products consumers shop and purchase. After all, waiting for a delivery of saree may take more time which I need for the especial party and also while delivering watch also takes time which I had to gift for the birthday f my brother.

But also this delivery time is reduce by this online business sites according to the products. According to this project I come to know that online shopping is better for shopping rather than physically shopping because there is saving of time, money and we can get the more information about the products and services which we don’t get from the physically shopping. In the case of security there is strict rules and regulations which help us to get the product safely.

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Physical Beauty to Inner Beauty

We are human beings, we need both physical beauty and inner beauty. We are not angels to search only for inner beauty. Also we are not devils to search only for outer beauty. We have eyes, first of all we look at someone physical, but as the time goes by we know the real people whether having inner beauty or not. The three aspects i am going to discuss are respect, confidence and relationship. The three aspects i am going to discuss are respect, confidence and relationship. The are many different between physical beauty and inner beauty and the most important is respect.

Inner beauty is responsible for providing the person with more respect and status in society. Also physical beauty play role but if you’re not good with your soul then the outer beauty role remain for less period but if you are good at your soul then you are talked everywhere. We may find a good and charming looking person but unless he or she is not good at soul we can not play a relationship. The other different is to be in confidence. The physical will always attract because of the hormones in our bodies but I also think that people have different ideas of what they are attracted to.

But today’s society and cultures play a huge influence on what people should think is attractive but the people that today’s society and culture call beautiful exhibit strong confidence in how they appear, so confidence will play role in it too. The last different is in relationship. When you meet someone for the first time, you will acknowledge their physical beauty first and then after you talk to him/her for quite some time you will acknowledge their inner beauty like their personality, their wit and etc.

You might not agree with me on this case because some of you might say that inner beauty is the real beauty. But if you ask people around I bet they will say the same thing. The first trigger will be physical beauty. You can take e. g. from the story of Cinderella. Prince choose chooses Cinderella when he spotted her with beautiful dress and make up nicely not with kitchen uniform, I wonder if the prince will even ask her dance if Cinderella’s wear her apron.

The outer beauty will always attract but the inner beauty is what will give relationship long evity. In conclusion, we can say inner beauty has higher meaning on how we look at what is attractive. We should be more interested in the inner beauty first before seeking what is on the outside because beauty open locked doors, many people look for external beauty and they forget about feelings but in the end when the beauty is over, the same doors will be closed

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Physically Visiting the Markets and Use of Telephone/Mobile Phone

Marketing of Major Fish Species in Bangladesh: A Value Chain Analysis a power of fishries industry loaded with more documents Physically visiting the markets and use of telephone/mobile phone are the common sources of collecting market information for all value chain actors. Fellow traders are also a source of market information for the value chain actors except processing plants. Processing plant and LC paikers mainly depend on email/internet to obtain market information

Md. Ferdous Alam Research Fellow, Institute of Agricultural and Food Policy Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia Md. Salauddin Palash Assistant Professor Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh Md. Idris Ali Mian Professor, Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh Madan Mohan Dey

Professor, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA November 2012 _____________________________________ A report submitted to Food and Agriculture Organization for the project entitled A Value-chain Analysis of International Fish Trade and Food Security with an Impact Assessment of the Small-scale Sector Marketing of Major Fish Species in Bangladesh: A Value Chain Analysis Table of Contents Section |Section title |Page | | |Glossary of terms |iv | | |Abbreviation |v | | |Weights, Measures and Conversions |v | | |Local and Scientific names of the species of fish considered |v | | |Acknowledgements |vi | | |Executive Summary |vii | | 1 |Introduction … … … … … … … … … … |1 | | 2 |Statement of the Problem … … … … … … … … |2 | | 3 |Methodology … … … … … … … … |3 | | 4 |Results and Discussion … … … … … … … … |5 | | 4. 1 |Overview of fish marketing practices … … … … … |5 | | 4. 1 |Buying and selling … … … … … … … … |5 | | 4. 12 |Grading … … … … … … … … |10 | | 4. 13 |Storage … … … … … … … … |11 | | 4. 14 |Transportation … … … … … … … … |11 | | 4. 15 |Financing … … … … … … … … |13 | | 4. 6 |Market Information … … … … … … … … |15 | | 4. 17 |Packaging … … … … … … … … |16 | | 4. 18 |Pricing … … … … … … … … |17 | |4. 2 |Fish Marketing Channels … … … … … … … … |17 | |4. 3 |Characteristics of Market Participants … … … … … |21 | |4. 4 |Value addition costs by different actors … … … … |23 | |4. | Marketing Margin … … … … … … … … |28 | |4. 6 |Distribution of Value Addition Cost and Net Profit … … … |32 | |4. 7 |Intermediaries Share to Consumers’ Taka … … … |33 | | 5 |Conclusion … … … … … … … … |34 | | |References … … … … … … … … … … … … … |39 | List of Tables Table |Title of tables |Page | |1 |Distribution of samples from different areas … … … … … … |5 | |2 |Percent of tilapia fish transacted by value chain actors … … … |6 | |3 |Percent of Rohu fish transacted by value chain actors … … … |6 | |4 |Percent of Catla fish transacted by value chain actors … … … |7 | |5 |Percent of Pangas fish transacted by value chain actors … … … |8 | |6 |Percent of hilsha fish transacted by value chain actors … … … |8 | |7 |Percent of shrimp transacted by value chain actors … … … |9 | |8 |Sources of finance of major carps, pangas, and tilapia fish |14 | | |Farmers and intermediaries … … … … … … | |9 |Sources of finance of hilsha fish Farmers and intermediaries … … |14 | |10 |Sources of finance of shrimp farmers and intermediaries … … … |15 | |11 |Sources of market information for Farmers and intermediaries … … |15 | |12 |Pricing methods followed in selling fish in Bangladesh … … … |17 | |13 |Total marketing cost of different intermediaries involved with major carps, pangs and tilapia marketing | | | |… … … … … … |24 | |14 |Total marketing cost of different intermediaries involved with hilsha marketing | | | |… … … … … … |25 | |15 |Total marketing cost of different intermediaries involved with shrimp marketing… … … … … … | | | | |27 | |15 |Total marketing cost of different intermediaries involved with shrimp marketing (continued) | | | |… … … … … … |27 | |16 |Marketing margin of Aratdar involved with major carps, pangs and tilapia marketing | | | |… … … … … … |29 | |17 |Marketing margin of Inter-district Paiker involved with Pangas fish marketing | | | |… … … … … … |30 | |18 |Marketing margin of Paiker involved with major carps, pangas and Tilapia marketing | | | |… … … … … … |30 | |19 |Marketing margin of Retailer involved with major carps, pangas and tilapia marketing | | | |… … … … … … 30 | |20 |Average net marketing margin of different intermediaries for major carps, pangas and tilapia fish | | | |marketing in Bangladesh … … … |31 | |21 |Average net marketing margins of different intermediaries involved with hilsha fish marketing | | | |… … … … … … |31 | |22 |Average net marketing margin of different intermediaries involved with shrimp marketing in Bangladesh | | | |… … … … … … |32 | |23 |Percentage distribution of value addition cost and profit by intermediaries and fish marketing system| | | |… … … … … … |33 | |24 |Share of intermediaries to in consumer’s Taka according to distribution channel … … … … | | | |… … … … … … |34 | List of Figures Figure |Title of figures |Page | |1 |Mode of transport used by farmers and intermediaries for movement of major carps, pangs and tilapia | | | |… … … … … … |11 | |2 |Mode of transport used by farmers and intermediaries for movement of Shrimp … … … … … … … | | | |… … … … … … … |12 | |3 |Mode of transport used by farmers and intermediaries for movement of Hilsha … … … … | | | |… … … … … … … |13 | |4 |Value chains of major carps, pangs and tilapia | | | |in Bangladesh … … … … … … … … … … … |18 | |5 |Value chains of hilsha in Bangladesh … … … … … … |19 | |6 |Value chains of shrimp in Bangladesh … … … … … |20 | |7 |Components of costs for carps, pangs and tilapia … … … … |26 | |8 |Components of costs for Hilsha … … … … … |26 | |9 |Components of costs for Shrimp … … … … … … |26 | List of Boxes Box |Title of Boxes |Page | |1 |Grading practices of different species of fishes … … … … … |10 | |2 |Packaging practices of fish marketing in Bangladesh … … … … |16 | Glossary of Terms |Arat |Generally an office, a store, or a warehouse in a market place from which an Aratdar conducts his | | |business | |Aratdar |Main actor in the fish distribution system.

An Aratdar arranges or negotiates sales for the sellers | | |on a commission basis. He often acts as a wholesaler. He is also a main provider of fisheries credit | | |to the fishers | |Paiker/Bepari |A Paiker is a middleman in the fish marketing chain; often covers the assembly function in the chain,| | |acting as Dadandar at the same time; depending on the location sometimes also referred to as | | |wholesaler or retailer. They are also called Bepari |Nikari |A Nikari is an informer middleman who does not have the ownership of fish but sets a bridge between | | |buyers and sellers and receive commission from Farmers and fishers | |Faria |Farias are intermediaries usually operating in the hilsha marketing process who purchases small | | |quantity of fish from fishermen far away from the market and carry it to the terminal point and sell | | |it to Aratdar or retailer | |LC Paiker |These intermediaries purchase hilsha fish from fishermen through Aratdar and export to overseas | | |market. They are authorized LC (Letter of Credit) holder to export. | |Account Holder |They are intermediary and operate in the shrimp supply chain. They act as the commission agent and | | |constitute the major profit making actor in the shrimp value chain. Account Holders are very powerful| | |as they are the party who supply shrimp to the processing plants. Processing plants are made to buy | | |shrimp from the Account holders only. |Dadan |This is a kind of loan given to the fishermen by Aratdars and mohajans (traditional money lenders) | | |on condition that fish are required to be sold to them compulsorily. Sometimes prices are | | |predetermined | |Koyal |Koyals are persons who conduct the auction for the Aratdars. They organize the auction by offering | | |initial price of the lot to the assembled buyers. They then loudly inform the prices offered by the | | |buyers before the auction participants. The process is repeated by them until final price is fixed | | |up. | Abbreviations Acronym |Full title | |FAO |Food and Agricultural Organizations of the United Nations | |DoF |Department of Fishery | |ADB |Asian Development Bank | |FGD |Focused Group Discussions | |LC |Letter of Credit | |NGO |Non-government Organizations | |Tk |Taka, Bangladesh Currency | |USDA |United States Department of Agriculture | Weights, Measures and Conversions Exchange rates (Jan 2011) 1 US dollar ($) = Tk75. 00 1 Maund = 40 Kg Local and Scientific names of the species of fish considered Local name | Scientific name | |Rohu | Labeo rohita | |Catla | Catla catla | |Pangas | Pangasius hypophthalmus | |Tilapia | Oreochromis nilotica | |Hilsha | Tenualosa ilisha | |Giant Tiger Shrimp | Penaeus monodon . | |Giant River Prawn | Macrobrachium rosenbergii | |Vennamei (whiteleg) shrimp | Litopenaeus vannamei | | | | Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD) for the technical implementation and funding respectively of the project entitled “A Value-chain Analysis of International Fish Trade and Food Security with an Impact Assessment of the Small-scale Sector”. We are also grateful to Dr. Audun Lem, Senior Fishery Industry Officer, Policy and Economics Division, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of FAO, Rome, for providing overall administrative support in conducting the project activities. The authors express sincere appreciation to Professor Dr.

Trond Bjorndal, Director, CEMARE, the University of Portsmouth, UK for his keen interest in this value chain paper. His critical comments and professional suggestions have been highly helpful in organizing the paper. Prof. Dr. Daniel V Gordon of the University of Calgary, Canada deserves appreciation for his suggestions and comments during the value chain study workshop held in Japan, which helped the authors to organize the paper. The authors express sincere appreciation to the graduate students of the Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, for conducting the field surveys in various fish markets.

The opinions of the participating members of the focused group discussion conducted in Khulna have been highly valuable and the authors thank them for their input. The different fish market intermediaries, who by sacrificing their valuable time, participated in the survey are also highly appreciated. Finally, the first author expresses deep sense of gratitude to the Institute of Agricultural and Food Policy Studies and the Universiti Putra Malaysia for approving him to be involved in this project. Executive Summary Background of the project Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is implementing a research project entitled a value-chain analysis of international fish trade and food security with an impact assessment of the small-scale sector with the financial support of NORAD.

The objective of the project is to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of relevant value-chains in international fish trade and arrive at policy recommendations. The project aims at analyzing the distribution of benefits in the value-chain and the linkages between the relative benefits obtained as well as the design of the chain. The project also aims at making comparisons between domestic, regional and international value-chains with the view to understand better how developing countries can increase the value derived from their fishery resources. Twelve countries (10 developing and 2 developed countries) are participating in this project including Bangladesh. This report is based on the cross section component of the value chain analysis of Bangladesh fish marketing. Objectives of the study

The study addresses the overall fish marketing system of Bangladesh with particular emphasis to the extent of value addition during the process of marketing of rohu, catla, pangas, tilapia, hilsha and shrimp. The specific objectives of the study are to: i) identify different marketing channels and intermediaries involved therein and their roles in fish marketing, ii) determine the extent of value addition in terms of costs in successive stages of fish movement, and iii) determine marketing margins of the intermediaries. A related, complementary study deals with price transmission mechanism across seafood value chain in the country (Sapkota-Bastola et al. 2012) Location of study and data

The study is conducted in i) Trishal, Bhaluka and Muktagaca upazila (sub-district) under Mymensingh district of north-central Bangladesh, ii) Dupchacia sub-district under Bogra district of northern Bangladesh, iii) Dumuria sub-district under Khulna district of southern Bangladesh, iv) Sadar sub-district of Chandpur district of south-central Bangladesh, and v) Jatrabari area of Dhaka district. A combination of participatory, qualitative and quantitative methods is used for primary data collection. Total sample size of the study is 200 comprising of 35 Farmers, 75 brokers and marketing agents, 5 depot owner, 2 processing plants and 73 retailers. Value chains (marketing channel) The longest supply chain involves six intermediaries for live Pangas (fish farmer, nikari, paiker, aratdar, retailer and consumer).

