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What role did tribalism and racism play in ancient Greece?

Abstract

A broad analysis of the evidence and impact of the concepts of tribalism and racism within Greece of antiquity, concentrating on the Classical and Hellenistic periods. Assessing the archaeological and literary evidence alongside the prevailing historical bias for these concepts. It is argued that Greece, although not a tribe but a state under Elman Sevice’s definition shows some strains of tribalism. Racism or proto-racism, is defined by differing criteria to the modern connotation and seems to have been geographically rather than biologically biased.

Introduction

The period associated with ancient Greece spans around 1400 years from the archaic period with the traditional date for the first historic Olympic games in 776BC to the end of antiquity around 600AD.It is sensible to focus on the Classical and Hellenistic periods beginning with the Battle of Thermopylae in 480BC and ending with the end of the Fourth Macedonian War in 148BC.

The modern concepts of racism and tribalism are non necessarily one that would be comprehended in the ancient world. Racism in the modern sense of the word arose in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries alongside concepts of nationalism and the ‘noble savage’.

To add a broader cultural context, the Mycenaean palace civilization which collapsed in the twelfth century BC and the archaeological evidence supporting this collapse indicates a phase of depopulation and decline in the region. (Champion et al 1989: 244) At the beginning of the eighth century BC an archaeologically visible cultural complex emerged, distinct from the Halstatt iron age culture predominant in northern Europe. Broadly homogenous and distinctive, this cultural complex was established by the sixth century BC encompassing most of the Mediterranean coastal regions and included the Phoenicians, the Etruscans and Celt-Iberians as well as the Greeks. (ibid) and includes the corpus of work by Prof. Manolis Andronikos which establishes that the Macedonians had a Greek material culture. The attitudes of colonial Greeks in places like Massilia (Marseille) towards Hellenic ethnic identity differs from that of the Greeks who were living in polis (city-states).

As an example of this geographical difference, and what that meant to ancient Greek society , there is a marked contrast between Pericles’ citizenship law of 451/450BC and Ptolemy I’s ‘Diagramma’ explaining the legal implications of inter-marriage between Greeks and non-Greeks in Cyrene in the fourth century BC. Pericles’ law relates to Athens and stipulates that only individuals who had two Athenian parents could be considered Athenian citizens. From Ptolemy we learn that in Cyrene children of a Greek father and a Libyan mother were considered citizens. Aristotle in his Politics (VI, 2 1319 b 2) remarks that the democratic members had changed the orthodox practice and “flooded the citizen body with these half-castes” (nothoi pros metros) betraying the conservatism of ‘mainland’ Greece, but in particular Athens.

Discussing trading colonies it is significant that the only echelon of society within Greek polis involved in banking and business in the modern connotation were xenoi or outsiders. In Aristotle’s words:

“…money orientated life is not of the knightly kind” (Nicomanchean Ethics I. iv 1095b15-22)

As there was a material cultural continuity across the Mediterranean world at the time, the concept of ethnic difference or racism cannot be easily tracked archaeologically but through literary sources. Considering the bias of such sources Baldry says:

“One can all too easily overestimate the importance of beliefs expressed by a small intellectual minority, while forgetting that the majority found it difficult to see beyond the horizon of the polis;…”(Baldry, H.C., 1965 176-77)

Within this academic community there was a breadth of opinion. Conservative Aristotle equates ethnic identity with slavery in his Politics saying:

“Wherefore the Hellenes (Greeks) do not like to call Hellenes slaves, but confine the term to barbarians. Yet in using this language, they really mean the natural slave…Hellenes regard themselves as noble everywhere, and not only in their own country, but they deem the barbarians noble only when at home, thereby implying that there are two sorts of nobility and freedom, the one absoloute, the other relative” (Aristotle Politics 1255a-1255b)

“…the lower sort are by nature slaves, and it is better for them as for all inferiors (sc barbarians) that they should be under the rule of a master. For he who can be, and therefore it, another’s, and he who particupates in rational principle enough to apprehend, but not to have, such a principle, is a slave by nature” (Aristotle’s Politics 1254b)

This hints at concepts of the ‘noble savage’ which emerged during the enlightenment of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in tandem with nationalism and racism. It has been suggested that the ideologies of the ancient Greeks could be defined as proto-racism (Bakaukas 2005: 5)

The zenith of the Greek polis was the sixth to the fourth centuries BC. The period of the Persian Wars and the dominance of Athens and Sparta as political entities, underlining the perceived divisions between those who defined themselves as Hellenic and those deemed barbarian. Paridoxically there was concurrently growth in the concept of the unity of all mankind. Homer defines men as aydeentes (speaking beings), and this concept can also be seen in Plato’s Protagoras with the pronounced distinction between man and inarticulate animals. There is also a choral fragment from the fifth century BC from the Alexander of Euripides and the philosophy of sophists, in particular Antiphon. Other proponents were Thucydides, and the medical writers of the Hippocratic Corpus ( “…the same symptoms have the same meaning everywhere”). Nevertheless, as has already been alluded to, Greek proto-racism was not biologically based as the common modern interpretation.

Tribalism could be placed within the theoretical framework of the American anthropologist Elman Service. He postulated a four-fold classification system of societal evolution (Band, Tribe, Chiefdom and State) with associated types of site and settlement patterns. Greece in Service’s definition is not a tribe but a State. Tribalism implies shared cultural or ethnic identity used to exclude non-members. Therefore it could be described as a cohesive force and racism a devisive one.

A good example of the impact of both concepts is the Greek attitudes towards Macedonia and Alexander the Great. Greek states generally considered Macedonians barbarians, but, since the fifth century BC they had been permitted to compete in the Olympian Games, ostensibly because they were believed to descend from the legendary Heralces. Linguistically they spoke Greek (Bakaukas, M. 2005: 9). Alexander’s mother, Olympia was another ‘barbarian’ (daughter of Neoptolemus of Epirus (ibid)) another Hellenised individual who met Philip of Macedon during celebrations of the Greek Mysteries of Samothrace. Alexander was a pupil of Aristotle and Plutarch relates that the teacher was criticised for advising Alexander to treat Greeks as friends and barbarians as enemies. Alexander did not pay any heed to this advice:

“All mortals from now on shall live like one people, united and peacefully working towards a common prosperity. You should regard the whole world as your country – a country where the best govern – with common laws and no racial distinctions” (The ‘Oath’ of Alexander the Great – Speech at Opis (Assyria) in 324BC)

The most obvious comparison between Greek city states for race and tribal considerations is between Athens and Sparta. Both considered each other Hellenic but Athens was a democracy and Sparta an oligarchy. The Peloponnesian War (431 – 404BC) is the pinnacle of their rivalry and as Thucydides comments, before the War and after the Persian Wars (499 – 449BC) much of Greece was known as the Athenian Empire.

Conclusion

In conclusion, tribalism and racism are modern constructs which existed in ancient Greece but were formed according to the prevalent cultural, political and social contexts. Archaeological evidence has provided a quantitive benchmark that the material culture was homogenous throughout the Mediterranean world. The ‘tribe’ of Greeks were united in their urban state structure and common ideals of democracy and civilization but the significance of ‘purity’ in racial terms was malleable, tending to be more flexible the further from the nexus of Greek civilisation.

BIBLIOGRAPGHY

Bakaukas, Michael. 2005. Tribalism and Racism amongst the Ancient Greeks: A Weberian Perspective. Anistoriton Journal, vol. 9, March 2005, section E0501 Available through: http://www.anistor.co.hol.gr [Accessed 10th August 2012]

Baldry, H.C., 1961 The Idea of the Unity of Mankind in Greek Thought Cambridge University Press

Borza, E.N., and Palagia, O., The Chronology of the Macedonian Royal Tombs at Vergina Available through: http://uoa.academia.edu/OlgaPalagia/Papers/872753/The_chronology_of_the_Macedonian_royal_tombs_at_Vergina [Accessed 11th August 2012]

Champion, C., Gamble, C., Shennan, S., Whittle, A. 1984 Prehistoric Europe Ninth printing 1997. Academic Press Ltd, London.

Renfrew, C., and Bahn, P., 1996 (Second Edition) Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice Thames and Hudson, London

Trigger, Bruce G. 1989. A History of Archaeological Thought Cambridge University Press.

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Racism and its likely Implications for University Education

Introduction

The rise of cultural assimilation (a policy response to support multi-ethnicity that promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture), integration and cultural diversity over the past decades in the UK would be a seeming assurance that racism is a thing of past but such assurance would be wrong because racism, while it has indeed reduced significantly over the years is still weaved into the sub cultural elements of the country and hidden from public view (Adamson et al, 2009). The implication of this could be significant especially given that the UK is sold internationally as a tourist destination, financial centre and a place to get quality education (Home office, 2005).

By studying the implications more closely, it would be of note that racism could be managed where tourism is concerned because most tourists are short stay visitors who may likely not notice the serious effects of racism but where studying and education is concerned, the effects of racism are likely to be felt because most students who are from outside the city or the country live for years within the city for the span of their education which normally last for years. This statement is true for NTIC students because of the racism that is often witnessed in the Nottingham environment. Records show that over 1,700 people were direct victims of racist incidents in Nottingham alone in the year 2005 and 88% of the charges prosecuted were proven in court (Bond, 2011).

This scourge is not only witnessed on the streets in the Nottingham city but across schools and in the classrooms from primary schools to Universities, and statistics (See e.g. Law, 2007) shows that rather than decline the rate is seeing the reverse. However, given the importance of Nottingham and the role it plays in offering quality education to members of the public who come from other areas of the country and countries around the world, racism might need to be further understood to gain deeper insight into its variations and its implication particularly for NTIC students.

In view of the above background, the overriding aim of this proposal is to set out the groundwork for the dissertation which is aimed at improving understanding into the workings of racism in Nottingham and particularly how it affects current students of NTIC and the implications for future education in the city.

Rationale and Importance of the study

The motivation behind the chosen topic is varied but is mostly concerned with the researcher’s personal interest and experience. It is taught that such topic will also help to contribute to understanding the modern day nature of racism and how it works. This subject is particularly important because of the concerted efforts that have long been made to eradicate all forms of racism and racial discrimination in all parts of society including social settings such as schools. Determining the perceptions of college students in terms of how they view racism and race-related segregation amongst the student community in Nottingham is therefore a worthwhile means of addressing the critical issues involved in race relations.

Research Objectives

To investigate the modern nature and variations of racism
Understand it impact and implications for NTIC students and education in Nottingham
To determine the perceptions of NTIC students about Racism and race relations between fellow students in Nottingham

Research Questions

What is the nature of racism in Nottingham
How is it perceived by NTIC students and what are its likely implications for studying and education in Nottingham

Literature Review

In the common monitoring project annual report (2005), it was argued that “the effect of racist attacks and harassment is wider than the effect on the direct victims”. The report continued: “Racism, and the possibility of being attacked, threatens the quality of life of the whole communities”. The report further shows that since 2004, racism has increased by 2% year on year. The continuous rate of racism includes 1326 incidents of verbal racist abuse, 254 physical assaults, 242 instances of criminal damage, and other allegations such as racial harassment, threats, malicious phone calls, written material, unpleasant substances, graffiti etc (Common Monitoring Project, 2005).

The table below shows the reported incidents of racism across different cities in the UK. The calculation was based on 2001 census.

Source: Tomasevski, (2005)

In another recent study conducted by Hussein et al (2009) on the effects of racism on the Chinese community, they found that “the Chinese living in the UK are critically subject to series of racial abuse which range from name calling to property damage on their businesses and personal properties, they also found that a range of arson, physical attacks which has often led to emergency hospitalization and death and been meted on the community over the past years” (P.29).

In another recent report Craig (2007) found that the scourge of racism is still very prevalent in the UK and especially in remote communities where cultural integration have not played a huge role. Several possible dimensions of racism and racist conduct have been identified in the academic literature. Indeed, a number of academic constructs have been used to categorize and define different contextual facets of racism including supremacism, racialism, segregationism, xenophobia, ethnocentrism, and other associated constructs (see for example Modood, 1992). Furthermore, dimensions of racism have also been discussed in terms of the level of its incidence – whether it is institutional, economic, or individual. Institutional racism may refer to any form of structured or systemic racism perpetrated, promoted or permitted by governmental, religious, corporate or educational institutions especially to the extent that they are able to influence the orientations of a large number of individuals. Following this perspective, Jones (2000) identifies three levels of racism, which he suggests can be: institutionalized, personally mediated, or internalized. On another level, Essed (1991, p.3) introduces the conceptual dimension of “everyday racism”, which refers to the forms of racial discrimination that are manifested in “familiar, recurrent, systemic practices”; and such practices, according to Essed (1991), ordinarily involve socialized behaviours and attitudes. There is also a dimension of segregation and exclusion that, while not exclusively racial, may incorporate racist considerations. This dimension has been termed ‘social closure’, and as Parkin (1974) explains, it involves “the process by which social collectivities seek to maximise rewards by restricting access to a limited number of eligibles” (p. 54).

Analyse the sources

The sources considered for the literature review are more of reports and research findings sponsored by the government and conducted by interest groups as there are relatively small empirical studies accessible by the researcher. While this may potentially limit the outcome of what can be understood about racism. The researcher makes effort to address this problem by scouring every available sources for useful studies and literature on racial discrimination to add to thoughts from modern literature.

Research Design

A qualitative research approach has been considered for the dissertation because such approach would be more useful in investigating the issues and underlying problems and the implications of racism. According to Stake (1995) qualitative research is useful where the aim is to understand the causes and the real scenarios in research settings. The method would be used as a way of exploring and understanding everything about racial discrimination.

Research Method – Case Study

The qualitative case study method has been chosen to conduct the research and would focus on Nottingham and in particular the students of NTIC. Yin (1984) defines the case study research method as involving the academic “study of a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context”. For the most part, case studies are useful for gaining in-depth knowledge because they emphasize a contextual analysis of deliberately limited of events or conditions as well as the relationships that govern them. They will be used for the dissertation to achieve the research aims and objectives.

Data Collection

Both primary and secondary data collection methods are considered for the research, the main primary instrument considered appropriate is the semi structured interview because of its flexibility in drawing appropriate information from the respondent (Saunders et al, 2000). This method was selected because it would help the researcher to obtain specific information and insights into the incidence of racism among students and other community members in NTIC; useful information pertaining to the diverse dimensions and underpinnings of racism and segregation would be learned through the mentioned interview structure with students and lecturers in the academic community. In total, about 35-40 respondents are considered as the appropriate population size. Secondary data will be sourced from existing reports, research journals and government statistics.

Sampling Method

Given the nature of the present research, a representative sampling method is considered appropriate. Representative sampling offers the researcher the opportunity to identity the exact representative of the population studied. According to Saunders et al (2000) by using this method, the students of NTIC specifically those who represent other population apart from British are interviewed. In order to maintain objectivity and validity of the research possible outcome, the population will not be limited to any ethnic group or country.

Ethical Considerations:

One of the foreseen ethical issues might be the disclosure of data from interviewees who may feel uncomfortable answering certain questions about how they feel about racial discrimination. Given that the present subject is also very sensitive, there are certain issues that might arise from concerns especially where some questions are concerned. In addition, use of the collected data might be the fear of some interviewee’s. The researcher will allay such fears by ensuring that only questions which are relevant are asked and data related to personal details such as name will be excluded to protect interviewee’s identity. All respondents will also be assured that data collected will be strictly used for the purpose of the research and shall not be disclosed to any third party, while the researcher will try at possible best to avoid sensitive questions that can cause problems.

References

Adamson et al (2009). Hidden from public viewRacism against the UK Chinese population. The Monitoring Group and the authors?

Bond, A. (2011) “NUS Reveals Rampant University Racism“, Durham One, 14 June. Available at: http://www.durhamone.co.uk/news/nus-reveals-rampant-university-racism [29 June 2011]

Craig, G. (2007b) Cunning, loathsome and unprincipled’: the racist tail wags

the welfare dog’, Journal of Social Policy, 36,(4), October: 605-623.

Essed, P. (1991) Understanding Everyday Racism: An Interdisciplinary Theory, London: SAGE Publications

Hussein, B, Smith, Law, I. Lau, C. Chau, C, Chueng, T. (2009). Hidden from public viewRacism against the UK Chinese Population: The Monitoring Group and the authors

Hammond, R. and Axelrod, R. (2006) “The Evolution of Ethnocentrism”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(6): 926–936.

Home Office (2005) The Race Equality Duty and the Statutory Three Year Review Probation Circular 21/2005, London: Home Office.

Jones, C. P. (2000) “Levels of Racism: A Theoretical Framework and a Gardener’s Tale”, American Journal of Public Health, 90(8): 1212-1215.

Law, I. (2007) Tackling racism, whiteness and Eurocentrism in learning and teaching, Educational Developments, 8.3, August: 15-17.

Parkin, F. (1974) “Strategies of Social Closure in Class formation”, Social Analysis of Class Structure, 12: 1-18

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2000) Research Methods for Business Students, 2nd edition, London: Pitman Publishing

Stake, R. E. (1995) The art of case study research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Yin, R. (1984) Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications

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Critically evaluate policy and practice on asylum and immigration for debates about racism and anti-racism.

