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Women: Rhetoric and Daniel Defoe

Romela Deguzman Women back then were seen inferior to men. They were labeled delicate, dependent, ignorant, or weak. Their central aim was only marriage but most intriguingly, education was deprived from women because of their sex. Mary Wollstonecraft and Daniel Defoe, both renowned writers wrote essays that demand justice and fight for the education of women. They believed they were capable and as intelligent as men. Wollstonecraft and Defoe created outstanding pieces known for its strength and most importantly its effectiveness to deliver their message across.

Mary Wollstonecraft wrote the essay “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” on 1792. She used rhetorical devices such as counterargument and analogy to prove her point. For example, one of the counterargument she uses is “…the female in point of strength is…inferior to the male…This is the law of nature…” pg. 640. She agrees that women are not as physically strong as men but argues that they could still be as educated and talented as them. She also used analogy such as “…like the flowers which are planted in too rich a soil, strength and usefulness are sacrificed to beauty…” pg. 639.

In this analogy, she is trying to express that women are being used for adornments just like flowers; but they shouldn’t allow themselves to be objects of adoration but use their morals and intelligence to match men. With the help of rhetoric, her message about women was effectively delivered. Daniel Defoe, the author of “The Education of Women” also used rhetoric to convey his message about giving women equal education as men. One of the devices he employed was analogy. “The soul is placed in the body like a rough diamond; and must be polished, or the luster of it will never appear” pg. 48. He is trying to say that everyone is valuable and unique just like a diamond, but we need education to rise or bring out the best of us.

Also you can read Rhetorical Devices in Night Walker by Brent Staples

Women need education to polish their souls. Defoe also used rhetorical questions such as “…what they can see in ignorance, that they should think it a necessary ornament to a woman? ” pg. 648. Defoe engages the reader through this question by letting them understand that there is nothing to be proud of about ignorance and should not be given to omen. He clearly points out that education is crucial for both men and women. Rhetorical devices such as analogies, rhetorical questions, or counterarguments strengthen Defoe and Wollstonecraft’s essay by engaging readers. It successfully allows readers to see their point of view in different images they could relate to, and openly addressing arguments. Rhetoric made their delivery effective and most importantly persuasive, invoking action and change.

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Rhetorical Essay: the Market for a Yale Women’s Eggs

Mathew Rios, Alberto Rosado 9/10/12 Jessica Cohen’s “The Market for a Yale Women’s Eggs” first appeared in the New Journal in 2001. In this essay Jessica talks about her experience trying to be an egg donor. With narration of her experience and the research she did on the topic, Jessica writes an interesting informal essay. As a child Jessica used to read “Where did I come from? ” but now it’s out of date replaced by “Mommy Did I Grow in Your Tummy? : Where Some Babies Come From” This shows the changing ways of baby conception.

She informs the reader that the infertility industry is a $2 Billion a year industry. It shows how many people actually do this type of thing a year. Jessica informs the reader about this to show how often this occurs. Not only does Jessica tell the reader about egg donations but also her own experience on the subject. This particular anecdote shows how business like people can be when discussing the conception of their baby. “Can you tell me about your academic performance? What are you taking at Yale?

What high school did you attend? ” Jessica compared David and Michelle (the couple who had sent out the ad) to a modern day Darwinist. Jessica began to have second thoughts because “It would lead to the creation of a child with to many expectations” She did not have to worry because she was not accepted as the donor. Jessica ends the essay with a scenario where the adult is trying to explain to them how hard they worked. The child would turn to them and utter the same parting words. The parents said to her “ho-hum”

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Rhetorical Analysis Bittman

The Rhetorical Analysis of the Seriousness of Food Thinking about the importance and significance of food respective to our health, ethnic culture and society can cause cavernous, profound, and even questionable thoughts such as: “Is food taken for granted? ”, “Is specialty foods just a fad or a change in lifestyle? ”, and even “Is food becoming the enemy. ” Mark Bittman, an established food journalist, wrote an article called “Why take food seriously? ” In this article, Bittman enlightens the reader with a brief history lesson of America’s appreciation of food over the past decades.

This history lesson leads to where the social standing of food is today and how it is affecting not only the people of America, but also the rest of the world. Bittman attempts to display awareness in his audience by supporting his argument and encouraging his readers to see his perspective through three proofs of persuasion: ethos, logos, and pathos. Bittman’s ethos is immediately realized simply through who his stature. Bittman has been a food journalist for the past thirty two years. Within that time, he has managed to write bestselling books including: “How to Cook Everything”, “How to Cook Everything Vegetarian”, and “Food Matters. He also writes for the New York Times in his own weekly column called “The Minimalist. ” Along with professional experience, there is personal experience. The article opens with Bittman stating, “Our relationship with food is changing more rapidly than ever, and like many others, I’ve watched in awe. ” Bittman has been a food journalist since 1980. Therefore, he has witnessed the ever changing perspective of food in society with an “unusual” perspective. He has observed and followed the effects of which foods has brought forth to health, media, and the rest of the world.

This gives the reader a sense of trust because he has experienced it first hand. Even with his palpable experience and expertise with food, his ethos is continued throughout the article. Bittman exemplifies his ethos through his use of sarcasm. He says, “Each year, each month it sometimes seems, there are more signs that convenience, that mid-20th-century curse word, may give way to quality — even what you might call wholesomeness — just before we all turn into the shake-sucking fatties of “Wall-E. ” The movie “Wall-E” is an extremely recent and popular Pixar film.

It is about Earth no longer providing living conditions for life. This causes humans to live in a space craft where robots did essentially everything for them; the result, “shake-sucking fatties. ” Bittman’s use of sarcasm throughout the entire article adds a comic relief giving the reader a sense that Bittman is just a normal funny guy. Along with using his humor, Bittman makes references to well known figures in today’s society, like “Wall-E. ” By doing this, Bittman shows that he is current and up to date with media and society.

He references, “We were ripe for the Food Network’s Emeril, Rachael, Mario and Bobby, who created a buzz based on celebrity that grabbed not only the middle-aged and the young but also the very young. ” Food network is incredibly popular along with the network’s stars that Bittman referenced. Bittman displays that he is well knowledgeable of who is who and what is what in today’s society. Bittman’s ethos is exemplified through his professional and personal experiences, along with his humor and up to date knowledge of media. Bittman goes on to establish logos through structure.

He begins with a quick introduction of who he is and discloses the problem of society’s relationship with food and it “changing rapidly. ” Bittman then presents a brief history lesson starting with before the 1950’s leading to today. He says, “Until 50 years ago, of course, every household had at least one person who took food seriously every day. But from the 1950s on, the majority of the population began contentedly cooking less and less, eating out more and more and devouring food that was worse and worse, until the horrible global slop served by fast-food and “casual dining” chains came to dominate the scene.

One result: an unprecedented rise in obesity levels and a not-unrelated climb in health-care costs. ” Bittman continues to go through each decade presenting new facts about what was the “thing” or “latest fad” at that time. For example he says, “Of course, food continues to be fetishized; organic food has been commodified; the federal government subsidizes almost all of the wrong kinds of food production; supermarkets peddle way too much nonreal food (“junk food” or, to use my mother’s word, “dreck”); and weight-loss diets still discourage common-sense eating. By individually going through each decade, it helps the reader see the evidence Bittman presents. It then furthers what society’s relationship towards food has evolved into. Also, it allows the reader to understand and relate. The reader, depending on their age, can mentally travel back to previous decades and think back to instances they remember experiencing themselves. Bittman establishes logos through structuring a time line for the reader to understand and relate to. Lastly Bittman exerts pathos through his mood and tone. The mood of the article transfers into awareness and humorous but possibly the actual reality.

The reader can distinguish Bittman’s attempt to raise awareness for the topic from his presentation of what he believes to be the real issues, “The real issues — how do we grow and raise, distribute and sell, prepare and eat food? And how do our patterns of doing these things affect the rest of the world (and vice versa)? — are simply too big to ignore. ” By Bittman directly pointing out what the “real issues” are, the reader is automatically more aware of the problems with food. The reader now ponders what they can change and do or learn to help relinquish the issues at hand.

Bittman continues to raise awareness, more so in a comical way, when he states: “This has led many Americans to think as much about food as they do about “Survivor” or the N. F. L — which is to say a lot — and its preparation is no longer limited to what was once called a housewife. ” Bittman’s is saying this too purposely so the reader has an eye opener moment, while others may get a chuckle out of it. Either way, Bittman is trying to compel the reader to be conscious of what the importance and significance of food has become. Bittman uses his sarcasm to enforce awareness upon the reader.

Bittman’s tone throughout the article ranges from sarcastic to passionate to a want for change. He says, “I’ve never been more hopeful. (In fact, I was never hopeful at all until recently. )” Bittman is stating that he believes there is potential for change and people are realizing that food needs to be taken seriously. He continues to express his sense of humor intermixed with his passion and hope for change when he concludes the article with, “Perhaps just in time, we’re saying, “Hold the shake,” and looking for something more wholesome. ” Bittman is ending the scene and leaving the reader with something to ponder.

Bittman sets his tone and the mood of the article to leave a lasting impression on the reader. Mark Bittman used the three proofs of persuasion to better appeal to his audience. He exemplifies ethos by using his professional and personal experiences. Bittman then moves on to establish logos through the structure of a time line of facts for the reader to understand and relate to. Lastly, Bittman creates pathos with his spewing emotion of passion, awareness, and sarcasm. He portrays these emotions through his tone and mood. Bittman uses the three proofs of persuasion to open the readers eyes to the seriousness of food.

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Frederick Douglass Rhetoric Analysis

Whenever injustice exists in society, it becomes the responsibility of others to step forward in defense of the oppressed. If this action does not occur, then the injustice will remain and innocent people will suffer. In order to preserve equality, sometimes people must take a risk in order to reveal the truth and uphold justice. Individuals throughout history, such as the founding fathers, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. , have faced this peril in the pursuit of freedom.

In 1845, Frederick Douglass published Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, in order to do just that- to establish the truth behind slavery and advocate for freedom. In his narrative, Douglass uses diction, structure, imagery, and other stylistic elements to persuade people of the evils that slavery inflicts on both sides of society. In order to reveal the truth behind slavery, Douglass demonstrates his point through his use of diction and structure. Through his diction, Douglass uses words to illustrate the barbarity and inhumanity of slavery.

For instance, Douglass describes slaveholders as “human flesh-mongers” and their actions as “fiendish barbarity” (Douglass, 21, 27). By using words such as these, Douglass shows his contempt for those responsible and informs the reader of the cruelty of slavery. He compares the slaveholders to barbarians, revealing them as the height of cruelty and wickedness. In addition, after watching the white men heartlessly rank slaves with swine and thoughtlessly divide families, he “saw more clearly than ever the brutalizing effects of slavery upon both the slave and the slaveholder” (Douglass, 58).

Douglass uses the word brutalizing to show how the power of owning another person turned the white brutal and inhuman. That they could commit these malicious acts on fellow human beings becomes incomprehensible, and he successfully communicates the terrible effects of slavery. In addition to his diction, Douglass uses structure to show how the barbarity of enslavement first turned him into a slave, and how that same inhumanity set him free. After about nine chapters detailing his slave life, he says, “You have seen how a man was made a slave; you shall see how a slave was made a man. (Douglass, 75) He then goes on to describe the turning point for him that sparked his quest for freedom. By structuring his narrative this way, he reveals both sides- how slavery broke him “in body, soul, and spirit” (Douglass, 73) and how it eventually “rekindled the few expiring embers of freedom” within him (Douglass, 80). In doing so, he gives the reader an insight into how he became himself, and reinforces the evils of slavery in the way it shapes a man’s life. Douglass’ use of diction and structure effectively persuades the reader of the barbarity and inhumanity that comes as a result of slavery.

To continue his persuasion, Douglass uses selection of detail and different tones to make his view known. When describing some aspects of slavery, Douglass’ use of detail opens society’s eyes to injustice. In one case, when describing the whipping of his Aunt Hester, he includes details that encompass sight- “the warm, red blood… came dripping to the floor,” sound- “amid heart-rending shrieks,” and emotion- “I was so horror-stricken… I hid myself in a closet” (Douglass, 24).

By including facts covering many senses, he provides the reader a chance to piece together the scene, giving them perspective. If society has all the details, it becomes easier for them to pass an accurate judgment of slavery. His detail, or lack thereof, also contributes to his use of tone- in particular, one of coolness and detachment. When describing incidents involving himself, he seems as if relating the story of another- “scarce a week passed without his whipping me. I was seldom free from a sore back” (Douglass, 70).

While he neither over or under exaggerates the situation, he seldom tells of his own emotions and disgust regarding his punishments, and he shows his contempt without appearing exceedingly emotional. By keeping a cooler tone, Douglass avoids writing hot with emotion and reestablishes his credibility. Douglass also uses a tone of despair to persuade of injustice. In one passage, he pours out his heart, “O God, save me! God deliver me! … Why am I a slave? ”(Douglass, 74). Through his touching supplication the reader better understands him.

His despairing tone displays how slavery truly broke him down and pushed him into misery. Douglass’ use of detail and tone sincerely convinces one of slavery’s evils. In addition to stylistic elements used thus far, Douglass also uses both imagery and syntax to portray the horrors of slavery. To begin with, he uses imagery by personifying slavery: “there stood slavery, a stern reality, glaring frightfully upon us, -its robes already crimsoned with the blood of millions, and even now feasting itself greedily upon our own flesh. (Douglass, 90) By depicting slavery this way, he gives it power and emphasis, causing slaves to appear powerless beneath slavery’s influence. The mental representation he renders reveals once more the involuntary, villainous enslavement and that the effects of slavery are evil and need to cease. Along with personification, Douglass uses a metaphor to illustrate the terrible effects of slavery on his mistress- “Slavery proved as injurious to her as it did to me…Under its influence, the tender heart became stone, and the lamblike disposition gave way to one of tiger-like fierceness” (Douglass, 51).

While her heart did not truly become stone, this illustration helps to reveal how the responsibility of owning another human being corrupted her. By using a metaphor, the comparison between her temperament before and after owning a slave becomes a harsher, more stark reality of slavery’s evil influence. Along with imagery, Douglass’ use of syntax provides description and effectively helps to portray slavery’s harms.

After escaping to the north, Douglass describes the thoughts running through his mind: “let him place himself in my situation- without home or friends- without money or credit- wanting shelter, and no one to give it- wanting bread, and no money to buy it,… – perfectly helpless both as to the means of defense and means of escape, … – I say, let him be placed in this most trying situation, – the situation in which I was placed,- then, and not till then, will he fully appreciate the hardships of, and know how to sympathize with, the toil-worn and whip-scarred fugitive slave” (Douglass, 110).

