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Impact of Science and Technology on Climate Change

Introduction

Earth, its nature, and climate are ever-changing and there is an increasing awareness that the earth is warming up. There is a scientific consensus now that the change in climate is induced by humans. Many have also agreed that climate change is one of the greatest threats that the planet has ever faced. Science and technology has brought humans into an era of technological civilisation where any issue is resolved to a greater extent through technology. This paper looks to explain the role of science and technology in solving the issue of climate change through diplomacy and international trade.

Climate Change

“Climate Change refers to a change in climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods” – United Nations Framework convention on climate change.

As defined by the US agency NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), seven indicators were proposed in assessing the extent to which the earth was warming and 3 to assess whether the earth had warmed. The seven indicators are overland temperature, ocean heat content, sea level, and sea surface temperature, temperature over oceans, tropospheric temperature, and humidity. The three factors that indicate that the earth has warmed significantly are sea ice, snow cover, and glaciers (NOAA, 2010).

History

Concerns about climate change bgean in the early 1980’s and by 1988 an Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO). They were formed for assessing the scientific knowledge of global warming. One of the major reports issued in 1990 revealed that climate change was manmade. A world convention was then organised which came into effect in 1994. They formulated an international agreement and a world treaty by 1995 which led to the Kyoto Protocol. It provided data about the level of greenhouse gases being produced and suggested a flexible way in which they could be reduced. As of May 2011, UNFCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), has 194 parties in its membership and continue to update their achievements, benchmark others and set new targets to achieve.

Science and Climate Change

According to Holdren, science will be required for devising ways to use energy more effectively and efficiently, so that a shift can be made to energy sources like wind, solar and other kinds of energy. It plays an important role in understanding this shift and will help in making the necessary changes. Science is back in action and people are aware about it (Salazer, 2010).

To a certain extent it can be said that the achievement of set targets in reducing climate change will depend on the advancement of science and technology to reduce the impact caused by human irresponsibility. Group on Earth observations (GEO) believes that decisions taken for the benefit of mankind should be informed, coordinated, comprehensive and sustained, taken from observations and information. Science and technology is the key target for many of the sponsors and beneficiaries of GEOSS. The scientific and technical plan should be created by drawing on the expertise of the international scientific and technological communities and should involve consulting, coordinating and liaising with relevant UN specialised agencies and programmes. The implementation of the ten year plan should also involve integrating science and technological developments (GEO, 2008).

Technology and Climate Change

According to CCTP, becoming a success will require multiple technological path ways. This means that there is not a single technology that can mitigate the impact of the climate change alone. To achieve this, strategies are formulated in order of preference so that they can be realised on a timely basis. These are:

reducing emissions from energy end-use and infrastructure,
reducing emission from energy supply,
capture and sequester carbon dioxide,
improve capabilities to measure and monitor GHG emissions and
Bolster basic science contributions to technology development (CCTP, 2005).

Mitigation of Climate Change

The conventions have an ultimate objective of stabilising greenhouse gases. Under article 4.1(b), all parties are required to make steps towards mitigating climate change. Under the basis of the third assessment report of IPCC, SBSTA was given two new responsibilities. They are to work on scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of the impacts of, and vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. In addition they are to find out the scientific and socio-economic aspects of the mitigation of climate change. Developments can advance as the parties share information and experiences with each other to formulate a special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. The report concentrated on six important renewable energy resources and their integration into the present and future energy systems. The report also took into consideration the social and environmental consequences of these technologies including the obstacles that may be encountered during their application and diffusion (UNFCC, 2012).

The six major renewable energy sources that are to be considered are:

Bio-energy, which refers to energy sourced from crops and livestock waste. These are also known as second generation bio-fuels.
Direct solar energy, which includes photovoltaics and is concentrated on solar power.
Geothermal energy that is created from the heat extracted from the earth’s interior.
Hydropower that uses the energy from water to create energy. Hydropower includes run-of –river, in-stream and other dam projects with reservoirs.
Ocean energy, which comes from barrages and ocean currents.
Wind energy that is created from wind powered by on-shore and offshore systems (SBSTA, 2011)

REDD Web Platform

This is a platform where in all the relevant organisation and members are supposed to submit details relating to the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD). This is a platform that shares the information that is submitted by the stake holders and clients in order to encourage improvements and update the status of the fellow members. The information gathered here forms five categories including technical assistance, demonstration activities, country specific information, methodologies and tools and REDD partnership (UNFCC, 2012).

Change of Land Use and Forestry

The rate with which CO2 is increasing in the atmosphere can be taken advantage of because they accumulate in vegetation and soils in terrestrial ecosystems. This is done by the LULUF wing who focus on reducing emissions through deforestation in developing countries. This was a proposal that was put forward by LULUF and received wide support from other parties (UNFCC, 2012). The method that was suggested in the proposal recommended that the storage of carbon in forest products should be included in a national inventory only in cases where a country can document that existing stocks of long term forest products are increasing (UNFCCC, 2012). Reporting to this sector keeps CO2 emissions in control regardless of location. There are commitments the parties are supposed to fulfil on this basis, the conditions of which are defined in article 4. The parties are supposed to develop, periodically update, publish and make available to the conference details on emissions and reductions in CO2 gases. It is made mandatory for them to promote a management style that is sustainable and can enhance conservation of non-renewable energy sources.

Emissions of Bunker Fuels

There are also fuel emissions that are used for aviation and maritime transport. These issues are also addressed under UNFCCC. The COP (conference of parties) requested SBSTA for addressing the allocation of fuels where international bunker fuels are concerned. These fuels will be included under the national GHG inventories but not in the national total, although they are reported separately. The parties involved are separately required to reduce emissions.

Research and Development

Research and development has played an important role in determining the usage of science and technology for mitigating climate change. The need for addressing global climate change and having data that is accurate is addressed in the conventions. The UNFCC calls on parties and other members for promoting and cooperating with each other in the observation of the whole climatic system. The convention also influences them by giving them more support and by ensuring knowledge and information sharing.

Systematic Observation for Better Analysis

It is important that there is a worldwide observation of climate change in order to develop a thorough understanding of the scientific knowledge behind it. Under the system the parties involved are supposed to keep a thorough vigil of the systematic operations of the climate system and provide appropriate feedback. A development of scientific understanding will make it easier to bring up solutions for these problems (UNFCC, 2012).

Role of Science at EPA and US Climate Technology Change Program

Science forms a viable option for decision making. A high quality of life for people around the world and for future generations can only be ensured with the help of science. It helps EPA to make the right decisions in relation to human health and ecosystems and innovative solutions to prevent pollution (EPA, 2012). The EPA has been completing open, transparent, peer-reviewed research planning to enhance the use of science and technology in mitigating climate change. It is a known fact that new climate technologies are being developed, which means that existing technologies should be updated. CCTP periodically tries to identify existing gaps in knowledge and make necessary recommendations (Brown, 2006).

Academic and Independent Research Centres and Programs

There are academies and research centres other than the intentionally established systems that work to mitigate the effects of climate change. These institutions are responsible for bringing scientists and public policy analysts together to explain the various problems that are faced in relation to managing and reducing greenhouse gases.

The central tenet here is that climate change has only been detected with the help of science and technology and that the world would be facing a worse situation without advancements in both of these fields.

Some of the projects that are undertaken by Global Warming International Centre (GWIC) include the global timeline project, the greenhouse gas reduction benchmark, and the extreme event index. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology centre for global change science (CGCS) has a long term goal of understanding the basic processes and mechanisms involved in controlling the Global environment. The centre hopes to use their understanding of these processes for analysing and thus accurately predicting environmental changes. The Tata Energy Research Institute of India and U.S Department of Energy, which sponsors CCASIA, report the details of global warming in Asia. Information processing and exchange would have been extremely difficult without technology and scientific support (Vaughan, 2001).

Technology and Solutions

The time line that is to be conquered through the climate change research and development programme in the US is divided into three stages. They are near-term, mid-term and long-term. These goals are an ideal example of how climate change can be mitigated. The time line is shown below.