Two supply chains identified for carps and tilapia involve five intermediaries (fish farmer, aratdar, paiker, retailer and consumer) and 4 intermediaries (fish farmer, aratdar, retailer and consumer) respectively. Supply chain of hilsha comprises of six intermediaries, namely fishermen, aratdar, paiker, aratdar, retailer and consumer for the distant domestic market. Two other identified channels for hilsha marketing involve respectively five intermediaries (fishermen, aratdar, paiker, retailer and consumer) and four intermediaries (fishermen, aratdar, retailer and consumer) for the local markets. The overseas hilsha marketing channel involves four intermediaries namely, fishermen, aratdar, LC paiker and overseas consumers.

Domestic supply chains for shrimp marketing involve four intermediaries (shrimp farmer, aratdar, retailers and consumer) for local market and five intermediaries (shrimp farmers, aratdar, paiker, retailer and consumers) for distant markets. Three overseas supply chains are identified for shrimp marketing. The involved intermediaries are at most six, namely, shrimp farmer, aratdar, bepari, account holder, processing plant and overseas consumer. Characteristics of intermediaries Fish farmers and fishermen are the first link in the fish marketing channels. They are the supplier of fish to the market. Nikari (informer) is a middleman who does not have the ownership of the product but establishes a bridge between buyers and sellers and receive commission from farmer @0. 50 Taka/kg in the study areas in case of major carps.

Faria, another type of intermediary, is found in hilsha marketing system who purchases a small quantity of fish form fishermen far away from the market and carry it to the terminal point and sell it to aratdar or retailer in the study areas. Paiker or bepari handles large volume of fish. They purchase fish from fish farmers at farm or through aratdar in the local market and sell them to the retailers through aratdar or commission agent in secondary market. LC paiker (licensed trader/exporter) purchase hilsha fish from fishermen through aratdar and sell (export) their entire product to overseas market. Aratdars negotiate sales of fish on behalf of the producers/ seller. Aratdars arrange selling of fish through an auctioning system and receive a commission. Aratdars often act as a supplier of dadan.

Shrimp depot owners are the permanent shopkeepers having their own premises and staffs in markets and act as the middle functionary between farmers and commission agents. Their shops (establishments) are called ‘Depot’. This group of traders mostly offers dadon – cash as loans to farmers, in return for buying the shrimp at a pre-fixed price, which may be well below the market level. Account holders act as the commission agent and constitute the major profit making actors in the shrimp value chain. They finance paikers and farmers and give credit to the processing plants. Retailers, the last intermediaries of fish marketing channel, do not have any permanent establishment but they have fixed places to sit in the market places or wandering with hari (aluminium pot) on head from door to door. Buying and selling

Farmers (producers) sell 5-12% of rohu, catla, and tilapia directly to paikers and 85-95% is passed on to aratdar and subsequently purchased by paiker . Only a small portion is sold directly to retailers. For pangas, farmers sell 54% to paiker directly, 46% indirectly to paiker via aratdar and only 3% to retailers. Hilsha shows a different picture where fishers sell 16% to faria directly. Most intermediaries purchase fish from aratdars. In the study, 24% goes to faria, 16% to paikar, 12% to LC paiker and 32 % to retailers via aratdars. For shrimp, major portion (65%) is sold to bepari and paiker through aratdar. Depot owner is also an important party for the farmers to sell shrimp. Paikars and retailers transact (buy and sell) most of the traded fish through aratdars.

Thus aratdar is the most important intermediary in the fish marketing chains and is only involved in negotiating sales on behalf of the sellers on a commission basis. In general, farmer/fisher, aratdar, paiker, and retailers are the important intermediaries playing notable role in the marketing of fish. Account holders are intermediaries and operate in the shrimp supply chain. They act as the commission agent and constitute the major profit making actor in the shrimp value chain. Account holders play a significant role in shrimp marketing. Marketing functions Grading Grading is an important activity in fish marketing as different sizes of fish fetch different prices.

Grading facilitates buying and selling of fish. Most fish are graded on the basis of size (weight). However, in the case of hilsha, location (source of capture/catch) is also a factor in the grading procedure. Hilsha harvested from river (river Padma) and from sea (called fishes from Nama’s) are often differentiated in terms of their prices. Usually, hilsha caught from Padma river fetch higher price. Fish are graded into three categories namely, small, medium and large depending on size (weight). However, weights across species vary depending on species graded. Shrimp has a different grading system than fish. Here grading is based on number of pieces forming one kg. Storaging

The storage function is primarily concerned with making goods available at the desired time. It enables traders to obtain better prices for their products. Being a highly perishable commodity, fish requires extremely specialized storage facilities matching the seasonal demand. In the shrimp industry, only the processing plants use proper storage systems in order to be able to export to the world market. Other intermediaries use only ice to transport fishes from one place to another. Surprisingly, no refrigerated van is used in Bangladesh to transport fish. Live pangas is transported from one place to another place using water in the plastic drums. Transporting

Fish farmers and intermediaries use various modes of transportation such as van, rickshaw, truck, passenger bus, pickup, Nasimon (locally made pick-up type van for transporting passengers and goods), head load etc, to transfer products from the producing areas to the consumption centres. Ice is used while transporting the fish as most carriers are non-refrigerated. Rohu, catla, hilsha and other assorted fish often are sold in the urban areas with refrigerated vans to a very limited scale by the DoF, BFDC and some private firms. Financing Most of the fish farmers/ fishermen, aratdars, paikers and are self-financed. Other sources of finance for the farmers are banks, friends and relatives, and dadon. Aratdars and paikars also borrow from banks, NGOs, and friends and relatives.

However, finance of hilsha fishermen come totally from aratdar/mahajon (who provides dadan). Fishermen receiving dadon from aratdars/mohajans are bound to sell their produce to them, sometimes at predetermined prices, which in most cases are lower than prevailing market prices. Farmer, aratdar, bepari and retailer involved in shrimp transaction are self-financed. Depot owners use a combination of own fund, bank, NGO and aratdars for shrimp financing. Paikers use dadon from aratdars besides their own fund to run their business. Account holders partly and processing plant owners mostly depend on bank loans to accelerate the business operations. Market information

Physically visiting the markets and use of telephone/mobile phone are the common sources of collecting market information for all value chain actors. Fellow traders are also a source of market information for the value chain actors except processing plants. Processing plant and LC paikers mainly depend on email/internet to obtain market information. Packaging ‘Bamboo, tied with rope and polythene is used by farmers, paikers and retailers of major carps, pangas and tilapia fish for packaging. Agents also use plastic drum to transport fish (mostly pangas) in live form. Now a day’s ‘plastic crate’ is commonly used by all types of intermediaries in Bangladesh. Steel and wooden’ box are used in hilsha fish marketing by paikers, beparis and LC paikers. ‘Box’ made of cork sheet is widely used by Account holders and processing plant owners in shrimp marketing and LC paikers in hilsha fish marketing. Pricing Depot owner, bepari and account holder of shrimp marketing chain follow prefixed prices set by the processing plants. Farmer, aratdar, paiker, LC paiker, and processing plants practice open bargaining, auction and going market prices method for fixing price of their products in varying degree. Retailers follow open bargain for selling their fish to consumers. Value addition Value is added when products pass different stages and move from one intermediary to another.

The different cost components required for successive movement of fish are transportation, basket packaging, icing, wages and salaries, aratdar’s commission, house rent, security, electricity, telephone, personal expenses, tips-donation, wastage, dadon cost, government taxation, subscription for cooperatives (for hilsha), export packaging (shrimp). Total value added cost per maund (40 kg) is Taka 953. 13 for carps, pangas and tilapia; Taka 3707 for hilsha and Taka 5036 for shrimp. For carps, pangas and tilapia. The top three cost components are transportation, aratdar’s commission, and icing. For hilsha, the cost items are aratdar’s commission, transportation, and basket (packaging). For shrimp, the top three cost additions are aratdar’s commission, transportation, and salaries for shrimp. Marketing margin

Net marketing margins per maund of carp, pangas and tilapia for farmers, aratdars, inter-district paikers, paikers and retailers are Tk3257, Taka 54, Taka 194, Taka 337 and Taka 633 respectively. The net margins of hilsha are Taka 297 for aratdars, Taka 228 for inter-district paikers, Taka 902 for LC paiker, Taka 520 for paiker and Taka 1223 for retailers. Farmer’s net marketing margin per maund of shrimp is Taka 20366 followed by processing plant (Taka 1650), retailer (Taka 1524), paiker (Taka 1417), depot owners (Taka 1006), bepari (Taka 720) and aratdar (Taka 201). Retailers enjoy the lion’s share of the total marketing margin. Distribution of value addition cost and profit For major carp, pangas and tilapia, major cost and profit are borne by paikers (32. 03 % of the total cost) and retailers (51. 8 % of the total net profit) . For hilsha and shrimp marketing, major costs are incurred by inter district beparis, LC paikers, paikers and fishermen but major net profits are reaped by retailers and processing plant owners . Farmers in shrimp marketing bear the major marketing cost (23. 70 % of total cost) because they have to pay the aratdar’s commission. Farmers’ share of consumer Taka Farmers’ share of the consumers prices for different fishes seem to be reasonable except for hilsha fish. Farmer received 67%, 72% and 76% share of the consumer’s Taka for major carp-pangas-tilapia, shrimp (overseas value chain) and shrimp(domestic value chain) respectively.

However, for hilsha, the major share (46%) of consumer Taka goes to mahajon, and fishermen receive only 31%. Price spread per kg ranges from Taka 39. 83 to Taka 177. 50. Conclusions and recommendations The study reveals that the value chain of major carps, pangas, tilapia, hilsha and shrimp are long and very complex. Fish flows to a number of channels from the producing centers. Fish sold in a particular market may originate through more than one channel. There are involvements of many intermediaries in the channel. Involvement of some intermediaries seems to be redundant whose presence just adds a cost to the consumer and a loss to the fisher.

Fish purchased by consumers in Bangladesh mostly consists of the primary product and does include limited marketing services. Non-existence of good road and transport networks with the landing (assembling) centers deprive small-scale artisanal riverine fishers to get fair price due to their inability to sell directly to the assembling points/landing centers Contact fish farming arranged by some super stores tend to reduce the existence of number of intermediaries making the channel shorter. Bulk of the fish sold in the markets is unprocessed. An emerging new phenomenon in fish marketing in Bangladesh is the availability of fish in super markets, who are increasingly becoming important retailers.

Beparies and paikers bear the most cost of marketing while retailers enjoy the lion’s share of the profit. Farmers receive relatively higher share (approximately 70%) of the retail value for all species under study except for hilsha. Though fish marketing in Bangladesh is beset with a number of problems, there have been a number of positive changes that are expected to improve fish marketing environment in the country. These positive drivers include, i) the shift from subsistence to commercial fish farming, ii) emergence of super-markets, and iii) a changing social attitude towards fish marketing, as it is increasingly considered as a less dishonourable job as was thought in the past.

Although private bodies control the most of fish marketing, for better fish marketing, government should also play active role in providing physical facilities like refrigerated storage, refrigerated vans, good market places with related facilities like water, ice, electricity, drainage facilities and sitting arrangements etc. Development of road networks is greatly needed, which is a responsibility of the government. Monitoring needs to be done to ensure that market regulations are be strictly followed. 1. Introduction Large number of different types of water bodies both inland and marine makes Bangladesh one of the most suitable countries of the world for freshwater aquaculture. The freshwater inland aquaculture production in Bangladesh is the second highest in the world after China (FAO, 2009).

The total annual fish production is estimated at 2. 90 million tonnes in 2009-10 (Bangladesh fiscal year: 1 July-30 June), of which 1. 35 million tonnes (46. 62%) are obtained from inland aquaculture, 1. 02 million tonnes (35. 53%) from inland capture fisheries, and 0. 52 million tonnes (17. 85%) from marine fisheries (DoF, 2010). The main production systems for freshwater aquaculture in Bangladesh are extensive and semi-intensive pond poly-culture of Indian major carps and exotic carps, which account for 80% of the total freshwater aquaculture production. The remaining 20% are mainly from catfish, tilapia, small indigenous fish and rice-fish farming (ADB, 2005). Presently, 1. million people are engaged full time and 12 million as part time in fisheries sector in the country for livelihood and trade. Another 3. 08 million fish and shrimp farmers are cultivating fish both at subsistence and commercial level (Shah and Ahmed, 2006). In Bangladesh, fish farming is currently one of the most important sectors of the national economy. Within the overall agro-based economy of the country, the contribution of fish production has been considered to hold good promise for creating jobs, earning foreign currency and supplying protein. About 97% of the inland fish production is marketed internally for domestic consumption while the remaining 3% is exported (Hasan, 2001).

A large number of people, many of whom living below the poverty line, find employment in the domestic fish marketing chain in the form of farmers, processors, traders, intermediaries, day laborers and transporters (Ahmed et al. 1993, Islam, 1996; DFID, 1997; Kleih, 2001a? 2001b). Traditionally, people of Bangladesh like to eat fresh fish. However, chilled and dried fish are also marketed currently in large quantities in the towns and cities. Utilization and marketing distribution of fish is around 70 % fresh fish, 25% dried, and the other forms of locally processed fish include fermented products and frozen products (Islam et al. 2006). The export market of value added products is highly competitive, involving changes in type of products, forms and packaging as well as consumer behavior.

Export of fish, shrimp and other fishery products were considered as non-conventional items before the independence of the country. It has increased many-folds during the last decades and the country is earning foreign exchange to minimize the trade gap. In this case the dried coastal and marine fish, the marine finfish and organism even other than fish, could be on the top of the list of export earning items (Kamal, 1994). Bangladesh exported fish and fisheries products worth Taka 32,106 million in 2009-10 of which frozen fish and shrimp shared more than 90% of the total exports of the fishery products and attained 3. 7% of total export earnings of Bangladesh (Bangladesh Bank, 2011).