Introduction

Policy and practice on asylum and immigration in Britain, in particularly through legislation, have tended to be predisposed towards racial discrimination. The term ‘race’ is commonly used to refer to physical differences such as skin colour. However, shifts in the meaning of racism tend to reveal it is increasingly experienced by those who are isolated from the nation due to their non-citizen status within a nation. In the UK, the proportion of non-UK born population has risen from 7% in 1991 to 13% (Office for National Statistics, 2011). Despite the increase, ethnic minorities remain a relatively small proportion of the UK population. In light of increased migration and the benefits of migration from increased economic activity and cultural diversity (Home Office, 2002), it is thus important to critically engage in the debates about whether asylum and immigration policy and practice have been ‘racialised’. As this essay focuses on the concept of racism, the definition of racism will be explored to begin with. This will involve accounting for its long history including the influence of Christianity, the Enlightenment period, the emergence of the slave trade, scientific theories, colonialism and more contemporary definitions that have developed in the aftermath of the MacPherson report. This will be followed by a discussion of the ways in which these definitions have influenced immigration legislation between the 1960s and the 1980s as well as the recent wave of asylum legislation that Britain experienced in the 1990s. The control of white immigration in Britain will be considered as a challenge towards the claim that immigration and asylum policy has been racialised. However, this will be flipped on its head with evidence suggesting that white immigrants still experienced stigmatisation. It will become overwhelmingly apparent that asylum and immigration policy and practice is still mired by racism due to the identification of group boundaries.

At the foremost, an analysis of the concept of racism and its varied definitions needs to be made in order to inform a discussion of asylum and immigration law, policy and practice. Its meaning has shifted in different ways throughout history which indicates racism is a complex social construct. The term race entered the English language in 1508. There were no significant implications of inferiority of races because “the Bible was accepted as the authority on human affairs” (Banton, 1998, p.17) and therefore it was commonly believed that all humans descended from Adam and Eve. Any difference that may exist between people was regarded as the result of geographic and environmental factors.

During the Enlightenment period, it became important to classify people. Linnaeus divided homo sapiens into 6 categories although only 4 are racially significant. He described americanus as red, choleric and erect; europaeus as white, and muscular; asiaticus as yellow, melancholic and inflexible, and fourthly afer as black, phlegmatic and indulgent (1735, cited in Banton, 1998, p. 20). The use of skin colour as the basis for classifying people became even more prominent in defining race as capitalism developed, and brought the need to address the shortage of labour through the slave trade. The concept of blackness was full of meaning – it symbolized dirty, foul, wicked and malignant which was juxtaposed against the association of ‘white’ with purity. As a result, Bulmer and Solomos observe that this may explain “why black Africans…were thought particularly suited to being enslaved, and how justifications for the slave trade were often couched in this way…” (1999, p. 59).

Scientific theories of race had also emerged in the late 19th century. Charles Darwin theorised that Africans were related to Europeans and that all humans descended from apes. He claimed that differences and varieties in species were due to “maintenance or elimination of these varieties by natural selection” (Solomos and Black, 1996. p. 44). Although Darwin’s theory did not confirm the hierarchal structure of race but rather challenged the fixity of species, his ideas of natural selection and survival of the fittest were reworked to signify that the struggle between the races best represents the survival of the fittest amongst humans in order to accommodate colonialist and imperialist ideologies (Solomos and Back, 1996). Colonialism employed similar images as slavery previously did but encompassed a different approach. Rather than the nature of the inferior races being rigid, black Africans and Asians were considered as needing help to move away from their primitive cultures and become civilised which only the civilised White were able to offer to them (Lawrence, 1982).

The decolonisation period saw an increase in immigration from colonies and ex-colonies of Britain, due to labour shortages and the need to rebuild the country in the aftermath of the Second World War. In contrast, the post-decolonisation period brought with it the idea that Blacks and Asians did not belong in Britain. Both Lawrence (1982) and Hall (2000) observe that this period is characterised by ‘historical forgetfulness’ of the Empire and the ‘collective amnesia’ of British society respectively due to the sudden uncertainty around where these immigrants came from and why. This demonstrates that the concept of racism shifted from one where black people can be ‘owned’ through slavery because of their inferiority to something where they can be used as required and then thrown away when no longer needed.

Physical differences are still prominently present in more recent contemporary definitions of race. According to the MacPherson Report, racism “consists of conduct or words or practices which disadvantage people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin” (Home Office, 1999, para. 6.4). Comparatively, Pilkington (2003) defines racism as identifying groups who are perceived to have biological differences between each other which are maintained throughout generations. These differences allow for a representation of ‘others’ based on negative features and inferiority which results in group boundaries. It gives way to the idea that to preserve one’s identity, the identities of others need to be belittled.

Upon reflecting upon the numerous definitions of race throughout history, it is apparent the concept of racism is a social construct. Since Linneaus’ (1735, cited in Banton, 1998) classification of people, physical differences remain a major component to defining racism even to this day. It will become clear that these definitions of racism, particularly those that were developed within the context of capitalism, colonialism, post-colonialism as well as in the aftermath of the MacPherson Report, inform the rest of the discussion and debate around contemporary policy and practice.

Within policy and practice, racism has certainly played a significant role in immigration legislation from the 1960s. The various legislations introduced a series of measures to control immigration from the New Commonwealth through redefining citizenship. With a significant wave of immigration in the 1950s from the New Commonwealth, the government made the first attempt to control immigration through the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 (Solomos, 2003). It required Commonwealth citizens who were neither born in the UK nor held, or were included, in a passport issued in the UK to obtain labour vouchers. The implications of using immigration to address labour shortages during the post-war period is apparent here and how the government in particular forgot about their responsibilities towards the welfare of migrants; migrants who were encouraged to come to the UK but suddenly seemed to have appeared from nowhere (Lawrence 1972; Hall 2000) when they were no longer of any use. While this implicitly was justified as a way of controlling immigrations, this undermined civil rights of black settlers who had their passports issued outside of the UK (Solomos, 2003). It is thus evident that the 1962 Commonwealth Act was racially discriminatory in particularly against black settlers.

Similarly, the 1968 Commonwealth Immigrants Act and 1971 Immigration Act introduces ‘patriality’ where all citizens who were not born in the UK or do not have a UK grandparent/parent, were subject to control. This particularly had an impact upon Africans and Asians as it denied almost all non-white commonwealth citizens the right to enter and settle in Britain while it did not have the same or similar negative impact upon White Commonwealth citizens (Solomos, 2003). The latter legislation further introduced the control of secondary immigration which limited the reunification of migrants with their families. This meant that Black and Asian people experienced delays and separation that would not have been acceptably imposed upon White families (Parekh, 2000, p. 208). Thus, it is further evident that immigration policy and practice in Britain was influenced by concepts of racism that were contextualised in the period of post-colonialism.

In addition, the 1981 Nationality Act deprived British citizens of Asian origin, who were effectively categorised as British Overseas Citizens, the right to live in the UK. Skellington and Morris’ observation confirms that the impact of such immigration legislations had resulted in a reduction of migrants from New Commonwealth and Pakistan countries; from 136 000 in 1961 to 68 00 in 1972 and astonishingly to 22 800 by 1988 (1996, p. 69). Consequently, it further compounds upon the argument that up to this point, immigration policy and legislation was coloured by racism.

In more recent times, there has been an emergence of multicultural and anti-racist approaches in policy and practice to address racism. As a result of the MacPherson Report in 1999, which brought institutional racism to the forefront, the government made an attempt to bring all its activities within the remit of the Race Relations Act (Parekh, 2000, p. 217). However, the government has not gone far enough in its efforts. Parekh stresses that immigration, nationality and asylum law was exempted as the Home Secretary and his officials under his direction had the power to discriminate on grounds of nationality and ethnic origin (2000, p. 217). The wave of asylum legislation from the 1990s introduced measures to reduce the number of asylum seekers and refugees claiming sanctuary. In particularly, the 1999 Immigration and Asylum Act enforced a housing dispersal system scattering asylum seekers across the country and further introduced a voucher system. The result was that it led to stigmatisation of asylum seekers, racist violence and left many people with limited language skills and lack of support in areas of Britain which are not ethnically diverse (Solomos, 2003). Effectively, it encouraged notions of asylum seekers as not deserving the support of communities and without any protection. The way that racism played out in the context of capitalism and slavery is in a similar sense prevalent here. While black Africans were perceived as foul, malignant, and wicked during these periods, asylum seekers are now to the same extent prejudged as bogus and deceiving. In other words, ‘foreigners’ cannot be trusted because their only interests are supposedly to swamp the country.

The issue of white immigration, however, challenges the contention of policy and practice as racialised. Technically, asylum and immigration policy, as discussed above, applies to all who immigrate or seek asylum regardless of race and colour – whether they are from Europe, Asia or Africa. Although Immigrants have been significantly White from European countries and Old Commonwealth countries such as Australia (Skellington and Morris, 1996), Britain has also been recently concerned about white immigration which can be illustrated by its response to the EU’s incorporation of the ‘Schengen acquis’ which generally allows free movement of people within the internal EU frontier in order for the EU to function as one. Britain has rather negotiated a special opt-out protocol from the common EU immigration and asylum policies which permits Britain to selectively implement EU immigration policies (Flynn, 2005). Further, a need has emerged to address the rise of new opportunities to abuse immigration controls such as through smuggling. The government has thereby been investing in the use of advanced technologies such as heartbeat sensors that would indicate the presence of humans (Home Office, 2002). This demonstrates that Britain wants to control not only ‘white immigration’ but even immigration in general and therefore challenges the idea that immigration and asylum policies have been racialised.

However, racism is not necessarily based upon colour as such an argument like this seems to assume. Pilkington notes that, despite being White, the Irish and Jewish groups who migrated in the 19th century were seen as an inferior race in Britain (Pilkington, 2003, p.15). In a similar sense, asylum seekers who may be largely from Britain may also be seen as an inferior race due to their lack of ‘Britishness’ and a preconception that they do not belong to the British nation. It is thus apparent that the definition of racism as defined in the MacPherson Report to include culture and ethnic origin echoes strongly in the phenomenon of white immigration. The process of drawing boundaries between ‘us’ and ‘them’ (Pilkington, 2003) is also strongly evident here. This can be further demonstrated by the introduction of assessments of knowledge of UK life and English as well as citizenship ceremonies which are now part of the process to become a British citizen. These practices were established through the most recent Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002. It suggests that the government is attempting to narrow the gap between ‘us’ and ‘others’ by requiring ‘others’ to assimilate into and adopt the ‘British’ culture. Assimilating ‘others’ into the British culture in turn also seems to similarly echo the idea found in definitions of racism during the colonialism period that sought to civilise the ‘inferior’. This clearly demonstrates the way in which traces of the concept of racism can be found in policy and practice in immigration and asylum even though it may no longer be recognised through differential treatment based on physical differences.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the ways that immigration and asylum policy and practice in particularly through legislation has been racialised is not through one single discourse. The social construct of racism has changed vastly depending upon the predominant ideology of the time, whether within historical periods or more contemporary times. Although there have been some moments where ‘racial’ differences have been explained away by environmental factors, the social hierarchical structure of races has unfortunately been present throughout history and which undoubtedly has informed immigration and asylum policy and practice. Immigration legislation between the 60s and 80s was clearly based upon colour, controlling African and Asian immigration in the UK. While White immigrants groups may have found it easier to migrate to Britain, they still experienced being categorised as an inferior race. Although policy and practice on immigration and asylum is no longer explicitly mired by colour, it still has resulted in the stigmatisation of immigrants in the UK.

While such analysis illustrates how the concept of racism has informed and influenced immigration and asylum policy and practice, most people are not aware of how it reifies the impact of racism in contemporary society. For example, immigration and asylum policy that disproportionately affects ethnic minorities perpetuates a wealth of stereotypes ranging from Blacks are less intelligent, Asians are trapped by their backward ways of life and asylum seekers are scrounging off the British social welfare system. Even though terrorism policy needs to be explored in terms of how it may also inform debates about racism as it tends to target Muslims immigrating from Asia or the Middle East, the policies and practice examined in this essay have clearly shown that immigration and asylum policy and practice in Britain have been largely racialised. In a far more globalised world, immigration has ensured that every culture and race in existence has become much closer than was ever imaginable. The need to discuss the way that racism runs through immigration and asylum policies and practices is therefore now important more than ever because it challenges societies like Britain which are championed as multicultural societies for all. It determines how fellow members of society are treated, by putting many at a disadvantage through discrimination and by highlighting how they are different. By analysing such debates, we can shape social constructs such as race in ways that encourage equality, respect and dignity.

Bibliography

Banton, M., (1998) Racial Theories, 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bulmer, M., and Solomos, J., (1999), Racism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Flynn, D., (2005) “New Borders, New Management: The Dilemmas of Modern Immigration Policies” in Ethnic and Racial Studies. Vol. 28 No. 3. pp. 463-490.

Hall, S., (2000) “The Multicultural Question”, in Hesse, B., (ed.), Un/Settled Multiculturalisms, London: Zed Press.

Home Office (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: report of an inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny. The Stationary Office. [Online] Available at: http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/cm42/4262/sl-00.htm (Accessed 21st March 2012).

Home Office (2002) White Paper: Secure Borders, Safe Haven. The Stationary Office.

Lawrence, E., (1982) “Just Plain Commonsense: the “roots” of racism”, in CCCS The Empire Strikes Back. London: Hutchinson.

Office for National Statistics (2011) 2011 Census shows non-UK born population of England and Wales continues to rise. [Online] Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-england-and-wales/sty-non-uk-born-population.html (Accessed 21st March 2012).

Parekh, B. (2000) The Parekh Report: The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain. London: Profile.

Pilkington, A. (2003) Racial Disadvantage and Ethnic Diversity in Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Skellington, R. and Morris, P. (1996) ‘Race’ in Britain Today (2nd Edition). London: Sage.

Solomos (2003) Race and Racism in Britain (3rd Edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Solomos, J, and Back, L., (1996) Racism and Society. London: Macmillan.

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Free Essays

Racism In Sports And Its Impact On Managers And Coaches

ABSTRACT

This paper explores on racism in British sports. It will consider the extent to which racism in sports continues to prevail and the impact that racism may have on a sports coach or manager. This will include a brief review of the history of British sports, in particular, the presence of ethnic diversity in the British society and the involvement of this diversity in British sports.

The paper will also examine the main currents of sociological thought which have informed research in this field. It will consider some of the common perceptions of sports in the discussion of racism in sports and argue against the notion of any one body of thought being viewed as universal. The paper will point out that Success in sports is a result of a complex interplay of factors including motivation and access to opportunities and that the physiological differences between races have very little bearing on the performance of the individual.

INTRODUCTION

Sport is often known to many people as a place where normal problems of the “real” world cease to exist. Many believe the sports world to be a model of race relations. Through display via the television and any other media coverage, it is seen by most fans that it doesn’t matter whether one is black or white, what matters in the playing field is one’s ability. Hence, sport is seen by many as a paradigm of how an integrated society should look (Bradley 2006).

However, a closer look at sports reveals that this idyllic picture is misleading. Although majority of the players in professional sports are the African-Americans, this doesn’t imply absence of racism. For example, the African -Americans are underrepresented in administrative ranks and coaching (Jarvie & Reid 1997). Also some popular arguments serve to contribute to prejudices, myths and stereotypes about different racial groups hence leading to their discrimination.

In this analysis we explore on the extent to which racism in sports continues to prevail and the impact that racism may have on a sports coach or manager. We shall begin our analysis by defining what we mean by racism and conduct a review of the history of British sports, in particular, the presence of ethnic diversity in the British society and the involvement this diversity in British sports

WHAT IS RACISM?

Racism is defined as any form of discrimination which may be in the form of restriction, distinction, exclusion or preference of a group of individuals based on their race, colour, descent and ethnic origin. This has the effect of impairing or nullifying enjoyment, recognition or exercise on the same footing of fundamental rights in various fields of public life (CRE 2004).

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The British society has long been characterized by ethnic diversity. This diversity is attributed to historical reasons such as invasion, expansion and the role of Britain as a haven for those fleeing from persecution (British council 2003). In order to understand the relationship between ethnicity and sport, we must first review the history of Black and Asian immigrants into the UK.

The black presence in the UK can be traced back to the Roman times. During the 3rd century, a small group of the Roman army, an African division, was deployed at Hadrian’s Wall and the Blacks entering Britain were limited to a small number by the Elizabethan parliament (British council 2003). Till the mid-20th century, Immigration into ports like London, Bristol, Cardiff and Liverpool was limited to a small number blacks, Asians, and Chinese people (British council 2003).

Blacks’ involvement in British sports was first noticed after America gained its independence (1775-1783) (British council 2003). In boxing, for example, Randolph Turpin who emerged as the world middleweight champion in 1951, following his victory over the great Sugar Ray Robinson was known to be the black boxer of the era (British council 2003). In athletics, the British Caribbean gave a name to their sprinters towards the end of the 19th century up to the late 1950’s. Cricketers too were there including Learie Constantine for Trinidad, who played between the wars in Lancashire (British council 2003).

IMPACT OF POST-WAR IMMIGRATION (1945-70)

After World War II, Britain experienced several waves of immigration, with 492 jamaicans migrating to Tilbury Docks in 1948 followed by the Asians and West Indians (British council 2003). By 1958, the number of West Indians and Asians in Britain were about 125000 and 55000 respectively (British council 2003). These immigrants were largely welcomed by the National Health Service, and the transport, textile and service industries in efforts to rebuild Britain’s shattered economy.

A final major phase of immigration occurred during the periods between 1968 and 1974 which saw over 70,000 Kenyan and Ugandan Asians immigrating to Britain (British council 2003). By 1974, the number of Black and Asian immigrants in Britain was more than one million (British council 2003). Today, it is claimed that the official government figures for minority ethnic groups in the UK stands at around 3.3 million Britons, a figure just below 6% of the British population (British council 2003).