The choppy flow of this sentence, filled with breaks in thought, makes him seem breathless and reflects his panic as a runaway slave. This shows that slavery, which has instilled deep fear into the hearts of slaves, makes adjustment in a free world difficult for fugitives. To convince society of the harm that slavery wreaks on both the slave and slaveholder, Frederick Douglass uses many literary elements in his narrative to convey his message.

Overcoming many difficulties and prejudice against him, Douglass published his narrative, despite numerous risks, to persuade society of slavery’s evils. Engaged in pleading the importance of freedom, his narrative, read across the world, stands as a witness to the ¬¬¬¬¬¬ struggles required to pursue freedom. All through history, courageous individuals have stood up in the face of adversity to protect the rights of others. Today, where freedoms are threatened across the world, people can still make a difference, like Douglass’ narrative, and unify people in a worthy cause to defend liberty.

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Richard Nixon’s Pardon Rhetorical Analysis

President Gerald Ford’s Pardon of Richard Nixon Former President of the United States, Gerald R. Ford gave a speech pardoning his predecessor, former President Richard Nixon, of all offenses against the United States that he may have committed during his presidency. The announcement was made live on September 8, 1974. The speech was written to persuade the country to agree with the pardoning of Nixon and forgive him for the crimes he had committed against his country.

Ford states that “Theirs (Nixon’s Family) is an American tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must. ” President Ford argued that the pardoning of Richard Nixon isn’t only for Nixon and his family’s fate but for the country’s well-being. Throughout Ford’s speech he makes evident the use of Logos, Ethos and Pathos appeals. He uses the appeals evenly, convincing his audience while still being well-supported and reasonable.

Ford opens up his speech with many reasons why he, as the President and as a person, should be trusted, and that he thinks that what he is doing is the right thing to do in the situation. He proceeds to admit that his job is a difficult one and that he has made mistakes in the past. Doing so helps him bond with his audience and let them know that he, too, is a person, just like them; and they can count on him, also known as the ethos appeal. He states “My customary policy is to try and get all the facts and consider the opinions of my countrymen and to take council with my most valued friends.

But these seldom agree, and in the end, the decision is mine. ” This statement subtly creates the idea that the decision he had to make was a hard one, and it ultimately came down to Ford having to take the responsibility. He proceeds to tell his country all of the options that he had, as if to make them feel like they were a part of the process; “To procrastinate, to agonize, and to wait for a more favorable turn of events that may never come… ” President Ford then makes himself seem very credible by promising to uphold the constitution, to do what God has asked him, and to do “the very best for America. In making himself credible, Ford establishes trust with his audience therefor making his argument easier to agree with. When he establishes his credibility, he moves to the pathos appeal to introduce his thesis. He plays to the audience’s emotions by referring to Nixon’s situation as “an American tragedy in which we have all played a part… someone must write the end to it. ” Thus making the audience feel bad for Nixon and his family, making his audience feel like they are at fault for their “tragedy. He makes his thesis statement in a powerful way, saying “I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must. ” Imperceptibly making the audience thankful for taking away their burden and making things right, so they don’t have to. He again uses the listeners’ emotions and morals to support his opinion in order to create empathy for Nixon by referring to how the allegations have “threatened his health” and that he is now “trying to reshape his life. ” He also makes it obvious that Nixon spent most of his life “in the service of this country,” making Nixon a hero, not a criminal.

This statement also institutes reliability for Nixon, correspondingly benefiting Ford’s argument. He continues to get sympathy from his audience by conveying that the situation they were dealing with was uncharted territory and they didn’t know how to resolve it. “There are no historic or legal precedents to which I can turn in this matter, none that precisely fit the circumstances of a private citizen who has resigned the Presidency of the United States. ” By saying this, he lets the audience know that the circumstances are fairly new, and he is the first to resolve them.

This makes the audience feel more sympathetic for Gerald Ford and by admitting his faults; the listeners would feel like they can trust him more. The President goes on to say “But it is common knowledge that serious allegations and accusations hang like a sword over our former President’s head… ” After Ford had established sympathy for himself, he makes this statement to show the audience that Nixon is also dealing with guilt and regret for what he did to his country.

By referring to Richard Nixon as “former President” it brings attention to the fact that Nixon was once a President of The United States, and that he should be respected and possibly even forgiven; because he was once in charge of the country and was once trusted by the entire country. Gerald Ford uses the logic of his reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence to convey why it is so important that he pardons Nixon now, rather than let the Supreme Court deal with the matter.

He announces, “…many months and perhaps more years will have to pass before Richard Nixon could obtain a fair trial by jury in any jurisdiction of the United States under governing decisions of the Supreme Court. ” He uses the Supreme Court, the highest of all courts, to support his claim that pardoning Nixon was the best decision; and he does this by affirming that the Supreme Court would take too long and if they couldn’t make a decision, no other court in the United States would be able to make a decision. Making it palpable that he is the best option and nothing else would suffice.

Later in the speech President Ford also brings forward the idea that, if the process of fair trial were to be brought out, the wait would only open old wounds and the people would “only be polarized in their own opinions. ” This statement was said to make the listeners feel as if their negative opinions, if any, of Richard Nixon were strong and unnecessary. It also makes the audience know that Gerald Ford is watching out for them and he realizes they are hurt, and doesn’t want the situation to continue to hurt him. By saying these things, the people’s feelings of trust and faith in the president are confirmed. I deeply believe in equal justice for all Americans, whatever their station or former station. ” After possibly differing with the audience in the previous statement, Ford uses this to restore his credibility with the people and prepare them for more facts and reasons why he formed his opinion. Gerald Ford influences the audience again by using emotion to guilt-trip them into feeling sorrow for Nixon by saying “… it is not the ultimate fate of Richard Nixon that most concerns me, though surely it deeply troubles every decent and every compassionate person. Saying that a decent and compassionate person should care about what happens to Nixon makes the audience feel like they, too, should care about his fate. And doing so would restore the need for them to feel that they are a compassionate and decent human being. “In this, I dare do not depend upon my personal sympathy as a long-time friend of the former President, nor my professional judgment as a lawyer, and I do not. ” This statement tells the audience that he sees both sides of the argument.

Because of his background, as a lawyer and as a friend of former President Nixon, he is forced to see the logical side and the emotional side. Therefore, it seems as if the decision President Ford has to make is going to be made in a thoughtful and well-rounded way. “As President, my primary concern must always be the greatest good of all the people of the United States who servant I am. ” Saying that he is a servant to his country seems as if he is saying that the decision isn’t only his, and he is trying to do what is best for his country, and what his country would think is best in the situation.

The statement implies that he wouldn’t do any harm to his country and if he is an honorable man, like he has already convinced the audience, then he should be trusted with this decision also. President Gerald Ford proceeds to talk about how his conscience is telling him to make this choice and that it is his duty, as President of the United States, to “firmly shut and seal this book. ” This statement made the audience feel like the pardoning of Richard Nixon is an honorable thing, and that Gerald Ford is brave to do it.

It also implies, by bringing up his conscience, that he listens to his inner thoughts and always tries to do the right thing; and this is something he does regularly. By doing this he once again makes the audience see that he is a credible and honest man. Gerald Ford felt that “…Richard Nixon and his loved ones have suffered enough…” The use of the phrase “loved ones” instead of the word “family” makes a strong connection with the audience and makes Nixon look more vulnerable and innocent. Ford then takes advantage of the warmth towards Nixon and says “we, as a great and good nation, can come together and make his goal of peace come true. The reflection of the people as a “great and good nation” brings the audience together and brings forth the idea that “we are all in this together”, making Ford’s opinion seem like it was the entire audience’s, too. Also, pointing out that Nixon had a goal of “peace” makes him, again, look like a very respectable man, which reflects well on President Ford. Gerald Ford uses the right amount of emotions, facts and credibility to endorse his opinion, and he does it very well without fault. He plays on the audiences emotions through making them sympathetic for Nixon by pointing out his losses.

Ford uses the facts of Richard Nixon’s trial to make his decision more reasonable. He also uses his credibility to establish trust. He influences the viewer’s opinions very discreetly, so the audience conform their opinion to his without realizing it. Overall, Gerald Ford does a really good job talking to his audience and making them feel like a part of his decision. He uses the appeals to his advantage and wins the audience over; making it easier for them to believe that he is making the right decision.

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Kings Speech Rhetorical Analysis

Addressing the Nation When any artist or director embarks on the journey of creation, they use a variety of different techniques to aid in the conveying of their message. Their main goal is to create something special for their audience, or rather call them witnesses. Convincing them that a personal piece of art, whether it be a painting, a novel or a movie, is different than all the rest. Rhetoricians create an author’s idea, their own unique perception of reality, for a vast and diverse viewing audience. The Kings Speech is a movie about talking, and the importance of talking well.

The way humans communicate is really the most important challenge we face in our everyday lives. Speaking is hugely important on an intimate, personal level; when the task is to interact with one person. But a leader of a nation has to address all of his subjects, which requires that leader to be able to speak eloquently in a dramatic political context. As Bertie so finely delivers his lines in the closing moments, as King George VI is about to first address his subjects with war on the horizon: “The Nation believes that when I speak, I speak for them.

But I cannot speak. ” This superb film is about a person finding his voice, finding that he can speak. The Duke of York, later King George V, a. k. a Bertie is a perfect example of a leader; he has it all except for one thing – he lacks delivery skills. The hero has a single problem, the conflict that needs resolving; any intelligent viewer will keep their eyes on that detail through the entire plot. A well-written story will gradually reveal information, leaving the audience with a thirst to know if and how this issue will be solved.

What makes the King’s battle with speech even more powerful is that this specific detail is not only about a speaking impediment that can be a burden to its owner but it is also about the drama in several other layers of the story. As the duke mentions, his people look up to him as he who speaks for them and in their name. Not only can it be frustrating for a nation not to have a voice; that nation is in war with another nation whose ruler can “say it rather well”.

Bertie is up against some large obstacles on his path to becoming King, and the stakes are high, the fate of an entire country lies in the words of its future leader, the King better be able to say those words clearly. This is far more than a movie about a King finding his voice. The Kings Speech is an exposition of the power that language has over individuals, and vast audiences. Rhetoric depends upon audience, and Bertie’s impediment was due as much to the pressure of his Imperial audience as it was his horrid father and family in how they treated him and his need for “corrections. Our hero in this story has to overcome the painful memories that compose his troubled royal childhood. The King’s complex past appeals to the audience’s sense of Pathos, so that every time he stammers over a sentence we remember who and what it is that causes Bertie’s handicap. Seeing the King start to succeed and triumph over his condition appeals to the viewer’s emotions for the same reason, because they have witnessed the cold, harsh environment where Bertie was raised. Audiences rejoice because seeing the main character master their own problems gives them hope and strength to take on personal matters of their own.

Another aspect of the King’s troubled past is his relationship with his brother. He lived in the shadow of his brother Edward VIII for much of his life, and Edward was the actual heir to the throne when their father died. However, Edward abdicated the throne when he revealed that he wanted to marry an American socialite. This places further pressure on George VI to succeed in delivering this important speech to prove himself to his family and people as a strong and able leader. Being part of the Royal family means you have the best medical care that England has to offer at your disposal.

Every doctor the Duke visited had a new treatment to test out, but nothing seemed to improve his speech impediment. One of the doctors instructed Bertie to chain smoke cigarettes, because the theory was that the smoke would “relax his larynx” and calm his nerves. In this scene, the director uses dramatic irony and appeals to logos to toy with viewers, because an informed audience knows that this tactic will likely fail and in our modern time, we all know that cigarettes are hazardous to one’s health.

There are many other scenes where the King is seen smoking, and in every instance he had a specific look on his face. This is the look of a desperate man, full of frustration and expectation, praying that this little stick of tobacco will answer all his questions. The scene that follows shows one of many failed treatments by a specialist to cure him of his speech problem. The Duke becomes frustrated during the treatment and asks his wife, Elizabeth, the Duchess of York (Helena Bonham Carter), to promise that he won’t have to see any more doctors.

This leads the Duchess of York to secretly visit an unorthodox speech therapist, Lionel Logue (Geoffrey Rush). Mr. Logue explains to the Duchess that although he is willing to help the Duke, he will only assist on his terms and they must come to him and follow his rules. The Duchess agrees, and sets an appointment. Mr. Logue’s favorite phrase is “My castle, my rules”, even though he is a commoner, not royalty; someone who is not enough “regal” to actually own a castle. Yet this speech therapist knows exactly what he is saying.

He too recognizes the importance of rules, a frame of reference and a place which is the proper place. If you’ll put him to the rhetoric test you will find he too has it all except for one thing – apparently he is part of no ethos. He is a commoner, and eventually we find out he has no credentials; which is even worse than being an Australian in Britain. Logue lacks legitimacy, which he knows is not important for his ability to help others, but is a frustrating disposition if you take his rules seriously.

The King looked past Logue’s lack of formal education and abrasive nature because I believe that he sensed something special about the doctor. Plus I believe the Duke and Logue shared a similar love of law and order, and the strict rules Lionel set allowed the Bertie to follow them with ease. These rules forced Bertie to trust the doctor completely, which establishes a strong bond of ethos between the two men. While the person in question happens to have been an English monarch, his trepidations and fears are no different from any public speaking student that Mr.

Logue encountered over the years. So, Logue treats Bertie as though he were a regular, stuttering child and expects him to adhere to the same rules as everyone else. This is also a movie about education, as much as it is about politics and royalty. “Turn the hesitations into pauses,” Logue tells the King in one scene. “Bounce into it. ” Rather than force his student into a mold, the teacher lets the student be the guide. He turns the awkwardness into something better; he re-defines the terms on which the King’s Speech was judged.

Indeed, pauses can signify confidence; taking time to choose the right words to say gives the listener the impression that what you have to say is really important. This rhetorical device is also used by our very own President Obama, being the brilliant speaker that he is. The President is in a similar position of power, like King George, and when delivering a speech to millions of people it is best to take time and choose your words carefully so that your message is communicated correctly. The final speech is the defining factor in establishing King George VI’s credibility.

In his previous speeches, he had struggled with his impediment, but in this address to his country he speaks slowly, clearly, and confidently when his people needed him to do so the most. Ethos is also established in this speech because he is King, the ultimate authority figure; therefore, all people throughout the nation will be listening to his every word and reacting in a positive way. He directly calls on his people “at home, and my people across the seas, who will make this cause their own”. He is asking the people of Britain to take charge and become active participants in the difficult journey that is about to begin.