GoalNear-TermMid-TermLong-term
Energy end use and infrastructureHybrid and plug in hybrid electric vehicles
Engineered urban designs
High-performance integrated homes
High efficiency appliances
High efficiency boilers and combustion systems
High temperature super-conductivity demonstrations
Fuel cells vehicles and H2 fuels
Low emission aircraft
Soil state lighting
Ultra efficient HVACR
‘Smart’ buildings
Transformational technologies for energy intensive industries
Energy storage for load levelling
Widespread use of engineered urban designs and regional planning
Energy managed communities
Integration of industrial heat, power, process and techniques
Superconducting transmission and equipment

Energy supplyIGCC commercialisation
Stationary H2 fuel cells
Cost competitive solar PV
Demonstration of cellulosic ethanol
Distributed electric generation
Advanced fission reactor and fuel cycle technology
FutureGen scale-up
H2 co production from coal/biomass
Low wind speed turbines
Advanced bio refineries
Community scale solar
Gen 1V nuclear plants
Fusion pilot plan demonstration
Zero emission fossil energy
H2 and electric economy
Widespread renewable energy
Bio-inspired energy and fuels
Widespread nuclear power
Fusion power plants

Capture, storage and sequestrationCSLF & CSRP
Post combustion capture
Oxy-fuel combustion
Enhanced hydrocarbon recovery
Ecologic reservoir characterisation
Soils conservation
Dilution of direct injected CO2
Geologic storage prove sale
Co2 transport infrastructure
Soils uptake and land use
Ocean CO2 biological impacts addressed
Track record if successful CO2 storage experience
Large scale sequestration
Carbon and CO2 based products and materials
Safe long term ocean storage

Other gasesMethane to markets
Precision agriculture
Advanced refrigeration technologies
PM control technologies for vehicles
Advanced landfill gas utilisation
Soil Microbial processes
Substitutes of SF6
Catalysts that reduced nitrogen dioxide to elemental nitrogen in diesel engines
Integrated waste management system with automated sorting, processing and recycle
Zero emission agriculture
Solid-state refrigeration/AC systems

Measure and monitorLow cost sensors and communications
Large scale, secure data storage system
Direct measurement to replace proxies and estimators
Fully operational integrated MM systems architecture (Sensors, Indicators, visualisation and storage, models

Source: (Brown, et.al, 2006)

In the above table near-term is used for reductions that can be achieved in 10 to 20 years, mid-term for 20 to 40 years and long-term for 40 to 60 years.

It is evident from the above table that the necessary changes and advancements will only be possible if there is an increase in the scientific and technological improvement. Knowledge and information sharing regarding important new inventions are also essential to control climate change. Furthermore, if technological developments are to be effective then they should be created in a way that they can be implemented around the world.

Technology alone isn’t enough

It is odd that irrespective of the coalition of efforts involved, the issue of climate change hasn’t yet received enough attention. It would be negligent to presume that technology alone will solve the issue. Technologies will help in mitigating the effects of climate change, but cooperation is needed to implement the necessary changes and spread awareness about the importance of adapting these new technologies. Efforts are needed from the entire population if climate change is to be halted and the earth is to be saved from a rise in temperature of 2 degrees Celsius.

Conclusion

Since the dawn of industrialisation, Science and technology has played an important role in effecting climatic changes. Although our quality of life has been improved, technology, whether agricultural, industrial, global, urban, or communication technology, has had a negative impact on the environment.

Society has become so reliant on technology that it requires science and technology to solve the issues that have been created by them. Climate change requires a global resolve to overcome its effects. International conventions and policies are formulated for the purpose of climate change mitigation and to gain control over GHG emissions. A policy as relevant as Kyoto is required if countries are to take responsibility for the environment.

References

Brown, M. A. (2006). U.S Climate Change Technology Program. Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

EPA. (2012). Role of Science at EA. Available from http://www.epa.gov/epahome/science.htm.

SBSTA. (2012). Special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Available from http://srren.ipcc-wg3.de/.

UNFCC. (2012). Scientific, Technical and Socio-Economic Aspects of Mitigation of Climate Change. Available from http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/mitigation/items/3681.php

UNFCC. (2012). REDD Web Platform. Available from http://unfccc.int/methods_science/redd/items/4531.php

UNFCC. (2012). Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF). Available from http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/lulucf/items/1084.php

UNFCC. (2012). Emissions from fuel used for international aviation and maritime transport (international bunker fuels). Available from

http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/emissions_from_intl_transport/items/1057.php

UNFCC. (2012). research. Available from http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/research_and_systematic_observation/items/3461.php

UNFCC. (2012). Systematic Observation. Available from http://unfccc.int/methods_and_science/research_and_systematic_observation/items/3462.php.

Vaughan, K. R. L. (2001). Global Warming and Science change Scheme. Available from http://www.istl.org/01-fall/internet.html.

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The Emerging field of nanoscale science, engineering and technology

1.0 Introduction

The Emerging field of nanoscale science, engineering and technology – that is the ability to work at the atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels, to create large structures with fundamentally new properties and functions have lead to an unrivalled understanding and control over basic building blocks of all natural and man-made things [roco]. This rapid advancement has lead to an increased demand for technological development on a nanoscale, which has brought about the birth and improvement of infrastructural changes aimed at representing and observing these features. The world wide focus over this time has been the evolution of methods including SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), FIB (Focus Ion Beam) etcetera for the detailing of features at the nanoscale.

1.1 History of the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) Technology

Focus Ion Beam (FIB) systems have been commercially produced, mostly for manufacturers of large semiconductors for about 20 years [www.fibics.com]. In 1982, Anazawa et al. produced a 35Kv Ga- source and about three years later Orloff and Sudruad proposed FIB system for implantation and lithography [sudruad], even though as of 1959, Feyman had suggested the use of ion beams [www.nanofib.com]. In 1985, Kato et al. have pointed out the advantages of the FIB technology in the fabrication of sub-micro structures.

1.2 Operational Overview

The operation of the FIB are same as that of SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), except that the focus ion beam system employs the use of focussed beam of ions instead of beam of electrons utilised in the SEM systems[].

Commercialised nanoscience is limited by availability of tools. Using focussed ion beam system allows specified fabrication and imaging abilities which reduces greatly the characterization cycles and development required in the nano-technological field by scientist. The capabilities within focus ion beam ( FIB) are valued highly for rapid prototyping application. The deposition combination / direct etching of FIB in combination with digitally addressed patterning system allows nano prototyping engine with capabilities that will help researches in nano technology , because the operation of FIB is on both micro and nano scale, it can be used in creating the required structures.

FIB has precised control over deposition and milling parameter and as such, it is the proper tool for creating small structures for nano technology in the top –down approach. It is a highly flexible, mask-less technique which is fast for serial techniques, thus allowing the FIB instrument very efficient for design modifications. Most conventional methods of sample preparation used today in life sciences are compatible with investigations by using FIB.

1.3 Using Focus Ion Beam Systems

The direct applicability obtained in using FIB instrument is highly relevant in industrial applications. FIB instrument and its application have contributed immensely to industrial researches carried out in several analysis laboratories – For instance in the polymer industry, metallurgy industry, nuclear research etcetera. The ability to image, mill and deposit material by using FIB instrument depends largely on the nature of the ion beam- solid interactions. Milling occurs as a result of physical sputtering of the target. In understanding the mechanism of sputtering we need to consider the interaction between an ion beam and the target. Sputtering usually takes place when there is elastic collision in series when momentum is transferred from the incident ions to the target atoms in the region of collision cascade. Ionization of a portion of the ejected atoms can be collected for mass analysis or image formation. Production of plasmons (in metals), phonons and emission of secondary electrons can occur as a result of inelastic scattering. Imaging in the focus ion beam is carried out by detecting the secondary ions/electrons typically, sputtering in focus ion beam processes occurs within energy ranges that are dominated by nuclear energy losses.

Focus Ion beam devices are used to scan the surfaces of samples using simple focussed ion beams. The detection of secondary ions allows the processed surface of samples and microscopic images to be observed. The ion beam is generated by using liquid metal ion source (LMIS) when a beam of ion is irradiated on the surface of a specimen by finding the secondary ions with a detector – a two dimensional distribution which shows the microscopic images of the surface of the specimen can be observed.

1.4 The Focus Ion Beam Instrument

The Operation of the FIB technology uses a similar principle as the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) / TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) but differs in the use of ions and this introduces consequences of enormous magnitude for interaction which occur at the surface of the specimen. Using Focus Ion Beam (FIB) instrument involves two major parameters – penetration of ion into material and the rate of sputtering of ion of the material.

When the emitted liquid metal ion source (LMIS) primary ion beam hits the surface of the specimen, it splutters a small amount of material this will leave the specimen surface as either neutral atoms or secondary ions – Secondary beams are also produced using the primary beam. Signals from the sputtered ion or secondary electron are collected to produce an image as the primary beam raster on the specimen surface.

Liquid metal ion source (LMIS) development is crucial for the development of Focus Ion Beam (FIB) [www.dspace.cam.ac.uk] , application of electric field that are very high into a steering quadrupole, octupole deflector, two electrostatic lenses in the column to focus ions in a beam and scan the beam on the specimen. Liquid metal ions source (LMIS) generates ions; these ions are focussed on electrostatic lenses. When specimen surfaces are bombarded using ions that have been extracted from the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) this generates ions, secondary electron and sputtered material and the various generated items serve different purpose in the focus ion beam.