RACIAL TENSIONS

With new immigrants in Britain, accommodating them then became a major problem with most of them settling in poor and inner-city areas. Prejudice and discrimination then became a feature of the immigrant experience. With immigrants concentrated in the poor and inner-city areas, racial tensions then became a feature of the British society with areas such as Notting Hill and Nottingham having the worst riot experiences of 1958 (British council 2003).

Subsequent racial tensions were later seen during the 1979 and 1985 in parts of Liverpool, Bristol, and London as well as in many poor inner-city areas (British council 2003). Up to date, verbal abuse, harassment and oppression are still features of experiences of some minorities in Britain. More insidious, are the stereotypes, racial comments and racist beliefs that continue to become prevalent in British sports.

RACISM IN SPORTS

Both the law and common morality require all citizens in the public sphere to be provided with equal opportunities regardless of the race, sex, gender, national origin, age, creed or disability; yet racism continue to remain a common feature of the day (Bauman 1997). Racism still remains prevalent in most fields of public life, sport is no exception.

Common arguments have often suggested sports as producing prejudices, myths and stereotypes that lead to discrimination and under-representation of certain groups of individuals in sports. Racial stereotypes remain firmly rooted in sports with a popular notion that the Blacks are in general more masculine and athletic than the whites (McDonald & Birrell 1999). Their over-representation in certain sports is indicative of this and the media representation emphasizing their inherent physicality reinforces this perception.

This has resulted in the view that the black and white are biologically different and that the dominance of the Blacks in certain sports is a result of their perceived genetic advantages, yet there is no convincing scientific proof of this (McDonald & Birrell 1999). These stereotypical notions do not recognize wide with-in group variations and falsely make fixed and unambiguous assumptions of biological divisions.

SUBTLE RACISM IN SPORTS

The tendency to providing an explanation of the success of Black in sports solely in terms of inherited factors, thereby devaluing their achievements, is indicative of subtle racism (Garland & Rowe 2001). The success of the Blacks in sports is often attributed to their physicality and a lack of cognitive endeavor while, on the other hand, the success of whites in sports is equated with dedication, intelligence, qualities of character, dependability and work ethics (Bradbury 2003). These apparent assumptions serve to reinforce some form of subtle racism in sports.

REVERSE RACISM

There is a general consensus that racism against the Blacks remains prevalent and that the white players rarely experience any form of racism in sports. This is however not true as there is a growing body of evidence that contradicts this belief. In fact, there are certain identity codes within the football culture that carry with it racial meanings.

An illustrative example is the song “I’d rather be a paki than a scouse” which is often sung to Liverpool fans by fans from Manchester United, Chelsea and Arsenal (Back et.al. 2001). The song is directed at Merseyside fans with the intention of demoting the status of those that come from Merseyside from being a normal English society to one that is frowned upon (Back et.al. 2001).

CRITICAL RACE THEORY

Attempts have however been made to confront racial distinctions in the society. One of the frameworks established to challenge racism in the society is the Critical Race Theory (CRT). This framework has some utility for anti-racism in sport. CRT is an important theoretical tool that provides antiracists with a framework that challenges narrow race thinking, orthodoxies and under-theorized approaches in sport, hence strengthening their praxis in what critical race theorists view as a racist world (Hylton 2008).

In simple terms, the CRT provides antiracists with a framework from which they can examine the prevalence of racism in the society where in the whites are privileged to the disadvantage of the blacks. It recognizes and acknowledges the voice of the blacks who are often marginalized in practice and mainstream policy (Hylton 2008). Two areas of convergence between anti-racists and critical race theorists are the focus on social justice and transformation. The CRT challenges institutional arrangements in sport, both present and past, that subjugate, racially discriminate and oppress (Hylton 2008).

ETHNIC AND RACIAL DIVERSITY IN SPORTS

As we have identified in the previous sections, there is the popular notion of the blacks as more inherently superior in physical ability than the whites. This is evident in their over-representation in high profile sports. For example, distance running is dominated by Kenyans and an African American is 28 times more likely than a white individual to reach NBA and 15 times to reach the NFL (Turner & Rasmussen 2003).

The trend is also reflected within the contemporary British society where, despite accounting for less than 2% of the overall population, the Blacks dominate with at least 50% of the British athletic squad, boxing champions, and first division basketball players (Turner & Rasmussen 2003). Also, one in five professional soccer players is more likely to be an African American (Turner & Rasmussen 2003).

Their overrepresentation is even more notable in athletics. Until the 1960s, most of the sprint champions came from the white group (Turner & Rasmussen 2003). Today, however, sprinting is dominated by the Blacks who hold 95% of the top times globally (Turner & Jones 2010). Majority of the gold winners at the Atlanta games of 1996 were the Blacks. Also, almost all of the runners who have broken the 10-second barrier for 100 metres have been the Blacks (Turner & Rasmussen 2003). On the contrary, however, they have underachieved in swimming relative to the whites. Inevitably, people draw conclusions from what they see, resulting in popular mythology and stereotypical views about the blacks.

Research into group or individual differences have in general concentrated around the issue of nature vs nurture (Sugden & Bairner, 1999). That is, the extent to which difference between groups can be explained from the biological perspective or as a result of environmental conditions such as access and opportunity. Where emphasis is placed on the environmental factors, the assumption is that the difference can be modified. Where emphasis is on the biological factors, it is assumed that the differences are stable and unchangeable (Sugden & Bairner, 1999).

However, actual evidence for genetic superiority in sports is scant and often flawed. The running superiority in Blacks has been speculated as a result of less subcutaneous fat and larger muscle mass (Daryl & David 2010). This has also been used to explain their lack of success in swimming due to buoyancy. However, had this theory of buoyancy been valid, then we would have more women superior to men, and endomorphs to ectomorphs (Daryl & David 2010). Clearly, this is not the case.

In the actual sense, success can be attributed to the adaptive qualities resulting from strenuous training and cultural values (Roche 1998). There is need for an approach that recognizes that a range of factors must come into play including motivation and access to opportunities. The physiological differences between races have very little bearing on the performance of the individual.

IMPACT OF RACISM ON SPORTS COACHES

Racism in sports certainly creates insurmountable problems as they exert powerful influences on a person’s perception, sports coaches are no exception. For example, sports positional roles may be allocated depending on racial stereotypes. Racial stereotypes, within the sport dynamics, are apparent through stacking, a phenomenon where athletes are assigned certain playing positions by the coach based on the supposed racial attributes such as power and speed rather than actual achieved performance (Turner & Jones 2010).

More often, the Blacks have been relegated to positions associated with physical rather than mental prowess, while the white athletes have been relegated leadership positions (Turner & Jones 2010). Research has shown that the stacking of the Black players to positions that emphasize physical rather than mental prowess, especially in games such as rugby and soccer, has become a common occurrence in the UK (Turner & Jones 2010).

Public pronouncements of managers and coaches have tended to perpetuate crude racial stereotypes. For example, in 1993, Ron Noades-chairman of Crystal Palace at the time- made some racial remarks in an infamous television documentary about his football team which was predominantly black (Bose 1996). As quoted in Bose (1996: p.84), Ron stated that “when you are getting into midwinter in England, you need a few of the maybe hard white men to carry the artistic black players through”. While manager at Queens Park Rangers (QPR), Jim Smith was noted claiming that the black players used very little intelligence and that their success in sports was due to their sheer natural talent (Cashmore 2003).

These stereotypes are further perpetuated by the media through their reporting that emphasizes on the physicality rather than qualities such as effort, courage, and intelligence. The most notable example can be seen when the tabloid press picked on Linford Christie’s photograph in a tight fitting shorts and ran a crude sexual reference to his anatomy, based on the stereotype that blacks were more masculine and physically fit than the whites (British council 2003).

Racism in sports is also evident through the underrepresentation of blacks in management positions. Despite the large representation of blacks in British sports, it is apparent that management and leadership positions are rarely made available to them. Only a few of them hold management positions, for example John Barnes who was previously the Liverpool winger is now in charge of managing Celtic (British council 2003). Similarly, very few positions are made available to the Black and Asian referees, with an exception of Uriah Rennie, who is currently on the Football League list (British council 2003).

CONCLUSION

As identified above, racial stereotypes remain firmly rooted in sports with the popular notion that the Blacks are naturally athletic and more masculine than the whites. These stereotypical notions do not recognize wide with-in group variations and falsely make fixed and unambiguous assumptions of biological divisions.

Moreover, these stereotypes are further perpetuated by the media through their reporting that emphasizes on physicality before qualities such as intelligence, courage and effort. In addition, public pronouncements of managers and coaches have tended to perpetuate crude racial stereotypes. More often, the Blacks have been relegated to positions associated with physical rather than mental prowess, while the white athletes have been relegated leadership positions. Also some popular arguments serve to contribute to prejudices, myths and stereotypes about different racial groups. Clearly, racism is still a feature of the British sports.

REFERENCE

Back, L., T. Crabbe and J. Solomos, 2001. The Changing Face of Football: Racism, Identity and

Multiculture in the English Game. Oxford: Berg

Bauman, Z., 1997. Postmodernity and its Discontents. Cambridge: Polity

Bose, M., 1996. The sporting alien: English sport’s lost Camelot. Edinburgh: Mainstream.

Bradbury, S, 2003. Racisms and Anti-Racism in English Football. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Leicester

Bradley, J.M., 2006. Sport and the Contestation of Ethnic Identity: Football and Irishness in Scotland. “Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies”, Vol 32 (7), pp. 1189-1208.

British Council, 2003. Ethnicity and sport. {Viewed on 23rd February 2012}. Available from http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~rosenl/sports%20Folder/Ethnicity%20and%20Sport.pdf

Cashmore, E., 2003. Encyclopedia of race and ethnic studies. London: Routledge

Commission for Racial Equality (CRE), 2004. Racial Equality in Football. CRE: London

Daryl, A. and R. David, 2010. Beyond Boundaries‘Race’, ethnicity and identity in sport

Garland, J. & M. Rowe, 2001. Racism and Anti-Racism in Football. London: Palgrave

Hylton, K., 2008. Race and sport: Critical Race Theory. Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group

Jarvie, G. and I. Reid, 1997. Race relations, sociology of sport and the new politics of race and racism. Stirling, Univesity of Stirling: E& FN Spon

Turner, D. and I. Jones, False startUK sprint coaches and black/white stereotypes. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire. {Viewed on 23rd February 2012} Available from https://uhra.herts.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/2299/2407/1/900739.pdf

Turner, D. and R. Rasmussen, 2003. On your marks, get stereotyped, go! Novice coaches and black stereotypes in sprinting. {Viewed on 22nd February 2012}. Available from https://uhra.herts.ac.uk/dspace/bitstream/2299/487/1/101603.pdf

MacClancy. J. (ed.), 1996. Sport, Identity and Ethnicity. Oxford, Berg, pp.203.

McDonald, M. and S. Birrell, 1999. ‘Reading sport critically: a methodology for interrogating

Power’. Sociology of Sport Journal, 16, pp.283–300.

Roche, M. (ed.), 1998. Sport, Popular Culture and Identity. Aachen, Meyer & Meyer Sport, pp.224

Sugden.J and A. Bairner (eds.), 1999. Sport in Divided Societies. Aachen, Meyer & Meyer Sport, pp.234

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Free Essays

nature of racism

Racism, though long deemed to have been eradicated in modern society, is unfortunately more ingrained than once thought. It is not only centralized in America, where slavery was once a dominant issue, but it has roots everywhere in the world that humans have reached. As George Orwell recounts in his narrative, “Shooting an Elephant,” racism feeds upon numerous psychological factors. These are the same psychological factors that Memmi also outlines in his essay, “Racism and Oppression.” The intersection of their works, which is seen through tracing the psychological foundations of racism, provides a framework in which to examine this universal condition.

The first point of intersection between the two works is in Memmi’s declaration that “to be big, all the racist need do is climb on someone else’s back.” This someone else is the most obvious victim of racism: the poor, the weak, and the unfortunate. The racist does not try to oppress those who are known to be “strong,” as they know they cannot step on these people on their way to perceived superiority. Instead, they turn their attention to those who are already defeated, to the people who have all but given up fighting. These were the people who were the perpetual victims, never the victors. Hence, they focus all their racist attention on the people who, with very little effort, acquiesce to them, as they have already been shown to be defeated time and again in the annals of history.

And indeed, this is how the British came about to conquer the Burmese. When the elephant began ravaging the town, Orwell was called to restrain the animal, as “the Burmese population had no weapons and were quite helpless against it.” If the people had no weapons to protect themselves from a creature they were in daily contact with and one that they knew could very well erupt in a rage anytime, then hopes for any sort of sophisticated weaponry to ward off their invaders is dim.

Furthermore, these people were very poor, living in “a labyrinth of squalid bamboo huts, thatched with palmleaf.” Contrast this with the homes of the Europeans back in their own country, which utilized advanced architectural technologies and materials. With the flimsy materials the Burmese used to build their houses, the Europeans knew that they were a backward people, one that history left behind in the past. As such, they realized that it would be easy to conquer and subjugate the Burmese.

However, Memmi’s point is refuted in Orwell’s realization “of the real nature of imperialism [and] the real motives for which despotic governments act” as he sets out to shoot the elephant:

…[The crowd was] watching me as they would watch a conjurer about to perform a trick. They did not like me, but with the magical rifle in my hands I was momentarily worth watching. And suddenly I realized that I should have to shoot the elephant after all. The people expected it of me and I had got to do it; I could feel their two thousand wills pressing me forward, irresistibly. And it was at this moment, as I stood there with the rifle in my hands, that I first grasped the hollowness, the futility of the white man’s dominion in the East.

Here was I, the white man with his gun, standing in front of the unarmed native crowd – seemingly the leading actor of the piece; but I reality I was only an absurd puppet pushed to and fro by the will of those yellow faces behind. I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys…To come all that way, rifle in hand, with two thousand people marching at my heels, and then to trail feebly away, having done nothing – no, that was impossible. The crowd would laugh at me. And my whole life, every white man’s life in the East, was one long struggle not to be laughed at.

The white man, in this scenario, is the one who is now being controlled, manipulated, and even, in a way, subjugated by the Burmese. Through colonizing, they themselves have become the ones colonized. The Burmese people, instead of being the ones stepped upon by the British, have become the ones who are stepping on the backs of these “historically strong” people. As they know the British are fastidious about cultivating an appearance of power and authority, the Burmese exploit this weakness for their own advantage.

A second point that appears in Orwell’s literary work is that there exists “the surprising racism practiced by the oppressed man himself.” In theory, people who are victims of abuse and oppression should bond together, for it is through one another that they are able to weather the cruelty and subjugation imposed on them. In number, they should find strength. In practice, however, this fails to hold. Even the people who have been victims of racism can inflict and carry out the same kind of abuse on others and becoming racists themselves.

In “Shooting an Elephant,” Orwell illustrates this reverse form of racism by depicting the various ways in which both he and his fellow Europeans were insulted and jeered at by the Burmese.

Being a “sub-divisional police officer of the town,” Orwell became the favorite target of the anger, ire, and anti-European sentiment of the Burmese. This is because he was extremely visible, going around the town as he went about his duties. Furthermore, it was his job to enforce the rules, which are made by the British Empire.  Though the Burmese had no “guts to raise a riot,” they certainly carried out their insults in more personal ways.

One time, during a soccer match, Orwell was tripped by a Burmese player and the referee, another Burmese, simply looked the other way. The crowd roared with laughter, and the Burmese players, knowing they could get away with such an insult, continued tripping Orwell on the football field. As a result, whenever he was spied on the streets, insults were continuously thrown at him when he was already several meters away.

Finally, Memmi points to a universal conclusion about racism, that “everyone, or nearly everyone, is an unconscious racist, or a semi-conscious one, or even a conscious one.” It encompasses people from all cultures, races, and religions, including the most-liberal minded man, the most politically sensitive nation, and the highest-educated woman who do not necessarily fit into the mode of the stereotypical racist. Different people approach racism differently, offering differing logical reasons and interpretations, though it always boils down to the same thing – we are all guilty of being racists in one way or another, overtly or covertly.

Orwell’s “Shooting an Elephant,” by presenting ideas that side with and vie for the Burmese people, can seem to be anti-racist. Indeed, Orwell explicitly states his disgust with the empire: “theoretically – and secretly, of course – I was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors, the British.” Yet, Orwell is not the morally scrupulous anti-racist he paints himself to be.

Just a few lines after this declaration of being “all for the Burmese,” he describes them as being “evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make [his] job impossible.” His “greatest joy in the world,” on the other hand, “would be to drive a bayonet into a Buddhist priest’s guts.” These sentiments, he said, were simply “the normal by-products of imperialism…”

On the other hand, if Orwell was one of those people whom Memmi described as being an unconscious racist, his fellow British were the fully-conscious types. When Orwell was discussing with some other officers his act of killing an elephant for killing a coolie, the younger men in the group responded that he was wrong for doing so, “because an elephant was worth more than any damn Coringhee coolie.” For them, the worth of a human life, especially one of their colonized victims, is negligible compared to the worth of an elephant. It is simply another way of saying that the life of the people under their rule was not important.

Orwell and Memmi both present the universal problem of racism. Though they do not agree on all points, they do agree that racism comes at a huge cost, both for the racist and the victim.

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Is the Emphasis on a Color-Blind Society an Answer to Racism

Racism is a word that sparks a nerve in many individuals today. As hard as it is to believe, racism is still a big factor in what we as a society know as a unified America. Although, it is not as obvious as it was in the past, it still goes on, just in ways that are less noticeable. We ask the question, is the emphasis on a color-blind society an answer to racism. Ward Connerly claims it is a way to stop the segregation and make America a whole as it has been striving to be for the longest. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva believes color-blind racism is the new racial ideology and still brings about racial inequality.