The all-powerful phrase “With God’s help we shall prevail” is placed at the peak of the drama, the climax when the newly appointed King delivers his speech to all of England. This phrase appeals to pathos, evoking a sense of pride in his people, and reassuring them that England can and will win the war. It seems that every word in this movie was chosen, whether consciously or un-consciously, through a deep understanding of the rules of rhetoric because this phrase demonstrates superb decorum. Copywriters pray for the moment they will be able to come up with such a brilliant phrase.

Not because it is full of tricks since there is no trick, but with the power to echo the utmost desires wanting to be solved through all the plots and sub-plots of the rhetoric event, presenting real desires in the real world from the deep back-story to the private and personal. This also meets a dramatic high point for England at that particular moment in time, the real events took place during WWII had yet to be unraveled, but watching the movie sixty or so years later, knowing how it turned out, and listening to the final lines in the King’s speech can still send icy shivers down one’s spine.

King George IV was able to deliver his speech perfectly through the help and support of his wife and new friend Lionel Logue, winning the hearts of England and preparing them for the days to come. Rhetorically, The Kings Speech is a masterpiece; transporting audiences back to pre-war England and telling them an emotional tale of a King finding his voice.

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Rhetorical, Textual, or Source Analysis worksheet

Write a short, clear summary of the article:

This article tackles the problem of unhealthy self-esteem among women allegedly caused by media-generated concepts of femininity and how best to confront this problem, which is through social activism and social marketing. It is fuelled by the results of numerous studies which suggest a strong link between the portrayal of unrealistic images of women in the media and the increasing tendency towards unhealthy eating and dieting behaviours of women.

What is the context of the article?

In “The Media’s Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We’ve Reviled Them, Now Can We Rehabilitate Them,” Thomson and Heinberg (1999) illuminate the growing concern among the American women population on the adverse impact of images portrayed in the mass-media on the self-perception and self-esteem of women who are exposed and vulnerable to subscribing to media-generated conceptions of femininity that have been linked to the increasingly unhealthy lifestyles taken up by more and more girls and women.

What seems to be the author’s purpose?

The authors discuss the mechanism by which the media is able to influence the lifestyle patterns of women in the aim of identifying ways by which girls and women would be able to resist or combat the ill-effects of media images on their behavioural, psychological, and physical health. They present a relevant perspective on how women can counter the psychological manoeuvres of the mass media.

In what type of publication did this appear? Describe it.

The article appeared in the academic “Journal of Social Issues,” a quarterly publication which publishes contributions from social scientists and academics that tackle the relationship between society and human beings and issues that arise from this. The journal is published by Blackwell Publishing in behalf of The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.

Write a brief analysis of the author’s credentials and possible expertise or bias. If no information is available on the author, try to take a guess based upon his or her knowledge and writing ability, which you might derive from the article.

Thomson and Heinberg (1999) are obviously academic experts in the field of psychology who have extensively studied the impact of media-mediated concepts on the feminine psyche. In fact, the result of their own research on the effect of media images on the self-esteem and self-concept of women was among the evidence they presented in the article.

Who seems to be the target audience? Be specific.

Judging from the language and tone of the article, the authors’ target audience are policymakers, development workers, and academic researchers. Here, Thomson and Heinberg (1999) clearly advocate for the creation and implementation of education-based programs that would benefit women by arming them with the knowledge to decipher the subliminal messages they are often bombarded with through advertisements and other forms of media.

In short outline form, show the author’s stance. Then, explain and evaluate the presentation of the author’s stance. In other words, what’s the thesis? What reasons are given for this stance? Are the reasons supported well?

The authors contend that social activism will encourage women to be active in challenging the social structures that profit from and reinforce the prevailing social biases and gender stereotypes of women, while social marketing will teach women not only to pursue the demystification of the “feminine ideal” but more importantly, in the generation of positive and realistic concepts of being women.

The article therefore summarizes the results of recent research which support the contention that the mass media is one of the biggest source of poor self-concept and self-confidence for women, and proposes the combination of two-strategies, social activism and social marketing,  that would enable women to counter the concept of the “feminine ideal” portrayed in the media—that of the thin, airbrushed, and computer-generated model—by empowering them to see through this images and helping them develop a multi-dimensional concept of being a woman.

Analyze the writer’s language. What is the writer’s tone? Why might he or she have chosen this tone? Is it effective? What words are defined or left undefined? Give examples.

The writer’s language is formal and academic, which might have been chosen because its target audience are those from the academe such as social scientists and intellectuals. It effectively conveys the weight of the problem at hand and lends seriousness to the discussion of the solutions presented.

Based upon your analysis, is this a credible piece of writing? Explain.

Yes, because it presents extensive evidence to its claim gained from years of academic research by social scientists interested in the issue. While the authors have recognized that a direct link between the images propagated by the media vis-à-vis women’s self-esteem has yet to be proven, the article manages to support its contention in an ample manner by showing how media images, even indirectly, shapes the way women think, consume, and behave. In turn, its argument of using the media itself to turn things around becomes more convincing and relevant especially for women and other sectors involved.

Finally, and in detail (really think about this—refer to specifics) how do the stance and language choices relate to the author’s purpose and target audience? Explain.

This article is written in a persuasive manner, and shows the authors’ capability to use relevant information to support their thesis. It is also written in a way that could be understood best by development practitioners and students of the social sciences, which is suited with its intention of convincing those who might be involved in advocacy or policy-making to seriously address the rise in the number of weight-related issues affecting women that is attributed to the pervasive influence of the media.

Work Cited:

Thomson, J. Kevin, and Heinberg, Leslie J. “The Media’s Influence on Body Image Disturbance and Eating Disorders: We’ve Reviled Them, Now Can We Rehabilitate Them?” Journal of Social Issues, 55.2(1999):339-353.

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Bias & Rhetorical Devices

What are some examples of bias, fallacies, and specific rhetorical devices in the speech? The very beginning of the speech begins with a campaigner who is introducing their new candidate for Governor and who expresses negative bias towards the current Governor, Jim Gettys. It begins by describing the current governing as an “evil domination”. That same campaigner then expresses equal bias but in a positive way, towards Charles Foster Kane, by saying he is the only one who can rid the state of its current politics.

The campaigner calls him a fighting liberal and friend of the working man but gives no examples of why he feels that way. The speech is full of rhetorical devices, using analytical definitions to create emotion in the listeners. Charles Foster Kane points out that his only purpose is to “point out and make public, the dishonesty and downright villainy of Jim Getty’s political machine”. He is using hyperbole in this statement in order to exaggerate his viewpoint.

Also you can read Rhetorical Devices in Night Walker by Brent Staples

He states that “this machine is in complete control of the government of the State” causing the people to react since this is the very situation our founding fathers hoped to avoid when creating the United States Constitution. Kane is also aligning himself with those he knows will be more likely to vote within his party lines such as the working man, slum child, underpaid, underprivileged and underfed. He realizes that by exaggerating the power contained by Jim Gettys and his Administration, he will rally the folks not usually interested into voting for him, by telling them they deserve so much more.

He uses the argument from outrage to express how diabolical the existing government is in order to persuade the people that definitive change is needed. Various fallacies are prominent throughout the speech. One of the fallacies is the determination that Kane will be voted Governor based on the polls. However, since the election has not even begun, it is impossible for him to draw this conclusion. Also, we see the group think fallacy where Kane describes himself as the friend of the lower classes, making believe he is one of them.

Argument by popularity is used when Kane assumes that the polls indicate his obvious triumph in the upcoming election and reflect him as the winner and most popular choice for voters. He is also using scare tactics when stating that the current Government has complete control over the state, and that they are a dictatorship. In all of the above cases, no information is given to support the claims being made. How did the speaker address arguments and counter arguments? The speaker’s arguments are unclear since he did not use common premise and conclusion statements.

There are no comparisons between what Kane feels has already been done versus what he intends to do. However, he is making the claim that he will be elected as Governor based on the poll information. He also makes the biased claims against the Administration of Jim Gettys and the control it has over the State Government at that time. His argument leads to the unspoken conclusion that the existing government does not care for the ordinary people and that he intends to change the focus of the government to care for the decent, the underpaid, underfed, underprivileged, working men and slum children.

Therefore, Kane would be the better choice as the Governor for the people of that State. I do not see any evidence of counter arguments since at no point does he state another person’s claim and argue against that. Were the speaker’s arguments effective? Explain your answer. The speaker’s arguments were effective in invoking an emotional response from the listeners and persuade them that they should not vote for the existing Governor. His use of political rhetoric and fallacies were effective in creating doubt about the honesty of Gettys and his Administration.

Kane wanted to expose the existing government as corrupt, uncaring and in complete control of all of their lives. He succeeded at this by using statements to invoke anger which is usually substituted for reason. There are no conclusive promises made, other than to indict and convict Jim Gettys. Therefore, the people have no idea what policies or promises Kane intends to put into practice. Although the arguments were effective in persuasive techniques, they were not sound. There were no details or facts to support his claims that Kane specifically, would make a better Governor.

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Rhetoric Is Used in the Play Julius Caesar

Ms. Waldo English 2 May 19, 2011 Rhetoric is used in the play Julius Caesar in many occasions. What is rhetoric? Rhetoric is being able to persuade someone for your own good. This is used when Cassius persuades Brutus to join the conspiracy, Brutus’s speech to the plebeians, and Antony’s speech to the plebeians. All these characters were masters of ethos, pathos, and logos, which are different ways of persuasion. Each person uses different ones in the play. The conspirators would no have stood a chance of killing Caesar without Brutus on there side. All thanks to Cassius Brutus joined.

It wasn’t all that easy for Cassius to make Brutus join. In the first place Brutus did not like the idea of killing Caesar. Cassius had a hard job to do. One way Cassius approached this was by raising Brutus up, A quote from the play was “ I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus, as I do know your outward favor” (Shakespeare 892) this was building up Brutus’s confidence. This applies to ethos; Cassius is playing with Brutus’s emotion. The last way Cassius persuaded Brutus was writing letters to him. These letters were supposable written from other people saying that Brutus should join the conspiracy.

Actually all the letters were written from Cassius. This also applies to ethos because Brutus ends up freaking out about the whole thing and ends up joining the conspiracy. Brutus’s speech to the plebeians is probably one of the most important parts of the play. Brutus and the conspirators had just killed Caesar. So everyone is freaking out and going crazy. The plebeians now think the conspirators are evil and mad. Brutus has to change their minds. A quote from the play that Brutus said was “Not that I love Caesar less, but I love Rome more.

Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? ” (Shakespeare 948). Brutus was saying he killed Caesar for the good of Rome and he loves Rome more than he loves Caesar. This starts changing the mind of the Plebeians. Another thing Brutus did was told how Caesar was too ambitious for Rome and he deserved to die. This was the frosting on the cake for Brutus. Brutus ended up changing the minds of the Plebeians that killing Caesar was the right thing to do. Ever since Caesar died, Mark

Anthony looked for revenge. Since Brutus got the plebeians on his side; it made it difficult for Anthony to seek revenge by himself. It would take loads of persuasion to convince the plebeians yet again that Brutus and the conspirators were wrong to kill Caesar. To begin, Antony starts to bring down Brutus. He says, “Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? When the poor man cried, Caesar hath wept; ambition should be made of sterner stuff. ” (Shakespeare 950) This let the Plebeians thing for a little. Then Antony uses logos to show how Caesar was not ambitious.

To top things off, Antony reads Caesars will, which is more like a bribe because Antony teases the crowd talking about the will and finely reads it when the crowd is most desperate. This speech from Antony changed the Plebeians mind yet again. The play Julius Caesar is full of persuasion. From Brutus’s speech to the plebeians to Cassius persuading Brutus to join the conspiracy, each having a different rule. Rhetoric can be seen in many different forms. You just have to see if it can change your mind. Sources: Shakespeare, William, Julius Caesar, Elements of literature 4th course

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Rhetorical Analysis: Proclamation of Rebellion

Proclamation of Rebellion On August 23rd of 1775, King George III issued A Proclamation for Suppressing Rebellion and Sedition after hearing news of the Battle of Bunker Hill. The document declared that the colonies were in an open state of rebellion and requested that all subjects of Great Britain report “traitorous correspondence” by anyone who may be involved so they could be punished. King George’s proclamation acted as an antithesis and undermined his remaining colonial moderate support.

The purpose of the proclamation was obvious: King George III wanted to thwart the colonial rebellion by coercing them by means of intimidation, which is a form of an ethos appeal. However, the timing of the issuance of the proclamation and its diction reveal a seemingly desperate King George. King George III opened the proclamation with the use of a self-sealing conspiracy argument against the leaders of the rebellion when he referred to them as “ill designing. ” He tried to create an outlet for the average colonial subject by calling them “misled. This also played into the conspiracy argument by making those same subjects doubt the American leadership they had followed up to that point. It seems as though he called the colonists to rethink their position by portraying Great Britain as their protector and guardian while labeling the colonial leadership as avaricious conspirators. These claims that Britain was still an excellent father figure to whom the colonists owed respect and deference were arguments of principle.

However, it was clear that many colonists found incidences such as The Boston Massacre and The Battle of Bunker Hill indicated otherwise. Not only did The Battle of Bunker Hill display that Great Britain was not the colonist’s protector, but also that the British could be beaten. This loss painted a much weaker picture of King George. The proclamation was released just before King George would decline to receive the colonists’ Olive Branch Petition.

By declining to receive the petition, it was assumed that the King’s proclamation was his response. With that in mind, the remaining colonial moderates retained little hope that Great Britain and the colonies would remain united. King George’s proclamation labeled the leaders of the colonial resistance “dangerous and ill designing men” and listed the ways they had violated royal law. He also posited all the ways the Empire had correctly administered governance and rule over the colonies.

It said that those who aided Britain in finding conspirators would be protected for their “loyalty and zeal” and that ignorance was not an option. Up to this point, ignorance of the relations between the colonies and Britain was the path chosen by many moderates who hoped reconciliation would be made. In his proclamation King George identified these moderates as well as Tory supporters and attempted to pit them against the “conspirators. ” This rhetorical act on the part of King George III and the British was an utter failure at achieving its intended goal.

By that point, the relationship between the two parties had been violent for quite some time and colonial confidence in the King by his shrinking supporting minority was waning. He used self-boasting ethos appeals to the colonists (many of whom had already come to the conclusion that they didn’t like him) and hoped that they would essentially turn themselves in and give up. The worst part about the entire proclamation was that it completely crushed moderates who supported the idea that independence wasn’t the answer.