Since fish production in Bangladesh is increasing over the years, its disposal pattern is very important as growers, wholesalers, retailers and consumers- all are affected due to value addition in the marketing process. For the sustainability of these stakeholders, fish marketing studies are very necessary. Thus, the present study is conducted to examine the fish marketing system, supply chain and value addition to determine the pulling factors for enhancing production, processing and marketing of different species of fishes in Bangladesh. 2. Statement of the Problem The value chain describes the full range of activities which are required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of production and delivery to final consumers (Porter, 1980; Kapilinsky and Morris, 2000).

Value-chain analysis looks at every step a business goes through, from raw materials to the eventual end-user. The goal is to deliver maximum value for the least possible total cost (Investopedia, 2011). Market chain analysis aims to provide information on profitability for the various agents along the market chain (Ferris et al. , 2001). Economic value chain analysis describes the range of activities required to bring a product to the final consumer and, in the case of international products, the extent to which intermediaries/agents gain from participating in the chain (Jacinto, 2004). A traditional food industry value chain consists of the producer, processor, wholesaler, exporter, importer, retailer and consumer.

There are mainly three sets of reasons why value chain analysis is important (Kaplinsky and Morris, 2000). These are: i) with the growing division of labour and the global dispersion of the production of components, systematic competitiveness has become increasingly important, ii) efficiency in production is only a necessary condition for successfully penetrating global markets, and iii) entry into global markets which allows for sustained income growth – that is, making the best of globalilsation- requires an understanding of dynamic factors within the whole value chain. Fish is a highly perishable commodity and its quality deteriorates very rapidly.

Therefore, its quality cannot be kept unaffected for human consumption for a long time. Production and consumption areas are also widely separated. Consumers of this country normally like indigenous carps, shrimp, catfish and other small species as food fish. Production of cultured fish can be increased by making best utilization of the existing inland resources through modern and scientific methods of fish culture and fishing techniques. But the ultimate consumers have to depend on an effective marketing system to be able to purchase fish at reasonable prices. Similarly, successful and sustainable fish culture also depends on an effective distribution system.

Analysis of value chains requires detailed micro-level data, which are not available in Bangladesh and are often difficult to obtain in most countries. The present study takes the first steps to collect primary data and to identify the marketing channels and value addition of tilapia, pangas, rohu, catla, shrimp and hilsha in Bangladesh. This study analyzes how market intermediaries operate along seafood value chains, and demonstrates how the revenue from seafood trade is distributed over the entire seafood value chain. This report also provides information on aquaculture/fisheries products in Bangladesh to support the statistical report linking the value chain in fish supply.

Finally, this study is expected to also provide some useful information to traders, fish farmers and policy makers to help them formulate programmes and policies related to the concerned fish production and marketing. A related, complementary study (Sapkota-Bastola et al. 2012) provides an in-depth analysis of the linkage between various segments in the seafood value chains in the country. The report is organized in 5 sections. Following introduction in the first section and problem statement in the second section, the third section presents methodology followed in the study. Results and discussions are discussed in section 4. Concluding remarks and future fisheries value chains are provided in section 5. 3. Methodology

The study was conducted in i) Trishal, Bhaluka and Muktagaca sub-districts under Mymensingh district of north-central Bangladesh, ii) Dupchacia sub-district under Bogra district of northern Bangladesh, iii) Dumuria sub-district under Khulna district of southern Bangladesh, iv) Sadar sub-districts of Chandpur district of south-central Bangladesh and v) Jatrabari area of Dhaka district. These areas have been identified as the most important sources for pangas (Pangasius hypophthalmus), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla Catla), tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica), hilsha (Tenualosa ilisha) and shrimp/prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, and Litopenaeus vannamei). Primary data were collected from fish market agents of Trishal, Valuka, Muktagaca and Mechua Bazar of Mymensingh district, Dupchacia and Fate Ali Bazar of Bogra district, Kharnia, Dumuria, Rupsha, 5-No. hat and Moylapota Bazar of Khulna district, Station, Pal Bazar and Biponibag of Chandpur district and Jatrabari, Shanir Akhra, Ajompur and Abdullahpur Bazar of Dhaka district for the study. Surveys were conducted for a period of three months from November 2010 to January 2011. These surveys involved the inspection of the study areas in terms of fish distribution and marketing systems. A combination of participatory, qualitative and quantitative methods was used for primary data collection. A total of 4 Focus Group Discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted with actors involved in fish distribution channel (1 FGD in each area). Table 1 shows the sample intermediaries from different study areas. In this study, purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the sample. Total sample size of the study was 200.

The interview schedules were prepared according to the need of the objectives of the study. In order to collect data, one set of interview schedule for all actors involved in value addition process was prepared. The draft interview schedule was pre-tested amongst a few respondents by the researcher themselves. In this pre-testing much attention was given to elicit new information which was originally not designed to be asked and filled in the draft interview schedules. Thus, some parts of draft schedules were improved, rearranged and modified in the light of the actual experiences gained from the field tests. Then the final interview schedules were prepared based on the result of the pre-test.

After the collection of data they were scrutinized and carefully edited to eliminate possible errors and inconsistencies contained in the schedules while recording them. The first step was to look into the data of each and every interview schedule to ensure consistency and reliability with the aims and objectives of the study. After completing the pre-tabulation task, they were transferred to an Excel sheet from the interview schedules. In this study tabular technique was followed to illustrate the whole scenarios of fish marketing. The sum, mean, averages, percentages, gross costs and margins etc. are the simple statistical measures employed to examine the value chain analysis of different species of fishes. Table 1. Distribution of samples from different areas |Study Area and fish species | | | | | | | |Respondents | | | |Mymensingh |Bogra |Dhaka |Chandpur |Khulna | | | |Pangas/ |Pangas/ |Pangas/ |Hilsha |Hilsha |Shrimp |Total | | |tilapia/ rohu/ catla|tilapia/ rohu/|tilapia/ rohu/ | | | | | | | | |catla/ hilsha | | | | | | | |catla | | | | | | |Farmer |10 |5 | |5 |5 |10 |35 | |Paiker |15 |4 |3 | |10 |3 |35 | |Total |56 |29 |25 |20 |29 |41 |200 | 4.

Results and Discussion 4. 1 Overview of fish marketing practices 4. 11 Buying and selling Fish marketing practices in Bangladesh is the combination of a series of functions or services that are performed by several institutions and market participants like marketing agents, brokers, wholesalers, retailer, exporter and manufacturer in order to transfer the products from farm-gate to the ultimate consumers both at home and abroad. Marketing system may be thought of as the connecting link between specialized producers and consumers (Kohls, 2005). An efficient marketing system is essential for earning fair profit for the fish farmers and traders.

Marketing functions may be defined as major specialized activities performed in accomplishing the marketing process of concentration, equalization and dispersion (Kohls, 2005). In the study areas, the whole marketing of fish has been broken down into various functions such as buying and selling, transportation, grading, storaging, weighing, financing, market information and pricing. The activities involved in the transfer of goods are completed through buying and selling functions. Aratdars do the functions of negotiation between buyers and sellers of fish and help them at their own business premises on receipt of commission. They do not take the ownership of the products.

Tilapia fish farmers sell 85% of their fish to paiker through aratdar, 12% to paiker directly and the final 3% to retailer. Paikers sell 77% of their fishes to retailers and 23% to retailers through aratdars. Retailers sell the entire fish to ultimate consumers. Paiker of tilapia fish purchases 92% from farmers through aratdar and 8% directly from farmers. Retailer purchases 89 % from farmers through aratdar and 11% from farmers. Consumer purchases 100% of tilapia from the retailers in the study area (Table 2). Table 2. Percent of tilapia fish transacted by value chain actors | |Purchase from (%) |Sold to (%) | |Value chain actor| | | |Farmer | |Paiker |8 |92 | | |Farmer | |Paiker |8 |92 | |Value chain actor|Farmer | |Paiker |11 |89 | | |Farmer | |Paiker |50 |50 | | |Fisher men | |Faria |100 |- |- |- |- | |Retailer |- | | |Farmer |Faria |Farmer via Aratdar|Bepari |Depot owner |AC Holder |Retailer | |Faria |100 |- |- |- |- |- |- | |Depot owner |40 |20 |40 |- |- |- |- | |Paiker |- |- |100 |- |- |- |- | |Bepari |- |- |100 |- |- |- |- | |A/C Holder |30 |- |- |50 |20 |- |- | |Processing plant |- |- |- |- |- |- |- | |Retailer |- |- |20 |80 |- |- |- | |Consumer |- |- |- |- |- |- |100 | Source: Field survey, 2010. Table 7. Percent of shrimp/prawn transacted by value chain actors (Cont…. | |Sold to (%) | |Value chain |Faria |Retailer via Aratdar | |actor | | | |Rohu |Weight |Large: 2. 5 kg above, Medium: 1. 0 kg to 2. 5 kg, Small: Less than 1 kg | |Catla |Weight |Large: 3. 0 kg above, Medium: 1. 5 kg to 3 kg, Small: Less than 1. 5 kg | |Tilapia |Weight |Large: 300 gm above, Medium: 150 gm to 300 gm, Small: Less than 150 gm | |Pangas |Weight |Large: 1. 5 kg above, Medium: 1 kg to 1. kg, Small: Less than 1 kg | |Shrimp |Weight |Golda: U-5, 6/8, 8/12, 13/15, 16/20, 21/25, 26/30 | | | |Bagda: 8/12, 13/15, 16/20, 21/25, 26/30, 31/40, 41/50 | |Hilsha |Weight |Large: Above 1 kg, Medium: 800gm to 1000 gm, Small: Less than 800 gm | | |Location |Catching from river, Catching from sea | Source: Field survey, 2010. 4. 13 Storage The storage facilities help buyers and sellers to reduce the wide fluctuation of prices between peak and lean seasons. The storage function is primarily concerned with making goods available at the desired time and enables traders to receive better prices for their products. Because of high perishability, fish requires extremely specialized storage facilities matching the seasonal demand.

Only the processing plants in the shrimp industry use proper storage systems for export to the world market. Other intermediaries use only ice to transport fishes from one place to another. Surprisingly, no refrigerated vans are used in Bangladesh to transport fish. Live pangas is transported from one place to another using water in the plastic drums. If the distance is long, water is then changed twice or thrice depending on the distance. Though all intermediaries use ice during marketing, their use of ice in fish is not scientific for which quality of fish gets affected. While retail selling, some use ice and some do not. 4. 14 Transportation

Transportation is a basic function of making goods available at proper place and it creates place utility. Perishable goods must be moved as early as possible from the producing centre Figure 1. Mode of transport used by farmers and intermediaries for movement of major carps, pangas and tilapia Source: Field survey, 2010. Figure 2. Mode of transport used by farmers and intermediaries for movement of shrimp Source: Field survey, 2010. to the consumer centre. So transportation is essential for highly perishable commodities like fish. Adequate and efficient transportation is a cornerstone for the modern marketing system (Kohls and Uhl, 2005, p. 319).

In the study areas, the fish farmers and intermediaries use various modes of transports such as van, rickshaw, truck, passenger bus, pickup, Nasimon (locally made pick-up type van for transporting passengers and goods), head load etc, to transfer product from the producing areas to the consumption centre. Figures 1, 2 and 3 show different modes of transport used by the intermediaries to transport fish from one place to another. 4. 15 Financing The financing function is the advancing of money by someone to carry on the business. For effective operation, financing is of crucial importance in the whole marketing system of fish. The source of finance for the value chain actors in the study areas are shown in Tables 8, 9 and 10.

Table 8 shows that most of the fish farmers, aratdars, paikers and retailers of major carps, pangas and tilapia are self-financed. Other sources of finance for farmers are banks, friends and relatives, and dadon. A minor portion of Aratdar’s sources of finance are banks and friends and relatives. Paikers take loan from banks, NGO and friends and relatives. In addition to the use of their own fund, retailers also borrow from NGOs and friends and relatives. Figure 3. Mode of transport used by the farmers and intermediaries for movement of hilsha fish Source: Field survey, 2010. Table 8. Sources of finance of major carps, pangas and tilapia fish farmers and intermediaries Sources of finance |Market participants (%) | | | |Farmer |Aratdar |Paiker |Retailer | |Own fund |86 |96 |82 |76 | |Bank |9 |3 |11 |0 | |NGO |- |0 |5 |16 | |Friend and relatives |4 |1 |2 |8 | |Dadon from Aratdar |1 |0 |0 |0 | |Total |100 |100 |100 |100 | Source: Field survey, 2010.

Table 9 shows that most of the fish aratdar, bepari, paiker and retailer of hilsha are self-financed. Other sources of their finance are banks, NGOs, friends and relatives and dadon. It is worth mentioning that finance of hilsha fishermen come totally from aratdar/mahajon (who provides dadan). This dadon of the aratdars /mohajans makes fishermen very vulnerable as it is tied up with conditions. Fishermen receiving dadon from aratdars/mohajans are bound to sell their produce to them, sometimes at predetermined prices which in most cases are lower than the prevailing market prices. Moreover, they also deprive the fishers while weighing the produce. About one-fourth of the LC paikers business is run by bank loans. Table 9.

Sources of finance of hilsha fish farmers and intermediaries |Sources of finance |Market participants (%) | | |Fishermen |Aratdar |Bepari |Paiker |LC Paiker |Retailer | |Own fund |3 |90 |95 |80 |74 |99 | |Bank |0 |9 |5 |10 |24 |0 | |NGO |0 |0 | |0 |2 |1 | |Friend and relatives |0 |1 | |0 | | | |Dadon from Aratdar |97 | | |10 | | | |Total |100 |100 | | |100 |100 | Source: Field survey, 2010. Table 10 shows that in the case of shrimp, most of the farmers, aratdar, bepari and retailers are self-financed. Depot owners use a combination of own funds, bank loans, NGO and aratdars for shrimp marketing. Only 20% of depot owners procure loans from banks while 5% and 3% received from NGOs and dadon giving aratdars respectively. However, a majority of depot owners use their own fund for the business. 34% of the paikers take dadon Table 10.