At high primary currents a large amount of material can be removed by sputtering thus allowing precision milling of the specimen down to the submicron scale, while less material is removed at low primary beam currents. The use of ions in focus ion beam instruments means that they cannot penetrate with ease individual atoms of the specimen because ions are large. So interaction usually occurs within outer shell interaction which causes chemical band breakage of the substrate atom and atomic ionization. Inner shell electrons of the specimen cannot be reached by an incoming ion. The probability of an interaction with atoms that are within the specimen is much higher because of the large ion size and this result in rapid loss of energy of the ion. This means that the depth of penetration is much lower.

It should be noted that the main advantage of the Focus Ion beam is its ability to produce image of the sample after which it mills the sample precisely away from the areas that are selected[ ].

1.41 Ions in Operation

Ions are slower when paired to electrons for the same energy, because they are much heavier as a result Lorenz force is lower, so the use of magnetic lenses is less effective, and as such the focussed ion beam instrument is equipped with electro static lenses. Ions are positive, slow, large and heavy; so the resulting ion beam will remove atoms from the substrate and because the size, beam position and dwell time are well controlled, it can be used in the removal of materials locally in a manner that is highly controlled down to the nanoscale. As a result of the actions due to the ions used in the Focus ion beam instrument, fabrication and imaging functions are derived. The fabrication function occurs due to the sputtering while the imaging function arises due to the ions and secondary electrons.

1.42 Gallium (Ga+) Ions

The gallium ions are used in the focus ion beam (FIB) instruments for the following reasons [fei];

Due to its surface potential it exhibits very high brightness, the tip sharpness, the flow properties of the gun and the gun construction which results in field emission and ionization. This is an important result for the focussed ion beam. It should be noted that whatever chosen material should be ionized before the formation of the beam and then accelerated.
The element Gallium is metallic and because of its low melting temperature is a very convenient material for compact gun construction with limited heating.
Gallium is the centre of the periodic table and exhibits an optimal momentum transfer capability for a wide range of materials, lithium which is a higher element will not be sufficient in milling of heavier elements.
Gallium element has low analytical interference
2.0 Focus Ion Beam System

In the figure below, the FEJ 200 series type F113 of the FIB system is represented. In the figure are the various components of the system which includes the column, the specimen chamber and the detector;

2.1The Column

This is situated above the specimen chambers. It is made up of two electrostatic lenses, a set of beam blanking plates, liquid metal ion source (LMIS), a beam acceptance aperture, steering quadrupole, beam defining aperture and an octupole deflector.

2.2 Lens System

Coming from the source, the beam goes through a beam acceptance aperture after which it goes into the first lens. Above the beam- defining aperture (BDA), the quadrapole adjust the position of the beam in a manner as to allow the beam move through the center of the beam-defining aperture (BDA). The beam is aligned to the optical axis of the second lens’ quadrapole. Beam astigmatism correction, shift and scanning is provided by the octupole which is positioned below the second lens. Between the second lens assembly and the second lenses steering quadrapole we have the beam blanking assembly. This is made up of aperture and electrical path and blanking plates. Beam blanking provides specimens with protections against constant milling.

2.3 Generation of Image

The primary beam is scanned as a raster across the specimen and it is made up of lines in vertical axis (shifted slightly from one another) and lies in the horizontal (in series). With scanning of the beam over the specimen the secondary ions and the secondary electrons that are generated by the specimen are detected. Details of this information are stored in the computer and images are produced from these information.

2.4 Detector, Stage and Gas Injection

Control of rotation and X and Y axis is performed by software and it can be tilted to the XY plane manually. Gases of two types are evolved above the surface of the specimen at about 100µm of distance. One of these gases is used for platinum deposition and the other for enhanced etch. During bombardment of ion in milling, species that are charged are formed and they are attracted to the detector. A glass of millions of arrays of minute channel electron multiplier is the detector; it is a micro channel plate (MCP).

2.5 Liquid Metal Ion Source (LMIS)

LMIS is made of a needle emitter which has an end radius of 1 – 10µm. It is coated with high surface tension metal which at its melting point has a low vapour pressure. This emitter is subjected to heating till the melting point of the metal is attained. A positive high voltage is placed on it. Using the balance between the surface tension forces and the electrostatic the liquid metal is drawn into a conical shape. The source that is commonly used is Gallium [dspace.mit.edu].

2.5 Milling

By using the scan control system, polygons, circles and lines can be milled. The table below represents the different beam currents and their corresponding milling spot sizes.

The figure below gives us the pixel size and milling spot size and the beam overlap. The overlap can be expressed as the overlapped area where the beam moves from a position to the other. And the time where the beam remains in a position is known as the dwell time.

2.7 Sample Preparation

The three main strategies used in the focus ion beam sample preparation of specimen that will be inspected using TEM are: Ex situ lift-out (EXLO) preparation (Centre Image), H-Bar sample preparation (Left image) and In Situ lift-out (INLO) preparation (Right image) [info.omniprobe.com/blog/bid]

2.8 Imaging

When ion beam is scanned on the surface of the specimen, it causes ions and electrons to be ejected. After scanning through the surface of the specimen the primary Gallium ion penetrate into the surface of the specimen. The depth of the penetration varies from one material to the other. The secondary electron yield is much higher than secondary ion yield during ion milling and thus is the reason why focus ion beam is usually used in the secondary electron mode. Secondary ions and secondary electrons are obtained within regions that are closer the surface of the specimen.

3.0 Conclusion

In their work on the future of focus ion beam, the ORSAYPHYSICS group has shown that field of focus ion beam is open to expansion. Their projections with regards the extent to which focus ion beam can be deployed is shown in the figure below:

Fig. Current and Future FIB Technologies

Source: http://www.felmi-zfe.tugraz.at/FIB/WS3_Beitraege/01%20Sudraud.pdf

The use of FIB has been developed extensively over the years in applications like super conductor, field emission device, accelerometer etcetera. Armed with imaging capability of high resolution as its recently upgraded technologies, the focus ion beam (FIB) instrument is indeed technology that is providing solutions to problems that has been previously unresolved. This heralds the focus ion beam (FIB) instrument as an important device for the future in the nano science, technology and engineering environment.

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How far can Supply Chain Management (SCM) be described as the combination of art and science?

Introduction

Supply chain management (SCM) is the combination of art and science that goes into improving the way your company finds the raw components it needs to make a product or service and deliver it to customers. After explaining that “supply chain is the collection of steps that a company takes to transform raw components into the final product”, Venus (2011) goes on to posit that “supply chain management (SCM) is a process used by companies to ensure that their supply chain is efficient and cost-effective.” In a bid to ensuring that the relationship between suppliers, consumers and producers is one that yields profits, companies and organizations have to stay committed to the principles surrounding supply chain management.

The make-buy decision

In a bid to understand the direct impact of supply chain management on the running and development of organizations, Zara has been chosen to be a focal point in this essay. This essay will critically analyze the supply chain system in place at Zara and how best it is working. It would also discuss the weaknesses of the organization’s supply chain system and how it can be improved. Zara as a fashion retail organization has been chosen by the writer purposely because of the organization is fast developing attention among reviewers who have supply chain management as their focus. Such reviewers as Kasra Ferdows, Michael A. Lewis and Jose A.D. Machuca of Harvard Business Review place premium on the recent successes that Zara is recording with its retail of fashion products. The cause of the success has been linked to the company’s supply chain system. In the view of Ferdows, Lewis and Jose (2005), “Zara has hit on a formula for supply chain success that works.”

One critical area of retailing, of which Zara as a retail organization is inclusive is the concept of make-buy decision. Make-buy decision would be especially useful for discussion as far as Zara is concerned because Zara is into retail of fashion products, of which it has the choice either to manufacture its products or to purchase them. According to the Encyclopedia of Management (2010), make-or-buy decision is the act of making a strategic choice between producing an item internally (in-house) or buy it externally (from an outside supplier).” Applying the principles of make-buy decision to Zara, it can be inferred that for the organization to make a decision whether to buy or make should be backed by carefully scrutinized strategic analysis. This is seen in the definition given by the encyclopedia, making mention of the word ‘strategic’. It should be observed that fashion is a global language, yet varying and versatile (Akuoko, 2009, p.19). This makes the demand of customers for a particular type or style of fashion change over time.