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Rhetorical Strategies Analysis of “Bill Clinton’s First Inaugural Address”

Rhetorical Strategies Analysis of “Bill Clinton’s First Inaugural Address” Introduction William Jefferson “Bill” Clinton served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. He got authority at the end of the Cold War. During Cold War, in order to compete with the Soviet Union’s military power, the federal government spent a great deal of financial resources to establish a powerful military. The quality of life of common people decreased year after year. At that time, people desired to have a new powerful authority to rebuild people’s confidence.

Clinton won the 1992 presidential election with 42% of the vote against his predecessor, George H. W. Bush who had 37. 4% of the vote. Clinton’s wining ended the Republican rule of the White House of previous years. With 43% of the vote, he outpolled the winning House candidate in five districts. Clinton has been described as a New Democrat. In January 1993, he had campaigned on the theme of change and the public expected him to deliver. And in his first inaugural address, he continually promised change.

The purpose of my article is to figure out: what rhetorical strategies and tactics did President Clinton use in oder to accomplish hi task of change? Inaugural addresses have often served as the civil religion. Clinton was well – prepared to take this tradition. According to the evidence, it suggests his three main resources for first inaugural address are his lifetime study of the Bible, his education at Georgetown University, and his reading of others’ inaugural addresses by Republican and Democratic presidents.

During the campaign Clinton mentioned that when he was a little child, he felt a strong calling to go to church even though his parents did not go. He grew up in the Southern Baptist denomination and as he remembered, “I had to get other people to read the scripture every day or do it myself. ” His religious choice fits the American belief. Most American believe that God “is actively interested and involved in history, with a special concern for America,” as Robert N. Bellah said. During the 1990s, Clinton skillfully used biblical language to make common eople trust him and rebuild their confidence in a future president. Context The inaugural address of an American president is a vital ceremonial event and an occasion for a particular kind of communication between the President and the people. The president represents all the people of a country and his inaugural address shows a direction of the government. The address is the first official announcement made by the new president and it is analyzed as setting the tone for the four years to follow.

Presidents have had their own skill in shaping and delivering their addresses, drawing on rhetorical devices to convey a message and to communicate a sense of meaning and value. Clinton gave people a vivid image about a brand new future for the United States with a short first address. He bring a metaphor for the future, “a spring reborn in the world’s oldest democracy, that brings forth the vision and courage to reinvent America. ” For the spring to be reborn in America, President Clinton called for government and public to change.

Clinton thought that America have to change for better notion and “not change for change’s sake, but change to preserve America’s ideals – life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. ” Thus, from my perspective, the rhetorical strategy of Clinton’s first address is persuasion. He tries to explain contemporary situation of America and he tries to advocate “change” on this issue. The Strategy of Persuasion As we learned, the three main methods of persuasion involve pathos, ethos and logos. President Clinton seems to use one major approach, pathos, to persuade audiences.

Also you can read Rhetorical Devices in Night Walker by Brent Staples

Pathos is to use emotion to persuade audiences’ minds in a rhetorical argument. President Clinton uses basic American beliefs and ideologies, such as, “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” trying to arouse people’s passion. Also, he brought out the social problem of America, that “raised in unrivaled prosperity, we inherit an economy that is still the world’s strongest, but is weakened by business failures, stagnant wages, increasing inequity, and deep divisions among our people. ” He used realistic problems to relate to common people’s daily life. It brings out another passion, which is to struggle for their life.

Then, in the middle of his first inaugural address, Clinton calls for people’s responsibilities to renew and create a better nation. He uses child to bring out a bigger theme of posterity and he calls people’s passion to create a better society for their posterity. He said, “posterity is the world to come — the world for whom we hold our ideals, from whom we have borrowed our planet, and to whom we bear sacred responsibility. ” By using pathos of persuasion, President Clinton tried to arouse the public to put more effort into establishing American society in order to renew the United States.

The significant purpose of persuasion always to change people’s behavior eventually. Then, Clinton mentioned three main parts to renew the whole country. First of all, “to renew America, we must be bold,” which brings out the responsibilities of citizens and government; second of all, “we must revitalize our democracy,” which discusses reinventing authority and the federal government; finally, “we must meet challenges abroad as well at home,” and President Clinton gave two ideas both diplomacy and national thoughts. The Strategy of Biblical Language

In the end of first address, President Clinton emphasis on how individuals change themselves to drive the government’s and country’s change. He used emotional language to make that argument, that is “in serving, we recognize a simple but powerful truth — we need each other. ” In the final paragraph of the inaugural address, it included a verse from St. Paul’s letter to the Galatians, “and let us not be weary in well – doing; for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not,” which could make special resonance. As mentioned above, Clinton uses biblical language to reference to political trusts and purposes.

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Antony’s Speech and the Rhetoric Used

Vengeance is a powerful. Caesar’s slaying by Brutus sets Antony in motion to deceive his murderers into allowing him to speak to Rome. In his speech to the Romans, Antony turns Rome against Brutus using repetition to convey the irony in his own speech and discredit Brutus, as well as, applying meter to add emphasis to the mutiny, and contrast Brutus’s speech allowing him to connect with his countrymen. Repetition is used powerfully throughout Antony’s speech to convey a multitude of thoughts, however, the repetition particularly lends to the irony of the piece. …let me not stir you up / To such a sudden flood of mutiny. ” (188-189) is a prime example of the irony in his address. His intent from the beginning is to lead a revolt against Brutus and Caesar’s other murderers, the fact that he actually states he does not want to create a mutiny while stirring up these very same people to revolt is very ironic. Antony uses an ironic repetition to advance his efforts for a mutiny in the discrediting of Brutus. Before Antony takes the stage to talk to Rome, Brutus has just given a very lively speech and the Romans are partial to him.

It is then necessary for Antony to use dramatic irony to deceive his countrymen that he believes that “…Brutus is an honourable man;” (61). When Antony first describes Brutus as honourable the audience agrees it is only after the fourth time he says this that the whole crowd realize the irony behind what he is saying.. Antony uses this irony to discredit Brutus’s honour and sway the Romans to join in a mutiny against Brutus. The meter in Antony’s speech is also a very key part in adding emphasis to the mutiny he wishes to instill in the Romans.

Most lines have ten syllables however there are several lines with only nine syllables to add affect. Not only do these sentences have less syllables in common but also they end with ambition. For example “Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;” (72) the lost syllables place is taken by a pause that allows the Roman and the reader to reflect on the repeated word ambition. This pause allows the Antony to inflict the thought that it was not Caesar that was ambitious but Brutus instead. This meter allows Antony to incite the doubt of Brutus in the minds of Antony’s countrymen and incite them to revolt.

Interestingly enough the meter in Antony’s speech also serves as a contrast to Brutus’s who spoke in prose. Antony is a nobleman as is Brutus and throughout the whole play the only part where their dialogue is not written in meter of some sort is when Brutus addresses his countrymen. Antony however speaks as if he is addressing another noble conveying the message that he sees them as equals to him, and that while Brutus speaks down to their level, Antony lifts them up to his equal. This allows him to then sympathize with his countrymen and relate to them so that it is easier to coax them to mutiny.

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A Rhetorical Analysis “The Effects of Violence in Children’s Cartoons”

Rhetorical Analysis ENGL 102-07October 03, 2012 A Rhetorical Analysis of Editorial, “The Effects of Violence in Children’s Cartoons” Claim: That children’s cartoons today are too violent and that these cartoons are greatly affecting their behaviors growing up. That violence is a learned behavior and therefore children that view violence can become violent themselves. The purpose of the argument is to raise the awareness about cartoon violence and come up with some solutions to lessen its negative impact on the children that are watching them.

The primary target audiences of this argument are those that have the most direct contact with children, mainly their parents and teachers. Faced with the increasing popularity of animation, they feel that youngsters are developing a cartoon mentality, confusing fantasy and reality, and are imitating the actions they see on the screen. The author feels very strongly about the message he is trying to make and uses emotional, logical, and ethical triggers throughout the article to make his point and bring the reader over to his idea. “this is a big dilemma because the media is promoting violence as an acceptable solution for children who may not know any better. ”] (PATHOS) This statement seems to be an attempt to shock the audience to the idea that there is purposeful plot by the media to teach children that violence is an acceptable way to act. [“If a child is growing up in a home where Dad is beating up Mom all the time, the child is going to learn that hitting is an acceptable way to handle problems.

This child is much more likely than other children to grow up to handle problems the same way and become a violent adult himself. The same can be said for cartoon violence. ”] (PATHOS) The reader is given a comparison between witnessing domestic violence and cartoon violence. The author makes the argument that both will lead to a child becoming a violent adult. [“We cannot deny that children’s violence has increase drastically in recent years. With things such as school shootings, bullying, daredevil stunts, peer to peer violence, and children killing parents we as a society need to be alarmed. ] (PATHOS) By using terms like “shooting” and “killing parents” the author is hoping to connect with the audience’s fear that cartoon violence could lead to drastic results. [“TV has even become known as “America’s baby-sitter. ” (Krieg). Meaning that parents are now using the television as a way of entertaining their children while they attempt to accomplish other things such as cooking and cleaning. ”] (PATHOS) This statement tries to prompt a sense of guilt in the audience that they are are just sitting their kids in front of the television instead of being attentive parents. “On average and American child will watch 32 acts of violence per hour on TV. This number has skyrocketed from 20 years ago when it was just 12 acts per hour (Krieg). This being said a child will have watched anywhere from 8,000 to 100,000 acts of violence before they even finish elementary school (Weiss). ”] (LOGOS) This seems a logical premise to help substantiate the authors point and uses a research example as evidence. [“It was found in one study that what a children watches on TV at age 8 will be one of the best predictors of how aggressive they will be as an adult.

The children’s TV viewing outweighed other factors such as child-rearing practices and socioeconomic factors (Grace). Grace also found that what a child watches after age 8 is not nearly as important as what they watch before age 8. ”] (LOGOS) Again, this seems logical and uses a study to show evidence. [“We can start by creating a better rating system that gives parents more information about what the shows content is. This could be similar to the more recent movie ratings (Gardner).

DIC is the largest supplier of children’s programming and they have come up with a 12- point code for the makers of these children’s shows to decrease the violence (Weiss). ”] (LOGOS) The author evokes some possible solutions to that may help resolve some of the problem with identifying violent cartoons. [“We have now seen all the facts on both sides of the argument. Is should be clear that we are faced with a very devastating problem. Our only hope is that we can do enough so that this next generation of children is not so violent.

Maybe one day we can come to the point where children are so used to watching wholesome quality television that these violent shows will die out. ”] (ETHOS) We do not know who the author is here. Is it a parent, teacher, or maybe a psychologist? The use “we” and “our only hope” seem to play on the conscience of the reader that we are all in this together, and together we can find a solution to cartoon violence. The author cites numerous reasons to prove and validate his point, such as the increase in violent acts per hour on television, and percentage of teachers that have reported increases in classroom violence.

However, there is no evidence given that ties cartoon violence directly with this. It seems most of the article is the authors interpretation of the topic. He even goes as far as to say that those that disagree with his point are absurd. Is it possible that children become violent from what they see in cartoons? Maybe. But all cartoons are not the same. I think it is ignored that many cartoons also teach children important social and cultural lessons on such as honesty, kindness, and sharing.

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Mlk Rhetorical Analysis

Justine Mrs. Morehead English 3 AP September 9,2012 In Martin Luther King Jr. ’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”, King argues that segregation laws are unjust and unfair laws. King illustrates many different strategies throughout his letter such as pathos, ethos, and allusions to describe and explain thoroughly to the eight clergymen that such laws as segregation laws should be broken and changed for equality for black people. In Kings Letter in paragraphs thirteen and fourteen, he implies pathos to express how black people feel and all that they go through because of the segregation laws.

King reveals all that they go through that is expressed especially well in a sentence in paragraph fourteen as shown: ”But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, and even kill your black brothers and sister;…” This is only a part of the lengthy sentence that shows very powerful emotion in vivid detail of all what black people face every day they walk out there home.

King develops the use of pathos by starting out in the paragraph stating that black people have waited for over 340 years to gain their God-given rights and to explain how much they have gone through to still not deserve them. This sentence sets an amazing example of pathos creating a powerful emotion of sympathetic pity for black people. Also in paragraph fourteen King provides an example of ethos in his letter. King’s example of ethos is important to his letter since the letter is about segregation laws towards black people.

King’s example of this is: “We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God-given rights…Perhaps it is easy for those who have seen never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say “Wait. ”” King is standing up for his people, for his brothers and his sisters; he has passion for changing the segregation laws in America. Kings purpose of implying ethos was to prove his point in what he believes is right for his people. Another rhetorical strategies king illustrates in paragraph fourteen was allusion.

King’s Example implies to just and unjust laws, shown here: “I would agree with St. Augustine that an “unjust law is no law at all. ”” King’s example of allusion shows and explains what Martin Luther King really does believe in dealing with the segregation laws. These rhetorical devices that king applies in his letter adds emphasis and emotion in the letter for him to be able to get his point across to the eight clergymen who questioned him. The letter is a powerful and influence letter to get the clergymen to see what he sees from his point of view.

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Embarking Patriotic Immortality: Rhetorical Analysis

Daniel Aubertine Dr. Viera 10/11/2011 Final Draft Embarking Patriotic Immortality: Rhetorical Analysis of the Gettysburg Address The Gettysburg address was given on the grounds of a historical battlefield in Gettysburg Pennsylvania during the American Civil War on November 19th, 1863 by the late President Abraham Lincoln. The brief, powerful speech that he delivered to fifteen to twenty thousand people is regarded as one of the greatest in American history. It is considered the turning point of the Civil War, helping preserve the union and keep America together.

Lincoln’s famous war-time speech, given on the graves of fallen soldiers, uses remarkable pathos along with an astonishing endowment to the history of American speeches through diction and patriotic passion. Following the three-day bloodbath that occurred in the fields of Gettysburg Pennsylvania in early July, thousands of bloody corpses rotted in the summer’s scorching heat. Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin appointed David Willis, a prominent Gettysburg lawyer, to oversee the project. An interstate commission was formed, money was raised, and seventeen acres of land at the battle site was purchased.

The federal government provided the coffins. By November the cemetery was ready for dedication (Hay). The event was set-up so that orator Edward Everett would be the main speaker of the day. Lincoln sought to speak at this event because it would be a prime opportunity to boost the Union’s war efforts. Crowds of fifteen to twenty thousand citizens and soldiers gathered around the stage and listened to Everett speak for nearly two hours (Borade). Lincoln then rose and spoke for just under two minutes, and the crowd was speechless (Hay).