As the solution to the question progresses, we ask ourselves, will a color-blind society change the way whites view blacks and minorities? Will it change the discrimination that is brought about everyday from individualistic opinions? Those that say they are not biased against other races are the main ones that are judgmental to how certain ethnicities act. Regardless of a color-blind society, there is still going to be racial inequality. Color-blind racism is basically racism that acts as if color doesn’t matter, when in actuality, it really does.

Whites believe that if they use color-blind racism, they aren’t racist. They bypass the word “black” and use other words to substitute it for. They bypass the word “race” and instead use words such as “ethnicity,” “culture” or “background” to make their statements not sound so harsh. Despite the fact that they believe they may not sound prejudiced at the time that does not stop them from thinking it. As Eduardo Bonilla-Silva believes, color-blind racism may not be as crude as the Jim Crow era, but it resembles it in a more minor way.

For example, whites will vote for a black man for President of the United States, but they still look down on the black society, most likely hoping that the “black President” will help those stereotypes. Ward Connerly attended the American River Junior College and earned a Bachelor of Arts Degree in political science with honors at Sacramento State College. He is the founder of the American Civil Rights Institute and an outspoken supporter of equal opportunities for all Americans. He expressed his views on racism by discussing an encounter he had with a woman.

While explaining his desire to succeed at having a color-blind government, the woman commented by replying what he was doing was going to be best for his people. Although, she may not have realized her remark offended him, situations similar to that occur all the time especially with blacks and minorities. Persons may do it without the intention to insult, but that just proves that everyone is viewed more so by color than by characteristics and personality. Many minorities will always be judged by their color because whites believe that they will never have higher power.

Even though Ward Connerly went through rough obstacles growing up involving race, rather than focusing on the bad experiences he had, he claimed that if you “take people at face value and give them an opportunity, race is irrelevant. ” He supports the emphasis on a color-blind society so people won’t use discrimination based on the color of one’s skin. He used examples such as classifications and how there was no need to classify people by race. After the Civil War, with having separation for bathrooms, poll taxes and water fountains, distinguishing differences between people should have been stopped.

He decided to place the Racial Privacy Initiative in California, to prevent governments from categorizing individuals by race, color, ethnicity and origin. That may help to some degree, but there’s still going to be physical appearances by all people and no one is going to worry about classifications, because whites are still going to have their assumptions about blacks, even if they don’t completely say so. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva received his Ph. D. from the University of Wisconsin. He has authored two books called White Supremacy and Racism in the Post-Civil Rights Era and Racism without Racists.

He currently teaches sociology at Duke University focusing on race relations. Professor Bonilla-Silva proved his points with adequate examples shown in daily life. He uses the theory that blacks and most minorities are “at the bottom of the well. ” He brought up that steering highly successful and educated blacks towards the poor, less paying jobs in the worst conditions are ways to keep minorities away from the upscale white society. According to Bonilla-Silva, the U. S. has scarcely moved beyond the era of segregation.

He argues that all whites today rely more on cultural rather than biological analogies to explain blacks’ position in this country. I concur with his support because he has more supporting evidence than Connerly. Based on his interpretations, I’ve come to the conclusion that whites do come up with explanations to prove that they are so-called non-racial but as Bonilla-Silva said, “regardless of whites’ sincere fictions, racial consideration shade almost everything in America and black and dark skinned minorities lag behind in every area of social life. ”

An emphasis on a color-blind society is not the answer to racism. It’s just an excuse for whites to say that racism is not part of everyday life; that it simply just doesn’t exist. Ward Connerly had good claims, but his evidence did not support his conclusion enough to make me feel this topic would change the state of race in the U. S. Him describing his encounter made me feel that racism was never going to cease or for that matter, get better. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva brought out great support. By reviewing his examples and opinions, it is true that color-blindness is a front.

Most whites will always have animosity towards those that don’t “resemble them. ” Both authors did focus on the matter of race and how it is seen in the country. Race is seen differently throughout all individuals. Some find it just a word that has no meaning and is only involved with the past, but others find it an exaggeration of the word hatred. A word that brings out the worst in people’s personalities. Regardless of how much emphasis is even involved in having a color-blind society, racism still and always will exist.

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Racism or Class Discrimination

Racism is an issue that has been prevalent within America for hundreds of years. We overcame slavery with the help of famous American leaders like Abraham Lincoln and fought for equal rights with the help of Martin Luther King Jr. Today we face the issue of a more discreet kind of racism- the kind of racism that is more felt than heard. A sales associate who may not ask a customer to leave because of the color of their skin, but follows the customer around the store to make sure he or she isn’t stealing is an example of discreet racism.

This type of racism is harder to fight because it is harder to recognize than outward discrimination. It seems as though minorities, especially African-Americans, have a disadvantage from the time they are born. According to Leondar-Wright, “The median white family has more than $120,000 in net worth (assets minus debts), while the median black family has less than $20,000. ” There are many reasons why black families’ net worth is so much lower than white families’, but among the most obvious reasons is discrimination. Children from low-income families tend to have more responsibilities than those from middle or high-income families.

These responsibilities may take away from time spent on schoolwork. For example, if a fourteen year old must work to help pay household expenses because his or her parents are having trouble making ends meet, it is highly possible that time spent working could be taking away from time spent doing schoolwork. Even if a student does not have to work while in school, it is still possible that his or her parents (if the student is lucky enough to live with both their mother and father) work hours that would render him or her responsible for extended amounts of housework.

Either way, it is likely that a low-income, minority student must work much harder than a middle or high-income student to achieve the same academic status. If and when African-American students are accepted into college, it is much harder for them to be granted a loan to help pay for their college education. Because loans are given based on current income to debt ratio, banks are more weary of lending money to low-income families for fear of not getting their money back. Even in college, many African-American students must work to support themselves, which takes up time.

Time spent working, again is time that they could be using to study. Because of all the obstacles they face, African-American students must work much harder to accomplish the same achievements as white students. Once in the work place, whether it be after college or not, African-Americans still must work harder than Whites to attain the same level of success. Simply finding a job can prove to be a challenge for minorities. The old saying, ‘it’s not what you know, but who you know’ holds true for the job finding process.

For many minority young adults, parents and relatives who may be able to assist in the job search have fewer connections than white families. Therefore, students from low-income families must work harder to find jobs than many students from white or middle-class families. Even the simple process of applying for a job proves to be yet another hurdle for minorities. In the essay ‘Institutional Discrimination’ by Robert Cherry, the term “statistical discrimination” is brought up.

Statistical discrimination is referred to as “the process by which individuals are discriminated against when firms use group characteristics to screen individuals. ” Because employers often have a large amount of applications to go through to fill one or just a small amount of positions, they often base their choices off ‘of group characteristics rather than individual information. ’ Because employers do not want to spend a lot of time screening potential candidates, they chose to discriminate against groups of people that, in their minds, are not as productive as others.

According to a study by Irons and Moore, African-American workers tend to be left out of the “informal communications network. ” This basically means they are left out of water cooler conversations that may provide valuable information to them pertaining to their work. The study also found that on average, it took much longer for African Americans to be promoted than their White co-workers, and that “They had to demonstrate over and over and over again that they were worthy of promotion. (Cose 78) Overall, the study found that success came later, harder, and at a lower degree for Blacks than Whites in America.

Another point mentioned in Coses’ ‘Rage of a Privileged Class’ is something called the “self-fulfilling prophecy” (Cose 88), which basically states that performance is greatly based on expectations. For example, if someone believes they are expected to perform well at a particular task, they will most likely perform better than if he or she is expected to perform poorly. This concept can easily be applied to the classroom setting.

If a teacher expects her white students to perform better than her minority students, this can have a great effect on her student’s performances. While racism is still an issue in the United States today, the main problem can be traced to the issue of class discrimination. The majority of minorities come from low-income families; “Poverty rates for Blacks (at 24. 3%) in 2006 were 16. 1% higher than Whites (at 8. 2%). ” (H. T. Edney) Once born into a lower class family, your life will be filled with uphill battles and constant struggle.

Lower class citizens are discriminated against everywhere in the United States. Banks hesitate to lend money to low-income students going to college, even though they must work harder to get into college than upper class students. Because they must work harder, low income students are more likely to appreciate the opportunity given to them and less likely to take advantage of any help he or she may receive along the way. If you are a lower-class African-American reading this essay, you may be wondering who today’s Martin Luther King Jr. ill be, or if there will be anyone from our generation who will pioneer for your rights.

On the other hand, if you are a white, upper-middle class person reading this essay, you may not find racism to be an especially important issue in our society today. No matter your particular situation it is an inarguable fact that the socioeconomic class you are born into will become the chief factor in determining how far you will be able to go in life. Whether this is a good thing or not, may be up for some debate.

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Is Australia a Racist Country

Racism is discrimination or abusive behaviour towards another race or religion. Australia is a very young multicultural country where at hand is strong evidence to suggest that Australia is racist, and in contrast there are many examples that support this questions that we humans beings can live in peace and harmony with all Australians. According to the ABCDiamond The proportion of the population of Australians born overseas is quoted “over one quarter of Australians were born overseas”. This means 25% of Australians are born overseas.

Some possible causes of racism can be of an institutional racism, which means that a group of people have the same faith about a certain type of person. Racism can be from the past and what people of many different generations express to others about it which follows to be a stereo type of a group of people, such as Germany and the Jews. Many people may think because Hitler was German that all Germans were and always will be bad. At times we hear parents and grandparents being racist based on their opinions on world events such as September 11.

This created hatred and anti-Muslim feelings in the general public. In Australia Muslim leaders spoke through the media condemning the attack as many Australians started to form racist opinions about all Middle Easterners. This is an example of indirect racism based on stereo typing. Sometimes racism may simply be caused by ignorance and judgment formed through a lack of knowledge and information. This may be considered unjust and unfair because people are judging based on a stereotype.

Professor of Geography from the University of Western Sydney says that “Australians arnt dealing with ‘cultural diversity’ properly and are being racist and disrespectful to those whom are from a completely different culture and the government need to do more to manage this issue. Another example of racism was when Dr Hanif was deported for suspected links to terrorism. Other stereotypical attitudes present amongst Australians include, Asians are bad drivers, Aboriginals are lazy and a burden on society, Middle easterners are fighters and the French are arrogant.

The Cronulla riots of 2005, was an example of mob violence and interracial racism between the Lebanese and local Anglo youth to “reclaim the beach” and to move out of their suburbs. Another resent development is the racism towards Indian students studying in Australia. People assume that they are taking study places and jobs from Australian’s when they are often wealthy, self-supporting and not necessarily a true representation of all people from their country.

They are often being targeted by groups within Australia for their display of wealth (I-pod etc) Racism will continue because of general comments by the public and the influences of the media. For example 9/11 has made our world a place of heightened security, awareness and nervousness particularly as we relate to members of different cultures . Sometimes discussions between people’s opinions can instill racism in younger generations. Media sources such as the news and the internet can be covering stories in ways that present bias towards a group or race and this can also cause racism.

The government’s inactions to take a stand against racism may also contribute to racism continuing. Surely the government with its intake of migrants and refugees needs to take a greater look at how to encourage communities to live more harmoniously. One example, in which the Government does promote diversity and acceptance, is through an annual initiative called Harmony Day. On March 21st, 2010, schools, communities groups and organisations celebrated our cultural diversity to show that everyone belongs. Another community effort raising cultural awareness was the Indian concert by A. R. Rahman which was organised as part of the Sydney Festival in Parramatta last year.

The event was part of a wider initiative of the New South Wales Government to ease relations between the country’s significant Indian population and the wider Australian community. According to the Indian Local, (January 17th 2010) Cricketer Matthew Hayden interviewed members of the audience during breaks. “The thing to remember is that we are all the same inside,” said a young man he spoke to. This is a very important statement because it could actually be the key to preventing further racism.

If all Australians could believe this way, we would live in a more peaceful society. Many would argue that Australia, with its large population of overseas born people is a non racist nation. We have suburbs in Sydney which delight all cultures and signify multiculturalism at its best. The Italian’s in Leichardt, Lebanese in Auburn/Bankstown, and Chinese in Cabramatta and Chinatown in the city. Governments and local councils might encourage festivals and awareness through entertainment and local media e. g. Chinese New Year festivals. This is a display which shows that Australian’s are indeed quite accepting of other races.

Governing policies such as the Commonwealth Racial Discrimination Act (1975) aim to ensure that “everyone is treated equally, regardless of their race, colour, descent or nationality or ethnic origin”. According to the Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship we are processing applications for asylum seekers from war torn countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan. The Asylum Seeker Assistance Program is a scheme that has been set up by the government to assist these people with income support, and advice as they wait to gain refugee status.

This is an example of how the government is accepting and supportive of new migrants in our country. Similarly the Rudd government showed compassion to the Aborigines when we “Closed the Gap” in 2008 by apologizing publicly to the Aboriginals for mistreatment of them by our country. This public recognition of unfair and unjust treatment shows a willingness to be a non racist country in the eyes of many Australians. So, is Australia a racist country? It is evident that Australia’s growing population of migrants will continue.

With this growth it is hard to predict that racism will cease. However, the need to reinforce that all humans have feelings and have rights will be the answer to stopping racism. We need help from the government, media and leaders in our society to breakdown institutional racism. We need to take a more collaborative approach as Australians and as members of the global community. Racism has no quick fix solution but with improvements in communication and understanding of each other as individuals we can create a more harmonious place to live.

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Did Hurricane Katrina Expose Racism in America?

Did Hurricane Katrina Expose Racism in America? (A Case Study) Before beginning this case study, Hurricane Katrina was a force of nature that ravaged the city of New Orleans, Louisiana in 2005 leaving thousands of African Americans homeless and impoverished. Assuming the affirmative position of the debate in question is Adolph Reed and Stephen Steinberg. They argue that Hurricane Katrina did, in fact expose racism in America. They want to emphasize the need to address race and poverty concerns and focus more on blacks.

Opposing them is Shelby Steele. He believes that blacks should begin focusing more on ways to overcome their underdevelopment instead of blaming whites for their predicament. Reed and Steinberg begin their argument with a quoted statement from Barbara Bush. “So many of the people in the arena here, you know, were underprivileged anyway, so this, this is working very well for them. ” This quote already shows the attitude of white America towards the situation of those suffering at the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

They also mention the “Move to Opportunity” program that basically only addresses a miniscule percentage of the poverty stricken homeless GIVEN if they were qualified. Needless to say the majority of them did not participate in this program; as a result, they were to fend for themselves. The extent of white racism was best illustrated by the signing of a government-sponsored resettlement program by 200-plus of the nation’s most renowned social science names.

This program is a classified by Reed and Steinberg as a “relocation scheme” disguised as a voluntary program designed to remove impoverished and unemployed blacks out of the area in attempts to blot out some of the nation’s more darker areas. “Move to Opportunity became a perverse euphemism for policy abdication of the poor people left behind who are in desperate need of programs, services, and jobs. ” Steele dispels the accusation placed on Hurricane Katrina in regards to exposing racism in America by sourcing the cause in blacks themselves.

Steele explains that whites have in a sense, owned up to their responsibilities and made themselves witness to racism. That we as blacks blame our inferiority on white racism therefore increasing white shame. Subsequently, for whites to admit that black inferiority is a product of white shame, they are admitting racism. Steele advocates that both races, especially blacks accept responsibility for their shames as each race constantly tries to usurp power from the other. We are attributing our underdevelopment to whites in order to shame them instead of claiming responsibility for our own progress or lack thereof.

The progression of blacks in America is undermined by the constant irresponsibility of the race as a whole. From things to not taking care of our children to crimes, we essentially placed ourselves into this predicament. We are not living up to our end of the bargain. Black responsibility needs to be acknowledged by us in order for us to progress. Were we to do this, our open acknowledgment of our own underdevelopment will allow whites to hold witness over us; however they will have to acknowledge our overcoming of our underdevelopment.

In a nutshell Steele is saying we must hold ourselves accountable for our own underdevelopment and by doing so we can finally achieve the long awaited progression that we have been looking for. After evaluating both sides of the debate, I chose to identify with Shelby Steele’s argument. Not only does his argument directly answer the question, it allows for more personal questioning among blacks. Are we really using whites as a clutch as to why we have not progressed? Is it more of clutch or more of an innate bitterness between blacks and whites that has developed and evolved over centuries of conflict?

Blacks have been at the bottom of the totem pole of society for centuries by the hands of whites. Although I believe that whites in fact do impede black progression in society due to concealed racism among other things, I do not agree however that it is entirely their fault. Both races are in a power struggle; straining to take control and to make the other look inferior. It is this childish nature of these two races that halt the progression of our country as a whole. When both races accept responsibility for their shames then proper progress can be possible.

Until then, racism will always be a factor of white shame and inferiority will always be a factor of black shame. I believe that Hurricane Katrina played a part in exposing racism. I feel as if Hurricane Katrina forced racism out into the open. No white person would have expressed any racist concerns prior to Katrina. Katrina basically served as a mental agent for white America, effectively expressing their attitudes towards black America. Also, I believe that if the majority of the population ravaged by Katrina were white they would have been rescued almost immediately if not sooner.

The painstakingly long response time to the crisis was evidently showed the amount of concern and sympathy the government had for the blacks of New Orleans. Racism is still alive they are just concealing it. Thousands of blacks in New Orleans depended on the government to rescue them from a travesty that they could not control. And additionally the government attempted to relocate the survivors of the incident to remove the poor blacks and replace the area with whites. This illustrated the true intentions of the government.