Due to the unstable nature of world fashion, Zara must therefore have strategic analysis at management level that ensures that the core needs of varying consumers are met. Zara has consumers from all over Europe and from different cultures. This is both a challenge and an opportunity for the organization to be diversifying. This way, the make-buy decision should permit the organization to select the kinds of fashion line they can produce internally and those they would have to depend on from external sources. In deciding which to produce internally, the organization must factor in their areas of strength and specialization. Though it is common knowledge that “Zara’s designers create approximately 40,000 new designs annually, from which 10,000 are selected for production” (Harvard Business Review, 2005), it could equally be true that the organization cannot be ‘master of all trade’. To this effect, the principle of buy-make decision permits the organization to produce only on its specialization and buy the rest.

Sourcing Strategies and supply chain configurations

The decision on what to buy or make may be a complicated one but once that decision is complete based on strategic analysis, what becomes left is sourcing strategies and supply chain configurations that ensure that the organization gets value for money and maintains its reputation of high quality and standard. Such strategic sourcing and supply chain configuration would also be responsible for determining the relationship that should exist between the organization and suppliers. The quality of relationship that go on between organizations and their suppliers have been found to have telling effect on the kind of service the organization will receive. Cohlough (2001) observes that all suppliers have their favorites who receive the finest of stock. These favorites are however made not by the suppliers but by the receiving companies. The strategic sourcing and supply chain configuration would also determine whether or not Zara needs one supplier or more.

On the sort of sourcing strategies and supply chain configuration, that would work well for Zara as a fashion organization, the Epiq Technologies Journal (2010) puts forward four (4) principles that should be considered in sourcing strategies. In the first place, the Journal suggests that “companies must look at the technology differences between their current country of production and the lower cost alternative.” In this sense, there must be a serious consideration between Zara and the potential suppliers to ensure that their sense of technology is highly advanced. In today’s fast growing business competitiveness, the issue of technology can never be ruled out in deciding suppliers for a well known organization like Zara. This is because technology plays very important role in ensuring easy accessibility, convenience and breaking complex business processes into simplified. To this effect, Cortwell (2009)“Over the years businesses have become dependent on technology so much so that if we were to take away that technology virtually all business operations around the globe would come to a grinding halt.” The next issue tackled by Epiq Technologies Journal (2010) is the issue of marketing strategy of the supplier. Most suppliers with poor marketing strategy do not stay long in competition and cannot be trusted for long term transaction.

There is also the issue of cost effectiveness in considering who suppliers will be. This is because once the issue of external sourcing sets in, the purchasing organization becomes disadvantaged in the sense that it assumes a position of having to sell to make profit over what it buys. In order to ensure reduced cost, Graves and Willems (2005) points out certain tangible factors that should be taken into account by purchasing organizations. They posit that “There might be multiple options to supply a raw material, to manufacture or assemble the product, and to transport the product to the customer. Each of these options is differentiated by its lead time and direct cost added.”Finally, there it is the need to look at the perpetual survival of the potential supplier. To this end, the Epiq Technology Journal (2010) states that “the company must create a supply management strategy that will govern the methods of securing a supply of the goods and services needed to continue a steady production after foreign sourcing has been set in action.”

Strategic Supplier Selection

Currently, Zara has suppliers in Turkey and Asia (Boomberg Business Week, 2005). Zara gives these suppliers low-cost fashion items such as t-shirts. For the company to expand its customer base and reach more consumers, it is extremely important for the organization to put in place suppliers across the globe. Currently, the fact that the organization’s suppliers are mainly in Asia and Europe is recommendable but there could be more. Judging from the fact that supplier selection principles discussed above, it could be said that there should be more suppliers at least in each continent. Those suppliers must also be made of well established outlets that are fully established in with technological background. Again, it is highly commendable that suppliers for Zara are abundant in Asia. This is because as argued by Epiq Technology Journal (2005), cost of supply to Asia is relatively cheaper than those to other parts of the world such as America and Europe. This however does not defeat the fact that there should be suppliers in other continents. As observed by Boomberg Business Week (2005), “A decade ago, Inditex was a middling retailer focused largely on Spain, with sales of $1 billion and net income of $100 million. Today, it boasts stores in 64 countries. Last year sales rose 21%, to $8.5 billion, while profits jumped 26%, to $1 billion.” This means that the more Zara expands its supply and retail base, the larger the organization grows in sales and profit.

Aligning supply with corporate strategy

In view of Tapper (2005), corporate strategy has to do with the “oversight by people or bodies charged with ensuring that the interests of key stakeholders are not compromised.” In the contest of Zara, the known corporate strategy that the organization embarks on currently can be described to be in threefold. In the first place, there is a conscious corporate effort that ensures that “in Zara stores, customers can always find new products—but they’re in limited supply” (Ferdows, Lewis and Jose, 2005). Secondly, “Zara often beats the high-fashion houses to the market and offers almost the same products, made with less expensive fabric, at much lower prices” (Ferdows, Lewis and Jose, 2005). Finally, “Zara’s organization, operational procedures, performance measures, and even its office layouts are all designed to make information transfer easy”(Ferdows, Lewis and Jose, 2005).

The three corporate strategies in place are closely designed to align the supply chain of the organization. In the first place, the availability of new products ensure that supply made to consumers always present consumers with new options to choose from. As discussed earlier, fashion is dynamic. This dynamism is satisfied with this corporate principle whereby the organization always makes available new products. Secondly, for the organization to have strategies that ensure that its products are of lower cost is in perfect consonance with the supply chain principle suggested by the Epiq Technologies Journal (2010). When costs of products are low, suppliers are confident of making their profits. This way, the organization becomes a preferred choice for as many suppliers as possible. Most definitely, once there are several suppliers, there is sure to be increased sales and consequently profits. Finally, it is worth mentioning that even though organizational structures are good for ensuring orderliness and well managed approaches for tackling issues in an organization, the wider customer base feel more liberated when bureaucracies surrounding the mode of organizational operations are softened. This assessment is in line with the view shared by the Bursting Bureaucracy Journal (2009), which argues that “”Bureaucracy” is damaging to organizational effectiveness. It divides people within the organization against each other, and misdirects their energy into conflict or competition with each other instead of mission achievement.”

REFERENCE LIST

Akuoko G, (2009). Contemporary Fashion. PrintMark Publication and World Print Suppliers. Dansoman Accra: Ghana

Boomberg Business Week, (2005). Zara’s quick turnover lures shoppers, but global expansion could be a strain. Fashion Conquistador. Retrieved April, 6 2011 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_36/b3999063.htm

Bursting bureaucracy (2009). Effects of bureaucracy on consumers and employees. Retrieved April 6, 2011 http://www.bustingbureaucracy.com/excerpts/effects.html

Cohlough Y. (2001). Living well with Suppliers. Precise Press. Labone: Ghana

Cortwell N. (2009). Importance of Technology in Business. Retrieved April 6, 2011 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Importance-of-Technology-in-Business&id=2237597

Encyclopedia of Management (2010). Make-or-Buy Decision. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.enotes.com/management-encyclopedia/make-buy-decisions

Epiq Technologies Journal (2010). eSourcing: Sourcing Strategies. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://www.epiqtech.com/eSourcing-Strategy.htm

Ferdows K, Lewis A and Jose A.D. (2005). Zara’s Secret for Fast Fashion. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 82, No.11

Graves and Willems (2005). Optimizing the Supply Chain Configuration for New Products. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from http://mansci.journal.informs.org/cgi/content/abstract/51/8/1165

Harvard Business Review (2005). Zara’s Secret for Fast Fashion. Vol. 82, No.11

Tapper C 92005). An Introduction to Business and Technology. Retrieved April 6, 2011 from http://www.asb.unsw.edu.au/futurestudents/postgraduate/mbt/Documents/Introduction%20to%20Business%20and%20Technology%20by%20Craig%20Tapper.pdf

Venus D. (2011). What is Supply Chain ManagementWise Geeks Articles. Retrieved April 6 2011, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-supply-chain-management.htm

Wailgum T. (2008). Supply Chain Management Solution and Definition CIO. Retrieved April 8, 2011 from http://www.cio.com/article/40940/Supply_Chain_Management_Definition_and_Solutions

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Free Essays

Critical Analysis of the Liver functions and medical science

Introduction

The liver, with over 500 functions, is one the most significant and versatile organ of the human body. It weighs around 1.5kg and it is divided into four lobes; left, right, quadrate and caudate. It is wrapped in a fibrous capsule which is covered by the visceral peritoneum.

30% of the bloody supply of the heart reaches the liver at a region called the Hilus every minute, of which two thirds is through the portal vein and a third through the hepatic artery, it then leaves the liver through the hepatic vein. Blood pressure is low, usually at 10mm Hg or less.