Throughout the speech Lincoln uses the pathos to make the audience feel emotionally invested in the speech through guilt and courage. The audience is standing six feet above their fellow citizens who died in battle on their behalf, and to preserve the American way of life. Lincoln uses the location of the speech as emotional leverage on the crowd. Many of the members in the audience were either soldiers or citizens who lost loved ones in the battle of Gettysburg. Lincoln uses the guilty conscience of the audience members as persuasion into his main idea that the union cannot give up the fight.

Lincoln states in his address, “We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who have gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. ” He effectively uses pathos as a transition into a strong initiative that America should fight for the soldiers who lost their lives. The feeling of guilt is also intertwined and overcome by a feeling of courage in Lincoln’s speech. He makes the citizens who are opposed to the war feel guilty, and the citizens who are for the war, and the soldiers who are fighting, feel courage.

The courageous component of the speech that is felt by the audience is inspired by reminding them how heroic the soldiers who died on this field were. An example of this is when Lincoln states,”… that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion…” They faced terrifying situations with courage and, in the end, gave their lives for what they believed in. The soldiers’ courage is the source of the courage for the audience. The inspiration though emotion that Lincoln delivered was the driving force of this inspirational speech.

The incredible diction used by the president is the factor that set this historical speech apart from all the rest. Not once in his 272 word speech did the president use the word “I” or “me”. Lincoln was not that kind of man; he was unselfish and never distinguished himself from the audience. Another key aspect of Lincoln’s speech that is used very often in all types of writing is the use of repetition. He doesn’t repeat large memorable phrases; he repeats small words that seem to have great power. Throughout the speech he uses the words “we” and “us” a total of twelve times, referring to himself and the audience.

Also, he often says the word “here” referring to the hallowed ground of Gettysburg to further associate himself with his audience (Zimmer, 4). This heavy use of plural first person tense creates a strong sense of unity with the audience and himself. Additionally he utilizes a strong vocabulary throughout the speech. He employed many complex sentences for an overall intelligent-sounding speech. For example, “Four score and seven years ago… ” is very poetic and elegant, much more dignified than simply saying “Eighty- seven”. Lincoln uses his words to dig deep into the udiences hearts and pull out every sense of patriotism that he can get. Each one of the 272 words that he spoke that day was to bring out the American passion that is needed for victory in the Civil war. He begins by mentioning our forefathers and how they created this nation built on equality and liberty. Then he proceeds to tell that the principles on which the nation was founded are under attack. This immediately gets the audience in the mood for being inspired to act, because soon after this he hits them with pathos, the emotions of guilt and courage.

But he ends the short speech with a powerful conclusion, “It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion— that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain— that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom — and that the government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. ” Lincoln’s powerful closing words left the audience in muted shock.

The short powerful speech is one of the most patriotic in American history. Lincoln’s famous war-time speech given on the graves of fallen soldiers uses remarkable pathos along with an astonishing endowment to the history of American speeches through diction, and patriotic passion. The brief, powerful speech that he delivered to fifteen to twenty thousand people is regarded as one of the greatest in American history. It is considered the turning point of the Civil War, helping preserve the union and keep America together.

The inspirational, patriotic, persuasive speech given by Lincoln shows just how good a speech can be from effective use of pathos, diction and patriotism. Works Cited Borade, Gaynor. “Summary and Significance of the Gettysburg Address. ” Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. N. p. , n. d. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://www. buzzle. com/articles/summary-and-significance-of-the-gettysburg-address. html>. Hay, John . “Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, 1863. ” EyeWitness to History – history through the eyes of those who lived it. N. p. , n. d. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://www. eyewitnesstohistory. com/gtsburgaddress. htm>.

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Rhetorical Analysis Essay – “Farm Girl”

Is today’s society getting too lax with their children? Why are parents not giving their children chores? What are kids lacking by not being held accountable? What happens when children do not have responsibilities at a younger age? My rhetorical analysis is focused on the short memoir “Farm Girl” from Jessica Hemauer who vividly paints you as the reader a picture of what it was like growing up on the farm and the effect it had on her life. This piece is one for the masses.

The way Hemauer’s memory of growing up on the farm is written could be for a wide range of people to comprehend. She more than likely wrote this memoir for an audience that had gone through trying times or at the time are currently going through times that are getting them down to see that those times do not always have to be a bad thing; it can be a good thing as well. With it being titled “Farm Girl”, being so easy to follow and an interesting piece to read Hemauer attracted far more than she intended.

It could be read by anyone that is interested about what it is like growing up on a farm or what chores may do for their child and many more as well. In the audience’s face right from the begging with intense details, Hemauer has the attention of the reader, because like myself, most individuals in today’s world couldn’t even fathom wanting to get up nor waking their ten year old child up at 5 A. M. Her use of emotional details in the explanation of how hard it is to get up and how even if she is to argue with her father it won’t get her anywhere makes the reader feel sorry for her.

Though it is common place for her siblings and herself they don’t enjoy doing it as described by Jessica “As we dress, not a single word is spoken because we all feel the same way, “I hate this! ””(Hemauer, 2011, p. 113). Without this explanation from her, most people could logically gather that a group of children would never be enthusiastic about waking early to do work on a farm nor any work at all for that matter.

Hemauer then goes on to describe their duties on the farm before going to school, how she feels at school when she has nothing to talk about at lunch and how she yearns to be involved in sports and clubs at school “not being able to participate in school activities like my friends makes me feel left out and depressed” (Hemauer, 2011, p. 115). Appealing to the reader ethically Hemauer expresses what a large portion of kids in school want to do and be a part of cause they get to spend more time with friends and be part of something bigger than themselves.

Finally, Hemauer is allowed to participate in basketball but must still complete her chores which she is willing to comply with “In eighth grade I really want to play basketball, and after begging and pleading with my parents, they finally say I can join the team as long as I continue to help with chores in the morning before school and after practice” (Hemauer, 2011, p. 115). Though it is tough and causes her to fall asleep in classes sometimes, she manages to do both. Thankfully, only for a short time, then her father decides to hire help due to the farm growing so large and realizing how much his children have given up over the years.

Though at the time it is unknown to her how the experience had affected her life, later she reflects on the adult she became because of it “Each day of my life there are times when I reflect back to working on the farm” (Hemauer, 2011, p. 117). How Hemauer conveys her memoir and looks back on her childhood, shows us how valuable chores can be to a child despite how much they dislike doing them. A large percent of today’s youth lacks the drive or ambition to push their selves because they unlike Hemauer have not had the responsibilities of such magnitude nor any bestowed upon them. In earlier generations, children and adolescents were given meaningful opportunities to be responsible by contributing not only to their households but also to their larger communities,” said Markella Rutherford, assistant professor of sociology at Wellesley College in Massachusetts and author of the new study, Children’s Autonomy and Responsibility: An Analysis of Child Rearing Advice (Lack of household chores making children less responsible, claims survey, 2009). Chores used to be the social norm and without them a child misses out on learning valuable life skills. Chores allow children an early and sustained opportunity to experience responsibility. Independence and self-sufficiency in life are tied, ultimately, to mastery of two types of responsibility: personal responsibility and social responsibility” (Rowland, 2000, Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 16(6), 1). Though it can said many times, different ways that chores can help your child it is also said that you should never ask your child to do something hat you yourself wouldn’t do and they should be used by busy parents to spend more quality time with their child. Essentially helping both the child grow from the responsibilities and allowing the parent to spend more time with the child. References Jessica Hemauer (2011) Farm Girl. In Roen, D, Glau, and Maid,B (Eds) The McGraw-Hill Guide Writing for college, Writing for life. (Pg. 113-117) Boston, MH: Mcgraw Hill P. Barrett, R. (2000). Assigned chores help teach social, personal responsibility. Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter, 16(6), 1.

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Rhetorical Situation and Visual Design

1) Practical visual design is rational in the sense that each step of the way you can understand why you’re making design decisions. 2) The three elements of the rhetorical situation are audience, purpose and context. 3) Some examples of large-scale responses to the rhetorical situation of a document include 11” x 17” four panel format, heavier paper, and arrangements of the documents major elements -brochure-like format, visual demeanor. ) Some examples of local-level responses to the rhetorical situation of a document are typography, large, bold type, bulleted list, single page letter, parallel layout, -narrow text columns, two bar charts and table, labels. 5) Traditional rhetorical strategies apply to visual design in the following ways Arrangement and emphasis strategies pertain to the visual structure and organization of the document. Clarity and conciseness strategies pertain primarily to functional matters of style, of making the design readable and efficient.

Tone and ethos strategies relate primarily to readers subjective responses to the visual language, its voice and credibility. 6) Cognate strategies of visual designs interrelate and overlap because technicality may add to clarity as well as to conciseness. In the same way, the placement of the headings or drawings on a page in not entirely a matter of arrangement rather than ethos and of clarity rather than emphasis. 7) The three kinds of activities in the design process are Invention -Revision -Editing. ) Conventions in the context of communication are customary forms and configurations that members of an audience expect. 9) The three ways of grouping visual conventions are according to scope, degree of flexibility and size of the use group. 10) “Visual discourse community” means an audience that understands certain conventions. 11) Three guidelines for using visual conventions are Identify relevant conventions for any design problems you’re trying to solve Realize that some conventions are more rigid than others Think of conventions in terms of your readers, who give them meaning and significance.

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Rhetorical Analysis the Gigantic Society Mirror : Media.

ENL 101 Essay # 2 Assignment Prof. M. Ryckebusch. Final Draft 03/26/12 Luis Serrano Word Count : 820 The Gigantic Society Mirror : Media. Living in a society with a fierce hunger for capitalism generates an active promotion of companies’ services and products which incites people to spend money on them. Advertisements and publicity have a strong influence on the companies’ marketing process, where creativity and innovation are the keys of attracting new customers, but the intrigue preserves on where should the limits for this advertisements be bounded in order for society not be exposed to things like violence through the media .

In her essay, “ Two Ways A Women Can Get Hurt”, Jean Kilbourne – an award-winning author and educator who is best known for her works about media images effects on young people- emphasizes how violence ( specifically sexualized violence ) in our culture is present through the media, which she recognizes as a powerful mirror in which society is somehow shaped by. Kilbourne’s analysis suggests that erotism in advertising promotes pornography, which main goal , according to her, is to embraces the idea on people minds that women are objects used to fulfill men’s sexual desire ( Kilbourne 459).

The use of the images in the essay serves as evidence to support the author’s message, where she invites the audience to interpret her arguments by applying appeals to reason while they visualize how inhuman and violent some advertisements are. In addition to her thesis, the author emphasizes that some advertisements foster the belief that women reward men with sex when they wear or buy their products ( Kilbourne 459 ). An equally significant aspect mentioned is that these advertisements produce a collateral damage that aims both genders, where individual ideas/actions coming from the images mentioned can be self-harming (Kilborne 467).

As mentioned before, Kilbourne explains in one of her paragraphs that certain advertisements are not only harmful to women, but also to men. She adds that our economy system has developed new markets that had targeted men as sex objects in advertisements. Evidence for in support of this position, can be found in the image of an almost naked man making a advertisements of Calvin Klein Jeans, which is shown to sustain her idea of how pornography is invading the media and the negative effects it has on humans by promoting violent aspects (Kilborne 467).

Even though she mentions that men don’t feel targeted the same way women do, nor they feel threaten by this advertisements, the objectification of any human being is a dangerous thing and its never good. Furthermore, it can be seen from the above analysis, that if a man grows up seeing advertisements that encourage them to mistreat women, there will be a high possibility that he will perform such acts of sexism and violence. The images that bombard us daily influence us to think and behave in certain ways, profoundly affecting the way we see ourselves and others.

In this manner, men are also victims of the publicity in the media because they might find themselves in legal accusations and problems because of their lack of understanding how a women should be treated. The author earn’s the attention from a different audience, appealing to pathos, since she mentions how men are also targeted from the media. In order to support her claim and bridge the controversy the author involves some images, through the essay, in order to bring logos to her thesis. However, there is no shortage of disagreement with the judgements of some images as the main encouragers for a man to mistreat a woman.

In the pictures provided – corresponding to men’s cologne advertisements- the author induce that the admonition behind the publicity infers that ignoring and mistreating a women is a way a men can get her attraction. It is quite obvious that these advertisements she shows are targeted for men customers and the main goal of these advertisements sponsoring products like colognes, is basically to show how effective they are among women. Moreover , it is important to mention that we live in a materialistic society where what what we wear or use is a form of expression that is intended to attract our peers, and in this case the opposite sex.

So when men are wearing a fragrance , they expect women would like the smell of it, since the main purpose of it’s use is attracting women . So on most pictures of cologne , you will always expect a man surrounded by women, indicating the effectiveness of the fragrance instead of men’s supremacy over women. In such declarations, the author show weakness on her credibility by applying excess of emotions when she describes this images, it is apparently clear that the authors feelings lead her to a misconception of some pictures which discredits her ethos.

In writing this essay, Kilbourne faced a challenging task: to write an impressive and brief essay about two of the most broad topics in our society which are media and gender stratification. The problem of people being indifferent toward advertisements is a matter of fact that only few have been aware of. Even if the main purpose of Kilbourne was to target (by different emotional appeals and some biased feminist thoughts) women as her main audience, this essay embraces the idea of how dangerous the media can be in our society and how offensive it can be . not only women, but buy any human being.

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Visual Rhetoric in Persepolis

Nils Tangemann Josh Holland English A SL C-Code Section: Part 3 Works read: Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. Pantheon. New York. 2003 Question: How and why is a social group represented in a particular way? The Display of Revolutionists in Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis In Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis there are several important social groups that all play a role towards creating the whole picture that describes little Marji’s everyday life in 1970s Iran. The nature of the revolution during that time created a huge divide between the different social groups.

This was dominated by different opinions that were expressed using violence, intimidation and other mental and physical threatening methods. Satrapi uses visual representation and plot devices in her graphic novel Persepolis to expose the hypocrisy of the Islamic revolution. First of all, the author displays all members of the army and Islamic revolutionary groups without any distinction from each other; they are one homogenous group. Secondly, a story about the corruptness of policemen and government officials is used to demonstrate how detached those people act towards their fake values that they preach to other people.

Lastly, the fact that the army is recruiting new soldiers through a method that is obviously aimed at non- or less-educated youth shows that the regime is scared of the higher educated population knowing that they will not have a chance in recruiting this social group because of their opposition. An aspect of the novel that comes to mind immediately when reading the text is Satrapi’s choice to display the members of the revolutionist Islamic regime in a different way than the family or friends of ten year old Marji.