Sources of finance of shrimp farmers and intermediaries |Sources of finance |Market participants (%) | | |Farmer | | |Farmer |Depot owner |Aratdar | |Basket |Bamboo, Rope and Polythene |40 kg |Farmer, Paiker and Retailer | | | |20 kg |Retailer | |Drum |Plastic |40 kg |Farmer, Paiker | | | |20 kg |Retailer | |Crate |Plastic, Polythene |40 kg |Depot owner (shrimp), Paiker, Bepari, Account holder | | | | |(Shrimp), Retailer | |Steel box |Steel sheet |250 kg |Paiker, Bepari (hilsha) | |Wooden box |Wood, Polythene |160 kg |Bepari, Paiker, LC paiker (hilsa) | |Box |Cork sheet |40 and 20 kg |LC Paiker (hilsha), Account holder, Processing p

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As Level Physical Education Acquiring Movement Skills

AS Level Physical Education Acquiring Movement Skills Scheme of work – MCW |Lesson Title |Learning objectives |Homework | |Skill and Ability |Know the term ‘skill’; |Identify three gross motor abilities required for badminton. Justify your answers. | | |Understand different skills and explain how they influence sporting performance. Identify three perceptual (psychomotor) abilities required for volleyball. Justify your | | |Be able to explain the interaction between ‘skill’ and ‘ability’. |answers. | | | |Outline the difference between skill and ability and explain the relationship that exists | | | |between them. |Classification of motor skills |Know why skills are classified using continua. |Skill analysis on main skills from your number 1 sport. At least 10 skills. | | |Understand the different classifications of skills. |Place on each continuum. | | |Be able to identify specific sporting examples and justify your decisions for placing them on| | | |a specific continuum. | |Classification of practice |Know the factors that need to be considered before a skill is taught. |Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the whole and part methods of practice | | |Understand the different practice and teaching methods used to facilitate learning and |when developing a sports skill. (10 marks) | | |performance. | | |Be able to critically evaluate these methods and their effectiveness in the learning of | | | |skills. | | |Stages of learning |Know the terms ‘learning’ and ‘performance’. According to Fitts and Posner, performers pass through three stages of learning when | | |Understand the characteristics of the cognitive, associative and autonomous stages of |developing movement skills. | | |learning. |Use a practical example to explain the characteristics of each stage of learning | | |Be able to apply these phases of learning to practical activities. (cognitive, associative, and autonomous). (3) | | | |Describe the type of feedback used at the cognitive, associative and autonomous stages of | | | |learning. (3) | |Types of guidance |Know the types of guidance used in the learning of skills. Using the example of a novice swimmer, explain how a teacher could use the four methods of| | |Understand which type of guidance is most suited to improve performance at each stage of |guidance to develop the pupil’s swimming skills. (4 marks) | | |learning. |What are the advantages and disadvantages of using manual and mechanical guidance for | | |Be able to critically evaluate these different types of guidance. teaching swimming to beginners? (6 marks) | |Types of practice and mental rehearsal |Know the factors that need to be considered before a skill is taught. |Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of distributed, massed, fixed and varied practice| | |Understand the appropriate use of practice methods to maximise effectiveness, including the |methods on the performance of movement skills. 10 marks) | | |role of mental rehearsal. | | | |Be able to critically evaluate different types of practice methods and their application to | | | |the performance of movement skills. | |Exam analysis |Know the areas of the exam which are areas of strength and those that are in need of |Re-write ‘model answers’ to exam paper. | | |improvement. | | |Understand how answers are marked in order to maximise your chances of scoring all available | | | |marks. | | |Be able to write model answers using the mark scheme as a guide. | | |Information processing |Know the key components of information processing. |Draw out your own copies of each of the models that we identified. | | |Understand and draw Welford’s and Whiting’s models of information processing. Choose one of the two models that we have identified (Whiting’s or Welford’s). | | |Be able to apply these models to the learning and performance of physical activities |Use a skill or a number of skills in your chosen activities to explain and illustrate how | | | |each component of the model works in that activity. |Memory |Understand the multi-store model of the memory process. |Revision | | |Understand the strategies that can be used to improve both short-term memory storage and | | | |long-term memory storage. | | |Be able to apply the memory process to the learning and performance of physical activities. | | |Reaction time |Know what is meant by reaction time, movement time and response time. |Identify and explain four factors that affect response time in practical activities(4 | | |Describe the impact of reaction time on performance. marks) | | |Understand factors that affect response time in practical activities |By using a practical example in sport, explain what is meant by simple reaction time in | | |Be able to apply the theories relating to reaction time to the performance of physical |sport. (2 marks) | | |activities. Choice reaction (Hick’s law) can be explained through the use of a graph. Sketch a graph | | | |to illustrate the effect of choice reaction time on physical performance. (4 marks) | |Exam analysis |Know the areas of the exam which are areas of strength and those that are in need of |Re-write ‘model answers’ to exam paper. | |improvement. | | | |Understand how answers are marked in order to maximise your chances of scoring all available | | | |marks. | | |Be able to write model answers using the mark scheme as a guide. | | |Psychological refractory Period |To consolidate knowledge of reaction time in information processing. |5-10 minute revision presentation | | |Understand the role of anticipation in reaction time. Delivered on the topic you are assigned | | |Be able to apply the ‘psychological refractory period’ to practical activities. |Use the specification to guide you | | | |Need to provide a handout | | | |All presentations will be saved to shared area for whole group benefit |Feedback |Know the different types of feedback available to a performer. |With reference to the learning and performance of movement skills, critically evaluate the| | |Understand the links between use of feedback and the stages of learning. |use of feedback that a coach could use for a performer in the cognitive stage of learning. | |Be able to critically evaluate the different types of feedback to detect and correct errors. |(10 marks) | |Motor programmes |Know the nature of motor and executive programmes. |Plenary wheel activity | | |Understand the types of the motor programmes stored in the LTM. | | |Be able to explain the links to open loop control and the autonomous phase of learning. | | |Schema theory |Know the links between schema and motor programmes. |Page 10 – 2008 exam paper | | |Understand the sources of information used in schema theory. (Revision) | | |Be able to discuss the links between development of schema and organisation of practice. | | |Exam analysis |Know the areas of the exam which are areas of strength and those that are in need of |Re-write ‘model answers’ to exam paper. | | |improvement. | | |Understand how answers are marked in order to maximise your chances of scoring all available | | | |marks. | | | |Be able to write model answers using the mark scheme as a guide. | |Arousal |Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of arousal as a drive affecting levels of motivation. |No homework – Bring in folders next lesson. | | |Understand the major motivation and arousal theories: Drive Theory, Inverted U Theory and | | | |Catastrophe Theory. | | |Be able to represent each of the theories graphically | | |Motivation |Know about drive reduction theory and its impact on a lifelong, balanced active and healthy |What is meant by the dominant response?

Why might the dominant response be of a good | | |lifestyle. |quality at the autonomous phase of learning? (4 marks) | | |Understand motivational strategies and their application to learning and performance of |What is meant by arousal? Why might high levels of arousal be detrimental to the learning | | |physical activities. and performance of someone in the cognitive stages of learning? (4 marks) | | |Be able to critically evaluate motivation and arousal theories and the application of |Drive reduction is one method that can be used to motivate a performer in physical | | |motivational strategies. |education & sport. Use a practical example to explain Drive Reduction Theory. 4 marks) | |Theories of learning |The associationalist/connectionist theory of operant conditioning (Skinner); |Poster activity | | |The cognitive theory related to the work of Gestaltists; | | |Observational learning theory |Know the predication made by Social/observational learning theory; |Operant conditioning is one way of learning movement skills. Use a practical example to | | |Understand the importance of significant others in the adoption of a balanced, active and |explain Operant Conditioning. (4 marks) | | |healthy lifestyle; |Social psychologists believe skills are best learned through observation.

Explain how this| | |Be able to explain Bandura’s model and the factors that affect modelling. |happens and the impact that significant other can have on young people adopting an active,| | | |healthy lifestyle. (4marks) | | | |Identify and explain the four factors that Bandura identified as potential limiting | | | |factors in a learner’s use of modelling. 4 marks) | |Reinforcement of learning |Know the differences between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. |Use practical examples to explain what is meant by the terms ‘S-R bond’; positive | | |Understand Thorndike’s Laws. |reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. (4 marks) | | |Be able to discuss the appropriate use of reinforcement in skill learning and promoting |Thorndike suggested three methods (Thorndike’s Laws) to strengthen the S-R bond. Use a | | |positive, healthy lifestyle behaviour. |practical example to explain each of these methods. 3 marks) | | | |Use practical examples to show how appropriate use of reinforcement in skill learning and | | | |promoting positive, healthy lifestyle behaviour. (4 marks) | |Exam analysis |Know the areas of the exam which are areas of strength and those that are in need of |Re-write ‘model answers’ to exam paper. | | |improvement. | | | |Understand how answers are marked in order to maximise your chances of scoring all available | | | |marks. | | |Be able to write model answers using the mark scheme as a guide. | | |Transfer of learning |Know the types of transfer that occur in practical performance. |Explain each of the five types of transfer and give examples to support your answer (5 | | |Understand ways of optimising the effect of positive transfer. |marks). | | |Understand ways of limiting the effect of negative transfer. |How can a teacher or coach ensure that positive transfer takes place? (5 marks) | |Impacts of transfer on learning Understand the effects of transfer of learning on schema development and the importance of |Explain the links between varied practice, transfer of learning and Schema development (6 | | |variable practice. |marks) | | |Be able to critically evaluate the different types of transfer and their impact on the |Evaluate critically the different types of transfer and their impact on the development of| | |development of movement skills. |movement skills. (10 marks) |

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Persuade to Stop Physical Bullying

Physical Bullying Physical bullying is a serious problem, affecting not only the bully and the victim, but also the other students who witness the bullying. Parents, teachers, and other concerned adults and young people should be aware of what physical bullying is and some of the ways to handle it. There are many types of negative physical interactions that can occur between young people, including fighting, practical jokes, stealing, and sexual harassment. These things are not considered physical bullying unless: * The same victim is targeted repeatedly The bully or bullies intend to hurt, embarrass, or intimidate the victim  * The actions occur in a situation with a real or perceived imbalance of power, such as when the bully is stronger than the victim or has a higher social standing In this context, physical bullying can take many forms: * Hitting * Pushing * Tripping * Slapping * Spitting * Stealing or destroying possessions, including books, clothing, or lunch money Physical bullying may also cross the line into sexual harassment or sexual assault.

Physical bullying occurs most often at school, though it can also occur on the way to and from school and after school. Middle school is the age when bullying is most common, with almost all middle school students being affected directly or indirectly by bullying. This is an age where young people want more to fit in with their peers, making some students more likely to bully or condone bullying to fit in, while those who don’t fit in stand out more as victims.

Bullying can also occur in earlier grades, as well as through high school and even into adulthood. Physical bullying is more likely to occur among males, though females may also be the perpetuators or victims of physical bullying. Bullies may have any number of reasons for bullying others, such as wanting more control over others, and wanting to fit in. Bullies are often physically stronger than their victims and have friends who condone their behavior.

Students who bully others, however, often have trouble with self control, following rules, and caring for others, and are at higher risk for problems later in life, such as violence, criminal behavior, or failure in relationships or career. Victims of physical bullying are usually physically weaker than the bullies, and also may be socially marginalized for some reason, including weight, ethnicity, or other characteristics that make it harder for them to fit in. Bullying can have serious consequences for the victim, leading to low self esteem, depression, trouble at school, and sometimes even violent behavior.

Some signs that a student may be a victim of physical bullying include: * Coming home from school with bruises, cuts, or other unexplained injuries * Having damaged clothing, books, or possessions * Often “losing” things that they take to school * Complaining of frequently not feeling well before school or school activities * Skipping certain classes * Wanting to avoid going to school or going to school a certain way, such as taking strange routes home from school or not wanting to ride the bus * Acting sad or depressed Withdrawing from others * Saying they feel picked on * Displaying low self esteem * Mood swings, including anger or sadness * Wanting to run away * Trying to take a weapon to school * Talking about suicide or violence against others If a student is a victim of bullying, show love and support to the child and explain that the bullying is not their fault, and that what the bully is doing is wrong. Talk to the victim to find out when and how the bullying is taking place, then talk to teachers and school administrators about the problem.

Bullying should always be taken seriously. Don’t encourage the victim to fight back. Often the best way to deal with bullies is to avoid them or react as little as possible. Unfortunately, with physical bullying this is not always possible. Staying with a friend or friends or where adults are supervising can sometimes help deter the bullying. If the victim is struggling with feelings of depression or anger, seek counseling to help them deal with their emotions. If a student is being a bully, tell them that the behavior is not acceptable.

All young people should be taught to respect others and that bullying is not acceptable. Parents should talk to their children often about what goes on at school, including their friends and if they ever see or experience bullying. Parents should encourage their children not to support bullying, even by watching it, and to report it if it’s happening. Depending on the situation, the student may be able to stand up to the bully, show support for the victim, or at least walk away from the bullying and report it to an adult.

Parents of victims or of bullies can also encourage schools to have stronger anti-bullying measures, like anti-bullying campaigns, careful adult supervision of students, zero-tolerance policies, and counseling for students involved in bullying. Sources: SAMHSA Family Guide, “Bullying Affects All Middle School Kids” [online] Nemours, TeensHealth, “Dealing with Bullying” [online] Consortium to Prevent School Violence, “Fact Sheet #2: Bullying Prevention” [online] HealthNewsDigest. com, “Know the Signs of Physical Bullying” [online]

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The Physical Science of a Gun

Lirio Garcia Physical Science E. Martin December 13, 2012 Project: What the physics are of shooting a gun Shooting a gun is mostly the science of motion in the scientific world. One thing that most shooters are aware of is what bullet they want to use and where they want to shot at but most do not know how the gun and bullet work together or even separate. Also, there is no set balance of energy for every gun since the efficiency is mostly based on its structure of caliber and barrel length. While doing my research I have gain knowledge on not only how the gun works but the physics of it as well.

I will be discussing what I learned as well as the physics and the physics of the bullet as well when shot up in air. Some topics that I did not know that dealt with shooting a gun are friction, force, conservation of momentum (which helps characterize an object’s resistance to change in motion), velocity, kinetic energy, transfer of energy, gravity, heat engines, kinematics (analyzes the positions and motions of objects as a function of time), sound, and projectile motion which all work together to make the bullet hit the right target. Also, I was not aware that gun recoil has two parts.