The cells of the liver are known as Hepatocytes. Hepatocytes serve many roles in the functions of the liver of which include: Metabolic regulation; it plays a key role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, Haematological regulation; it is the primary organ that regulates the composition of blood, and Bile synthesis.

[2] During carbohydrate metabolism, most of the glucose that is derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates is stored as glycogen in the liver cells (Glycogenesis) until it is needed, which is when the liver will convert the glycogen back into glucose to be used for respiration (Glycogenolysis). Examples of such situations are when there is a short supply of glucose in the body during the times between meals or when fasting.

When the body is starved from carbohydrates, the liver can produce glucose by a process called Gluconeogenesis by converting amino acids from dietary and body proteins, lactate or glycerol into glucose. This prevents the individual from having hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose levels), so by this it can also be said that the liver has an integral part of maintaining blood glucose levels.

The liver serves a major role in fat metabolism by producing the lipoproteins that are needed to transport fat, cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood throughout the body.

Protein metabolism takes place in the liver as it goes through amino acid conversion, most of the amino acids are synthesised into proteins that are needed for the body, especially albumin which is the main plasma protein. Amino acid metabolism however produces a waste product, Urea, which is transported to the kidneys via blood and excreted through urine.

Haematological regulation is the way in which the liver processes the blood by regulating the amount of chemicals it holds and breaking down the nutrients within it so it is easy to use. It also detoxifies toxic substances such as drugs or alcohol that come via blood and breaks it down before being released back into the blood into amounts that can be handled by the body.

In addition to its metabolic functions, it is also responsible for the production of bile. Bile is a yellow alkaline fluid that is produced by the hepatocytes made up of mainly water (85%) and bile salts (10%). Bile salts acts as a fat emulsifier so it is needed for the normal digestion and absorption of ingested fats. Bile also serves as a route in which substances such as drugs and wastes produced from metabolism that aren’t removed by the kidneys, such as bilirubin, is removed from the body through the faeces. Hepatocytes secrete bile into tubes known as Bile Canaliculi, which jointo form Bile Ductules. Bile ductules then transport bile to the nearest portal area. The right and left hepatic ducts collects the bile from the ductules at the portal areas and merge to form the Common Hepatic Duct. This leaves the liver to go to the gall bladder through the Cystic Duct which joins onto the Common Bile Duct which transports bile to the duodenum through the Duodenal Ampulla and then goes into the small intestine ready to act upon the absorption of fats.

[2] These are only a few functions of the liver, all of which if do not function properly can lead to many liver diseases. Diseases can generally be classified into two types; Hepatocellular, which results in damage to the hepatocytes and Cholestatic which restricts bile flow due to blockage in ducts.

Most patients suffering from a liver disease develop jaundice resulting from high levels of the bilirubin in the blood stream (hyperbilirubinemia). Jaundice makes whites of the eyes yellow and then gradually the skin start becoming yellow. Bilirubin is produced from dead red blood cells; at the end of their life span, the haemoglobin found within them is released and split into haem and globin. Iron from haem is recycled for the production of more haemoglobin and any remains of the haem molecule are converted to bilirubin. It is excreted in the faeces and some in the urine. It is elevated in most liver diseases as they cause some sort of damage to hepatocytes which means bilirubin cannot conjugate with glucuronic acid in order to be excreted, so it stays in the bloodstream where its levels continuously increase.

One of the common diseases to occur in the liver is Hepatitis. It results in inflammation of the liver cells. Viral Hepatitis can be caused by Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, yellow fever or Herpes Simplex. Patients usually start off small with flu like symptoms.

Non viral hepatitis can be due to auto immune reasons, drugs, toxins found in mushrooms and alcohol. [3] ‘As alcohol consumption is very high in the western world, alcohol hepatitis is a common problem. Symptoms include enlargement of the liver, development of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), increased blood pressure in the portal vein and later development of jaundice. If alcoholic hepatitis is diagnosed it is important to stop consuming alcohol at once otherwise it could lead to more serious damage such as cirrhosis or even liver failure.’

[2] Cirrhosis is an irreversible liver disease. Patients with cirrhosis develop ascites, jaundice and the formation of fibrous tissue where liver cells should be, the liver cells are destroyed in response to toxic chemicals, a viral hepatitis, or most commonly, high alcohol consumption. These are examples of Hepatocellular liver diseases.

An example of a Cholestatic liver disease would be Cholestasis. Cholestasis is a state when there is a blockage in the bile ducts so bile cannot be released. Again, jaundice develops when a patient suffers from cholestasis as bilirubin is also unable to reach the small intestine to be excreted. Other symptoms include pale faeces and dark urine.

There are a number of tests available that determines liver diseases. These include bilirubin, ALP, ALT and the GGT tests. A slightly abnormal bilirubin concentration indicates it may be haemolytic anaemia (abnormal rate of red blood cell destruction). A higher concentration is due to diseases which have damaged the hepatocytes therefore bilirubin cannot conjugate or be excreted properly. These diseases are acute hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis. A very high concentration indicates cholestasis as it means bile flow is completely blocked (most commonly by gallstones) and so bilirubin cannot be excreted. Bilirubin can be measured by taking a blood test; conjugated, unconjugated or total bilirubin. Conjugated bilirubin is bound to glucuronic acid and so is called direct bilirubin. Unconjugated bilirubin is measured by subtracting the direct bilirubin from the total bilirubin, so is called indirect bilirubin. Total Bilirubin is the term used when both are measured.

GGT, ALP and ALT are all enzymes that are present in the liver cells. Hepatocyte death (necrosis) leads to large amounts of these enzymes to be released into the blood stream which if measured will serve as an indicator of liver disease. These enzymes can be measured by taking around 5 ml of venous blood. Abnormal ALT (alanine transferase) results are found in diseases that have come about as a result of necrosis. In acute hepatitis, ALT rises before jaundice develops and then usually goes back to normal within 8 weeks. A continuous raised level of ALT means that it chronic liver disease such as chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis.

High GGT (gamma glutamyl transferase) levels are found in all liver and biliary tract diseases. GGT doesn’t determine an actual disease but it is used to predict who may be at risk of liver disease due to alcohol as it is the only enzyme that is produced due to alcohol, so high continuous levels would mean alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis.

Moderately results of ALP (alkaline phosphatise) indicate acute hepatitis but extremely high results show cholestasis may have developed. However, ALP is also present in the cells of the bone, so only measuring it by itself would not be an accurate indication of liver disease. It is usually measured alongside GGT; if both levels are high then it confirms that the problem is definitely within the liver.

These are a few diseases and tests that are commonly used today to identify one of the biggest causes of death in the UK today.

References:

[1] Martini, F., H., 2004, Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology, 6th edition, San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, ISBN: 0-13-120346-0.

[2] Higgins, C., 2000, Understanding Laboratory Investigations, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, ISBN: 0-632-04245-1

[3] Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010, Alcoholic Hepatitis, Mayo Clinic, DS00785

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Free Essays

Our science and technology have a quickly development. In the international marketplace, there are many unusual and high technology products.

Introduction

Today, our science and technology have a quickly development. In the international marketplace, there are many unusual and high technology products. They usually make our life to be more convenient and easier to solve the different problem.

However, the population growth in recent years, congenital blindness and blind people with acquired blindness, that the number for them was gradually increased. The blind people always need the help from walking stick, other people or guide dog to walk on the road. But there are no enough technology products to help the blind people that more easy way to know the obstructions in front of them.

Therefore, we thought that we should design a product to help the blind people. The present is required to assist the blind people with an electronic guide system, effective and immediate way to improve their life. We need to develop a product with convenience and low cost system is very important for them.

The product should include helping them to walk on the road without barriers, to take the bus, to purchase in the supermarket, to know the pedestrian signals, to arrive at the destinations and have an emergency call etc. Also, this product is used to mark the sound output to tell users the information. The blind people use of this system, they can get the useful of guide information easier without asking the strangers on the street. These are very important for themselves.

Finally, our team design to create a new product which fulfill the almost functions – it calls “Arm Channel”. We hope that after our product come out; it will cause the universal of guide system in the world. And the product cost will become lower and lower with the developed technology. Then make the blind people can be easily and more convenience to have a better quality of their meaningful life.

1. Background

The green land in a park, the blue sky, the sightseeing of the Victoria Park, I-pad, and 3D movie all of these can give people the visual and feeling of entertainment to people who are with the health of visual. Actually, somebody who locate in darkness world, they cannot see anything. They always rely on sense of sound, touch, smell and taste to living in their narrow community.