While the individuals that are a direct part of Marji’s social life are displayed in great detail, the revolutionists are always shown in a more general fashion, therefore not distinguishing those characters. An example of this can be found in the chapter “The bicycle” when the burning down of a cinema by police forces is described (Satrapi 14). Using this technique, the followers of the regime are displayed as individuals that do not have an individual opinion, but rather blend into the crowd of people and go with the mainstream ideology hat is prevalent during the current political situation. This makes this social group stand out in such a way that the reader considers them generally as less educated and unable to question the political views that society has. The fact that Satrapi shows the persons that lean towards the more communistic political opinion in greater detail than revolutionists shows her political beliefs, therefore furthering the idea that this novel can be considered a memoir. In addition, the policemen of the revolutionary regime are depicted as corrupt and detached from their values.

When the family almost gets caught having alcohol in their house, the policemen accept money from Marji’s father and leave again without checking his flat (Satrapi 10). If the actual religious core values of the regime were important to those policemen, they would not have left the site without checking, since the possession of forbidden substances is obvious to them. This depicts how separated the followers of the regime are from their own values that they promote.

Satrapi tells the reader this story because she wants to expose the hypocrisy with which the government officials and therefore also the police operates. In this case, the author uses a plot device to express her political opinion. She makes the conscious decision to include this memory in her novel because it illustrates her opposition to the government and demonstrates a strong reason why using these policemen as bait. Similarly, in Marji’s description the army uses techniques that clearly aim for the less educated and poor people to join the military.

A plastic key on a chain is distributed to the less educated in order to convince them that they will go to heaven if they fight for their country. Satrapi uses the dialogue between her mother and their housekeeper to indicate how upset the upper social class us about the strategy that the government uses to persuade the innocent youth of Iran (Satrapi 99). The government clearly aims for the young adults that do not have much of a choice other than joining the army and dying at a young age.

On top of that, they are also naive enough to believe that the key will bring them to heaven. Mrs. Nasrine tells the story of how her son is being convinced to go to the army (Satrapi 100). The family helps to convince Mrs. Nasrine’s son that the government is spreading lies (Satrapi 101). Marji’s mother is debunking the myths of the government in front of everyone’s eyes. The author uses this technique to express her own, negative opinion for the government and the manner in which they treat the young adults and not caring about their lives.

In conclusion, certain techniques of visual rhetoric and plot devices can be detected in the novel and are utilized to express the personal opinion of the author whilst displaying the revolutionary government as incompetent and unqualified. The followers of the regime are displayed homogenously without distinct characteristics or an individual opinion. The police that is associated with the government is corrupt and the methods of recruiting new soldiers for the army are only intended for uneducated and naive people because others cannot be tricked into the belief of going to heaven.

The author makes great use of this technique not only when describing the revolutionists, but also when she is delivering her own opinion about how women were treated in Iran during her childhood. When deciphering these methods and finding the hidden comments on the social structure we really see the author in her mid-forties who is writing. The novel far expands from the view of a ten year old and is not only a story of a childhood, but also a critical commentary on moral issues and personal opinion. [Word count: 958] Citation: Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. Pantheon. New York. 2003.

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Understanding Rhetorical Structures as They Pertain to Audience

Understanding Rhetorical Structures as they pertain to audience, purpose, and context Understanding Rhetorical Structure Colton Kiefer EN1420 This paper is about the understanding of the Rhetorical Structures as they pertain to audience, purpose, and context and how they affect the argument of whether taxes should be raised on higher income brackets in order to fund social programs for at-risk and underserved, low income children. I will discuss the relationship between the audience, purpose, and context to the context of the argument. Understanding Rhetorical Structures

How do audience, purpose, and context affect the argument of whether taxes should be raised on higher income brackets in order to fund social programs for at-risk and underserved, low income children. I will discuss the relationship between the audience, purpose, and context to the context of the argument. Discussion The goal of this discussion is to see the relationship between audience, purpose, and context of should Taxes be raised for higher income brackets in order to fund social programs for at-risk, underserved, and low income children.

The first audience for this group are wealth fortune 500 CEO’s. They are considered the in the higher income bracket in my opinion. They need to be educated on the understanding that even though most lower income families struggle, it is not because they are not trying. The economy has taken its toll on a lot of jobs here in the US over the past couple of years and even though they are working a full time job and sometimes two full time jobs, they cannot afford any kind of social program for their children.

The present economy conditions are hurting the lower income families to the point that they struggle to make ends meet and can sometimes barley afford to put food on the table for their children. The higher income bracket would need to see just how little the additional taxes would take from them and what the benefits of those taxes could do for a low income family struggling to make ends meet. They still could possibly not be receptive to the idea, but giving them examples of the cost and benefits of such programs I think they would start to understand.

The second audience for this group is the low income families of at-risk, and underserved, low income children. They need to be educated on the benefits that could come from the higher taxes. In my opinion, the higher income bracket can afford the higher taxes to fund some of these programs. The cost of living, food, gas, and housing all affect the income of many families in the US. If they understood what could come from the taxes, they could get some reissuance as to vote on such a bill if it came up to vote for the public.

Education on the subject of the current tax laws would be a good example of what the different taxes brackets that are used today in the US. Lower income families would jump on the idea of being able to send their children to a soccer camp, or baseball camp. According to an article on “Taxing the rich is good for the economy”, raising taxes on the higher income bracket would reduce the taxes on low and middle income families. This would also allow for those families to keep more of their income to use towards these programs. All in all I think it would be a beneficial idea to entertain.

The context of the economy, food, and taxes all play an important role in this argument. The higher income bracket would be resistant to the idea until they were presented with facts on the cost and the minimal decrease in income for them. The lower income families would be blessed with some relief with their children’s social experience and the ability to provide more learning resources to them. References Taxing the rich is good for the economy Retrieved from http://www. marketplace. org/topics/economy/commentary/taxing-rich-good-economy By Robert Reich Marketplace for Wednesday, April 18, 2012 Marketplace. org

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Rhetorical Analysis: the Crisis, No. 1

Rhetorical Analysis: The Crisis, No. 1 by Thomas Paine Political writer, Thomas Paine, in his persuasive writing, The Crisis No. 1, expresses feelings towards Britain’s control over the colonies. Paine’s purpose is to unite the colonists in an effort to retaliate against Great Britain. He uses an objective tone in order to unite and rally the common person in his nation. Paine opens his persuasion to the nation by warning that getting their freedom from Britain will not be easy. By using the simile, “Tyranny, like hell… , he implies that Britain’s control over them will not be easy to overcome. As he says in the beginning of the paragraph, “The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will… shrink from the service… but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and women. “, this states that anyone who will not fight for their country does not deserve their country, he uses pathos when declaring this statement. In the latter section of this paragraph, Paine uses the metaphor, “… f being bound in that manner is not slavery”, to show that the way that the Britain is controlling them, makes them feel like slaves. Paine later uses ethos when he states, “However, the fault, if it were one, was all our own; we have none to blame but ourselves. But no great deal is lost yet. ” He says this to show the nation that they had messed up in the beginning, but if they were to come together they could right the wrongs that were done. In the following paragraph Paine uses pathos when he talks about God not giving up on his people.

That God will provide for them and not give them “up to the care of devils”. he also states that God will be on their side, “I cannot see on what grounds the King of Britain can look up to heaven for help against us: a common murderer”. Paine shifts to talk about panic, how panic can be used to produce good and bad. He uses a simile in paragraph three, “Britain has trembled like and ague”, he uses this to show that even the royal British army can be terrified, later in the paragraph he states, “the whole English army… was driven back like men petrified with fear”, to emphasize his point more.

Paine opens the closing paragraph by uniting the people with ethos, “The far and near, the home counties and the back, the rich and the poor will suffer or rejoice alike. ” In saying that Paine implies, no matter what happens they all will stay together, whether it be death or freedom. He also uses ethos by stating “Not all the treasures in the world… could have induced me to support and offensive war, I think it murder. “, by saying this Paine shows that war was the last option he would have much rather came to a peaceful solution, but given the circumstances, there was no choice.

Paine closes up the paragraph by using an asyndeton, “Let them call me a rebel and welcome… but I should suffer the misery of devils were I to make a whore of my soul by swearing allegiance to one whose character is that of a sottish, stupid, stubborn, worthless, brutish man. ” His use of the asyndeton to show that the King is much more than that he listed. In The Crisis No. 1, Thomas Paine creates an objective tone to unite and rally the nation by showing what kind of man the King of Britain is. Paine achieved his goal by using a variety of rhetorical devices. He connected to the nation through the use of his devices.

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Rhetorical Analysis of “The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species”

Rhetorical Analysis of “The Responsibility to Conserve Wild Species” “The responsibility to conserve wild species – A Consideration of Policy Implications: A Panel Discussion – In the Company of Animals” appears in the scholarly journal. Author, John G. Robinson, holds a Ph. D. in zoology and he is an active member and prominent position holder in several conservationist organizations including the Wildlife Conservation Society. He argues from his self-proclaimed conservationist viewpoint that all interventions to preserve wild species are justifiable.

In the article, the milestones are fairly clear and seeing the issue occurs in the first paragraph. The author explains how the roles between human beings and wild animals have changed over time. He points out that most of us do not have frequent interaction with wild animals but asserts that we should care about the question of urban society intervening in the lives of wild animals. We should not only care about this question but care enough to take responsibility and action because of our increased presence in their lives.

Judging by the author’s persuasive pleas, this article is written to people who do not already share the author’s views entirely or in part. The journal, Social Research, is primarily written to scholars and learned individuals, but I think the general population just does not have enough knowledge on wild species and/or the direness of their situations to feel greatly motivated to act. Here, he could have supplied more information for the less knowledgeable majority, though it is not really necessary because of the journal’s target audience.

In his writing, I think that Robinson assumes that humans want to take responsibility for dwindling numbers of wild species. This article would benefit here with logos. By using statistics as solid evidence he might supply an impetus for action. Robinson defines the problem beginning in paragraph two and continues through the sixth paragraph. He first uses ethos in the form of a citation from Aldo Leopold: “A thing’s right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise. ” Robinson supports the idea from two perspectives.

First from the utilitarian point of view, he explains that not attempting to conserve wild species jeopardizes resources that humans depend on. The second view, the bio centric position, he emphasizes that wild species have an ‘inherent right to exist. ” Are there any other viewpoints that he ignored or tiled to see? I think there are, but Robinson does not even acknowledge the existence of other points of view. I think that to him there are just no other options and he does not want readers to begin to consider not intervening in the lives of wild animals in order to conserve them.

Other than this, he does an excellent job of defining his position and then conservationists’ ideas of integrity, stability and beauty. He moves on to claim that “human beings are the single largest contributor to this global degradation (of natural systems and biological diversity). ” In the third paragraph, Robinson addresses the faulty ideas of words such as “pristine,” “undisturbed,” and even “wilderness. ” These words refer to an unattainable ideal in our modern world. Humankind is everywhere and making an impact always. Throughout the paper an underlying persuasive argument is taking place.

If you accepted Leopold’s premise, then logically you should accept the idea that humans’ primary responsibility “is to ensure the survival of species in nature. ” This necessary acceptance that follows from logic is a little tricky. In the fourth paragraph, beginning the milestone of choosing a solution, Robinson shows us the faulty path of the least intrusive action of establishing protected areas. The return paths appear in the next paragraph along with an example pertaining to mishaps experienced by the United States National Park Service and the Forest Service.

Robinson shortly suggests a second solution but then quickly dismisses it. From my understanding, this solution is based in the first solution, and then the author expands upon it by offering to enlist the help of local communities. The fault in this solution lies in that the community would have to value the animals and thus they would become a resource. This would essentially destroy the goal of conservation in the first place. I believe the author could have expounded on this point and further explored details of this option.

Is it really a good idea or a bad idea? Should we research this idea more for ourselves? At last, a final and most intrusive proposal is made in the sixth paragraph. Bringing wild animals into captivity is an area most all of us are familiar with because of our childhood visits to zoos and wildlife parks. This paragraph could incite some pathos which I believe the author should have capitalized on. He gives us three good reasons for supporting this option and even uses a bit of logos, though more would be appropriate in my opinion.

In the second to last paragraph the author emphasizes from his conservationist perspective that all kinds of interventions are justifiable for the conservation of populations or species. In the concluding paragraph Robinson proposes the paradox of the current argument, “The more humans intervene, the more responsibility they must assume … but to do otherwise is irresponsible. ” I think this truly is the heart of the argument though sadly it is cyclical. From my point of view, the author could have addressed some more faulty paths, especially those of the opposing viewpoint.

Robinson never even touched the idea of not intervening to conserve wild species except to say that letting nature take its course would not suffice for a solution. I think that overall, Robinson made a good argument although he failed to elaborate on some key points. ? Work Cited Robinson, John G. “The responsibility to conserve wild species – A Consideration of Policy Implications: A Panel Discussion – In the Company of Animals”. Social Research. 1995: n. pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. 31 Mar, 2012.

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Rhetorical Analysis, Mickey Mouse

Rhetorical Analysis 10 February 2013 In the article The Masks of Mickey Mouse, Robert Brockway explains how Mickey Mouse was one of the most important cultural symbols during the twentieth century. The article discusses how mickey mouse went from being a slap stick cartoon character like all other animated personalities and grew into a much more complicated being. He was the sign of hope and escape during the depression and evolved even more into the dominating avatar of Disney itself. Brockway begins his article by describing Walt Disney himself trying to explain the dramatic success of his simply drawn cartoon character.

It starts the article by showing the reader that even Disney himself is shocked by the massive popularity the animated mouse collects during the 1920s and 1930s. This also sets up the first point the writer pushes which is that Mickey Mouse is no ordinary cartoon character but a diverse, evolving cultural symbol that everyone around the world can relate to. As the author puts it, “He has become an archetypal symbol, not only to Americans but to people everywhere, especially to the generation that was young during the thirties. Brockway goes on to reinforce the initial argument by stating that the entire film industry was shocked by the torrential success of Disney’s character and saying, “Mickey was instantly popular not only among ordinary people young and old, but with intellectuals, artists, and heads of state (Profiles of Popular Culture 80). ” The author continues to press the point of the cartoon’s global influence talking about the king, George V, in England requiring a Mickey Mouse short be watched before every film performances and the Emperor of Japan wearing a Mickey Mouse watch.