Which are primary recoil from the escaping bullet and secondary recoil from the escaping gas behind the bullet. According to Samuel Hokin, the first recoil conserves momentum of the gun-bullet system while the second recoil is larger and comes after when the bullet leaves the gun one is using. Momentum’s equation is p (momentum) equals m (mass) times v (velocity). An example of an equation for momentum ( ) is if the bullet has a mass of 25 and the speed of 60 out of the gun then the equation would be p=25 x 60. Once multiplied, the momentum of this would be 1500.

When one pulls the trigger, it makes a force which moves the sear (the piece that holds the hammer which contains potential energy) and lets the hammer fire and is accelerated by gravity which is 9. 8 meters per second squared and by the puncture of the primer of the bullet that starts to propellant inside. After this the propellant creates an expanding gas which allows its pressure to get the cartridge’s casing bigger which then is force to push the projectile bullet out of the cartridge casting and through the barrel which then gets out of the gun.

Shooting any type of gun uses Newton’s Third Law which says that every force has an equal and opposite reaction on different objects since forces always exists in pairs. This force can be found from the equation Force = mass x acceleration. For example if the shooter is shooting a . 50 caliber they should be careful because since the recoil force of that gun is way to big then it can dislocate or seriously injure their shoulder. If one does decided to use this gun then it should be used with a muzzle brake so it could reduce the force of the recoil.

This helps by changing the bullet’s projectile motion but the conservation of the momentum will always be the same. When doing calculations for this with a mass of 20 mg and an acceleration of 100 m/s 2 Works Cited Binder, Madeline. “How Physics Affects Rifle Shooting. ” Articlesbase. com. Articlesbase. com, n. d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. articlesbase. com/education-articles/how-physics-affects-rifle-shooting-1623110. html;. Hokin, Samuel. “The Physics of Everyday Stuff – Gun Recoil. ” The Physics of Everyday Stuff – Gun Recoil.

N. p. , n. d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. bsharp. org/physics/recoil;. “Physics: Kinematics in One Dimension. ” Physics: Kinematics in One Dimension. N. p. , n. d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. cliffsnotes. com/study_guide/Kinematics-in-One-Dimension. topicArticleId-10453,articleId-10415. html;. “Physics of Rifle Recoil :: Physics Recoil Gun Guns. ” Physics of Rifle Recoil :: Physics Recoil Gun Guns. N. p. , n. d. Web. 13 Dec. 2012. ;http://www. 123helpme. com/physics-of-rifle-recoil-view. asp? id=153487;.

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History of Physical Education

Brief History of Physical Education A brief history of physical education in the United States would kick off in the nineteenth century. There was growing popularity of formal physical education programs all across Europe where calisthenics and gymnastics were all the rage. American schools looked to follow the European model by incorporating physical education into the curriculum for primary and secondary schools. And a brief history of physical education would not be complete with a consideration of institutes of higher education that gradually built up extremely successful sports programs.

How it began The brief history of physical education would start in just about 1820 when schools focused on gymnastics, hygiene training and care and development of the human body. By the year 1950, over 400 institutes had introduced majors in physical education. The Young Men’s Christian Association launched its very first chapter in 1851 and focused on physical activities. Colleges were encouraged to focus on intramural sports particularly track, field and football.

But physical education became a formal requirement following the civil war when many states opted to pass laws that required schools to incorporate a substantial physical education component into their curriculums. But it was not till 1970 that an amendment was made to the Federal Education Act that allowed women from high school and college to compete in athletic competitions. Sex-based discrimination was completely outlawed from government funded programs at this point. THE HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND ADAPTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN GREECE

In Greece the latest years special education has followed the same progression as in any other country in Europe but in a very slow pace. Specifically, Special Education services were available to Greek children since the beginning of the 20th century, adapted Physical Education was introduced the last two decades. After the first half of the century various associations developed intense activity with the aim to protect specific groups of people with special needs such as, the blind, the deaf and motionaly disabled.

The initiative had clearly charitable characteristics with pity as the main feeling. The state welfare was non-existent every kind of care and prevention was accorded to the authorization of the charitable organization that with full power decided during the course of the years about the life and the future of thousands of people with special needs. The offers of the individuals had the form of institutional care (enclosed protection) with the offer of basic knowledge.

The interest of private initiative led to the introduction of various institutional units and schools; firstly in the area of Attica and then in other cities of Greece. Some of the first institutions, which were created, was the “house of the blind” in 1906, the “house of the deaf and dump” in 1923, and the “Hellenic organization for the protection and rehabilitation of disabled children”. In 1937 much late there were more branches created such as the “national institution for the protection of the deaf and dump” in 1937, the “lighthouse of the blind” in 1946, the “ school of the blind in North Greece” in 1948 etc.

These institutions housed a great number of children but the role of the individuals was not only always a charitable one. However, the private sector helped in its way the state preparation so as to take up later the responsibility and interfere institutionally. The first state interferences began in 50’s and concerned mainly legislation arrangements for the blind and after for the motionaly disabled. The state however was interested in the group of the mentally retarded children and later in the motionaly disabled, which the private agents had completely ignored.

The first school, which was founded by the state for the mentally retarded children, was the “ original special school of Athens” in 1937. Many people considerthe state interference in the space of special education during the 30’s non-occasional. The considerable evolutions of pedagogical and psychology sciences, the establishment of obligatory attendance for all the children and the great number of mentally retarded children comparatively with other groups of “ inferior individuals” was a reality which the Greek state could not ignore.

From the mid of 50’s the 70’s the developments in special education came again from the wide activity of the private sector while the state followed with mainly legislation inferences and the well known sympathy towards the people with special needs. So, during this period educational units were founded and “deaf and dumb” schools in various areas of Greece and units for motionaly-disabled people. Another offer of the private sector was the foundation of children’s neuropsychiatry clinics and schools for the group of “marginal adults” and “ mentally retarded children”.

The exemplification of the Greek state and the educational policy of the western countries begins in the mid of the 70’s approximately. Specifically towards the end of the 70’s measures were promoted for the professional rehabilitation of the disabled by giving motives to employers for the employment of these people. Since 1980 and then special classes for the children with, learning difficulties and slight mental retardment began to be estamplished.

The Greek state in the 80’s seems to desire to participate actively with the other social factors in an attempt of reorganization of the philosophy and pre-existent structure concerning the people with special needs, which imposed their life and social back round. Precisely, emphasis was given in the whole development and the development of the potential of the people with special needs, their introduction in the productive procedure and their mutual acceptance in the social group.

Today, thousands of individuals with disabilities are introduced to sports in various settings such as schools or in sports clubs in both segregated and integrated settings by a variety of national and international organizations. The momentum for such change is contributed to several reasons: • One of the most important reason is the introduction and approval of a new law, which mandates not only free public education for all children, but most important integration of children with disabilities in schools settings.

This law is consideredas a springboard for the recognition for all children’s rights to participate in physical education activities. • A second reason, is beginning of 90’s the implementation of the program “Sports for All”, which is organized by the General Secretariat of Sports and implemented with the support of different municipalities within Greece. • A third reason, is the mandatory exposure of all students of physical education in adapted physical activity course work during their core university studies.

In this way they have the opportunity not only to be introduced, but also to become specialized later on this subject. This has considerably affected their attitude to teach integrated sports. • A fourth reason is the organization of the Paralympic Games of 2004, which is considered one of the largest events in the world. Due to the magnitude of this event, Greece started to evaluate the current status of the movement for sports for the disabled people, as well as, begin to take important actions towards the best organization of the games.

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Social Support and Physical Activity Corroborating

Running head: HEALTHY AGING IN THE ELDERLY 1 Social Support and Physical Activity Corroborating Healthy Aging and Quality of Life in the Elderly Karen Cauthen Counseling 502-B21 Liberty University Abstract Can morbidity be deterred in the elderly or is disease and illness a fact of life for the aged? Does social support and physical activity play a part in preventing secondary aging processes? This paper will modestly explore and discuss the effects of social interactions and routine activity of the elderly upon healthy aging and quality of life. Successful healthy ageing is impacted by a healthy lifestyle and is positively related to a reduced mortality risk and a delay in health deterioration” (Merrill, Myklebust, Myklebust, Reynolds, & Duthie, 2008). It is not the absence of disease or disability that qualifies healthy aging, but response to the aging process that defines quality of life (Gilbert, Hagerty, & Taggert, 2012). According to Erik Erikson it is the eighth stage of development: integrity vs. espair (Erikson, Erikson, & Kivnick, 1986); the point in life where the reality of death becomes imminent and a review of life determines meaning (Elhman & Ligon, 2012). Social participation and an active lifestyle are good at any age but for the elderly it is the cover over the deep dark hole of despair and loneliness. Keywords: integrity, despair, activity, social, healthy aging, aging process, support Social Support and Physical Activity Corroborating Healthy Aging and Quality of Life in the Elderly

As we grow older our bodies change, our thoughts are more reflective, and our friendships more selective. Growing old is not a cookie cutter process. For each individual it is different. Some stay very busy, while others quit. They gradually halt participation in day-to-day events, or they take up yoga, run a marathon even go back to school. Successful aging is determined more by mental attitude than physical ability; how past life is perceived and future life accomplished.

It is how change is managed that determines healthy aging and quality of life in the aged. Growing old is a process gerontologist divide in two categories, “primary aging” and “secondary aging” (Berger, 2011). Primary aging is defined as the universal changes occurring with age that are not caused by diseases or environmental influences. Secondary aging is defined as changes involving interactions of primary aging processes with environmental influences and disease processes (Masoro & Austad, 2006).

According to Berger (Berger, 2011) there are three stages of old: “young-old,” “healthy, active, financially secure and independent;” “old-old,” although still independent suffer from “reductions in physical or mental ability or social support;” and last, “oldest-old,” “infirm, at risk for illness and injury. ” Not preferring to use the word old, some gerontologist describe four stages of aging as: “optimal aging,” “usual aging,” “impaired or pathological aging,” and the fourth, “successful aging,” (Rowe & Kahn, 1998) “signifying extensive social interaction and activity” (Berger, 2011).

The elderly tend to measure functional capacity by “their ability to carry out, independently, their routine activities, also called the activities of daily living” (Brito & Pavarini, 2012). After years of independent living, dependency on someone to carry out normal everyday functions can be emotionally and socially debilitating, even more so than the illnesses that made them dependent. “Loss, in instrumental activities of daily living contributes to greater estrangement from one’s social surroundings and consequently to a tendency to be isolated in one’s residence” (Brito & Pavarini, 2012).

Erik Erikson provided an in-depth philosophy in his final eighth stage of development: integrity vs. despair. This is a time in which the elderly desire to unite their vast experiences with their ideas of humanity (Erikson, et al, 1986). While despair stands for a complete loss of hope, integrity does not only mean honesty, but also “a feeling of being whole, not scattered, comfortable with oneself” (Berger, 2011). Yet it is in Erikson’s seventh stage, generativity vs. tagnation, we find that “in older adults, generativity may be the single most important factor in achieving ego integrity (James & Zarrett, 2006) and positively impacts well-being (Yuen, Huang, Burik, & Smith, 2008)” (Elhman & Ligon, 2012). Therefore, as Erikson (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) put it, “indeed, old people can and need to maintain a grand-generative function” (p. 63), and that “vital involvement…is necessary for staying really alive (p. 63)” (Elhman & Ligon, 2012). Theories

People are multi-dimensional, multi-faceted creatures. To lump us all under one roof would be a crime. Numerous theories, through research and study, try to describe human behavior but no one such study is sufficient. There are four main theories concerning the activities and social life of the elderly. Each theory holds truth but not the whole truth. The first, activity theory, views “older people as psychologically unchanged” holding “social and physical obstacles responsible for declining rates of social interaction” (Carstensen L.

L. , 1992). Activity theorists blame age-related health and social burdens for cause of change in social participation and activities (Carstensen L. L. , 1992). The second, disengagement theory, suggest “that old age instigates a mutual withdrawal between society and aging people” (Carstensen L. L. , 1992). Elaine Cumming and William Earl Henry (Cumming & Henry, 1961) suggest that in preparation for death withdrawal is manifested in a distancing in social relationships.

As death creeps ever closer what is important and what is not is more relevant. What we do, where we do it, and whom we do it with are choices that continue the idea of independence. A third theory proposed by Dr. Laura Carstensen (Carstensen L. L. , 1992), socioemotional selective theory, counters the assumption by the other two theories, that these changes in social activity are strictly late-life phenomena, with the proposition that these changes actually start earlier in life. Reduced rates of interaction in late life are viewed as the result of lifelong selection processes by which people strategically and adaptively cultivate their social networks to maximize social and emotional gains and minimize social and emotional risks” (Carstensen L. L. , 1992). Because so much is derived from social interaction; information, assistance, self-identity, selection of a mate, knowledge of culture and history, discriminate and careful examination of social partners is a must (Carstensen L. L. , 1992).

The fourth, gerotranscendence theory, was developed by Lars Tornstam to address a “perpetual mismatch between present theories in social gerontology and existing empirical data” (Tornstam, 2010). Gerotranscendence claims successful aging results from frequent contemplative thought, a decrease in materialism, and transcendence of primary aging processes (Adams & Sanders, 2010). In support of this theory a Change in Activities and Interest Index (CAII) was created to “examine empirically the perceived changes that occur in the lives of older adults” (Adams & Sanders, 2010).

The CAII is a 30-item questioner optimized to examine “self-perceived change in investment in and attitudes about social and leisure pastimes among older adults” (Adams & Sanders, 2010). As a result of the research by Drs. Kathryn Adams and Sara Sanders (Adams & Sanders, 2010) using the CAII, providers of health care to the elderly can better design ways to elevate direct engagement in valuable, desired activities and social relations as they advance within the aging process. As stated earlier, all four theories hold truth, but none the whole truth.