The strife that exists between whites and blacks are so low-key that it takes an act of God to bring it out of the shadows. There is no doubt that racism is still alive in America; however the extent of racism has definitely lessened over time. I chose to side with Steele’s argument because I identify with the argument that blacks and whites have a complex that won’t allow them to accept responsibility for their shames. If it were not for Hurricane Katrina, racism may have never been brought into the light.

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Huck Finn: Opposition to Racism

Megan Patton John Rohrkemper February 28, 2010 American Lit Exposing the Racist, Opposing Racism Since its original publication in 1884, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has proven to be one of the most controversial when it comes to the reoccurring issue of race in American society. Many argue that Mark Twain held the racist ideals that most people had in the 1830’s, while others know that Twain was a social satirist, mocking the ignorance of society. In order to be considered a racist novel Huck Finn would have to advocate racism.

The evidence thus far has lead me to believe that The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn promotes a strong set of antiracist ethical values as the main character, Jim, a runaway slave is displayed as the best, most honorable character, while other white characters are depicted as ignorant and self centered, lacking ethical reasoning. The immorality of racism is periodically satirized throughout the novel. The unethical thinking of the time period of slavery is an issue that Twain recognizes, mocks, and clearly presents his opposition toward.

One of the main concerns consistently brought up by those who argue that Twain is racist is that simply based on the dialogue and use of the word “nigger,” Twain is being insensitive toward blacks. He must be a racist if he is using such a derogatory term. However, they fail to realize that he is telling a story how it would have happened and he avoids beating around the bush in order to lay out the reality of the time period when people engaged in such communication.

Justin Kaplan uses powerful words on the matter when he questions people who have “allowed him or herself even the barest minimum of intelligent response to its underlying spirit” (378) and still “accuse it of being racist because some of its characters use offensive racial epithets” (378). On the surface, this can easily be detected as racism but when taking a look at particular circumstances of ignorance, Huck’s internal battling experiences, and satiric element, the intent is clear. Jim, one of the main characters of the novel, is undoubtedly the most moral character in the novel.

Julius Lester argues in his piece “Morality in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” that Jim is a “childlike character” and is not taken seriously since he “runs away and does not immediately seek his freedom” (365). However, Jim has been brought up in a time where he himself feels some sort of inferiority complex to whites in society. Lester is partially correct in his philosophy that Jim is childlike, but wrong in the idea that this is a negative aspect of his character. His “childlike” quality characterizes his humility, nobility, and kindness.

He is much more one of the wiser characters in the novel as he recognizes the mistakes he has made and even expresses his guilt to Huck. He tells Huck a story about a time when he asked his four year old daughter to “’Shut de do’ “(154) and she just stood there smiling at him, deaf to the fact that her father was instructing her to shut the door. Since he did not realize she had scarlet fever and had grown deaf, he beat her for her disobedience. When he realized that she was deaf, he “bust out cryin’ en grab her up in [his] arms, and say “’Oh, de po’ little thing!

De Lord God almighty fogive po ol Jim’”(155) After beating his daughter, he realizes that what he did is wrong. He learns from his mistakes and asked for forgiveness from God who he believes is all powerful with the power to forgive man of his sins. In this scene Jim demonstrates wisdom. He takes what he knows, puts it to use, and repents. While he may not be the most educated character in the novel, he seems to have the most caring attitude based on the principles he has learned. According to Bennett Kravitz, Jim is “portrayed as noble, loyal, and the ultimate friend and family man. On the contrary to his ‘’childlike” trait that Lester believes Jim has, he is actually a father and acts much more like a caregiver. In a scene where Huck plays a trick on Jim, Jim grows seriously worried for Huck’s life. He even announces after an angry rant that Huck scared him half to death, that “my heart wuz mos’ broke bekase you wuz los’, en I didn’t k’yer no mo’ what become er me en de raf’”(99). He goes on to express how he was so excited to see Huck alive that tears almost came.

This is a critical point in the novel, for it is the first time the friendship of Huck and Jim is revealed by one of the characters themselves. Of course, Jim being the gentle person he is, is the first one to call this relationship a friendship. Besides becoming worried over what he thought was the loss of his friend Huck, Jim shows his care giving qualities towards the end of the novel when he stays behind to help nurse Tom back to health. Jim bases his actions on what he thinks Tom Sawyer would do in the situation and insists n getting a doctor. His persistence is so strong that he says, “’I doan budge a step out’n dis place,’ dout a doctor: not if it’s forty year! ’(249). ” Upon the doctor’s arrival, Jim comes out of hiding and aids the doctor, knowing that he will be recaptured. Not only is he being a concerned care giving man, but Jim is risking his freedom for a person he barely knows. He has that father like instinct that Julius Lester seems to have missed. It is the other characters in the novel who demonstrate weak ethical values.

Many of the characters who have racist credentials are portrayed as lowly, immoral, and uneducated. They rarely show remorse and are entirely self-centered. On the other hand, Jim is an easygoing, loving person who as uneducated as he is, consistently cares for others, is loyal to his friendships, and feels guilt in his mistakes. After being visually described as having “been drunk over in town and [laying] in the gutter all night,” (52) Pap goes on to find fault in the government for not only taking away his son, but for allowing a “nigger” from Ohio to become a professor.

Ironically, Pap thinks he is superior to a highly educated man who “could talk all kinds of languages, and knowed everything” (52) and is angry with the government for allowing a “nigger” to teach. He is so wrapped up in the skin color that he does not realize his own faults and idiocy. Additionally, Pap is quite the opposite of Jim who loves his family, articulates his longing to be with them as well as his guilt for beating his daughter. Pap came back into Huck’s life demanding the money he received in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, not because he loved Huck and wanted to be more involved in his life.

He does not have a care in the world for Huck, his only son. When finally Pap kidnaps Huck and has the chance to develop that father, son relationship, he locks him in a cabin while he goes out and gets wasted, and when he returns, Pap beats the boy. In Huck’s words Pap “got too handy with his hick’ry and I couldn’t stand it. Welts all over” (50). Incongruously to Jim’s remorse, Pap is not phased by his wrongdoing. Twain certainly did this on purpose. The racism held by Huck’s father, as well as many other Americans preceding the Civil War when blacks and other minorities were seen as inferiors, is displayed throughout the novel.

Through the constant use of the derogatory term “nigger” and the maltreatment of Jim as well as other blacks and slaves, Twain is able to illustrate society’s ignorance. This way, as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is taught throughout the country, young people, or any person for that matter can see the veracity and severity of racist attitudes. Pap is not the only character in the novel who displays a loose set of moral values. The escapade with the Duke and the Dauphin is another encounter in the novel where whites are displayed as weak, self centered people who are blindly racist.

Twain uses their constant conniving deeds to show a diversity of white characters in this society as horrible people. In Justin Kaplan’s “Born To Trouble: 100 Years of Huckleberry Finn”, he describes Jim and Huck being on the run because of a “nightmare society driven by bigotry, violence, exploitation, greed, and ignorance (379)” These words are perfect in describing the Duke and the Dauphin as they move from town to town tricking people out of their money.

In one particular scenario, it is not even possible to feel sorry for the townspeople who are getting tricked out of their money because then they go and act like the “play” was great so that everyone else in the town gets tricked out of their money as well. Along with Pap, the Duke, and the Dauphin are the “religious” characters who seem to have it all together but definitely do not. By displaying even the “best of the best” characters with racist attitudes, Twain shows how it was society as a whole who held racist ideals, not just the lowlife criminal types.

An example of a character that seems to have herself together is Ms. Watson. She is supposed to be a smart, religious, good-intending family woman. Even the good woman who took Huck into her home to raise him “sivilized” has flaws. While in the end she is the one to grant Jim his freedom, preceding this she put her selfish desires for money ahead of Jim and though he was her slave, Jim was someone she had known for quite a while. To Jim’s knowledge, he was someone she cared about on some level even if she did not see him as an equal. Jim overheard Ms.

Watson talking about selling Jim “down the river,” which is the very reason he ran away. Another supposedly wholesome, good intending character is Aunt Sally. When Huck first meets Aunt Sally he describes an accident on the boat he was traveling on. Aunt Sally exclaims “Good Gracious! Anybody hurt? ” to which Huck replies No’m Killed a nigger” (206). Sadly, this quote is often seen as racist but in actuality it contains a very satirical element and according to Kaplan is “a frequently, brutal, painful realism” (379). The novel is simply showing the corruption of the adult world.

Peaches Henry argues that “In order to believe in Twain’s satirical intention, one has to believe in Huck’s good faith toward Jim” (390). It is easy to identify Huck’s good faith toward Jim throughout the novel. Aside from the idiocy of a majority of characters, Huck’s internal battles with himself throughout the novel demonstrate Mark Twain’s antiracist beliefs. Though Huck, in his conscience believes blacks to be worthless, his somewhat naive personality and “conscience” can be blamed. He has been spoon-fed everything he knows about Africans by a society which has enslaved them and had a superior attitude towards them.

It is a tough situation to examine, as by today’s standards slavery is seen by the overwhelming majority of American citizens as morally wrong, but in Huck’s time and place the majority saw it as the natural order of things. However, despite his upbringings and learned racism, Huck periodically has instances where he believes Jim “seems white” or, in other words, seems to be like any other human with feelings, emotions, and close family relations. Earlier, in a moment where Jim shows his care giving qualities, Huck shows one of his first signs of affection toward “a nigger. ” He shows his first signs of remorse as he apologizes to Jim.

Though he does mention “it was fifteen minutes before I would work myself up to go and humble myself to nigger” (100)” Huck does apologize, feels remorse, and admits to the audience that what he did “made [him] feel mean” (99). The second time Huck has a moment of realization about Jim that surprises him is when Jim talks about his family. When Jim goes on to describe them, and the regret he had for beating his daughter for something she didn’t deserve, Huck sees something in Jim that he had probably had been taught that blacks did not posses. He was probably taught that they did not have feelings.

He realizes in this moment that Jim must have feelings and therefore makes that statement that Jim is “white inside. ” Additionally, in the moment earlier discussed in Tom’s injured state where Jim uses logic to decide on calling a doctor, Huck states, “I knowed he was white inside, and I reckoned he’d say what he did say – so it was alright, now. ” The most climactic moment in the novel is the ultimate battle Huck faces when he is forced to choose between the societal values he has been taught and raised to believe is right or to help Jim which he feels in his heart is the right thing to do.

Huck has been raised to believe that blacks were uneducated, inferior, and most certainly not people to become friends with. For all Huck knew, blacks were placed on the earth to work and lacked the ability to love and care. Huck definitely believed that aiding a black man in an escape would send him to hell. This moment directly indicates how foolish Twain believed the people of the time period to be. Huck states, “I was trembling, because I’d got to decide forever betwixt two things, and I knowed it.

I studied a minute, sort of holding my breath, and then says to myself: ‘All right, then, I’ll go to hell’ –and tore it up. ” By this point in the novel, through their adventures and development of friendship, Huck is willing to risk eternity in hell to save his friend. Surely, even if he may not admit that he and Jim were friends, someone would not risk their lives for a stranger, or even an acquaintance. Not only does Huck begin to see Jim as an equal in his heart, though it may not be in his “conscience”, he is also constantly seeing how awful society is.

In order to detect racism there must be a middle step of realization that ill treatment of people based on their skin color is wrong. In order to see that this is wrong, it is important to notice the problems within society to begin with. In his experience with the Duke and Dauphin, Huck witnesses their tar and feathering, another cruel punishment by society, and states that, “It was enough to make a body ashamed of the human race” (160). The fact that Huck even acknowledges a problem in the human race would not have been part of the story if Twain had agreed with society’s view on slavery.

It demonstrates his antiracist approach. One of the purposes of the novel is for the reader to develop sympathy towards Jim. Because the people around him lack morals while he consistently shows a moral and accepting view towards life, his character develops superiorly to the rest of society despite his lack of education. His lack of education exists because of Twain’s realist approach to the novel. People like Julius Lester and Peaches Henry who believe the novel to be racist, are only looking at the surface and the degrading dialogue.

The novel was not made to be politically correct. “Twain takes issue with the major racial theories of his day, and those critics who are convinced only of the racist potential of the text and/or Mark Twain would do well to examine the “unsaid” of the text. ”(Kravitz) If it was rewritten to appease the masses and use more accepted terms for today’s day and age, reality would be misrepresented, race would cease to be an issue, and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn would not exist as one the greatest pieces of American Literature.

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Racism, Human Nature, Love and Hatred “Mother Savage”

Mother Savage by Guy de Maupassant and Shakespeare’s Othello are two literary pieces which have several aspects in common. They may be from two different authors of two different times, but they both have certain characteristics which are somewhat similar. One of this is that both Mother Savage and The Tragedy of Othello: The Moor of Venice has a concept of racism, wherein people from different countries and different cultures are involved. Another is that these two literary works both touch on the human nature, how man reacts to various factors in his surroundings, and even the people around him. And lastly, Mother Savage and The Tragedy of Othello are both stories filled with love and hatred, as shown by the main characters of these literary works.

The two stories both have a take on the aspect of racism. In Guy de Maupassant’s “Mother Savage,” racism is seen at the time of war, where the story revolved when a group of Prussian army settled in a local’s house; an old widow who has a son who went to war against these Prussians (Maupassant). Basically, the old woman, Mother Savage, has let in her house the Prussian army whom his son was fighting against. On the other story, Shakespeare’s Othello also showed racism as a main focus in the story (Shakespeare). Othello is a noble black General of Arabic descent, a Moor. He fell in love and married a young white daughter of a politician, Desdemonda. The story showed two people from a different race falling for each other, but because of certain reasons, their relationship ends up tragically.

The next similarity between the two stories is aspect of Human Nature. This is where the main characters is affected by his surroundings, and he responds to this by following his urges, his human nature.  In the story “Mother Savage,” the old woman showed her human nature when she learned about the death of her son. At first, when she didn’t know that her son was dead, she accepted willingly the Prussian force composed of four soldiers to stay in her house.

But when she found out that her son died, she couldn’t help but exact revenge on these unknowing “enemies.” She burned her house along while the soldiers were fast asleep, and because of that, she was killed by the other soldiers who responded upon knowing the incident. In The Tragedy of Othello, human nature was seen with the main character himself, the Moor, Othello (Al-Amin). When his mind was clouded by jealousy about his wife having an affair with another man, he resorted to murderous means and has committed his own life in the end.

Lastly, both of the stories have tackled about love and hatred. This was manifested in both of the stories’ main characters. In “Mother Savage,” it was the mother’s love that kept her hoping for his son’s return, and keeping the Prussian soldiers in her house. She thought that these soldiers also have their mothers worrying for them. But hatred has filled her emotions when she found out that her son died. And because of this hatred, she has resorted to murdering the enemy soldiers while they were sleeping. In “The Tragedy of Othello,” it was love that made two different people is together, in the case of Othello and Desdemonda, and it was hatred and jealousy that separated them, and has eventually led to their deaths.

William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Othello and Mother Savage by Guy de Maupassant are stories which have similarities in their content. Even though they are many differently, these similarities show that they are both tragic in nature. The concepts they are similar in makes these stories interesting, even though they are shown at different angles. Moreover, these stories may have similar concepts, but still stand out individually, very different from each other.

References:

Al-Amin, Zakia. “Othello: The Tragedy of Human Nature”.  1999. July 29 2007. <http://www.gpc.edu/~shale/humanities/composition/handouts/sample/Othellopaper.html>.

Maupassant, Guy de. “Mother Sauvage”.  2001.  ClassicReader.com. July 29 2007. <http://www.classicreader.com/read.php/bookid.475/sec./>.

Shakespeare, William. “The Tragedy of Othello, Moor of Venice”.  1604. July 29 2007. <http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/views/plays/playmenu.php?WorkID=othello>.

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Indirect and Direct Racism

Indirect and Direct Racism Racism is a blot on society that has transgressed mankind over hundreds of years. It is conscience of humans that few things are far superior to others. This can be explained in the detail with example of skin color, origin and culture which are the key factors in defragmenting the human society which eventually leads to racism. Cultural difference between various communities was one of the reason for the development of racism.

As societies tries to bind itself together it compels people to adapt to different cultures, influencing hatred and eventually given rise to racism. Racism still exists in today’s society in both direct and indirect ways. This can be explained with the recent examples of Asians been targeted in the western world. Asians are attacked because they have different culture and when they settle in western world they bring uneasiness to western lifestyle thus leading to racism.

As the author quotes in this article “Under a byline of Lian Ji, the article published Wednesday used broken English and spouted racial stereotypes to bash the school for his rejection. ” The author explains that the student mentioned in the article feels discriminated against due to the fact that he was rejected from Preston University. Clearly showing the flow of racism in the atmosphere within the article, impacting people directly. Skin color is another factor that also has influenced racism.

Though subconsciously humans have the tendency to relate things with each other, color is one of those factors. Africans are targeted because they are black and human conscience considers black to be related to bad or evil. Thus they have been victims of racism from the white community, as they consider themselves to be superior to blacks. It can also be noted that origin and cast of people also plays a significant role in influencing racism. In countries particularly where different communities co-exist there seem to be a divide between different communities on faith and cast.

Thus people of upper cast will never rub shoulders with the lower cast ones. Eventually there is divide in the communities. Although literacy level has increased, the divide from ages among different communities still exists based on racism. Showing an indirect effecting resulting in racism, not meaning a fully planned riot, but not limited to harassment. Students within an elementary school for example, a student whom is the victim of being verbally bullied due to his fellow classmates lack of literacy skills.