Shortly after proving Mickey’s dominance of international culture Brockway talks about how complicated the short, round mouse really is. He claims Disney himself tried to explain the mouse’s popularity simply on his plainness, saying that everyone could understand him easily. Brockway counters this statement by stating, “He is as complex as Disney was himself and as profound in his symbolic and mythic implications as any mythic or fairy tale character (Profiles of Popular Culture 80). ” Another point the author makes about Disney’s character was that it was in the actual shape of Mickey’s body that was a reason for his dominance. He also evokes the mysteries of the circular design which some authorities find profoundly significant as an archetypal figure. Such a phenomenon can scarcely be dismissed as frivolous,” Brockway announces in his article. There is a statement later in the essay that talks about curved shapes having always been a favorite of people even if they don’t realize it. It states that since there is no threat in a curved surface we enjoy them more, unlike a sharper object with points which we see as more of a danger.

For this reason the author deducts that one of the contributing factors to Mickey’s early competition, Felix the cat, didn’t last simply because of how sharp his design was. The essay quotes John Hench, “Mickey has been accepted all over the world, and there is obviously no problem of people responding to this set of circles. I’m going to oversimplify this, but circles never cause anybody any trouble. We have bad experiences with sharp points, with angles, but circles are things we have fun with- babies, women’s behinds, breasts. So Mickey was made this way, while a contemporary known as Felix the Cat didn’t get anywhere.

He has points all over him like a cactus (Profiles of Popular Culture 87). ” Brockway also quotes Ub Iwerks on the shape of mickey’s head, “Mickey’s face is a trinity of wafers- and the circular symbol… always points to the single most vital aspect of life- its ultimate wholeness (86). ” The other contributing factor the author lists as to why Felix the Cat doesn’t go anywhere was that he never evolved from the slapstick comedy that started him out. Mickey also began his career with a slapstick style as did many artists in the twenties.

Unlike Felix though, Mickey didn’t remain in the slapstick genre of comedy. According to Durgnat, slapstick emerges from childlike impulsiveness, dream fantasy and visual poetry. The “slapstick comedians are childlike, and… act out impulses which as adults we suppress (Profiles of Popular Culture 83). ” Disney evolved Mickey Mouse during the thirties because of the tone that America had taken. The economic crisis called for a different kind of comedy a more upbeat type. The bleakness of everyday life called for a cartoon that displayed sentimental escapism.

Brockway claims that Disney seamlessly changed the style of his cartoon to relate to the changing times in America with shorts called Silly Symphonies (84). Brockway writes that this is not the only evolution Mickey must go through to stay relevant. During the second world war, Mickey is matured again to fit with the times. He goes from short films to being the face of the corporate Disney image. Brockway claims he became the “organized man (86). ” Brockway’s final point in the text is that Mickey, as many heroes do, will die out in popularity as the generation that grew up with him also dies.

He states, “Mickey has some impact on younger people but far less than upon those born during the inter-war years. That generation is now senior and it is also diminishing. All gods eventually die and Mickey is no exception. But, being immortals, all gods rise. Mickey, too, may be reborn in some future imaginary character of the popular culture of which he is an avatar… Future generations will encounter him again (Profiles of Popular Culture 88). ” Works Cited Browne, Ray B. , ed. Profiles of Popular Culture: A Reader. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 2005. Print.

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Betrayal: Rhetoric and Ethos Julius Caesar

To get credit for the collaboration activity, Betrayal 01, 02, 04, 05, and 06: A. ) Submit this attachment in A Collaboration Process. Then copy and paste the below information in the student comment area of A Collaboration Product and Betrayal 01, 04, and 05: 1. Date you attended the session. 2. At least 3 sentences explaining how Shakespeare’s story about Julius Caesar is different than what really (historically) happened in Caesar’s life. 3. Give examples of the three persuasive techniques from either Antony’s or Brutus’s speech. logos, pathos, and ethos) 4. Give an example of one traitor and one patriot with supporting examples from the play.

5. At least 3 sentences explaining what you did in the session so that someone who did not attend would have an understanding of it. 6. At least 3 sentences evaluating how well your group worked together to accomplish your task. B. ) Submit this in Betrayal 02: 1. Complete the Lesson 2 Quiz. For the essay questions, you may respond, “I attended the Betrayal Live Lesson on __________ (date). C. ) Schedule Betrayal 6 DBA as we still need to complete that on the phone. If you are an honors student, complete the honors assignment before the dba. D. ) If you are an honors student, complete lesson 8.

Lesson 8 Assignment 1. ) Choose which character from “The Lay of the Were-Wolf” you would like to defend. 2. ) Analyze the story to find examples of logos, pathos, and ethos that support your character’s innocence. 3. ) Determine how to present your examples in a persuasive argument. 4. Write a three-paragraph “closing argument” for the trial that will persuade the jury that your character is not a monster. a. ) Paragraph #1 – logos b. ) Paragraph #2 – pathos c. ) Paragraph #3 – ethos Julius Caesar

Recordings: a read-along for each act. Enjoy! Act I, Scenes i, ii, iii https://sas. elluminate. com/site/external/jwsdetect/playback. jnlp? psid=2012-01-23. 1812. M. 18C7F05BEF4B1A91008CFEA56749A1. vcr&sid=679 Act II, Scenes i, ii, iii, iv https://sas. elluminate. com/site/external/jwsdetect/playback. jnlp? psid=2012-02-03. 107. M. 18C7F05BEF4B1A91008CFEA56749A1. vcr&sid=679 Act III, Scenes i, ii, iii https://sas. elluminate. com/p. jnlp? psid=2012-02-07. 0726. M. 18C7F05BEF4B1A91008CFEA56749A1. vcr&sid=679 Acts IV & V https://sas. elluminate. com/p. jnlp? psid=2012-02-07. 0817. M. 18C7F05BEF4B1A91008CFEA56749A1. vcr&sid=679 Brutus’s Funeral Speech: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=ab68AjRMKmA Antony’s Funeral Speech: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=Zd9BLib8448 Materials from Live Lesson and Play in original language: http://vimeo. com/41708712

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A Whisper of Aids Rhetorical Analysis Paper

Shayan Momin Momin 1 Mr. Pople AP English III, Period 7 12 October 2012 Rhetorical Analysis of “A Whisper of AIDS” In 1891, Voltairine de Cleyre wrote The Philosophy of Selfishness and Metaphysical Ethics, critiquing the selfish and egoistic mindset of society. This same mindset is critiqued by Mary Fisher in “A Whisper of AIDS”. She uses rationally emotional rhetoric in order to criticize this “self-ism” that exists in the world. Fisher begins by speaking of the non-existent impacts of movements that have attempted to raise awareness about AIDS.

She utilizes the word “despite” in consecutive phrases to show that “despite science and research” and “good intentions”, nothing significant has occurred because “the epidemic is [still] winning”. Through her usage of repetition, it is inferable that society has ignored these efforts due to the way of thinking that was scorched by de Cleyre. This ignorance from the public reveals how deeply rooted this “self-ism” is in our society. And to extend her point even further, she says that the “White House” has attempted to try to raise awareness about AIDS.

Her reference to the government further exposes the stubbornness of society to change their selfish way of life. She tries to say that even with the government pushing for this cause, the public still refuses to take action. But even the government isn’t doing much. Fisher mentions the “campaign slogans” and “hopeful promises” that were made by the government with a sarcastic tone. This implies that the speaker believes that even our federal government has a mindset of selfishness. But this is only the beginning of her attack on society. Momin 2

She goes on to blame society for the magnitude of the virus’s impacts. She says that by ignoring the virus and the people affected by it, society has “helped [the virus] along” and that we “have killed each other with our ignorance, our prejudice, and our silence”. Her usage of a list explains in what ways society has committed such a crime. And all of this is due to the existence of a mindset that promotes self-centration, a mindset that calls for the ignorance of all others who coexist with you. The connotation of “killed” has a double effect.

First, its negative connotation creates an image in one’s head of a mob of people destroying one another. It represents how severe the aftermath of the virus has been. The second effect, one that is deeper, and somewhat hidden, is that the word “killed” implies the killing of open-mindedness and selflessness. It shows how people hurt each other, knock each other down, and even kill each other for their own selfish desires. In this case, society has ignored the AIDS virus because they have the thought that “If I don’t have it, I shouldn’t care about it”.

This kind of thinking has lay ruin for the victims of this virus, who have been hurt even more due to the ignorance of society towards such a major problem. Fisher refers to empirics in order to prove the detrimental effects of having a selfish society. She speaks of how her grandfather had heard the Pastor Niemoeller say that when “[the Nazis] came after the Jews”, he didn’t protest because he wasn’t a Jew. When the Nazis “came after the Trade Unionists”, the pastor did not protest because he wasn’t a Trade Unionist. But when the Nazis “came after [the pastor]”, “there was no one left to protest”.

The parallelism used here helps to better define the impacts of a self-minded society, supporting the speaker’s main purpose which is to critique the “self-ism” that exists today. This quote is significant in another way as well. The way the pastor reacted to the Nazi invasion is the same way people are reacting Momin 3 to the AIDS and HIV virus. They are mirror reflections of each other. It shows that people will only learn when they are victimized. When this happened to the pastor, he then realized his mistake. But in this case, if people will only learn through victimization, the result would be catastrophic.

Fisher says how “a million” are infected now; if this is what is to happen, billions will be exposed to the virus. Through this foreshadowing, the author is able to convince the reader that self-centration will lead to our demise. Unless we become aware. Mary Fisher’s critiquing of society’s selfishness and self-mindedness makes the reader aware of the dangers of having such a mindset. Her purpose is to point out that in order to help raise awareness of HIV; we must first rid ourselves of such a malignant way of thinking.

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Change for You, Not For Others

Brooke Collins 11-10-12 Block #1A Draft #1 Change for You, Not For Others Well-known Sci-fi writer, Ray Bradbury, in his novel, Fahrenheit 451, illustrates that relationships reflect who individuals are and who they want to be. Bradbury’s purpose is to promote the idea that a person should have the courage to listen to their own beliefs and thoughts of happiness rather than to blend in with society. He adopts a disoriented and poetic tone in order to appeal to similar feelings and experiences on a non-realistic scale in his young adult readers.

Bradbury uses symbolism to indicate that relationships reflect who individuals are and who they want to be. Fire seems to mean a lot of different things at different moments in Fahrenheit 451. Beatty and his fireman minions use it to destroy. But the woman whose house they burn interprets it another way: “Play the man, Master Ridley; we shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out. ” For her, it represents strength. Montag himself discovers an alternative use for fire at the end of the novel; when he realizes that it can warm instead of destroy.

Like that whole cycle of life thing, fire has a constructive and destructive half. And like the books that are burned, each character in the novel is forced to interpret for them and confront contradictory perspectives – just like Beatty said about the books. Symbolism helps view the story from multiple points of view, and also gives a more vivid understanding of the thoughts and feelings of the characters. Bradbury also uses Imagery to illustrate that relationships reflect who people are and who they want to be.

There are several references throughout Fahrenheit 451 to essentially yucky animals and insects (that’s the technical term). When Mildred gets her stomach pumped, the machine is like a snake. The earpiece she wears at night is like a praying mantis. The helicopters in the chase scene are described as insects. Even the Mechanical Hound has eight legs, like a spider. Notice a pattern here? These references all have to do with technology – destructive technology that the government uses to control its citizens.

It’s basically a perversion of nature and of the natural order, which fits into the larger themes of Fahrenheit 451 (because in this world of destruction without construction, the natural order is off). Imagery gives a clearer description and understanding of most important objects and people in the novel. Ray Bradbury lastly uses allegory to convey that relationships reflect who people are and who they want to be. When the chase draws to a close, Montag ditches his clothes, bathes in the river, and dons Faber’s attire instead. For a man who’s been through three or more identity crises, this is significant.

Also you can read Rhetorical Devices in Night Walker by Brent Staples

He’s leaving the old Montag behind, cleansing himself of his old identity, and assimilating a new one for the time being (Faber’s). The fact that another man is captured and killed in Montag’s place is a great ancillary to this moment. Almost accounted for as a rebirth, Montag is revived as a new person along with a new life. Allegory is used in this novel to portray a spiritual representation of becoming a new individual as who they want to be. This widely presents that relationships reflect who people are and who they want to be.

Bradbury’s novel reveals symbolism, imagery, and allegory while he supports his idea and connects emotionally, physically, and mentally with the reader. He successfully promotes his purpose that a person should have the courage to listen to their own beliefs and thoughts of happiness rather than to blend in with society by using the three devices described earlier. In the end, Bradbury’s style puts the reader through an emotional break through as they realize that relationships reflect who people are and who they want to be.

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The Things They Carried Rhetorical Analysis

The Things They Carried Prompt: How do the symbols, imagery, and anecdotes in The Things They Carried help to contribute to the meaning of the text? The Things They Carried, written by Tim O’Brien, recounts the horrible experiences of soldiers at war in Vietnam. Throughout the novel, the author not only tells war stories, but tales about his own life, often referencing and dwelling on those who have made an impact on his life. He stresses the importance of these people and stories, often referring to them as “war stories” although many of these are not true.

They serve as an outlet for O’Brien, allowing him to let go of these horrible memories but also letting him keep the importance that they had on his life. These stories and messages are emphasized through the symbols displayed in the novel, the imagery used throughout, and the anecdotes that recount his memories. The symbols in The Things They Carried help to make the text more meaningful and further communicate the theme the novel displays. One of the symbols, the dead Vietnamese soldier, represents the horrors of war and what soldiers have to experience on the battlefield.

Although it was never completely clarified whether O’Brien did or did not kill the man, the guilt he relays through the text shows that he does not want to be in war, but it is expected of him to kill others since he is involved. He does so to prevent scorn from society upon his return. The author copes with the death of the Vietnamese soldier as he does with others throughout the novel; he fantasizes about what kind of person the soldier was, what he did before the war, and what he will do after.

He creates the soldier’s life in his mind, saying that “After his years at the university, the man I killed returned with his new wife to the village of My Khe, where he enlisted as a common rifleman with the 48th Vietcong Battalion” (O’Brien, 130). The man is a symbol of who the author hoped to be instead of who he was at war. The author himself was about to go to college, but was unable to do so in his life, so fabricated the soldier’s past to live out his dreams in a different manner.

Even though he did not know the man, he still feels and remembers the loss like the soldier had a significant impact on his life. O’Brien keeps those that have passed on alive in his memory, and this is one of the many continuous themes of the novel. The uses of imagery throughout the novel help to bring more meaning and importance to the theme the novel holds. In many of the important events in the novel, imagery is utilized to stress the significance of the event. When Kiowa dies in the novel, the use of imagery shows the importance of Kiowa to the entire troop, and how his death happened.