According to the different research of the marketing information of the blindness in Hong Kong, we found out the numbers of people who are with vision disorder; analyze their necessary in the normal dairy life and their problems in Hong Kong. Furthermore, we found out some major product which applied in Hong Kong and similar product in the world to carry out the comparison which related to the dairy life of the blindness.

Nowadays, there are about 73900 people with vision disorder in Hong Kong. They always rely on sound and sense of touch to detect the object from the surroundings. Then, the almost relevant products which sell in Hong Kong cannot fully satisfy the necessary with blind people. According to the article from the America foundation for blind (living in vision disorder), they noticed that the blind people need to learn the essential skill in vision loss, which include interdentally living, communication, mobility and low vision devices to adapt their dairy life. Therefore, in this project, we decide to invent the product which helps them to adapt the normal lift easily without learning the essential skill. After the comparison, we figure out our product is more functional than the other product in Hong Kong market and the similar product in the world. Also, the cost is reasonable too.

On the other hands, our product has a large range for development and improvement area in the future. And the market potential in Hong Kong and the world is very high. The main reason is the reasonable cost and the multiple functions can satisfy the necessary of the blindness.

2. Design Specifications

For our product – Arm Channel, we hope that the functions of product including helping them walk on the road without barriers, to take the bus, to purchase in the supermarket, to know the pedestrian signals, to arrive at the destinations and have an emergency call etc. And the main purpose of these functions should be totally dependent on themselves. Therefore, our team designs the five main themes which are suitable for our ideas and shown these below.

2.1 Voice Navigation System

Build in speaker;
To guide the user to the destinations;
Preset a new location for user to follow.

2.2 Article Identification

Build in speaker and digital camera;
To compare the goods and the goods photo in database .Then tell the user of the price, expire date and the name of the products when they are buying in anywhere.

2.3 Bus arrival Detection System

Build in speaker;
To identifies the bus number when it arrived and then tell the user.

2.4 Enquiry Service System

Build in simple machine connector box.
User can connect the call center for enquiry or emergency;
Download the new information to our product.

2.5 Barrier Detection System

Build in speaker;
To tell the user that has the barrier or not in front of them.

3. Marketing Strategy

In the Hong Kong market, the government plan to carry out the improvement of the public facility community, call “disability friends’, which include blind navigation system, blind person stone and write cane etc. These products are the common product in HK market now. But these products are not enough to satisfy their necessary, because they cannot buy something, take the transportation, and tell them the real location by themselves. Therefore, we directly against with these problem, we create our product – Arm Channel.

At the below table, there are divided 3 parts, that are 1) description the blindness products in HK market, 2) state their advantage and disadvantage of the products and 3) the functional comparison with our product.

3.1) Description the blindness products in HK market

Productfunction
Blind People Stone:Flooring and paving for blind people to show the direction or exit location.
Blind People Mobile PhoneThe blind people mobile phone is easy to use and carry. It can save one or two phone number in its memory. It also has a SOS function key on the mobile phone.
White CaneIt can help blind people to find out the Barrier in front of them
Guide DogThe Guide dog can guide the blind people to the destination safety
Navigate hermitHelp the blind navigate around the obstacles in their part, and thought them go to the destination using GPS
RFID StickTell them the location, signal for traffic light, distance between the destination and time to achieve
Guide shoeHelp the blind navigate around the obstacles in their part, and thought them go to the destination use GPS

3.2) The advantage and disadvantage of each product

Productadvantagedisadvantage
Blind People Stone:Its manufacture cost is not expensiveIts construction costs and period are very high and long.

Also, it produces sound pollution during the implementation.
Blind People Mobile PhoneIt is a good media for provide a communication method for the blind peopleIt can’t indicate the location for the user or show the destination direction to the user.
White CaneConvenient to find out the BarrierIt can’t indicate the location for the user or show the destination direction to the user
Guide DogSocial experience, autonomy for changing environment

Training a guide dog is too difficult and the prime cost is too high. It also has a life limited of the guide dog.

And cannot bring the dog into the bus or other transportation.
Navigate hermitConvenient to find out the Barrier

Can take the user to the right location easily as a long wayCan not help the to communicate to other person easily
RFID StickCan take the user to the right location easily, decrease the opportunity of traffic accident eventCan change the location voluntary

The technology is very expensive and cant take them as a long way
Guide shoeEffective for outdoor navigation,

Convenient to find out the BarrierThat make the user very inconvenient when there are very rough

3.3) Functional comparison with our product

Voice navigation

Article identification

Bus arrival detection

Barrier detection

enquiry service

Arm Channel

Y

Y

Y

Y

Y

Blind People Stone

N

N

N

Y

Y

Blind people mobile phone

Y

N

N

N

Y

White Cane

N

N

N

Y

N

Guide dog

N

N

N

Y

N

Navigate hermit

Y

N

N

Y

N

RFID Stick

Y

N

N

Y

N

Guide shoe

Y

N

N

Y

N

*(Y – YesN – No)

4. RFID Technology Specification

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses communication via radio waves to exchange data between a reader and an electronic tag attached to an object, for the purpose of identification and tracking.

RFID technology makes it possible to give each product in a grocery store its own unique identifying number. Compare that to the situation today, with bar codes, where it is only possible to identify the brand and type of package. Furthermore, RFID tags can be read if passed within close enough proximity to an RFID tag reader.

The brief differences between the Barcode technology and RFID:

Parameter Bar Code RFID
Frequencies used for tag readingOptical frequenciesRadio frequencies
Type of communicationLine of sight communicationNon-line of sight communication
Data VolumePhysical limitation exists. It is very difficult to read a very long barcode.Can carry relatively large volume of data.
Range of data readabilityVery limited range, less than feet or two.Can be read up to several feet.
CostCheapExpensive, but likely to cost less as more industries adopt the technology.

Benefits of RFID

Can identify moving object that have tags embedded.
Can be used in different environments, including live stock, military
Non-line of sight identification of tags
Unaccompanied operations are possible, minimizing human errors and high cost.
Larger area of coverage. Up to several feet.
Automatic integration with back end software solutions provide end to end integration of data in real time
RFID can be used in addition to Bar Code.

5.1 Active and Passive RFID Tags:

There are primarily two types of RFID tags. One is active and the other is passive. An active tag is powered using internal battery, where a passive tag gets energized using a power from a tag reader. A passive RFID tag will not have a battery or any kind of power source by itself. It extracts the required energy from a reader. Hence, a passive RFID tag reader must be able to emit stronger electromagnetic signals, and in return, identify very weak signals from the passive RFID tag.

The primary differences between a Passive and Active RFID tags

Passive RFIDActive RFID
Power SourceExternal (Reader provided)Internal (Battery)
Tag ReadabilityOnly within the area covered by the reader, typically up to 3 meters.Can provide signals over an extended range, typically up to 100 meters..
EnergizeA passive tag is energized only when there is a reader present.An active tag is always energized.
Magnetic Field StrengthHigh, since the tag draws power from the electromagnetic field provided by the reader.Low, since the tag emits signals using internal battery source.
Shelf LifeVery high, ideally does not expire over a life time.Limited to about 5 years, the life of a battery.
Data storageLimited data storage, typically 128 bytes.Can store larger amounts of data.
CostCheapExpensive
SizeSmallerSlightly bulky (due to battery)

5.2 Operation of RFID Systems

Various components of the tag are as shown. Normally, the antenna is external to the tag chip, and large in size

The operation of the RFID tag is described belo

The reader continuously emits Radio Frequency carrier signals, and keeps observing the received RF signals for data.
The existence of tag (passive tag) modulates the RF field, and the same is detected by the reader.
The passive tag absorbs a small portion of the energy emitted by the reader, and starts sending modulated data when sufficient energy is acquired from the RF field produce by the reader. Note that the data modulation (modulation for 0s and 1s) is accomplished by either direct modulation or FSK or Phase modulation.
The reader demodulates the signals received from the tag antenna, and decodes the same for further processing.

6. Methodology

First, there is the introduction of the software and hardware devices that we used in our product.

Software:

1)Labview

2)Labview Vision module

3)MySQL Database

4)MS speech SDK5.1

5)AT command

Hardware:

6.1 Hardware communication Diagram:

6.2 The part of Enquiry Service System:

Enquiry service system includes emergency SMS and call center service function. We used the LabView to build up the software which is used to control the mobile phone to send the emergency SMS or make a call to call center. The communication protocol is used Bluetooth to build a connection between the UMPC and Mobile phone. Nowadays, there is the standard control command for mobile phone which is call ‘AT command’. Therefore, we can use the AT command to control the mobile phone to send the SMS or make a call.