Only for the reason that all of the Asian culture has a higher grade average then the Latino Americans. Unlike judging his skin color or the way his facial features varies and being bullied on the spot, it takes tame for one to make fun of another over test scores. Out of the many factors that has led to racism that is thriving in today’s society the one’s discussed area few highlights that presence among us. So it can be concluded that racism among humans still exists and is displayed in both direct and indirect ways.

Bibliography “Racism Agaisnt Asians. ” Racism Agaisnt Asians. Web. <http://card. wordpress. com/2007/01/22/racist-anti-asian-article-printed-in-princeton-university%E2%80%99s-student-newspaper/>. Kershner, Isabel, and Mark Landler. “Racism in Sports And Society – New York Times. “The New York Times – Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. Web. 09 Dec. 2011. <http://www. nytimes. com/1987/11/29/sports/l-racism-in-sports-and-society-598787. html? src=pm>.

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Racism & Freedom Writers

When I was reading the section of Racism in Multicultural Class, the facilitator’s way of handling the subject “Racism” reminds me ‘’Freedom Writers” the movie, which is based on a book of Erin Gruwell -a new teacher at Woodrow Wilson High School in Long Beach. She chose the school because of its integration program, but she did not expect a class consist of students who have racist problem. Students splitted into different racial groups, who are ready for fighting, hate each other, but also they hate Erin more than anybody else.

On the other hand, senior teachers of the school just ignored the students and they did not make an effort to pave for solving racist problems. Somehow teachers believed that students come to school because of their parents’ insistency and they are not eager to study. Actually, teachers did not want to budge from their privileged positions. When Erin attempted to take a step for the good of students, she is told to do just her job –train them discipline and to obey the rules.

Instead being a commanding teacher, Erin wanted to provide a safe space for students to express their feeling, so she asked them to write their own diaries as an assignment, which is not graded. Despite all the resistance, students started to develop trust to her and wrote everything about what it feels to be ‘other’. After they share their narratives and started to communicate with each other.

They develop more sensitiveness and interest to other ethnicities by engaging class activities such as visiting the Museum Of Tolerance, and reading the stories from history The Diary of Anne Frank. Erin was happy to see the transformation of them. Before, the students did not have any motivation to success and refuse to interact with other groups because of they do not have hope, but after they develop awareness about tolerance and importance of each life. Erin gave these children what they are not offered before. Respect is the key of the racism problems.

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Discrimination Due to Racism

THEME: DISCRIMINATION due to RACISM The scars of discrimination on society as a whole and people as individuals. Discrimination has caused a lot of sufferings on our people and ancestors in many ways around the world which scars lives of people from generation to generation as well as affects individuals and society as a whole.

I have chosen a range of societies by selecting the texts, Dawn Raids play-script written by Oscar Knightley, Freedom Writer movie directed by Richard LaGravenese, Othello play-script written by William Shakespeare, Black Like Me novel based on a true story written and experienced by John Howard Griffin and The Untold Story of Emmett Louis Till told by his mother, Uncles and cousins presented by Top Documentary Films. These texts explore a wide range of societies including Black Americans, White Americans, Africans, Pacific Islanders, New Zealanders, Asians, Latinos and other cultures too.

These texts help reveal how discrimination scars society and people as individuals. What do we see in the text that portrays discrimination? As depicted in the play script Dawn Raids, we are introduced to some racist polices in New Zealand who stopped brown people on the streets asking them for passports in search of over stayers. These racist polices only picked on brown faces that they assumed were Samoans, Tongans, or Fijians. They even stopped Maoris asking them what country they’re from, being treated like over stayers in their own country.

There were Europeans and Asians who were over stayers but polices never bothered them to ask for passports. Polices would crash into Pacific people’s houses early in the morning chasing them with dogs frightening their children, families and their neighbours. They were humiliated and embarrassed in front of their neighbours, their children and worst of all they were being treated badly in their own home. This racist act resulted in most Pacific Islanders were being separated and deported back to their Islands in a very cruel manner due to their racist hatred towards the Pacific Islanders.

This shows that racism humiliates people and affects them in so many ways and discrimination should be stopped. This type of hatred towards other races is also obvious in the movie Freedom Writer but with more races involved, where Latinos, Asians, Black Americans and white Americans are separated into gangs and are targeted by racist white polices. The gangs hate each other due to their races and backgrounds but the one seemed lower than everyone else is the black people. White racist polices pinned down Marcus for a crime he did not commit due to his skin colour being black. I sat there until the police came. But when they come, all they see is a dead body, a gun, and a nigger”. He wasted months of his life locked up in a cell for crime he did not commit but being black put him as the killer and so someone had to pay the price. It shows in this text, justice meant someone had to pay the price and “someone” meant anyone who is not white. White polices didn’t care who committed the crime because all they wanted was someone to blame and Marcus was the one black guy that was around and due to his race and skin colour being black he was an easy target to pin the crime on.

This text shows that racism ruled over justice and how discrimination can destroy one’s life forever. Another text which shows clinging to the belief of discrimination due to racism scars society and people is Othello, where Iago a jealous white man used racism slurs when he awakens Brabantio with the news that his daughter Desdemona, a white young lady has eloped with Othello. He used animal imagery in his racist diatribe against Othello, which is grounded in the idea that black –men and woman—is inhuman. “Even now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white ewe. Arise!

Arise; awake the snorting citizens with the bell. Or else the devil will make a grandsire of you. Arise I say. ” Iago refers to Othello as an “old black ram” and is “tupping” Brabantio’s “white ewe” Desdemona. He plays on the Elizabeth notions that black men have an animal like hyper-sexuality. This seems geared at manipulating Brabantio’s fears of miscegenation, between Othello and Desdemona. So due to Iago’s racist attitude towards Othello, Brabantio and few others tries to separate Othello from Desdemona. This shows how discrimination can affect love ones and individuals due to discrimination.

In contrast Black Like Me a non-fiction novel based on a true story of John Howard Griffin, who changed his skin colour to black to try and find out how it feel likes to be black. He was called names like ‘nigger’ and he felt like an outcast amongst the white people, his own people. He found it hard to get along with white people as he gets ‘hatred glares’ from them but gets loving, warm greetings and invitations from black people. Black people were being pushed away into hiding, poverty which caused a lot of sufferings for the black society as a whole, all young and old because of the colour of their skin.

This shows that discrimination affected the black society leading them to poverty, misery, homeless and sufferings. The text The Untold Story of Emmett Louis Till shows an identical horrific incident that scarred the Black Society at that time and even up to now in America. A young boy named Emmett Till was brutally murdered in Mississippi, America. Emmett was 14 years of age when he was taken from his uncle’s house by two white men due to the fact that he whistled at a white lady.

Emmett loved to play around and had a sense of humour which led him to whistling at the white lady which caused his death by the hand of two racist white men. This reason for their action was very unacceptable and racist because if it had been a white man who whistled at the lady, the white people nor anyone would do anything but since Emmett was black and not white, he paid the price of death. These white people had to prove a point that they were superior and they had to prove it by killing a 14 year old boy.

Emmett’s mother had to keep the casket open to show the world the face of her son and what the white people did to him. The result of the brutal manners that was done was unimaginable and indescribable. Emmett’s face was unrecognized by his family and friends but especially by his own mother. His teeth were knocked out and his mother “took pride in them because they were the most beautiful thing I have ever seen. ” There was a massive hole on his head and his mother “could see right through. ” His skull was broken in the middle and his tongue was cut and hanging down.

The world attended the funeral to have a look at Emmett and this angered the white people. They sent racist letters of threats calling names like “niggers”, “savages” and treat of house being bombed. This text shows how black and white were separated by racism and how discrimination took control destroying the black society physically and emotionally. How does the context (time, place, social condition and other people) enhance the occurrence of discrimination due to racism? My text consistently displays the social condition, times and places where/when white were superior of all races.

A time we now look back and feel embarrassed that it ever happened, a time of suffering, of pain, of struggle and temptation but hope was always in front and kept them going. In Dawn Raids this event happened in the mid-1970s to early 1980s during the most embarrassing time of New Zealand, where most islanders were being woken up early in the cold mornings at dawn with dogs and flashlights trashing things that came their way, handcuffed and held in cells. These times made racism easier for polices because they had the authorities to pick on anyone but they chose only to pick on brown faces for over stayers.

It was during the time when New Zealand brought Pacific Islanders to New Zealand to work in factories and do hard works and by that it meant that Pacific Islanders had to obey Pakehas and do as they are told. They lived in fear and under pressure because their lives were being controlled. This shows that discrimination affects and destroys lives of the Islanders and it should have been prevented and stopped. In Freedom Writer is based on a time where whites were still superior to all races and black being the lowest of them all and a time in America where black people were blamed for almost every crime.

This show a time where freedom was deprive of the non-white people due to racism. Othello is a text that was influenced by the occurrence of racism through words of hatred, jealousy and a time where people believed in strange things concerning the devil, more religious believers and strong Christian faiths. Iago refers to Othello as the “devil” even though Othello’s Christian, as indicating that black were evil and that “ the devil” often took the form of a black man, which as to make Othello seem as something miserable and should be treated like an animal.

These racist words of Iago were used to persuade Brabantio that it is impossible for Desdemona to fall in love with Othello because of his race. This shows a time where Othello’s race was seen as something not desirable or wanted. Othello is similar to Black like me where in accordance with social segregation of time, finding a job for black people was difficult and hard. They couldn’t find a restroom or cafe allowed for black to enter and use. This shows a time in America where black people were neglected of their needs and social involvement because of their skin colour.

According to The untold story of Emmett Till and it’s devastating incident, that occurred during the time of the white being superior to black and slavery still seen around, black people were seen lower than whites and other races. Black people would be treated like animals and white people would get away with it. it shows a time where black people at that time still had no protection from the law, a time where they weren’t yet allowed to vote or speak their minds. This made racism worse for black people because they had no say in anything, due to most of them being brought up in the culture of slavery.

So, in these texts it shows how the context can enhance the occurrences of racism shown through discrimination and why discrimination should be stopped. Why do people discriminate (including those in the texts)? There is no single, simple answer to this question. To begin with, it seems to be a human trait to dislike and distrust anyone we perceive as being “different. ” It also seems to be a human trait to judge groups of people by the actions and attitudes of a few and it also seems to be a human trait to think that what we believe, how we live, and what we are is the only “right” way to believe, live, and be.

People are not born racist and they learn this behaviour from their family, friends, and other important people in their lives. This is a personality disorder, I believe, based on a person’s lack of self-worth. During the years of Affirmative Action (employment preference given to blacks) in America, many non-blacks were passed over for promotions and jobs which they considered rightfully theirs and this caused a great deal of bitterness. This particular program has not been around for many years, but older workers probably recall it clearly and still hold a great deal of resentment, like wise shown on the text Black Like Me.

Some people discriminate due to one’s skin colour being different from theirs, backgrounds and where they’re from. It shows that white people discriminate black people because they believe that they are superior and they can do anything and get away with it without punishments. In Dawn Raids it shows that polices discriminate because immigrants were getting bigger and better in New Zealand and plus they didn’t need them anymore; they had no use for them any longer.

That was a selfish and unloving way, of how discrimination worked. Iago in Othello was totally under the influence of jealousy and hatred towards Othello, which resulted in a very tragic event of deaths and broken hearts and trusts between the two lovers, Othello and Desdemona, together with the help of religious faith and beliefs. In The Untold Story of Emmett Till it shows that the “white society” discriminates basically because of skin colours and ethnicity together with the echoing background of slavery from years ago.

Similar to Freedom Writer it shows that students discriminates because of things that happened in the past, stories told by their fathers, their brothers, sisters and mothers. They kill each other and fight against each other even to death, shooting each other down because of the fact that their backgrounds and ethnics are different, they believe in different things and their past experiences due to racism and racial-hatred. Hatred and fear of others being superior or overpowering them made discrimination stronger but less do they know that they all have a lot in common than they know of.

So discrimination should be stopped because it is unfair, unloving, painful, sorrowful and straight inhuman-like and lets come together and try make a difference for our next generations. Conclusion: People discriminate for many reasons; fear, envy, desire for power or a need to disassociate them from others but especially because of racism. Racism is and will always remain a central issue which is heard, seen and recognized in most countries, in societies and amongst individuals which causes a lot of sufferings.

These issues of discrimination scars every aspect of economic cultural and political life by overt or covert racism acts, either in offensive loud bang or in a subtle manner. In many ways discrimination due to racism blur the line of accepted and unaccepted societal norms, that to destroy and subjugate others –either through perpetuation of physical violence or words– is a phenomenon as old as time. These actions wounds societies and people as individuals which healed but left scars that will never fade or forgotten.

What is disconcerting are the facts, figures and the damages caused to an individual and society as a whole. Painful tortures done behind doors and are swept under the rugs without others knowing or recognizing the damages. Hundreds of years ago people have paid a price for being racially different, tortured, and subjugated or killed, despite the advancement in culture, science and technology. People have been categorized and stereotyped which made discrimination easier. The root of the problem lies in our physical or cultural differences which involves skin colour, anguage, religion or tribe, hence the solutions too comes from this problem of being different. We should learn to love the different cultures and when we meet people and learn about them we are really all just the same. I have zero tolerance for racism because it has resolved nothing for as long as racism has been, and it’s the likes of JFK, Bobby Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr, losing their lives for these very principles to make one realize that certain people are terrified that wars that should never have been, will be ended and there will be equality for all races of man.

We should learn from these great men and strive to get along together rather than to fight with one another. I believe that by accepting and maybe celebrating differences is just one way of educating ourselves on these differences of cultures, and just maybe, a zero tolerance towards racism as an individual or society as a whole could pave the way for less of it and try make this world a better place, discrimination-free and racism-free for our children, our children’s children.

A world where we can all come together as one with peace and love no matter what race, skin-color or country we’re from, because I believe that without discrimination and racism, the world would be a much better place for our species to multiply and replenish with equality for every man no matter what differences we have. Discrimination and racism should be stop and prevented forever. Don’t ignore or avoid the scars of discriminations. Bibliography: Shakespeare,William ‘Othello’ playscript http://www. william-shakespeare. info/act1-script-text-othello. htm Knightley, Oscar  ‘Dawn Raids’   ()playscript from school http://www. laymarket. org. nz/node/3328 LaGravenese, Richard (2007) Freedom Writer’ movie http://www. imdb. com/title/tt0463998/ or Youtube http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=m0PRB4YsXn4;feature=related Griffin, John Howard ()‘Black Like Me’  based on a real life event, based on a true story. http://www. imdb. com/title/tt0057889/  http://books. google. co. nz/books/about/Black_Like_Me. html? id=ObTddfcqk2gC;redir_esc=y   Top Documentary Film (1950s)‘TheUntold Story of Emmett Louis Till’  http://topdocumentaryfilms. com/the-untold-story-of-emmett-louis-till/

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What Causes Racism

What causes Racism? Racism is one of the most revolting things within the vicinity of humanity. It haunts our past, many times degrading the future. The causes of racism aren’t known to the majority of humans living on earth, however, a good fraction of them express it. In order to cure racism, or at least minimize its affects on humanity, we have to examine the root causes. Some of the causes of racism are: Stereotypes Unfamiliarity selfishness and environmental factors. | |

One of the most common causes of racism is stereotypes. Through television, through radio, through the internet, through music, through books, and the like, the potential for stereo types to build are a definite possibility. When a person, especially one that is very young, is exposed to stereotypes of a specific group for the first time, then that person will assume all are that way. Likewise, when a source is constantly displaying negative things about a particular race, then that will affect the overall opinions as well.

Another very common, and probably the most common cause of racism is unfamiliarity. People fear what they do not know or understand. If someone hasn’t grown up around a particular race before, then there is more of a chance the person can be racist toward that particular group. Not all the time, but when the person has already been fed negative stereotypes, and does not have the actual real life experiences with at least one within the particular group, then the chances of racism are increased.

This is why it is important for children to be around other races at a young age: to ensure they get their minds used and adapted to being around them, and also to help counterbalance any false stereotypes they may encounter in the future. Selfishness is another obvious cause of racism. Humans are sometimes very selfish creatures caring only about their own at the expense of others. If individuals aren’t taught how to respect others, then the potential for the person to become racist is increased as well. This is why you will find that most caring individuals aren’t racist. Neither are they sexist or anything else.

The lastly and probably the most surprising cause of racism is environmental causes. We are all made different biologically and genetically. Our physical environment can affect our biology and therefore, in many cases, affect our minds. This does not mean freewill and choice are not options, but that an individual’s potential for racism could possibly be increased through certain environmental factors unknown to man. By default, racism is nonexistent. However, things such as improper health maintenance, excess chemicals, head injuries, or other factors may help contribute to it.

This should not be used as an excuse that racism has to persist, but more of a better chance to cure racism by enhancing biological health and medical technology, rather than thinking it can only be done by other means. Those are the 4 main causes of racism. As previously stated, racism is one of the most revolting things that paralyzes humanity. To cure racism permanently, we must first address the root problems, which are: stereotypes, unfamiliarity, selfishness, and environmental aspects. When we cure and address those things, we will cure racism as well.

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To Kill a Mocking Bird Racism

In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee, you will read that through all the hard times and hardship family and friends will always stay together in the end. Discrimination is a commonly used subject in To Kill a Mockingbird. With the setting of To Kill a Mockingbird being in the early 1900’s racism was very common. The author used this information to his advantage because he was able to show how discrimination changed everyday interaction and life with other people. Everyday of our lives we come in contact with racism and discrimination against people with different colored skin..