When describing his dead body, O’Brien includes the details that “A piece of his shoulder was missing; the arms and chest and face were cut up with shrapnel. He was covered with a bluish green mud” (O’Brien, 175). This description of Kiowa’s dead and decomposing body helps to bring the reader into the war itself, and what the author was feeling at this point in his life. Not only does this imagery convey to the reader the condition of the body, but it also communicates the reality of war and the effect it has on the people involved.

However, the author keeps Kiowa both alive through the text and in his memory, stating that a true war story is never completely true. This shows that although most of the novel is most likely fabricated and completely false, it still relates the general experience of the war and these experiences keep the war alive in the author’s memory. Many of the stories within The Things They Carried are short anecdotes, and they give examples of the war stories that O’Brien has both experienced and heard. These tales essentially make up the book, and thus are very important to the meaning of the novel.

The author often recounts his experiences with those who have passed on even though these stories seem to have no relevance to the text itself. For instance, he remembers his first experience with love and loss on meeting Linda when he was in elementary school. “When I write about her now, three decades later, it’s tempting to dismiss it as a crush, an infatuation of the childhood, but I know for a fact that what for each other was as deep and rich as love can ever get”(O’Brien, 228). This love he felt for Linda was true, and even similar to the love he felt for many of the men in his troop.

Even though O’Brien has not seen Linda or heard of her for three decades, she is immortalized within his memory, and as a result, he thinks about her often, as he does with other deceased characters in the book, such as Kurt Lemon and Kiowa. This memory of Linda shows that the book was not written only to recount his experience in the war, but to also remember those who have passed on through the text, and this shows that even when people die, they are never truly forgotten. The symbols, imagery, and anecdotes used throughout the text help to prove that no one single person is every truly gone from someone’s memory, and every memory has an mpact on one’s life. O’Brien uses symbolism to refer to the war at many points, and his memory of the man showed who he wished he was rather than what he really became. The symbolism used when describing Kiowa’s death shows the horror and reality of war, and well as the immortalization of people in the author’s memory. O’Brien’s anecdote involving Linda and his first experience with love shows this remembrance of the dead as well. This anecdote, along with others, brings more meaning to the story. These messages involved in the book help to bring more meaning and importance to the text, and help to leave an impact on the reader’s life.

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Soma Feldmar Imagination and Reality Rhetorical Analysis

Brandon Vanwert 11/6/12 Eng101LecR5 Soma Feldmar Imagination and Reality Rhetorical Analysis The essay “Imagination and Reality” was written by Jeanette Winterson. Winterson is a British writer who was born in Manchester, England. After moving to London, her first novel, Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit, won the 1985 Whitbread Prize for a First Novel, and was adapted for television by Winterson in 1990. This in turn won the BAFTA Award for Best Drama. She won the 1987 John Llewellyn Rhys Prize forThe Passion, a novel set in Napoleonic Europe. Imagination and Reality” is published in her book of essays, Art Objects. In “Imagination and Reality”, Jeannette Winterson talks about imagination, reality, and art. Throughout the essay, she finds ways to compare imagination and reality and show how they go hand in hand. In order to create art, one must make their imagination a reality. Winterson talks about the notional life and a money culture which is encouraged by the government. She argues that the artist cannot live this kind of life, because the artist works on their own time and money cannot describe the value of art.

The author refers to the late medieval and Renaissance periods in Europe, where artists where much more valued, because the artist was bringing back visions. Winterson believes that art is visionary, rather than documentary, because it allows you to see things that you would not normally be able to see. The visionary uses their own imagination and makes it a reality through art. The author argues that money can buy the painting, but it can’t expose you to the energy inside the painting. Winterson then uses Shakespeare to compare Kingship and the imaginative life.

She then goes on to explain the symbolic man, where people surround themselves with “valuable” objects to create self fulfillment. The artist is actually the one that is most in touch with the real world because they see outside of dead visions. Through an artists work, they are able to see what things really are, stripped of there associative value. Winterson goes back to Shakespeare’s Othello to show that it wasn’t Othello the action man who won Desdemona’s love, it was Othello the poet, the artist.

Imagination and reality do indeed coincide with each other, because without one, you can’t have the other. One who only see’s and doesn’t imagine is a documentary artist, taking everything for exactly what it is. But the visionary artist is the one that can see outside the box, seeing a vision within a vision. Winterson’s main point in “Imagination and Reality”, is that through art, we are able to turn our imagination into a reality. Winterson sets the tone for her essay in the very two first sentences. By asking “What do I mean by reality of art?

What do I mean by reality of imagination? ” This draws the reader in to read the rest of the essay and then finally she gives an answer to these questions in the last sentence of the essay saying, “The reality of art is the reality of imagination. ” The author also puts extra emphasis on the sentence, “The honest currency of art is the honest currency of imagination. ” This means that the value of the final artwork can only be measured by the imagination used. Was it a visionary artwork? Or was it simply documentary?

The documentary artist doesn’t use imagination. They simply copy what they see in front of them. Winterson states, “Art is visionary: it sees beyond the view from the window, even though the window is its frame. ” Whenever we do any type of work we have a basis, a foundation. When writing an essay there is a certain format and structure to follow, which acts as the “window”, and it is our job to go beyond that and add our own thoughts into it. For the artist they must use imagination to create their own reality for the viewer to interpret.

Winterson refers back to the late medieval and Renaissance times of Europe where the artist was very respected, because it was about bringing back visions, not money. It was in Victorian England where artists started to lose there credibility and were looked at as harmful rather than helpful. Winterson attributes our lack of appreciation for art to the Victorian legacy. She states, “We live in a money culture because they did. Control by plutocracy is a nineteenth century phenomenon that has been sold to us as a blueprint for reality.

But what is real about the values of a money culture? ” Winterson is trying to show that just because we have been living in a money culture for a long time, that doesn’t mean it has better values. She believes that its not the artist that is out of touch with reality, but that the artist is actually more in touch with reality than a typical believer of the “money culture. ” “Imagination and Reality” offers many different ways of proving the point that reality is the application of one’s imagination.

Another way that Winterson intensifies her argument is through the use of logos, the means of persuading by logic. The author refers to history to back up her point of view. She talks about in the earliest Hebrew creation stories, how Yahweh makes a clay model of a man and breathes on it to bring it to life. “It is the supreme confidence, the translation of forms, the capacity to recognize in one thing the potential of another…” This event can show that art truly is a reality of the imagination.

There is no limit to art as it can expand as far as one wants it to. Using his imagination, Yahweh was able to give this clay model life and make it his reality. Twice throughout Winterson’s, essay, she says the same exact sentence and isolates it from the rest of the essay both times. She states, “To see outside of a dead vision is not an optical illusion. ” It means that bringing back visions that people don’t think about or know about anymore doesn’t mean that it’s not real.

Just because something has been put to sleep, that doesn’t mean it cannot be woken up. Using imagination to bring back realities is very possible, such as if Russia was to bring back a communist government. People can’t see it happening, but its not impossible. Winterson’s statements, “To see outside of a dead vision is not an optical illusion” and “The honest currency of art is the honest currency of imagination” are the two most emphasized sentences of the essay, being that they are mentioned twice each and also given their own paragraph.

Throughout “Imagination and Reality”, Jeannette Winterson was able to convey her point that we can turn imagination into reality through art. She was able to do so by uses several different rhetorical strategies and techniques in order to persuade the reader. The author used personal experience, history, and Shakespeare’s Othello to back up this main point. She also structured the essay in a certain way to help get her point across. By the end of the essay, it was proven correct that reality is just the application of imagination.

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A Beautiful Piece Of Chalk Analogy

A Beautiful Piece Of Chalk Analogy, contradiction, and irony are some of the important rhetorical methods that many authors use to portray their ideas. In “A Piece of Chalk” (1905), G. K. Chesterton demonstrates his adept writing ability in using those methods as a means of appeal to convey that everything is beautiful and valuable in its own way. His piece of writing not only exemplifies the use of contradiction, humor, analogy and metaphor, but also succeeds in using relevant support and evidence.

Initially, the first rhetorical technique that Chesterton uses is contradiction. We sometimes hold prejudiced views, along with implicitly wrong definitions, towards the world. The author first states the falsifications, and then contradicts them by describing the simple, pure, yet undeniable beauty of those notions. Chesterton says about the white color, “It is not a mere absence of color; it is a shining and affirmative thing, as fierce as red, as definite as black” (133). In the process, the author is able to make his points emphasized.

Moreover, he notes in his essay that, “[v]irtue is not the absence of vices or the avoidance of moral dangers; virtue is a vivid and separate thing, like pain or a particular smell. Mercy does not mean not being cruel, or sparing people revenge or punishment; it means a plain and positive thing like the sun, which one has either seen or not seen” (Chesterton, 133). He continuously talks about the notion that people usually evasively understand as trivial and trite, affirming their grace and charm. Beside contradiction, humor also effectively contributes to his narration.

In the first paragraph, Chesterton talks about the conversation between the narrator and the old woman. He came up to look for brown paper for his drawing, but the woman insisted on thinking that he wanted to wrap up parcels. Even when she realized his primary purpose, this kitchen owner still could not capture the value of brown paper to the painter (Chesterton 132). The author also uses humorous phrases such as “rationale of the existence of brown paper,” “beyond my mental capacity,” and “she offered to overwhelm me with note-paper” (Chesterton 132).

He dwells on the misunderstanding of the woman, as well as the misconception that many people hold about the little but useful materials around them. In addition, Chesterton says in the last paragraph that, “Imagine a man in the Sahara regretting that he had no sand for his hour-glass. Imagine a gentleman in mid-ocean wishing that he had brought some salt water with him for his chemical experiments” (134). The narrator states two examples, where people hilariously trick themselves in two simple and obvious situations, to ridicule himself of something that he has just realized to be similar.

Added to an effective use of contradiction and humor, Chesterton’s “A Piece of Chalk” is an exemplary use of analogy and metaphor. He talks about his attitude towards brown paper, “I then tried to explain the rather delicate logical shade, that I not only liked brown paper, but liked the quality of brownness in paper, just as I like the quality of brownness in October woods, or in beer” (Chesterton, 132). One cannot judge things by their mere look or use, but has to really look into them.

Their essences, which were deliberately brought by their creators, are just unique as the passion and devotion of their creators. Similarly, the author says about the old poets, “They preferred writing about great men to writing about great hills; but they sat on the great hills to write it. They gave out much less about Nature, but they drank in, perhaps, much more. They painted the white robes of their holy virgins with the blinding snow, at which they had stared all day” (133). The old poets not only care and appreciate nature, but also capture it successfully in their own works.

In addition, according to his last paragraph, “[a]nd yet, without any white, my absurd little pictures would be as pointless as the world would be if there were no good people in it” (134), he compares white chalks with good people. And as he talks about using white chalks in painting, the readers understand the values and importance of the existence of good people in this world. In the last sentences of the essay, he says, “I was sitting on an immense warehouse of white chalk. The landscape was made entirely of white chalk. White chalk was piled more miles until it met the sky” (134). The use of metaphor here enhances his point.

By emphasizing how much white chalk is around him, Chesterton skillfully introduces to the readers a seemingly obvious fact that good people are easy to find in the Southern England. Ultimately, with “A Piece of Chalk,” Chesterton has proven that he is a master of rhetorical techniques. He develops his paper by using different rhetorical methods alternatively and altogether. The story flows peacefully and naturally, yet does not turn boring, because every sentence is a joy to read. Work Cited Chesterton, G. K. “A Piece of Chalk. ” 75 Readings across the Curriculum. Ed. Chris Anson. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006: 132-4. Print.

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The Rhetorical Strategies of the Scarlett Letter

Grayce Byrnes Mr. Smith AP English 11-Period A 24 September 2012 The Passion of Pearl In the novel The Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel Hawthorne depicts the hardships of a young girl named Hester forced to live with the letter A pinned to her chest in penitence for her sins in a strict Puritan town in the 1800s. The illegitimate daughter of Hester carries the same traits and qualities as Hester, making Pearl a double of Hester. Hawthorne defines Pearl with his use of abstract diction, whimsical tone, and his selection of detail.

Pearl’s character functions primarily as a symbolic character that stands for her mother and the scarlet letter. Pearl becomes the Scarlet Letter brought to life. She is dressed in elaborate, scarlet garb as if to be a real-life scarlet letter. The narrator explains her as “the scarlet letter in another form: the scarlet letter endowed with life! ”(Hawthorne 57). When Hester tries to discard the letter, she gets in a panic mode, as if Hester is actually discarding her. The author never really states the purpose of Pearl being the scarlet letter, but instead uses abstract ideas and prodigious vocabulary.

Many people in the Puritan community believe that since Hester would not reveal the child’s father, that he must be the devil himself. Pearl has an uncanny perception of what goes on around her and constantly is seeking for the truth. The connection of Pearl to the letter and her constant obsession with finding truth leads us to believe that the letter means truth. Her excessively perceptive knowledge is almost supernatural. Hawthorne’s tone is one of a whimsical, mischievous, and capricious descriptions. Pearl’s main purpose seems to be to uncover the truth for the main characters.

Once she completes her goal, “A spell was broken. The great scene of grief, in which the wild infant bore a party, had developed all her sympathies; and as her tears fell upon her father’s cheek, they were the pledge that she would grow up amid human joy and sorrow, nor forever do battle with the world, but be a woman in it. Towards her mother, too, Pearl’s errand as a messenger of anguish was all fulfilled”(233). Her capricious emotions and the fickle opinions of the author make it hard for the reader to decipher if the child is the evil embodiment of Hester’s sin or just the naivety and curiosity of a child.

Overall, there are some striking similarities between Hester and Pearl. Even during Hester’s pregnancy, she could feel Pearl’s “wild, desperate, defiant mood, the flightiness of her temper, and even some of the very cloud-shapes of gloom and despondency that had brooded in her heart” (50). These emotions correlate with Hester. Her wild, desperate and defiant mood is emulated through her betrayal of the puritans through her sin. Her temper, gloom, and despondency is felt from Hester because of her forced isolation from the rest of the town and marked as an outcast. Pearl is described as beautiful, imaginative, graceful, and impulsive.

These traits are also seen in Hester. Pearl is a character of mystery and has an almost supernatural essence to her. The author talks about her like she is more than human although we never know if she heaven-sent or from the devil because the author plays both sides of the argument. Pearl is a symbol of the passion that is within every human heart, and as the story ends with her finding great success in Europe, she shows us that society should never define you. I Pledge My Honor That I Have not Received Aid on this Paper _____________________________________________