Flow chart of Enquiry Service System:

6.3 The part of Article Identification:

The Article identification is used to identify the product function. The program that we used Labview Vision module will through the video camera to capture the real time video input. Then, it will load the article templates from our database and identify which template was matched to the input article video. According to the result, the program will read the article name through the ear phone to tell the user.

6.4 Article Identification Flow chart:

6.5 Voice Navigation System & Bus Arrival Detection System

Since, we installed the RFID tags in each locations and the bus. The user can through the LabView program and the RFID tags to analyze the location and the bus. First, the program will make the decoding and filtering when the RFID reader received the tags signal. Next, it will identify the location name or bus number by the tag ID from MySQL database. Moreover, it will use the MS speech SDK functions to do voice prompt. The user can through the ear phone to listen the location name or bus number.

6.6 Voice Navigation System & Bus Arrival Detection System Flow chart:

7. Cash Flow Forecast

Cost planning service

Cost and benefit

Proposed Budget Plan
PARTICULARSUNITCOST PER UNITTOTAL COST
box1

$10

$10

AI switch2

$10

$20

UM PC1

$5,000

$5,000

RFID Receiver1

$300

$300

RFID8

$10

$80

Part A

$5,410

ExpendituresUNITCOST PER UNITTOTAL COST
Banner1

$350

$350

Catalogs20

$5

$100

Bag1

$200

$200

Headphone1

$50

$50

Miscellaneous$500

$500

Part B

$1,200

PM & Maintenance feeUNITCOST PER UNITTOTAL COST
PM Cost1

5% of PartA

$270

Maintenance Fee1

10% of PartA+PartB

$660

PartC

$930

Total Cost( A+B+C ) :

$7,540

Proposed Benefits Plan
PlanA

PlanB

PlanC

Months/Plan price$138

$248

$398

12

$1,656

$2,976

$4,776

24

$3,312

$5,952

$9,552

Months/Product price$8,000

$7,500

$7,000

12

$9,656

$10,476

$11,776

24

$11,312

$13,452

$16,552

Net Benefits(Total Benefits – Product Cost )

Months/ Plan TypePlanA

PlanB

PlanC

12

$2,116

$2,936

$4,236

24

$3,772

$5,912

$9,012

Proposed Virtual Expenditures
Virtual ExpendituresUNIT

Time

COST PER UNIT COST
Team member time8 members2hrs(extra work)+3 hrs x 8 lessons

$100

$20,800

Consultation time$150

Workshop time$150

Total

$20,800

8. Advantage of our product

Advantage

In this section, there are divided as two parts, which are research result and comparison result with other product. In the research result, it is shown how many people with seeing difficulty and blind in Hong Kong, America and in the world. In the comparison result with other product, it is shown the different between our product and the other product in the world.

Research result

(Key points)

In Hong Kong, about 73 900 persons were with seeing difficulty, 6 500 people of them are blind, according to research of Hong Kong Cerise and Statistic Department. In 2000.
In America, about 10.5 million persons were with seeing difficulty; 10.5 million people of them are blind, according to research of America community survey in 2008.
In America, about 15 million persons were with seeing difficulty, according to research of Prevent Blindness of in 2009.
About 314 million persons were with seeing difficulty; 45 million people of them are blind, 87% are living in Developing Country, according to research of Would Health Organization. In May 2009.

Observation:

The marketing is not only Hong Kong, this is avoidable globally.
the result is shown the trendy is increasing
Our product should be user friendly and the cost need to reasonable.

Comparison result with other product

In the functional test, which refer to the page 6 (comparison with other product). Our product can carry out the basic function, such as barrier detection and voice navigation. But when we have the enquire service, which is the most important function, because most of the people need to take the mobile phone for communication every day. Our product has provided the basic and important function; the article indemnification and bus arrival function are the specific functions.

9. Project Lifecycles

We identify the project lifecycles with four phases:

The first phase in the project lifecycle is Project Initiation. We define the project purpose, scope and the justification for initiating it. We also need to find a suitably project team before the project planning phase.

In the product lifecycle, the curial part is project planning which is a guideline for the team during the project.

Throughout the project, groups of management take a role to monitor and control the deliverable being output throughout the project, such as quality control, time and risk management etc. The project can be performed the closure once all the deliverables has been produced.

Project closure includes releasing the final deliverables to the customers, assess and review to identify the level of project success and note any recommendation for future project

10. Project Planning

This is our project planning at semester 1

This is our project planning at semester 2

Conclusion

Technology has been being developed very fast in recent years; people get many advantages form the technology, people get more comfort to their life, what is that technologySuch as following:

1)Mobile phone makes people faster and easier to communication.

2)Video conferencing make people no need to by car, by plane for seeing his / her family and friends, we just need a computer with a web camera.

3)Internet makes people get information just in few seconds.

4)GPS makes people easier to go to anywhere; no matter you are driving or walking.

But why some people cannot get these advantages from the technologyThose people around the world, they live at any place of the world. Who is that peopleSuch as blinders!

What is the goal in our projectWhy we use technology to help blinders. We want blinders live comfortable, easier and go anywhere as they want!

From the beginning of the project, one of two kind of technology may be choose, one is GPS and another one is RFID. Why we have not choice GPSDue to GPS cannot be used inside a building, when a blinder inside a building, GPS cannot guide him / her to the destination.

Therefore we choice RFID for our project! RFID is rising technology, RFID has some advantages such as more accurate, installed inside buildings, some other technologies will be incorporated in our project such as Bluetooth, camera for thing identification.

What is the RFID used in our projectWe use RFID to build and guiding system which can guide the blinders easily to go to anywhere by himself or herself!

When the blinder want to go to somewhere, he / her can make a call to customer center to tell them where you want to go! They can know nowhere you are from the guiding system and they transmit the routing from the customer center to your guiding system to guide you to the destination!

Bluetooth is use for communication between the guiding system, hands free headset and mobile phone, you can make a call to customer center by press a button, when the connection between you and customer center, you can talk to customer center by the hands free headset. If you want to make a SOS call to the customer center, you can press the SOS button to make an emergency to customer center, the customer center can know where you are by the guiding system, and then customer center call people to help you, meanwhile when you pressed the SOS button, it will automatically send SMS to your family for notice them you are in trouble! They can know where you are from the customer center.

Camera is used to identify things or products, when you activate the camera identification function; the camera will let you know what the thing which is in front of youThis function can makes blinder shopping easier.

What are difficulties in our project?

When the subject of our project was decided, we had to decided how many functions the guiding system shall equippedSome functions had been decided should be include in the guiding system such as following:

1) Voice navigation

2)Article identification

3) Bus arrival detection system

4) Enquiry service system

5)Barrier detection system

First difficulty thing is that how big is our productHow we can minimize the size of the productFinally we decided minimize the size of the product is not our first priority, how to make the product must be placed in first priority, therefore minimize the size of the product will be placed at the last priority.

Second difficulty thing is that the detection range is too large, we want the detection range between 0.5 meter and 1 meter, therefore the accuracy will be increased and how we can shorten the detection range of the RFID systemWe decided to use some metal enclosure to enclose the RFID reader to reduce the output power of the reader, so the detection range of the RFID reader can be reduced.

Third difficulty thing is what software can be used for the announcement and speaking systemFrom our review and research, we found a software, we can modify it for speaking many sentences, it can be used to tell the user information.

How the identify a thing or product and tell the user what is itWe used another software to do it, this software can scan a photo which is taken by the camera in the system to compare with the building database, when the software find a match data, it will let the user know what is the thing or product he is facing.

We are individually testing each component into project, some function such as BUS ARRIVAL and BARRIER DETECTION are still pending and waiting us to incorporate into the guiding system after we complete one system other system will be incorporated into the guiding system one by one. When all functions are tested, we will start to combine them to a whole system.

In this project we act different characters in a company, such as following:

1)Managing director

2)Secretary

3)Finance

4) Project planning and control

5) Design

6) Quality control

7) Engineer

8)Sales and marketing

We have not try to run a project in Role Playing mode before, we were facing many challenges in this project, such as very tight progress, we do our best to face that challenge, at the end of this trimester, we produced a prototype guiding system, it can work, but it is not working perfect, due to the guiding system is under development, we will try to make it as good as possible at incoming trimester.

Finally we hope we can act any character better in the project and we will complete the project at incoming trimester.

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Social Science Essay -Housing Extended Report

Introduction

The work of Woodberry Down estate regeneration was initiated by the Hackey Council in the year 201. The exercise involved demolition of 1, 981 homes with an aim of building new 1,561 both private, ownership, and social rental homes. Some of the projects that were initiated include; Redmond community centre, public parks, academies, retails, commercial houses as well as regeneration of narrow seven sister’s road (Woodberry Down Clinical Commissioning Group, 2013).