Each theory describes certain individuals but leaves out others. Because we are an ever changing species and constantly growing population more studies are needed in understanding the causes of healthy aging and defining quality of life. Gender Studies have shown that in later life numerous physical benefits, as well as, psychological benefits are a result of participation in social activity, “such as the promotion of happiness (Menec, 2003), reduction of the risk of depression (Hong, Hasche, & Bowland, 2009), reduction of the decline of motor function (Buchman, et al. 2009), and even reductions in mortality (Lennartsson & Silverstein, 2001)” (Li, Lin, & Chen, 2011). “Research to date indicates that participation in social activity exerts positive and psychological health effects among the elderly and that the pattern of activity participation differs by gender” (Li, et al, 2011). Numerous studies and literature report general differences in the social activities of men and women, but only one study “considered gender issues and social activity among the elderly (Arber, Perren, & Davidson, 2002).

When exploring the outcomes of healthy aging and quality of life in regards to social support and physical activity, gender cannot be overlooked. Changes take place throughout the lifespan and gender affects social and cultural relations to these changes. In the expansion of associations and community contacts the distinct social settings that men and women live in lead to dissimilar behaviors (Barer, 1994; Carstensen L. L. , 1991). Dr. Kate Bennett (Bennett K. M. 1998) did an 8-year longitudinal study on physical activity in the elderly. The results showed that women were more likely to occupy themselves with indoor activities (e. g. , housework) and men with outdoor activities (e. g. , walking or cycling) (Bennett K. M. , 1998). Involvement in activities, whether readily available or not, is also gender specific. Elderly women are more likely to attend or be involved with religious services and activities than elderly men (Arber, et al, 2002).

For men, staying in touch with what is going on through formal and informal associations or engaging in social activities such as volunteer work helps them maintain self-identity within their society (Arber, et al, 2002). Cultural context also plays a part in the construct of gender roles. In most societies, Western and non-Western, the male role is that of bread winner and the female role is that of homemaker (Li, et al, 2011). Western society mindset has changed over the years to the point where these roles are often reversed or completely annihilated.

In Asia, however, a study done between 1988 and 1997 of people aged 60 or older found that women were more likely to rely on their family for financial support and men were more likely to have their own source of income (Ofstedal, Reidy, & Knodel, 2004). However, a study of “5,294 noninstitutionalized elderly adults…concluded that working for a living was associated with high rates of depression among the elderly” (Hong, et al, 2009), most likely due to Asian traditional social value (xiao) which reflects bad on the family of children who cannot support their parents (Li, et al, 2011).

Facilitators and Barriers The earth’s populace of 60+ year olds has doubled since 1980 and will achieve the 2 billion mark by 2050 according to the World Health Organization (World Health Organization, n. d. ; Gilbert, et al, 2012). Catherine Gilbert, Debra Hagerty and Helen Taggert generated a study “to explore the factors associated with healthy ageing through personal interviews…giving voice to the elders regarding their impression of facilitators and barriers to healthy ageing” (Gilbert, et al, 2012).

The results found the elderly perceive three main facilitators to healthy ageing: “taking care of self; meaningful activity; and positive attitude,” and three main barriers to healthy ageing: “giving up or giving in; environmental limitations; and the ageing process” (Gilbert, et al, 2012). Empathy is a facilitator and plays an important role in healthy ageing and quality of life through social interaction and is a requirement for enduring social commitments (Bailey, Henry, & Von Hippel, 2008). Empathy has been described as the; ‘capacity to understand others and experience their feelings in relation to oneself’ (Decety & Jackson, 2004). Few studies have been done to reveal whether empathic capacity diminishes with age (Bailey, et al, 2008). Phoebe Bailey, Julie Henry and William Von Hippel researched the “possibility that age-related reductions in social functioning might be mediated by declining cognitive empathy” with results testifying “cognitive empathy was significantly reduced related to younger adults,” but “there were no age-related differences in affective empathy” (Bailey, et al, 2008).

Thus empathy as a facilitator to healthy aging and quality of life bares much weight in functional relationships. A social network also facilitates healthy aging and quality of life. Social support, created by relationships, both formal and informal, provides one with emotional, affective and material help, with information, and with positive social interaction (Ostergren, Hanson, Isacsson, & Tejler, 1991). It has been proven by studies that adequate social support is a efensive aspect in functional disability and cognitive compromise in the elderly (Golden, Conroy, & Lawlor, 2009; Bennett, Schneider, Tang, Arnold, & Wilson, 2006; Stuck, Walhert, Nikolaus, Bula, Hohmann, & Beck, 1999). Autonomy and independence within family and social circles is maintained through social supports and is essential to cognitive functions and psychological well-being (Golden, et al, 2009; Bennett, et al, 2006; Stuck, et al, 1999). On the other hand, barriers to healthy ageing and quality of life include physical ability and cognitive alterations.

Barriers “reported by older adults are physical health problems and frailty, resultant injury and falling, lack of motivation, feeling low, time constraints, social barriers, past seentary lifestyle, feeling too tired, and environmental restrictions such as transportation, weather, neighborhood safety, fatigue and having no one to exercise with” (Belza, et al. , 2004; Bird, et al. , 2009; Chen, 2010; Conn, 1998; Lees, Clark, Nigg, & Newman, 2005; Newson & Kemps, 2007; Prohaska, et al. , 2006).

Yet fear of disease and becoming dependent is a great motivator to be physically active (Welmer, Morck, & Dahlin-Ivanoff, 2012). Another barrier to healthy ageing and quality of life in the elderly is cognitive alterations. Primary aging results in a slow steady decline of mental functions. Loss of words, ability to understand and perceive, to move efficiently and smoothly, and ability to manage, control, and regulate cognitive processes all deteriorate as we get older, allbeit some faster than others (Brito & Pavarini, 2012). …with memory loss standing out most in the population in general.

Maintenance of cognition is an important determinant for quality of life and life expectancy in old age, as cognitive decline is associated with personal discomfort, loss of autonomy and increase of social costs (Brito & Pavarini, 2012). Research and Results The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the CDC Healthy Ageing Research Network (CDC-HAN) and the European Union Active and Healthy Ageing partnership (ND) all agree healthy ageing is important and pursue educating the public through studies and research (Gilbert, et al, 2012).

The mission of the CDC Healthy Ageing Research Network is: “To better understand the determinants of healthy ageing in diverse populations and settings; to identify, develop, and evaluate programs and policies that promote healthy ageing; and to translate and disseminate research into effective and sustainable public health programs and policies throughout the nation (CDC, 2012). By using research from these agencies, communities throughout the world can develop programs that enhance and promote healthy aging and quality of life for the elderly (Gilbert, et al, 2012).

The World Health Organization is aware of the challenges in healthcare faced in the 21st century, as well as, the need for the contributions the elderly make (Gilbert, et al, 2012). In support of healthy ageing and quality of life we need “training for health professionals on old-age care; preventing and managing age-associated chronic diseases; designing sustainable policies on long-term and palliative care; and developing age-friendly services and settings” (WHO, n. d. ) Along with national research, colligate, institutional, private, and organizational studies continue the quest for positive healthy aging and quality of life.

Many studies extol the benefits of social support and physical activity upon the health and well-being, both mentally and physically, of the elderly. A study by Anna-Karin Welmer, Annika Morck, and Synneve Dahlin-Ivanoff; “Physical Activity in People Age 80 Years and Older as a Means to Counteracting Disability, Balanced in Relation to Frailty,” declares: …results suggest that physical activity was not seen as a separate activity but rather as a part of activities often rated as more important than the physical activity itself.

Thus, when designing physical activity interventions for elderly people, health care providers should consider including time for social interaction and possibilities to be outdoors (Welmer, et al, 2012). In another study exploring “Empathy and Social Functioning in Late Adulthood,” Bailey, Henry, and Von Hippel report: …aging may differentially impact cognitive and affective empathy, and that the former may be of particular importance for social functioning.

Given the negative consequences that loneliness and social isolation have for physical and mental well-being (House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988), particularly among older adults (for whom reduced social participation has been linked to increased mortality; (Bath & Deeg, 2005; Fry & Debats, 2006), these findings seem a worthwhile topic for further investigation (Bailey, et al, 2008). Yet another study by Gilbert, Hagerty and Taggert, “Exploring Factors Related to Healthy Ageing,” reveals the importance of environment in facilitating a healthy social and physically active lifestyle.

Tom, an interviewee and participant in the study “was very articulate about the need for environmental modifications that support the lifestyles of the elderly (Gilbert, et al, 2012). “To be active, means to be able to travel and do things. Unfortunately, when we travel, the people who claim to have handicap rooms have had the worst advice in the world. Numerous times I have been placed in situations where you can’t sit down in the shower or if you get in the tub, you can’t get out” (Gilbert, et al, 2012).

In a study, “Gender Differences in the Relationship of Social Activity and Quality of Life in Community- Dwelling Taiwanese Elders,” Li, Lin, and Chen find to some degree that gender does play a role in what activities are pursued and measured as resulting in quality of life by the elderly. For the men in this study, engaging in contact with friends, informal group activity, formal group activity, and voluntary work were significantly associated with the total quality of life. Among women, our data show that fewer types of social activity are associated with quality of life domains (Li, et al, 2011).

Men seemed to derive quality of life through formal groups where status and title were bestowed, whereas, women found quality of life sustained in religious activities (Li, et al, 2011). A study by Brito and Pavarini, “The Relationship Between Social Support and Functional Capacity in Elderly Persons with Cognitive Alterations,” corroborates the importance of social support in regards to healthy aging and quality of life, especially among the elderly with cognitive inpairment.

Social support may protect individuals from the pathogenic effects of stressing events, as much as it may positively affect people’s health by providing resources (economic and material help and information), better access to health care and regulation of living habits (Ramos, 2002). Research and study in gerontology promote understanding of the needs of the elderly in establishing adequate structuring and implantation of pathways that contribute to social support and physical activities, which in turn corroborates healthy aging and quality of life (Brito & Pavarini, 2012).

Conclusion Getting old is a fact of life and with advances in medicine and the world’s population living longer (WHO, n. d. ), coping successfully with getting older requires selective optimization with compensation; setting goals, assessing abilities, and making plans to achieve regardless of hindrances and limitations (Berger, 2011). A positive outlook, family and friends, and an active lifestyle are all deterrents of morbidity (Gilbert, Hagerty, & Taggert, 2012).

Influenced by a healthy lifestyle, successful healthy ageing is clearly related to a decreased mortality risk and a postponement in, and in some cases suspension of, health deterioration (Merrill, et al, 2008). Maintaining a social calendar and routine physical activity clearly supports healthy aging and quality of life in the elderly. Bibliography Adams, K. B. , & Sanders, S. (2010). Measurement of developmental change in late life: a validation study of the change in activities and interests index. Clinical Gerontologist, 92-108. Arber, S. , Perren, K. , & Davidson, K. (2002).

Involvement in social organizations in later life: Variations by gender and class. In L. Andersson (Ed. ), Cultural gerontology (pp. 77-93). Westport, CT: Auborn House. Bailey, P. E. , Henry, J. D. , & Von Hippel, W. (2008, July). Empathy and social functioning in late adulthood. Aging & Mental Health, Vol. 12, No. 4, 499-503. Barer, B. M. (1994). Men and women aging differently. International Journal of Aging and Hua Development, 38(1), 29-40. Bath, P. A. , & Deeg, D. (2005). Social engagement and health outcomes among older people: Introduction to a special section. European Journal of Aging, 2, 24-30.

Belza, B. , Walwick, J. , Shiu-Thornton, S. , Schwartz, S. , Taylor, M. , & LoGerfo, J. (2004). Older adult perspectives on physical activity and exercise: Voices from multiple cultures. Preventing Chronic Disease, 1, A09. Bennett, D. A. , Schneider, J. A. , Tang, Y. , Arnold, S. E. , & Wilson, R. S. (2006). The effect of social networks on the relation between Alzheimer’s disease pathology and level of cognitive function in old people: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Neurol, 5(1), 406-412. Bennett, K. M. (1998). Gender and longitudinal changes in physical activities in later life. Age and Ageing, 27(suppl. ), 24-28. Berger, K. (2011). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. New York: Worth Publishers. Bird, S. , Kurowski, W. , Feldman, S. , Browning, C. , Lau, R. , Radermacher, H. , ; Thomas, S. (2009). The insluence of the built environment and other factors on the physical activity of older women from different ethnic communities. Journal of Women and Aging, 21, 33-47. Brito, T. , ; Pavarini, S. (2012). The relationship between social support and functional capacity in elderly persons with cognitive alterations. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 677-684. Buchman, A. S. , Boyle, P. A. Wilson, R. S. , Fleischman, D. A. , Leurgans, S. , ; Bennett, D. A. (2009). Association between late life social activity and motor decline in older adults. Archives of International Medicine, 169(12), 1139-1146. Carstensen, L. L. (1991). Selctivity theory: Social activity in life-span context. Annual Tview of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 11, 195-213. Carstensen, L. L. (1992). Social and Emotional Patterns in Adulthood: Support for Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. Psychology and Aging, 7(3), 331-338. CDC. (2012, April 12). CDC’s Prevention Research Centers Healthyy Aging Research Network (CDC-HAN).

Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www. cdc. gov/aging/han/ Chen, Y. M. (2010). Perceived barriers to physical activity among older adults residing in long-term care institutions. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, 432-439. Conn, V. S. (1998). Older women’s beliefs avout physical activity. Public Health Nursing (Boston, Mass. ), 15, 370-378. Cumming, E. , ; Henry, W. E. (1961). Growing old: the process of disengagement. New York: Basic Books. Decety, J. , ; Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioural and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 3, 71-100.

Elhman, K. , ; Ligon, M. (2012). The Application of a Generativity Model for Older Adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 331-344. Erikson, E. H. , ; Erikson, J. M. (1997). The life cyclecompleted (Extended version ed. ). New York: W. W. Norton ; Company, Inc. Erikson, E. H. , Erikson, J. M. , ; Kivnick, H. Q. (1986). Vital involvement in old age. New York: Norton. Fry, P. S. , ; Debats, D. L. (2006). Sources of life strengths as predictors of late-life mortality and survivorship. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 62, 303-334. Gilbert, C. , Hagerty, D. ; Taggert, H. (2012). Exploring Factors Related to Healthy Ageing. Self-Care, Dependent-Care ; Nursing, 20-25. Golden, J. , Conroy, R. M. , ; Lawlor, B. A. (2009). Social support network structure in older people: Underlying dimensions and association with psychological and phsical health. Psychological Health ; Medicine, 14(3), 280-290. Havighurst, R. , ; Albrecht, R. (1953). Older people. New York: Longmans, Green. Hong, S. I. , Hasche, L. , ; Bowland, S. (2009). Structural relationships between social activities and logitudinal trajectories of depression among older adults.