In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, there are inevitable examples on how racism has been used in Maycomb County. Bob Ewell accuses Tom Robinson, a young black man, of raping Mayella Ewell, a young white girl. Of course everyone knows that Tom Robinson is going to lose in the trial only because the court always favors white clients against black clients because: “In our courts, when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s word the white man always wins. They’re ugly, but those are the facts of life” (X) Atticus tells Jem. This shows the power of racism in Maycomb County.

The power is that just because a man is black means he loses in court no matter what. In the court is not the only time that racism occurs. When Atticus decided that he was going to defend Tom Robinson Francis, Atticus’s nephew, he calls him a “nigger-lover”. When Atticus asks him what he means he says, “Just what I said. Grandma says it’s bad enough he lets you run wild, but now he turned out to be a nigger lover. ” (X) This shows that even though Francis is in his family it doesn’t matter, if you’re racist you will be put down and stereotyped by anyone and everyone.

Even when Atticus is defending a man in court he will be called names because of the man he is defending. Even though Atticus is everything but racist, Jem, Atticus’s son, were being brainwashed by the towns thoughts and opinions. One day as Jem and Scout were talking behind the courthouse Jem says something to scout that was very racist, “Once you have a drop of Negro blood, that makes you all black. ” This shows that the thought of racism is not only seen in adults, but it is now flooding into the minds of children. In conclusion there are many forms of racism that were showed and used in Maycomb county within children and adults.

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Obama Perfect Union Speech – Contemporary Racism

Contemporary Racism President Obama’s speech “A More Perfect Union” was a response to many outbursts made about things that Reverend Jeremiah Wright, Obama’s former pastor, had said on issues of racism. The reverend made statements that Obama called dismissive when what the world needed most was unity to overcome the continual racism in the country. Quotes from the Reverend such as “In the 21st century, white America got a wake-up call after 9/11/01.

White America and the western world came to realize that people of color had not gone away, faded into the woodwork or just ‘disappeared’ as the Great White West kept on its merry way of ignoring black concerns” and “Racism is how this country was founded and how this country is still run! …We [in the U. S. ] believe in white supremacy and black inferiority and believe it more than we believe in God” caused an uproar in Washington.

Obama used this opportunity to address race and the problems in the country relating to it. This speech relates to many of the topics we learned about in class regarding race and racism. Obama talks about his family’s background and how various people don’t like him in office for ridiculous reasons such as that he’s “too black” or “not black enough” to be the first black president. They even go as far as to say that he’s in office due to affirmative action.

He goes on to talk about his white grandmother and the racist statements she would make, such as that when a black man passes her by on the street she fears him. President Obama’s speech relates to white privilege in the sense that the country has only ever had white presidents and therefore a stereotype has been formed that only the typical white collar, white male deserves to be in office. White people say things like that because they feel like power is being taken away from them and given to black people by having a black president in office.

Obama even quotes about white privilege and the power of whites being taken away by saying, “Most working- and middle-class white Americans don’t feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race… when they hear an African-American is getting an advantage in landing a good job or a spot in a good college because of an injustice that they themselves never committed; when they’re told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow prejudiced, resentment builds over time. In his speech he also talks about institutional racism which goes all the way back to Brown vs. Board of Education which was the Supreme Court case that ruled separation of black and white students unconstitutional. Obama also talked about this in his speech saying, “Segregated schools were and are inferior schools; we still haven’t fixed them, 50 years after Brown v. Board of Education. And the inferior education they provided, then and now, helps explain the pervasive achievement gap between today’s black and white students. He went on to say how this gives an inferior education to blacks and how this explains the gap in the income levels of white Americans vs. black Americans which in turn doesn’t give black men as many economic opportunities as white men. This not only relates to white privilege because they feel they are deserving of these jobs and educations but it also has a lot to do with institutional racism. By giving these economic opportunities to the better qualified person you are giving it to the one who has a better education.

Through his speech, Obama illuminates the problem within our schools. Funding and quality of education go hand in hand, and since often times African Americans live in poor urban communities, schools struggle for funds to heighten the quality of their education. By talking about the dependence of schools on the income of the people living in the areas surrounding, Obama points out that privileged white kids are able to come out on top verses an African American child who grew up in an underfunded school.

These white kids then get into more prestigious colleges, in turn landing more high paying jobs than the majority of their African American counterparts. Obama also goes on to talk about how people try to act like there is no racism anymore even though it is so blatantly out there. He quoted “Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate discussions of racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or reverse racism. He talks about how things like this widen the gap of racism and how we need to work to close the gap instead. He calls it a racial stalemate saying, “Contrary to the claims of some of my critics, black and white, I have never been so naive as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a single election cycle, or with a single candidacy — particularly a candidacy as imperfect as my own. ” Obama believes that only by exposing the true roots of racism can we move forward, slowly but with conviction. He encourages more debate and open discussion instead of hiding behind polite political facades. But I have asserted a firm conviction — a conviction rooted in my faith in God and my faith in the American people — that, working together, we can move beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we are to continue on the path of a more perfect union”. Overall, the goal of President Obama’s speech was to highlight the most taboo of topics in our society: racism. Since the era of reconstruction, white people have tried hard to ignore skin color, but Barack Obama is trying to make a point of not ignoring the color of his skin, but rather using it to his advantage by pointing out the problems we have created.

White supremacy is still very much a real idea, even in our modern 21st century society. Poor education makes finding a good job in tough economic times an almost impossible task for the African American community, simply because they never had the same opportunities as their white peers. Obama encourages Americans to forgive past grievances and instead create a “ new normal” – one of racial equality and opportunity regardless of race.

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Open Racism

When I think about is racism still alive today, a particular poem comes into mind its entitled:“Racism Is Around Me Everywhere”. | | “Of human ignorance I am almost in despair For racism is around me everywhere But like they say sheer ignorance is bliss Just like Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss. Some people carry their honor in a flag And of their Nationality they brag They feel superior and they differentiate And against those who are different they discriminate. So many people still judged by their race For such there never ought to be a place ‘A fair go’ those untruthful words I do recall

There is no such a thing as a ‘fair go for all’. Though we live in a so called democracy Of racism we never will be free They judge you by where you come from and the color of your skin For many equality and respect seems impossible to win. It’s been awhile since the days of Martin Luther King His name to it has a familiar ring If against racism he did not choose to strive Today the great man he would be alive. So many holding the reins of power not spiritually aware And racism is around me everywhere And racism only leads to division and war Just goes to show how ignorant some are. ” (Frances Duggar) | |

Racism is a belief held by some that there are characteristics and abilities can be attributed to people simply on the basis of their race and that some racial groups are superior to others. Racism and discrimination have been used as powerful weapons encouraging fear or hatred of others in times of conflict and war, and even during economic downturns. For people throughout the world, the election of Barak Obama to the U. S. presidency seemed to signal in a new era, that of the end of racism. Indeed, Obama’s election was a momentous occasion and, one would have hoped, a milestone on the road to reconciliation.

However, some recent, very ominous events cast a worrisome veil over the democratic process in the United States. These events points out how racism is still a problem in the United States. Racism occurs often times out of fear. Many people fear what is different to them and what they do not know. This in turn, makes it scary when you see people who look different than you do and sometimes, you treat those individuals differently because you do not know them. Racism occurs in different facets of society. Schools, the government and the workplace are sometimes the worst examples of racism.

Racism in schools Millions of African American and Latino young people in the United States don’t get an education equal to that of most whites, partly because the urban schools they go to don’t have as much money as the schools in the white suburbs. This is because the country has decided that much of the money for schools should come from local property taxes. So in communities where the houses and businesses are less expensive, the schools don’t get enough money to provide a high quality education. This is unfair. This is institutional racism.

If we financed schools differently every student, regardless of his or her “race”, could go to a high quality school that was the equal of the schools other students attend. The Government Hurricane Katrina: The government had known for years that a big hurricane was likely to cause dangerous flooding in New Orleans. The plans they made didn’t include any way to get poor people (predominately African Americans) out of the city to safety. When the storm and the flooding did come with Hurricane Katrina in 2005, much of the country saw on TV that thousands of people of color were stranded in the city without food, water, housing or safety.

The government was incredibly slow to rescue people, to provide food and shelter, and to help them rebuild their houses. Many people believe that if those stranded had been mostly white people the rescue efforts would have been much quicker and effective. Racism in the Workplace Racism in the form of discrimination persists in society also. A case in point is that blacks have traditionally suffered from higher rates of unemployment than whites. In June 2009, black employment was at 15. 3 % compared to an 8. 8% unemployment rate for whites. Do blacks simply not take the initiative that whites do to find work?

Studies indicate that, in actuality, discrimination likely contributes to the black-white unemployment gap. (Thompson) Critics will say how can racism still exists with the election of the United States first black president. Since President Obama took office he has been a rise of subtle racism against our president. It can be seen in the supporters of the new “birthers” movement, who stir up doubts about Obama’s citizenship. During the 2008 presidential campaign, there was no impetus to question John McCain’s birthplace even though it was common knowledge that McCain was born in Panama; because he is white.

The president’s birthplace should not have been an issue at all but yet to this day you still have a lot of Americans who still question his birthplace. Critics also say with electing our first minority president, and minorities reaching higher levels of education, obtaining more earnings and more distinguished careers, one might infer that prejudice is dead. I contend that it is alive and flourishing while lurking beneath the shadows of figures that naturally inflate with the growth of a burgeoning society.

If racism does not exist then what accounts for “ the wide range of disparities that still exist in society, most of which show black Americans with worse outcomes than whites in areas such as income, home ownership, health and employment,” study researcher Samuel Sommers, a psychologist at Tufts University, said in a statement. When most Americans think of racism they think of the open racism back in the Civil Rights movement and during slavery times when crosses were burned in African-American yards.

They think of the KKK when they think of racism which was upfront and in your face. The fact that the KKK and groups such as these that still exist prove the point that racism still occurs in the United States. While racism may not be as widespread as before, it exists, without a doubt. While we like to think that those unfortunate days of racism are behind us, it still exists. Today, racism is much less obvious and less prevalent. However, we are still reminded that racism is alive and well, and we must continue working to do away with it.

Every day in the news there are stories dealing with the unfair treatment of minorities, women, and gays. America is the best country in the world because of the opportunity given to every individual and because of its constant struggle for equality of all. Any person, of any race, creed, or religion can succeed with hard work and determination. The problem is that the level of those individual’s success is sometimes determined, by the color of their skin. The race for social equality is persistent here, but there are still problems with the system.

So, unfortunately racism does still exist today in the United States. References William-White, L. , & White, J. (2011). Color Marks the Site/Sight of Social Difference: Dysconscious Racism in the “Age of Obama”. Qualitative Inquiry, 17(9), 837. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2495960131). William March. (16 May). Researcher: Evidence shows racism in opposition to Obama. McClatchy – Tribune Business News,. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from ProQuest Newsstand. (Document ID: 2348227321). Thompson Matthew (2011).

Does Racism still exist today? Answers from Men. Retrived December 12, 2011 http://www. answersfrommen. com/2011/01/does-racism-still-exist-today/ Mosser, K. (2011). An introduction to logic. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. (https://content. ashford. edu) Pappas Stephanie. (2001) Study: Whites say they are racists’ victims. Retrieved December 12, 2011. http://www. cbsnews. com/stories/2011/05/24/scitech/main20065864. shtml http://poemhunter. com/poem/racism-is-around-me-everywhere/ http://www. politicususa. com/en/political-racism

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Racism on Long Island

Andrea Colletti 2/2/13 Dr. Cecelia Steger Eng W 001 MA1 Quite often, incoming freshmen do not realize that doing well in college requires much more work than they thought. I, Andrea Colletti, feel that I bring excellent skills that will help me succeed at Nassau Community College. I have over ten years work experience at my current company, Travel Impressions. Over the past ten years I have gained great customer service skills, geography product knowledge, hotel operations, marketing, and sales expertise. As a mature 29 year old full time employee, I will most definitely take college seriously.

If you ask anyone who knows me, they will say that I am one of the most honest and dedicated person they know. I have longed to attend college for such a long time, but I kept pushing it to the side due to my busy work schedule. I am at the point in my life where I feel that I am ready to attend college, and ready to attain my goals. Although I am very lucky to have found my career, there will always be promotional opportunities in which I will need a degree. My company had an excellent job posting that I was very interested in, and I was well qualified for.

Unfortunately the posting required a Bachelors degree which stopped me from applying. I know that by getting my degree, I will succeed and grow further in my career as an Iberostar Accoun Manager. In my current position, I handle the sales, product and marketing for Iberostar Hotels & Resorts which are located throughout Mexico, Caribbean, and Brazil. I am so proud of myself for attending college and succeeding my goals. I look forward to a bright future with all of my knowledge that I will gain at Nassau Community College. When I attended high school at Kellenberg Memorial, I did not take it seriously.

My high school was very strict and did not give students the opportunity to act as individuals. I was so upset that I had to wear a hideous uniform while my friends that attended public school got to wear beautiful trendy clothing. I was not sure what I wanted to do when I grew up, and had no life goals. I am sure this is how most high school graduates feel at some point. During the eleven years at my company, I matured and gained a new respect for learning new things. I love to keep my mind stimulated and travel the world. I live by the motto “Travel is life’s most rich gift. I enjoy traveling all over the Caribbean and Mexico, and thanks to my job I have had the opportunity to see many beautiful places. I enjoy learning about other cultures. I look forward to coming to class each day because I leave with gained knowledge. There is nothing more rich then the gift of knowledge. My future goal is to graduate Nassau Community with my Associates Degree in Business Marketing, and complete my Bachelors Degree in Business at Farmingdale State University. I’ve learned that you can reach any goal in life as long as you stick to it and do not give up.

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Racism Without Racists

Either you’re with us or you’re Against Us Throughout Eduardo Bonilla-Silva’s Racism without Racists, he attempts to describe a new form of racism that has emerged in today’s society. Bonilla-Silva refers to this new style of racism as, “color-blind racism. ” During the Civil Rights Era and other previous time periods, racism was characterized by brutal physical, verbal, and emotional battering of minority races through actions such as Jim Crows Laws and other inhumane acts.

However, unlike violent-forms of racism that were practiced years ago, this new-age “color-blind racism” incorporates subtle, institutional, and apparently nonracial practices (Silva 2010). In order to counter this new form of racism in society, Bonilla-Silva explains how civilians need to become actively involved in the fight against color-blind racism. In order to actively fight against color-blind racism Silva distinguishes the difference between a non-racist and an anti-racist and the certain implications and repercussions that accompany each label.

Although the transformation from a non-racist culture, to a new, anti-racist community could produce outcomes that solve racism altogether, with this transformation comes a major moral dilemma: whether receiving white privileges outweighs the moral obligation of promoting equality in society. Through this interpretation of the text, I will try to rationalize what it means to be an anti-racist in today’s world and Bonilla-Silva’s call for social movement, along with the responsibilities and moral obligations that are incorporated with both.

Bonilla-Silva suggests that a major change, from non-racists to anti-racists, needs to take place in order for color-blind racism to diminish in society. The distinction between a non-racist and an anti-racist is characterized by moral obligations and active participation in combating racism. Likewise, Bonilla-Silva suggests that being an anti-racist begins with understanding the institutional nature of racial matters and accepting this stand involves taking responsibility for your unwilling participation in these practices (Silva 2010).

One who claims to be anti-racist actively takes responsibility for their unwilling participation in these practices and beginning a new life committed to the goal of achieving real racial equality (Silva 2010). Bonilla-Silva suggests that the conversion to an anti-racist will be challenging because in order to fulfill the role, one is struck with a moral dilemma; whether receiving white privileges outweighs the moral obligation of equality in society. According to Bonilla-Silva, a non-racist is a person who does not actively combat against societal norms regarding race and privileges.

A non-racist is seen as a passive person who does not take a personal interest in combating the “new racism. ” A major problem in the author’s eyes is that white Americans are considered the dominant race in today’s society, and most people who belong to this group are unaware of the privileges that they receive just by being white. For instance, many white Americans gain special privileges regarding education, job opportunities, social contexts, and more. While these privileges positively influence whites, they also help to reinforce the racial barrier that exists in the United States today.

In Bonilla-Silva’s eyes, if the white society does not acknowledge the hidden privileges that they receive, and society continues to portray waves of color-blind racism, then societal norms related to color-blind racism will circulate within culture for ages. Bonilla-Silva states that a social movement needs to take place in order to debunk the “new racism” that America is facing today. To challenge societal norms, people need to refrain from using stereotypical white ideals to justify racial issues that arise throughout life. These interpretations are widely used by whites claiming to be non-racist.

Bonilla-Silva suggests that many non-racists’ often resort to particular frames, or sets paths for interpreting information, as a way to justify certain racial situations that appear in life. These frames include abstract liberalism, naturalization, cultural racism, and minimization of racism. Abstract liberalism incorporates concepts related to equal opportunity and choice in an abstruse way to justify racial experiences. For example, in regards to identifying people as “individuals” with “choices,” many non-racists fallback on the notion that people have the right of choosing to live in segregated neighborhoods.

Next, the naturalization frame allows whites to blame certain racial matters as natural occurrences. Within this frame, many whites claim that the segregation that is seen today is natural and a result of people gravitating toward likeness (Silva 2010). According to Bonilla-Silva, this frame can be characterized by the saying, “that’s the way it is. ” Another frame, or path, used by many non-racist whites is cultural racism. This frame relies on culturally based arguments to explain the current societal status of minorities. For instance, many hites resort to the claim that, “Mexican’s do not put enough emphasis on education, that is why they are behind in society” (Silva 2010). This particular frame allows for whites to highlight the mishaps and negative stereotypes about certain minority groups as their reason for not excelling in society, rather than the fact that minorities have been historically behind the dominant white race in aspects such as education, socio-economic status, occupations, and living conditions. The final frame that Bonilla-Silva uses to strengthen his argument is referred to as the minimization of racism.