The Gerontologist, 49(1), 1-11. House, J. S. , Landis, K. R. , ; Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540-545. James, J. , ; Zarrett, N. (2006). Ego integrity in the lives of older women. Journal of Adult Development, 13(2), 61-75. Lees, F. D. , Clark, P. G. , Nigg, C. R. , ; Newman, P. (2005). Barriers to exercise behavior among older adults: A focus-group study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 13, 23-33. Lennartsson, C. , ; Silverstein, M. (2001). Does engagement with life enhance survival of elderly people in Sweden? The role of social and leisure activities.

Journal of Gerontology, 56B(6), S335-342. Li, Y. , Lin, S. , ; Chen, C. (2011). Gender Differences in the Relationship of Social Activity and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Taiwanese Elders. Journal of Women ; Aging, 305-320. Masoro, E. J. , ; Austad, S. N. (2006). Handbook of the Biology of Aging (6th ed. ). Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. Menec, V. H. (2003). The relation between everyday activities and successful aging: A 6-year longitudinal study. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 58B(2), S74-82. Merrill, S. J. , Myklebust, B. , Myklebust, J. , Reynolds, N. ; Duthie, E. (2008). A poisson-like model of sub-clinical signs from the examination of healthy aging subjects. Aging Clinical ; Experimental Research, 20(4), 368-375. Newson, R. S. , ; Kemps, E. B. (2007). Factors that promote and prevent exercise engagement in older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 19, 470-481. Ofstedal, M. B. , Reidy, E. , ; Knodel, J. (2004). Gender differences in economic support and well-being of older Asians. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 19, 165-201. Ostergren, P. O. , Hanson, B. S. , Isacsson, S. O. , ; Tejler, L. (1991).

Social network, social support and acute chest complaints among young and middle-aged patients in an emergency department: A case control study. Social Science ; Medicine, 33(3), 257-267. Prohaska, T. , Belansky, E. , Belza, B. , Buchner, D. , Marshall, V. , McTigue, K. , ; Wilcox, S. (2006). Physical activity, public health, and aging: Critical issues and research priorities. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(5), S267-S273. Ramos, M. P. (2002). Apoio social e saude entre os idosos. Sociologias, 4(7), 156-175. Rowe, J. W. , ; Kahn, R.

L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon. Stuck, A. E. , Walthert, J. M. , Nikolaus, T. , Bula, C. J. , Hohmann, C. , ; Beck, J. C. (1999). Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: A systematic review. Social Science and Medicine, 48(1), 445-469. Tornstam, L. (2010). The theory of gerotranscendence. Retrieved 03 2013, from Department of Sociology Uppsala Universitet: http://www. soc. uu. se/en/research/research-fields/the-social-gerontology-group/research/the-theory-of-gerotranscendence/ Welmer, A. , Morck, A. , ; Dahlin-Ivanoff, S. (2012).

Physical Activity in People Age 80 Years and Older as a Means of Counteracting Disability, Balanced in Relation to Frailty. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 317-331. WHO. (n. d. ). Aging and Life-Course. Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www. sho. int/ageing/en/ World Health Organization. (n. d. ). Aging and Life-Course. Retrieved February 24, 2012, from http://www. sho. int/ageing/en/ Yuen, H. K. , Huang, P. , Burik, J. K. , ; Smith, T. G. (2008). Impact of participating in volunteer activities for residents living in long-term-care facilities. The Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(1), 71-77.

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Technology Changes Not Just Our Physical Environment

Technology has changed our world in many aspects and through many different inventions and advances. Technology has changed our world in mainly two aspects, our physical environment and our way of life. Our physical environment is defined as the buildings, the infrastructure around us. For example, the trains and cars we see every day, the air-conditioners present in buildings and such. Our way of life is how we actually go about doing activities; the way we deal with matters. Technology has changed our physical environment in cities greatly.

It has changed the physical environment, for example, the temperature in buildings, where a room can be cooled with air-conditioning. Technology has particularly changed the transport sector, where the infrastructure in current modes of transport are all made possible with the use of technology. For example, the cars, trains and buses we utilize as means of transport, were all created through the use of technology. The roads and vehicles that we see on our roads now were all only made possible through the use of technology.

Compare this to the past, where walking or bicycles were the main modes of transport before cars and trains were invented. The use of technology has also changed our physical environment in terms of pollution. With advances in technology such as industrialization, the use of cars and so on, harmful gases have been released into the atmosphere as a result of these activities. These gases result in our atmosphere having more harmful gases compared to the past, in a sense changing our physical environment.

Also, the innumerable tall buildings that we see in many cities around the world were only made possible by the use of technology; to ensure that the buildings would be stable even as the buildings were built higher and higher. Technology is used to constantly improve the quality of concrete so that it is stronger, and thus can be used for taller buildings. The chemical composition of cements and concrete is constantly modified through the years so that they are stronger, and will be more stable for higher buildings.

Furthermore, the speed at which tall buildings are being constructed now is a big change from the past. With the use of technology through inventions such as cranes in construction, buildings can now be constructed at much faster speeds than before. Cranes can put the blocks of concrete in place in a matter of minutes compared to the past, where the laying of one block of concrete could even take up to about one hour. In the ancient past, buildings like the pyramids took decades to finish constructing, compared to skyscrapers now, finishing construction in the span of a few years.

Technology has not only changed the physical environment, it has also made it easier and faster for man to impact the physical environment. Technology has not only changed our physical environment, but also changed our way of life, the way we go about doing activities. One way technology has changed our way of life is through communication. In the past, the main modes of communication were either travelling miles to meet the person or sending letters to each other.

These two methods of communication in the past took up much time, and the sending of letters was also not entirely reliable as letters could get misplaced along the way and such. Compared this to the present, where we now have reliable and speedy forms of communication. Current forms of communication are emails, text messaging and the use of social networking platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Skype and so on. With such forms of communication, messages can be sent across oceans and seas in the matter of several seconds.

Technology has enabled humans to interact with each other at such high speeds, and it has changed the way many of us communicate with each other. Some even find it easier to communicate with others through the use of social networking platforms, resulting in some people being very introverted in real life, but appear extroverted and friendly on social networking platforms. This changes our way of life as it reduces the human to human interaction between humans, it transforms the conventional way of communication between humans.

Technology has also changed the structure of the family. Traditionally, women were expected to stay home to do the household chores and care for the children. However, with the advances in technology, household chores did not take up as much effort and time as compared to the past. This change enabled women to go out and have jobs, as it did not take much time and effort to settle household chores thanks to the advances in technology. Women being able to go out and work instead of being a housewife was one way the advance in technology changed the family structure.

The increased freedom of women to work has also further effects on the structure of the family. With the increasing employment of women, women are also given increased status and independence of action, something women did not have in the past. With this increased status and independence of action, there is an increased possibility of women initiating a divorce. The divorce rate has increased steadily in recent years in many technologically oriented countries. A divorce would mean the destruction of family, and this is another way technology has changed our way of life.

It can be seen that technology can change not only our physical environment, but also our way of life in terms of communication with others as well as the structure of the family, the basic social institution. All in all, technology has changed both our physical environment as well as our whole way of life. Technology has changed our physical environment in terms of our transport infrastructure, the height and speed at which our buildings are built and the atmosphere on earth. Technology has also changed our way of life, mainly through communications and also the structure of the family.

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Physical & Chemical Properties

Physical and Chemical Properties Pre Lab Questions: (4pts. ) 1. What are the learning goals of this experiment? The goals are to investigate the chemical properties of pure chemical substance and to investigate the physical properties of pure substances. 2. Write two examples each of physical and chemical properties. Physical –Color, Odor, hardness, density, melting point, boiling point Chemical- heat of combustion, reactivity, ph, 3. What happens if you heat a solution of chemicals in test tube facing towards you?

How would you avoid inhalation of chemical vapor during heating in a test tube? It could splat on face and burn you. The best way to avoid inhaling vapor is to either where a mast or don’t breathe directly in the vapors while the substances is burning. 4. How would you take care of itching eyelids or body parts caused by the contamination of 6M HCl? Wash your eyes with cold water immediately and if get any worse call 911. Date:______10/28/12____________________ Name:____Daniel Asonye _____________________ . Title: Physical and Chemical Properties 2. Procedure: (3pts. ) 1. The first thing that must be done is to half fill one well of 24-well plate with 6M HCL and half filled a second well of the 24-well plate with 6M NaOH. 2 – The second thing to do is to place 4 smalls’ test tubes into wells of the 24 well plate. Than place a small amounts of the substances into the tube that needs to be tested in each of the four micro test tube. 3 In the first tube, watch and record color and odor

The next thing lights the burner and grab the test tube with the holder. Next heat the sample by slowly moving it just above the flame. Watch the effect of the substance by the heat. Allow cooling before storing. 4 For the second tube 1. Add enough cold water at least ? about the sample and stir with the rod and watch what happens. Light the burner and grasp the test tube with the holder and heat the sample by slowly moving the tube about the flame. Use the ? cm of red and blue litmus paper.

Allow the solution to cool and stir with the rod and transfer a drop of the solution onto a piece of litmus paper. 5 For the third tube Just add a few pipet drops of HCL to the sample and stir. 6. Fourth test tube- just add a few piped drops of NaOH to the sample. Stir and record 7. Clean up all four test tube and repeat steps 2 through 6. 3. Data Collection: Fill up the table as shown in procedure (12pts. ) |Color |Odor |Effect of heat |Cold H2O |Hot H2O |Litmus Test |Dilute HCL |Dilute

NaOH | |Mg |silver |nc | |– |— |– |– |– | |Cu |gold |nc |Dissolves quickly |Dissolves slowly |Slighty cloudy |Blue-white color appears Red -none |– |– | |Zn |silver |none |– |– |– |– |Starts boiling |— | |Mgo |white |none |– |— |– |— |— |White precipate forms | |CuCO3 |gray |gas-like smell |Started dissolving |Starts looking slightly cloudy |Becomes a little darker |Blue formed some white color while red didnt |Boiling, white precipitate increase |Neutralize the solution and is a lot clear | |Cu (NO)3 |blue |Gas-like smell |Started dissolving and boiling |A lighter blue is formed |Becomes a little darker |Blue-formed some redish color while red had no change |Ultraviolent color is formed on the top of the solution |A large substrate has been formed between the two colors. Violent on top and blue on bottom | |NaCl |White |none |Started to dissolved |A tad cloudy |Becomes a little darker |No reaction |No reaction |No reaction | | 4. Attach your picture showing your work on step 4d. The picture should also show the results as appears in the experiment. [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] 5. Result: Write the results of your litmus paper test (2pts. ) The cooper formed a white precipitate. The CuCo3 blue formed some white color while red didn’t.

The Cu(NO)3 blue-formed some reddish color while red did not. NaCl had no reaction. ________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 6. Questions: Answer the questions briefly as shown in page 110 (3pts. ) A. Yes I did. I saw heat of combustion in about every chemical I test today. B. The evidence I saw was mainly copper. It had the highest reactivity out of any substance I used. C. Reactivity of any substance with cooper and heat combustion of substrates. D. Physical, physical, physical, and chemical E. physical, chemical, physical, physical , physical , chemical F. I would re heat the solution to give me a physical change.

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Chemistry Lab Chemical and Physical Properties

Lab # 4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PURPOSE To find out which of these substances will cause a physical or chemical change. To document the different physical and chemical changes. DATA SOLUBILITY OR REACTION

Substancename| Color | Odor | Effect Of heat | Cold H2O| Hot H2O| Litmus Strip | Dilute HCl| Dilute NaOH| Mg| Shinny SilverFlakes| None | Turned darker, less shinny| No change| No change| No change wet dot | Bubbled, steamed, same shape | None| Cu| CopperBe be | None | Turned shinier | No change| No change| No change wet dot| No change | None| Zn| Shinny Silver Pieces| None | Shinier & darker| No change| Less shinny | No change wet dot| Warm steam bubbles dull in color| None| MgO| Off- whitePowder | None | Little darker color| Turned water milky & slightly dissolved| Separated| Red turned blue, blue no change| Hot dissolved turned yellow| None | CuCO3| Light green powder | None | Turned to black powder| Turned water green stayed separate | Separated| No change wet dot| Bubbled dissolved turned bright green| Turn blue| Cu(NO3)2| Bright blue crystals| None | Turned turquoise & to a thick liquid| Water light blue, separate | Dissolved, blue water| Blue turned red, red no change| Turned green, stayed separate| None| NaCl| White crystals | None | No change | Stayed separate| Dissolved, water clear| Red no change, blue dark dot| No change separate| None | OBSERVATION I didn’t smell a difference in any except when heated or mixed with HCl. The best changes happened with the HCl, and hot water. It was interesting to see what changed with what and how. CALCULATIONS None CONCLUSION The CuCO3 had the most changes with all the experiments. It was cool to see the chemical and physical changes. I saw color changes and solid to liquid changes. Only three had changes on the litmus paper. There was only one change with the dilute NaOH. The changes were different than I expected physically and chemically. QUESTIONS A.

Did you observe any chemical changes in this experiment? Yes there were a lot of chemical changes with the HCl, one with the NaOH, and some with heat and hot water. B. What evidence did you use to decide that something was a chemical change? The starting and ending product were different, color change, sound, heat, and gas production. C. Give at least two examples of chemical changes you observed: HCl and CuCO3 turned bright green, NaOH and CuCO3 D. Classify the following properties of sodium metal as physical or chemical: * Silver metallic color: chemical * Turns gray in air: chemical * Melts at 98*C: physical * Reacts explosively with chlorine gas: chemical E.

Classify the following changes as physical or chemical : * Water freezes at O*C: physical * Baking soda when combined with vinegar produces bubbles: chemical * Mothballs gradually disappear at room temperature: chemical * Ice cubes in freezer get smaller with time: chemical * Baking soda loses mass as its heated: chemical * Tarnishing of silver: chemical F. How would you show that dissolving table salt is a physical change? When you dissolve salt it is a chemical change because it dissociates in Na+ ions and Cl- ions. But when you remove the water then the salt remains which is physical change. (http://chemistry. about. com/od/matter/a/lsdissolving-salt-in-water-a-chemical-change-orphysical-change. htm )

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Dealing With Physical Abuse

The Struggle Physical Abuse Brings People all around the world have suffered from being abused verbally and physically, causing a struggle because they don’t know how to handle these types of situations. In the short story Runaways by Karen Brennan, the main character Lou is physically abused by her husband, which leads Lou to run away, causing problems between friends and family. What are you without loved ones? When you really care about someone you will give an arm and a leg for him or her but once they cross a line they shouldn’t, it feels like the world is supposed to end.

In Lou’s situation this is exactly what happened to her. She gave her entire life to her husband and her children. Unfortunately her husband didn’t care about her feelings and cared more about what he wanted than what would keep her happy. Physical abuse in a relationship is a key factor of failing marriages. Lack of communication can lead to physical abuse. Throughout the time that Lou and her husband have been married, they have been through a lot. One thing that might have started all their arguing besides his drinking problem may be that they “have difficulty talking to each other”(Brennan,501).

Lou states, “My husband didn’t always beat me. In the beginning he was just irresponsible. I could live with that. He drank too much and in the worst times he drove too fast with the babies in the car”(Brennan,501). Lou’s husband beats her so often, she is afraid to go to sleep. When her husband was drunk he became a whole different person, “he was a maniac when he was drunk”(Brennan,501). “Its unfair the advantage that men have”(Brennan,501) because woman should be able to stand up for themselves without worrying about what the guys reaction will be.

Lou is a woman who will put others before herself. She is a mother of four children and wants everyone happy. For instance, a lot of mothers’ first reaction to their children crying is to beat them and tell them to “stop whining”. Lou has been beaten by someone she truly loves so why would she want to beat four people she loves unconditionally, her children. Lou states, “I am not one of those mothers who turns around in the car and swats the kids on the legs and tells them to shut up. I have never believed in that. When they whined, I told stories.

I told them about a family who sailed away in an orange balloon”(Brennan,501). Lou had hit her breaking point and had to runaway from her problems. But is running away the answer? Often people who are physically abused turn around and abuse others. For Lou, it was a different story. She was not a young adult who abused her children because her husband abused her. Many people take their anger out on others because it is a way to make themselves feel better. Lou possibly could have felt pressure to raise her four children with her husband being involved.

Lou was strong enough and didn’t stay in an abusive relationship just for the children because she knew leaving was the best decision for her at the time. Through all the ups and downs Lou went through with her husband in the end she felt like she was left with nothing. “a woman without a husband is like an ocean without a sea”(Brennan,500). Its hard being happy if you don’t have the people you cherish most in your life around you. A person can struggle with a bunch of emotions and if you don’t have the support of people that care about you, the situation gets a lot harder.

When you are surrounded with people that want the best for you, then you will get though your struggles with someone by your side, not alone. I personally know someone who went through something very similar from what Lou went through. My cousin who is now 25 years old has been dealing with family problems ever since she was about 10 years old. I have heard all these stories about my cousin and her family from my parents. I was always curious and wanted to know what was happening but it was not my place to ask questions because it might be a sensitive topic for her.

Her father was a heavy drinker which caused him to be very angry not only friend friends but especially with his family. My cousin Kelley was the youngest of the two kids. She has an older sister who was 4 years older than she is. Night after night her father kept drinking excessively. The family knew what was coming along with his drinking, his anger. One night it got really bad, he yelled at Kelley for the littlest things, things that were not even a big deal. One time, she didn’t wash her plate after dinner because she was too tired and wanted to go to bed.

He became highly upset and rushed into her bedroom, slapped her, and told her to get up and clean her plate. Each day he got worse and worse. After a couple years went by Kelley, her mom, and he sister could no longer handle him and his drinking problem. They moved out when he was at work so he could not say anything about it. The girls moved far away and did not tell anyone where they were going because they did not want their father to find out. They knew he would make a big deal about it. Three girls living on their own trying to survive must have been hard.

Having a main man in their life was their leading factor to surviving. Without her dad paying for everything and supplying for the family, it’s difficult for the girls. Somehow her father found out where they were and made them come back. They decided to give their father one more chance, thinking that things would be different but they only got worse. He thought they would leave him again so he tried to be more protective which only caused his anger to be worse than it already was. As Kelley matured throughout the years she realized she no longer wanted to have her dad in her life at all so she lost all contact with him.

She got her own apartment and did almost all her daily actives on her own. After everything that happened with her dad, she didn’t want to depend on anyone else but herself. This made it difficult for Kelley to keep close friendships with her girlfriends because after her father, she thought that everyone she truly cared about would let her down like he did. Kelley’s fear of having to abandon ones she love caused her to have little friends. She was afraid to trust anyone at all because she believed that friendships and relationships don’t last forever.

Later when Kelley became a young adult she realized that she could not go on any longer not having her father in her life and having little friends that she can count on. Being on your own is tough. So Kelley allowed her father to re enter her life but not fully be involved 100%. She realized although she had been through a lot over the years, having her dad around again was exactly what she needed to be happy again. As the years go on, you find out who you need in your life and who you would be okay without. I thought that Lou and my cousin Kelley’s story were similar due to running away from their problems.

Although Lou was physically abused and Kelley was verbally abused their problems with the men in their lives bring their two stories together. Not having a close relationship with someone who means the world to you has to be really hard. Especially for Kelley, being so young and thinking you dad would be someone you would look up to as the years went on. Her father ended up being someone she never thought he would be, which had to of been beyond upsetting. As for Lou, the man who has been the love of her life for years now and has children who look up to him is not the type of father they though he was going to be.

Its hard putting all your effort into someone and believing they are going to give their best to you and then be let down. Being let down is very hurtful and can cause someone a lot of pain, for instance Lou and Kelley. Although Lou and Kelley did not end with the same feelings at the end of both of their stories they still dealt with the same process. Work Cited Alvarado, Beth, Barbara Cully, and Michael Robinson. “Runaways. ” Writing as Revision. Boston, MA. : Pearson Custom Pub. , 2003. 499-509. Print.

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Emotional Physical and Mental Benefit of Horseback Riding

• Overall sense of wellbeing: Horseback riding is a great combination of cardiovascular and muscle-strengthening exercise. As we have discussed in previous articles, regular exercise imparts various psychological benefits. • Increased self-confidence: The idea of being able to control an animal much larger than ourselves improves our self-confidence. Adding a new skill to our repertoire also increases our sense of self worth. • Decreased stress: When you engage in horseback riding, you need to focus on the nuances of the entire ritual and process.

This helps take your mind off mundane worries, which in turn relieves stress. • Improved focus: For me, the most eye-opening aspects of horseback riding are the subtle details that are involved in every step of the process, from preparing the horse for the ride all the way to dismounting the horse. All of this not only requires significant focus but also helps cultivate better focus. • Improved self-discipline: The art of horse care and horseback riding is a great example of inter-species communication. Every nuance of our behavior affects the horse’s behavior.

Therefore, in order to be a good rider, you must cultivate the self-discipline to modulate your own behavior e. g. : smooth breathing, overall calmness, etc. • Improved patience: Horseback riding requires learning a whole new set of skills which takes time. And getting to understand the psychology of horses is a process too. So, by riding horses regularly, we can learn to be more patient which is a desirable quality. • A sense of freedom and elation: I can tell you from my own experience that being able to ride a horse, a much bigger and powerful creature, gives me a sense of elation and freedom.

I know of many people who have had the same experience. • A sense of teamwork, responsibility and social networking: Working with a group of people (e. g. : trainers, fellow riders, etc. ) towards the same goal teaches us the value of teamwork and responsibility. This is especially important for children. Additionally, children enjoy the opportunity to develop a healthier social network which is less likely to lead them to troubles. • Development of respect for animals: I believe every human should show respect for our fellow animals.

Horseback riding definitely makes us aware of the amazing abilities and sensibilities of horses thus creating a renewed respect for animals. • Improved risk-taking abilities: Since riding is clearly a risk sport, the process of becoming an accomplished rider teaches us how to manage potential risks judiciously. • Therapeutic riding: Horseback riding has been used since the 50? s, with much success, in helping physically disabled people to improve their physical and emotional health. This is described as therapeutic riding. Emotionally disabled people are also known to benefit from therapeutic riding.

For example, autistic children are known to focus better and even utter their first spoken words while on the back of a horse. • Safety comes first: Please be careful in choosing a training farm and/or a trainer. Attention to the safety of people and animals is paramount; and wearing a helmet is a must. (http://medinagazette. northcoastnow. com/2010/07/21/the-psychology-of-horseback-riding/) Psychological Benefits * General sense of well-being. Exercise in the fresh air of a ranch, away from hospitals, doctors office, therapy rooms, or home help to promote a sense of well-being. Improved self-confidence Confidence is gained by mastering a skill normally performed by able-bodied people. The ability to control an animal much larger and stronger than oneself is a great confidence builder. Participating in events such as shows and play days add to the sense of achievement. * Increased interest in the outside world. For those confined by a disability, the world tends to shrink in size. Riding increases interest in what is happening around the rider, as the rider explores the world from the back of a horse. Even exercising becomes interesting when done on horseback. Increased interest in one’s own life. The excitement of riding and the experiences involved stimulate the rider, encouraging the rider to speak and communicate about it. * Improved risk-taking abilities. Riding is a risk sport. The rider learns to master fears though the act of staying on the horse, as well as attempting new skills and positions on the horse. * Development of patience. Since the horse has a mind of it’s own, the rider learns patience as he or she attempts to perform skills on the horse when the horse is not cooperating.

Repetition of basic riding principles also helps to develop patience. * Emotional control and self-discipline. The rider quickly learns that an out-of-control rider means an out-of-control horse. Shouting, crying, and emotional outbursts upset the horse, which in turn frightens the rider. Riders learn to control these emotions and appropriately express them. * Sense of normality. By being able to master a skill considered difficult by the able population, the rider experiences him/herself as being normal. * Expansion of the locus of control.

The rider begins to view him/herself as having control over his/her world as control over a powerful animal increases. (http://www. strides. org/psycho. html) * Friendship. Although riding can be a solitary activity, it is normally performed in groups. Riders share a common love of horses and a common experience of riding — a good foundation on which to build a friendship. * Development of respect and love for animals. Horses require a great deal of care and attention. Riders find themselves bonding with the animals. They develop an interest in them and learn to care for them.

They learn to put the needs of the horse first. * Increased experiences. The variety of experiences involved in riding are endless. From tacking and grooming to trail riding, from going to horse shows to learning the parts of a horse, the rider is constantly experiencing and growing. The horse also provides the rider with the ability to go places otherwise inaccessible due to the disability. * Enjoyment. There is no doubt about it, riding a horse is fun. Riders experience excitement and pleasure every time they come for a lesson. (http://www. strides. org/social. html) Physical Benefits * Improved balance.

As the horse moves, the rider is constantly thrown off-balance, requiring that the rider’s muscles contract and relax in an attempt to rebalance. This exercise reaches deep muscles not accessible in conventional physical therapy. The three-dimensional rhythmical movement of the horse is similar to the motion of walking, teaching rhythmical patterns to the muscles of the legs and trunk. By placing the rider in different positions on the horse (therapeutic vaulting), we can work different sets of muscles. Stopping and starting the horse, changing speed and changing direction increase the benefits. Strengthened muscles. Muscles are strengthened by the increased use involved in riding. Even though riding is exercise, it is perceived as enjoyment, and therefore the rider has increased tolerance and motivation to lengthen the period of exercise. * Improved coordination, faster reflexes, and better motor planning. Riding a horse requires a great deal of coordination in order to get the desired response from the horse. Since the horse provides instant feedback to every action by the rider, it is easy to know when you have given the correct cue.

Repetition of patterned movements required in controlling a horse quickens the reflexes and aids in motor planning. * Stretching of tight or spastic muscles. Sitting on a horse requires stretching of the adductor muscles of the thighs. This is accomplished by pre-stretching prior to mounting the horse, and starting the rider off on a narrow horse, gradually working to wider and wider horses. Gravity helps to stretch the muscles in front of the leg as the rider sits on the horse without stirrups. Riding with stirrups with heels level or down helps to stretch the heel cords and calf muscles.

Stomach and back muscles are stretched as the rider is encouraged to maintain an upright posture against the movement of the horse. Arm and hand muscles are stretched as part of routine exercises on the horse and by the act of holding and using the reins. * Decreased spasticity. Spasticity is reduced by the rhythmic motion of the horse. The warmth of the horse may aid in relaxation, especially of the legs. Sitting astride a horse helps to break up extensor spasms of the lower limbs. Holding the reins helps to break flexor spasm patterns of the upper limbs.

Many of the developmental vaulting positions are also designed to break up or reduce spasticity. Fatigue also helps to decrease spasticity by producing relaxation. * Increased range of motion of the joints. As spasticity is reduced, range of motion increases. Range of motion is also improved by the act of mounting and dismounting, tacking up, grooming, and exercises during lessons. * Reduction of abnormal movement patterns. If spasticity is reduced and range of motion increased, it follows that abnormal movements will be inhibited.

Relaxation techniques while riding also help to inhibit abnormal movement. * Improved respiration and circulation. Although riding is not normally considered a cardiovascular exercise, trotting and cantering do increase both respiration and circulation. * Improved appetite and digestion. Like all forms of exercise, riding stimulates the appetite. The digestive tract is also stimulated, increasing the efficiency of digestion. * Sensory integration. Riding stimulates the tactile senses both through touch and environmental stimuli.

The vestibular system is also stimulated by the movement of the horse, changes in direction and speed. The olfactory system responds to the many smells involved in a stable and ranch environment. Vision is used in control of the horse. The many sounds of a ranch help to involve the auditory system. All of these senses work together and are integrated in the act of riding. In addition, proprioceptors ( receptors that give information from our muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints) are activated, resulting in improved proprioception. (http://www. strides. org/physical. html)