This frame suggests that discrimination is no longer a major factor that impacts the daily lives of minorities. This concept incorporates the beliefs that racism is a thing of the past, and minorities are products of their own efforts and capabilities. These frames are used, in collaboration, to provide whites a way of expressing their beliefs about racial matters without coming off as demoralizing to minorities or flamboyantly racist. They also provide the justification that the racial inequality that occurs today is strictly logical, democratic, and non-racist.

In Bonilla-Silva’s eyes, once society, as a whole, deviates from using these frames, then our culture can begin to make the shift from non-racists to anti-racists. According to the author, American society needs to make this transformation from non-racists to anti-racists for a multitude of reasons. First, he suggests that this movement needs to take place in order to educate the black population on the aspects of color-blind racism, because this new form of racism has tinted blacks recognition of its existence.

He also suggests that the current group of anti-racists need to engage with all whites regardless of gender, socio-economic status, and educational status in order to gain a collectively larger group of followers. In turn, he suggests that power is in numbers, and with this power, anti-racists can begin challenging color-blind ideologies internally. Another reason for this movement that Bonilla-Silva points to is that fact that activists need to provide counter-arguments for the current color-blind frames that non-racist whites’ are using to justify racial scenarios.

Likewise, we need to counter-balance common white arguments including equal opportunity and affirmative action. A major issue within today’s society is that many whites firmly believe that discrimination during past and current times does not significantly impact the lives of minority groups, when in turn; this subtle discrimination enhances the privileges of the white race, while severely limiting minority’s privileges.

Furthermore, “Bonilla-Silva claims that the most important strategy for combating “new racism” is to become militant with it” (Silva 2010). The strategies that Bonilla-Silva proposes above to combat color-blind racism are all grounded on specific and plausible reasons and explanations. Bonilla-Silva states that in order for this movement to be effective, it must defile the domination that color-blindness has over our whole country. Also he suggests that the overall demeanor of whites regarding race related issues needs to be exposed and challenged.

Another motive for this anti-racist movement incorporates the idea that there should be a focus on white segregation and how this physical separation from minorities ultimately affects the white races’ values, beliefs, and emotions about race related matters. Finally, he states that in order for this movement to be successful in changing the cultural norm of color-blind racism in society, we need to challenge a position that might seem impossible to overcome, however it is the only way to genuinely achieve racial equality in future times.

After analyzing this book through readings, blogs, and class discussion, the moral dilemma of white privilege or equality has puzzled me for some time. Along with white privilege, I have been contemplating whether to classify myself as a non-racist or an anti-racist, and whether to join the social movement against color-blind racism that Bonilla-Silva claims needs to happen in order to defeat racism indefinitely. Before studying racism I never thought about the concept of white privilege and the tremendous influence it has on my life on an everyday basis.

After my analysis of the different components of a non-racist versus an anti-racist and the certain privileges that resonate within each category, I feel almost guilty referring to myself as a non-racist. However, after analyzing Racism without Racist’s explanation of anti-racism and claim for an anti-racist movement, I believe that I still consider myself a non-racist, contrary to the author’s wishes. In spite of Bonilla-Silva’s argument, I believe that I can still combat racism without necessarily taking an “active role. I am not currently taking an active role in this movement, however in the future; I believe that I could possibly take a passive role in regards to this movement. The transformation from “nonracist” to “antiracist”, that the author describes, I think is an aggressive approach that could potentially generate substantial positive results in regards to combating racism. However, I personally don’t believe that the only way to fight racism is to take a military-like approach against it and resort to an in-your-face attempt to flip societal norms.

Falling-back on a militant-style attack plot and fighting socially grounded powers could quite possibly work against achieving the collective goal of ending racism. In order to accomplish this idea, the anti-racist coalition (which is an extreme minority) would have to convert massive numbers of the non-racist majority to a belief system that fundamentally contradicts the basic roots of their current values.

Currently, I do not have an alternative solution to racism in America, however I do know that educating the population as a whole about this concept is a necessary step to accomplishing the overall goal. Through Bonilla-Silva’s distinction between non-racists and anti-racists, along with his call for a social movement against color-blind racism, I have determined that something has to be done about certain aspects of color-blind racism, such as the overall mindset of the American population.

Be that as it may, combating color-blind racism will be an almost impossible task to accomplish for that fact that it is very difficult to get people to buy into a motion that they themselves are not emotionally invested in. Until the American society can buy into the notion that color-blind racism is an actual cultural problem that is affecting minorities of all backgrounds, we will be a society filled with white privilege and subtle discrimination against non-whites. References Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo . 2010. Racism without Racists. Lanham, Maryland, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

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Slavery and Racism

Jack O’Donnell Development of Western Civilization Dr. Carlson November 17, 2011 Slavery and Racism: Are They One in the Same? Aphra Behn was an extremely significant and influential English writer in the 1600s. One of her more famous works, Oroonoko, discusses the issues of slavery and racism in the Americas. Many people believe that slavery and racism go hand in hand. In fact, these two ideologies are awfully different. Slavery is the act of forcing humans to be treated property whereas racism is the belief that discrimination based on inherently different traits is justifiable.

Behn, in Oroonoko, makes the fundamental differences between slavery and racism apparent. With the philosophical views of Rousseau and Trouillot’s analysis on the Haitian revolution, slavery and racism in Oroonoko can easily be separated and distinguished to show their dissimilarities. In the novel, Oroonoko is an African prince and war hero who enslaves many men from the various tribes he conquers in battle. Oroonoko believes this form of slavery is just and should be acceptable. Later in the story, Oroonoko is tricked and sold into slavery.

He eventually works with many of the slaves he had sold to the Europeans back in Africa. Oroonoko considers this form of slavery to be incredibly unjust. The plantation owners did not “win” their slaves over in battle like Oroonoko, rather they barter or trade for them (Boeninger 9/26). The white males also treat Oroonoko as a lesser human being even though he is royalty. They constantly deceive Oroonoko into believing that his freedom is coming when in reality it is nowhere in sight. Because there was such an economic gap between the black slaves and the white slave owners, racism naturally became common custom (Behn).

Racism in this case was derived from slavery; they were not the same idea. Behn depicts slavery and racism in this manner to show how different the two ideas are. In Africa, the slaves and the slave owners were of the same race. The color of their skin was not a factor in how they were treated. The fact that they lost in battle was the only reason they were slaves (Behn). In the Americas however, race had a much bigger role in the treatment of slaves. The large plantation owners were white and the slaves were black.

Because of the racial divide in the owners and slaves, many forms of racism were justified (Boeninger 9/27). This also led to the discrimination of the free black men in the society. Behn purposely shows slavery in Africa and slavery in Surinam to point out the extreme differences between racism and slavery. Behn’s description of Oroonoko and Imoinda also show the inherent difference between racism and slavery. Behn describes Oroonoko as a beautiful person by stating, “His nose was rising and Roman instead of African and flat; his mouth the finest shape that could be seen, […].

The whole proportion and air of his face was so noble and exactly formed that, bating his color there could be nothing in nature more beautiful, agreeable, and handsome (Behn 13). ” The fantastic image Behn provides shows the reader that slavery and racism have different foundations. If they were the same idea, Behn would have never given such praise to a slave. She compares Oroonoko’s looks to those of a white man which would not have happened if racism and slavery were the same. The description of his beauty relays to the reader that slavery and racism can be two very separate entities.

Even though Behn makes a clear distinction between slavery and racism in the novel, many people would disagree in how she got that message across. In Oroonoko, Behn’s message seems anti-racist but it appears that she does not have a problem with slavery. Her problem arises from how the slaves are treated, but slavery in general is acceptable for Behn. One philosopher in particular would have a problem with Behn’s message. Jean- Jacques Rousseau, if he were to read Oroonoko, would have some concerns. In Rousseau’s “A Discourse”, he discusses slavery and the rights of man.

Rousseau believes that all men are born free and are equal according to nature. He would criticize Behn on her opinion of slavery saying that all men are born and should remain equal (Rousseau). Behn is very passive about her views on slavery where Rousseau is active in his writings. Even though he disagrees with Behn’s view on slavery he still believes slavery and racism are different. Rousseau would not dispute Behn over her view of racism. According to Rousseau, racism contrasts with his view on the rights of man. He believes all men are created equal; race should not be a reason to discriminate.

He would also affirm what Behn has to say about the horrible treatment of Oroonoko by the white males throughout the story. They kept deceiving and leading Oroonoko on when they knew he would never be freed. Rousseau would say he should have received better treatment. The color of his skin should not matter in his given situation. Rousseau’s belief on the equality of mankind can be used to critique the works of Behn (Carlson 11/10). Even though there are disagreements between the views Behn and Rousseau, both see that racism and slavery are two different ideas and should be treated separately.

The Haitian revolution also witnessed severe racism and slavery. In Haiti, slaves occupied about 85% of the population while the free men only occupied about 15% (Breen 10/31). The sugar plantations needed these slaves to run the production which was a gruesome process. Through this horrible procedure, many people made their fortunes. The rich white men would have children with their black slaves and eventually their heirs were of mixed race. When the white females came to Haiti to look for a partner, they noticed the white males were only attracted to the mixed race females.

The hatred led to severe racism of the black community in Haiti (Breen 10/31). The stories of the beginning stages of Haitian revolution can easily be compared to the novel Oroonoko. In the Haitian revolution, many of the slave owners were of African descent. They resemble Oroonoko in Africa when he owned slaves of his same race. Racism was not a factor in either of these situations but slavery was. Because all parties were of the same race, slavery and racism did not go hand in hand. The problem in both cases was when the Europeans intervene.

The racism was very prevalent in Oroonoko when all the white males were lying to him. They clearly did not respect the fact that he was royalty because of his descent. During the Haitian revolution, the European women’s jealousy caused racism to become prevalent on the island (Breen 10/31). The European jealousy also led to racism back in France. The European intermediates were one of the sources of racism in the early stages of the Haitian Revolution and in Oroonoko. The Haitian revolution was a power struggle amongst the white French and the black Haitians.

Within this battle, many sects of Haitian rebel groups began fighting among each other. In Trouillot’s Silencing the Past, he discusses these fights among each other in the form of King Henry and Sans Souci (Trouillot). In his book, Trouillot talks about the race dilemma with the French and the Haitians. If Trouillot were to read Behn’s work, he would see similarities between the racism in Surinam and the racism in Haiti. In Oroonoko, the blacks are treated so horribly that they eventually revolted. That is very similar to what happened in Haiti. The Haitians eventually could not take the abuse and decided to revolt.

In both cases they revolted for the racism and the slavery (Carlson 10/3). In Silencing the Past and Oroonoko during the revolts, it seems that slavery and racism are the same. In actuality the slavery and racist views stem about from different ideas. Even though at times it seems that slavery and racism are related, there are always underlying views that separate the two thoughts. Through Aphra Behn’s novel, the public can get a solid grasp of the differences between racism and slavery. With the help of Rousseau and Trouillot, the differences between slavery and racism only become greater and more distinct.

Hopefully, people will come to realize how different these two ideologies actually are so they can get a better grasp of the past. Bibliography Behn, Aphra. Oroonoko. London: Penguin, 2003. Print. Boeninger. Notes. 9/26/2011-9/27/2011 Breen. Notes. 10/31/2011 Carlson. Notes. 10/3/2011, 11/10/2011 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. “Rousseau: On the Origin of Inequality: Second Part. ” Index. G. D. H Cole, 19 Oct. 2007. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www. constitution. org/jjr/ineq_04. htm>. Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. “The Three Faces of Sans Souci. ” Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Boston, MA: Beacon, 1995. Print.

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Racism: Communication and Robert B. Moore

Racism in the English Language Robert B. Moore 1) Explain why language is an integral part of any culture. Why is it important to study language? Language is necessary to culture because it shows an understanding that differentiates between other cultures. Language is vital for communication; we are able to express our thoughts, ideas and especially because it is one of the main ways we can communicate. 2) According to Moore, how do the symbolic meanings attached to whiteness and blackness affect beauty ideals in our society?

Moore was emphasizing on the complete opposite meaning of black and white; white symbolizes such as purity and positivity, while black symbolizes negativity and wickedness. The racism between the within the language affects the beauty ideals in society by stressing on which is more “admirable”, blondes with blue eyes or “dusky. ” 3) Explain how the statement “slaves were brought to America” is misleading and inaccurate?

The statement is inaccurate because the European immigrants did not just bring them to America; they destroyed the culture of many African tribes, separated families, sold them across vast areas in the Americas as if they were merchandise. 4) In your own words, describe what a “loaded” word is. What are some examples? When a simple term is said and it is blown out of proportion to evoke emotion. For example, if one is Filipino and called chink. Chink is a loaded word because its negatively used. 5) Explain how the casual use of the words “gay” and “fag” can influence our perceptions of the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) community.

The casual use of the words stated may influence our perception of the sexually varying community by instigating hate with in us for someone being different. Violent words can force someone to feel fear, which in turn can cause a sexually different person to be scared of admitting their difference. Using such words will also influence our thoughts of such groups negatively as the usage of the words in today’s culture is frowned upon due to it being offensive, even if one is not applicable to the term.

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Racism

The first topic that is going to be addressed is stereotypes and dating. I am more familiar with this topic then the other two topics because I was the once who did the research for our group presentation about this. I came across numerous articles that were very eye opening to me. The first article I will talk about is called, “Is Love Becoming Color Blind? “. I really enjoyed reading through this article because it had personal examples from three different interracial couples. The first couple was Kristina Adamski and John Phillips, who were both in their early thirties.

In the article it stated that being an interracial couple has been less of a challenge because the two communicate their feelings, and they have a large supportive network of family and friends. Kristina also said, “The key is to have a diverse circle of friends and people who are open-minded. ” I think that statement from Kristina is very true and if everyone can keep that in mind then we could easily grow not just as people, but also as a country. In that very same article it also talked about blacks and whites, and how many people who are under the age of 30 who cross the color line without giving a second thought to race.

That statement right there is a huge statement when talking about the positives to a color blind society. When you can look at someone who you are attracted to for their personality and not the color or their skin, that shows a lot about our country and how we are changing for the better. In that same article, another couple who spoke very wise words were 32 year old Paquita and her 34 year old husband Craig Morgan. This interracial married couple has two beautiful biracial children. They live in Atlanta Georgia where race is still an issue, but Paquita did state that “Race is quickly becoming more and more of a non-issue. Moving onto the next article which is titled, “Gender Perspective in Cross-Cultural Couples,” it states that in modern relationships, the concept of intimacy and the right to happiness have become the core of what is considered to be a solid and committed relationship. Also, increased cultural movement, immigration, tourism, job training, and study abroad have created couples who romantic choices reach across cultural, racial, and religious lines. Therefore, people are no longer looking at color of skin, religious views, or ethnicity, but simply who and what makes them happy.

We often look to our significant others for certain qualities, certain roles and expected behavior that we hope will fit our roles and help to balance us out. Differences that emerge from cross-cultural perspectives help with learning and growth of the relationship as well as bonding. A study that I came across which was titled, “Interracial Dating Attitudes Among College Students,” involved 620 University students who completed an anonymous questionnaire that helped to assess attitudes towards interracial dating. The result of that study showed that almost one fourth (24. %) reported having dated interracially and almost half (49. 6%) expressed an openness to becoming involved in an interracial relationship. Interracial dating is growing steadily and something that is helping it to grow are increased individualism, tolerance for diversity, and greater minority enrollment in college and universities. The next topic that will be discussed is stereotypes and employment. When it comes to stereotypes and employment, many studies have been done to look at the relationship between race and employment discrimination.

The results were that blacks have received lower scores and evaluations on both objective and subjective measures (found by Roth, Huffcut, and Bobko). Least to say, black and white raters have higher ratings to members of their own race. Many racial problems are brought about because of racial stereotypes and prejudice. There was a women by the name of Yolanda Spivey and she was a victim of employment discrimination. Yolanda was unemployed for two years after working ten years in the insurance industry. Yolanda was struggling to find a job.

She applied to a website that helps with job placing, and Yolanda was asked to take a diversity questionnaire. She was not having any luck with that site so she decided to go back and act like a white women, and the results were that the white women got more emails and calls for jobs then Yolanda did. If we could slowly start to improve our countries thoughts when it comes to race and employment, we could be more balanced and successful. In a color blind society we would have equal opportunity employment.

The next topic to be discussed is stereotypes and media. Stereotypes in the media are very common. Media stereotypes of “angry black women” have become more noticeable in recent years, and this stereotype is effecting how people see race. Black women in the media are more than often portrayed as dark skin, loud “ghetto acting” women. There have been television shows that have tried to help with different races such as the Jefferson’s and The Cosby Show. Those shows were still criticized for their use of stereotyped black characters.

Another television show named Ugly Betty, had a main character who was a light skinned women named Wilhelmina. Wilhelmina simply was not seen as a black women because of her social mobility and her light colored skin and eyes. That statement alone from the fans of Ugly Betty, brings up colorblind racism or media stereotype racism. If we want to become a colorblind society then the media needs to do a better job at being colorblind. People of different races and ethnicities help to bring different personalities to the media which can be a very positive thing.

In conclusion, the world would be a better, more positive place if we were completely colorblind. Stereotypes in dating, employment and media all need to change before our society can become colorblind. Interracial dating is steadily growing, and we are seeing some change in stereotypes and media, but the biggest adjustment that we need to make is stereotypes in employment. If we can get people to judge others based off their personalities and skills instead of the color of their skin, then our country would be a more positive place.