The purpose of this report is to analyse and discuss possible ways that correlates with IA policies on integration of stakeholders, community, state members as well as regional levels as far as Woodberry Down Regeneration is of concern based on the health care issue. As far as single parent and Woodberry down estate housing are of concern, this extended report will devise a methodology to assess the impact on a defined population or community of this area.

Evidence

Historically, Woodberry Down Regeneration was a 20-year programme and established as a partnership housing initiative in Europe. The key stakeholders as far as Woodley Down Estate programme is of concern include; Genesis Housing Association, Berkeley Homes, Greater London Authority, WDCO, Manor House Development and Hackney Homes. However, being one of the largest mass housing estates in Europe, Woodberry Down was built after World War two (Hackney Council, 2014). This is one of the estates that are located between the Finsbury Park and East as well as West reservoirs. Woodberry Down estate and regeneration process started in the year 1999. This was after the estate suffered from physical deterioration as well as under-investment. This led to the high levels of crime and accompanied by the anti-social behaviours especially from youths. For regeneration to take place well, a master plan was drawn and underpinned in the year 1999 (Berkeley Group, 2014).

Moreover, the project was regenerated and updated in the year 2012 due to the prevailing economic climate as well as processes involved in consultation with the residents. Meanwhile, for proper management, and based on the single parent family, this project will provide and devise a methodology to assess the impact on a defined single parent housing as far as Woodberry Down estate regeneration is of concern (Berkeley Group, 2014).

Impact Assessment

As far as impact assessment stages is of concern, it is so evident that owning a house as a single parent is not easy given that one has stretch budget in relation to the tough job he or she is doing that requires attention at large. Single parents as well as mothers require sacrifices to meet the aspect of home ownership. As far as the regeneration of Woodberry Down estate is of concern, the projects looks forward to initiate the best impact assessment stages that will help single parent be able to acquire home ownership.

Impact Assessment Stages
a. Policies guiding single parents to achieve and own a house

To start with, there will be initiation of policies that favours single parent to acquire a house in this programme. Just on the reflection challenges facing these families, and the bills that they require to meet, the function of this programme as far as the regeneration of Woodberry Down estate is of concern, will be to necessitate low-income buyer with less limitation policies as compared to the duo families. These policies will be unveiled through community policing and the only requirement will be a small fee i.e. not exceeding ?850 as the registration fee. The programme however, looks forward to initiate the aspect of affordability and consistency in terms of ability one has to necessitate.

b. Commitment

However, for the programme to work well, we need to administer the aspect of commitment among the registered single parents aspiring to own a house within the initiative of Woodberry Down estate programme. It is good to note that commitment works hand in hand with effective communication and therefore leading to positive results. Concurrently, it is evident that “Commitment is dedication to a particular organisation, cause, or belief, and a willingness to get involved. People who are committed to an organization or effort truly believe that it is important, and they show up, follow through, and stick with it. The more people who are committed to your organization, the greater the momentum you can generate to get the job done.” For effective work and delivery of services, the aspect of effective communication should be taken into account (Robert, 2001: 12-17).

When there is no communication for instance, between the Woodberry Down Estate management and the stakeholders i.e. single parents, the quality and delivery of services will be compromised hence undermining the programme to an extend that the morale of owning a house as a single parent in relation to the confined income may be impossible to meet. From this perception, the report will execute Lewis’s strategic module that implement effective delivery of services as far as owning a house as a single parent and Woodberry Down estate regeneration programme is taken into account.

c. Equality

The virtue of equality will be given a hand on every single parent aspiring to own a house as far as Woodberry Down estate and regeneration programme is taken into account. Through this virtue, the programme will incur local housing strategy that impacts all tenants as well as resident of Woodberry Down estate and this in turn will build up more affordable homes across all tenures. In addition, the aspect of equality will oversee and tackle anti-social behaviours hence increasing mobility across the housing system. The virtue of commitment requires mobilization and sustainability. To identify and change in the situation, the reports anticipate providing the re-configuration of Woodberry Down estate through community policing. “The more committed people there are the more effective they are in influencing others. If a whole group acts with determination and commitment, great numbers of people will really pay attention.

People who are committed are the ones who don’t take discouragement seriously and don’t give up. They set an example for those who don’t have the confidence or experience to go through the hard times and hold out for the rewards of success.” For this to take place, laying down good and structured communication roles among the stakeholders and single parent will be an enticing aspect. This will be through every member being acquainted with the goals of the project, vision, and period time requisition as well as satisfaction aspect.

d. Initiative of repayment cycle

Nevertheless, to drive a positive change, the report necessitates the deployment of 10 percent repayment cycle to the single parents unlike from other stakeholder around the country who requires 50 percent of the total money required to own a house. The introduction of day to day repayment cycle will also be the best approach as this will see single parents paying as less as ?20 per day hence initiating modern technology instrumentation to collect the debit from the single parents. As we anticipate to positively triggering these services, it becomes clearer that there may be some very strong forces preventing substantial changes of any kind from occurring. This includes; constraints, economic challenges, strict budget, poor communication and problem from modern technological instrumentation (Beard & Billett, 2010: 32-36

An analysis based on the problem facing the department was analysed by various scholars. Haven, for instance, started that the drivers for change are dominant to the resistance force. In order for us to provide good and sustainable service to the Woodberry Down Estate community, force field analysis is evitable. This compares the result from both drivers for change and against the total numbers to reduce negative impact and the challenges single parents meets hence, reducing cost and maintaining the organisation value and the fate of the single parents mothers (Kemm, 2012: 11-14).

This can be done by encouraging the individuals that they should adopt new behaviours and discard the old one. It also presents the existing problem and makes people realise the need for change. It involves encouraging the individuals to look for new solutions. In addition to the above factors, unfreezing also involves eliminating the rewards for the individual’s current behaviours so that they can be discouraged to use. This is useful implementation of Woodberry Down Estate regeneration based on the single parents is taken into account (O’Mullane, 2013: 57-62).

Research methodology

The purpose of this report is to analyse and discuss possible ways that correlates with IA policies on integration of stakeholders, community, state members as well as regional levels as far as Woodberry Down Regeneration and planning is of concern. As far as the single parent and Woodberry down estate housing are of concern, this report also looks forward to devise a methodology to assess the impact on the defined single parenthood management. The sample and survey will be directed to the single families that look forward to invest in this project through an opinion. There is recognition of the data collection and its framework analysis for the purpose of answering the research questions and achieves targeted objectives through validation, outsourcing, collection and data analysis.

The study on the basis of literature has shown that the research goals would be achieved more efficiently with the quantitative method. Whereas, the literature reviewed has revealed an objective need for numeric data that is necessary to a greater extent due to its absence, rather than non-numeric data. The quantitative method allows assessing the influence of the identified factors by the end-user, which permits the initiation and building of a consumer behaviour model. Ultimately, the variables were identified on the basis of the literature studied (O’Reilly, Truman, Redmond, Yunni, Wright, Cave & Haq, 2006: 10-13).

a. Research philosophy and approach

The objective of this report is to develop a philosophical study. We may define it as “an over-arching term relating to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge.” Due to this aspect, the report initiated the use of deductive approach to analyse the case as it stand out to be the right approach based on development of knowledge as far as over-arching perception is of concern. Based on the fact that theoretical framework has been defined, a test will be necessary to articulate the outlined theories hence; assuring the aspect of quantitative method which is one of the research methods.

b. Research strategies

To necessitate the aspect of research strategy, the report will adopt and make use ofquestionnaires for the experimental actions. The survey will cut across the single parents, diverse ages and anyone aspiring to implement proper planning and housing programme.

c. Data Collection

Data collection is a crucial stage as far as the prevailing report is of concern as it is triggered from the research strategy that incurs survey activities. Data collection however, will be availed during exhibition programme where visitors will be requested to give views as far as the liability of owning a house is taken into account. The report will help in acquiring data based on the visitor’s preferences as well as get acquainted to new features and product available as far as housing aspect is of concern. More so, data will be availed based on age group, occupation and level of incomes from diverse culture of Woodberry Down estate.

d. Population

The population of the Woodberry Down Estate is 8,758 people. According to the Central Statistical Bureau of London, 7,000 of them are aged 18 to 74(Reference GOV website). Typically, data from the leading specialised agencies that focus on the public opinions of the London residents are majorly used for surveys, with a representative sample of 1428 respondents used to make a projection of the opinion of all housing inhabitants of London. It is good to note that the “Population is the total number of objects of observation, which acquire a certain amount of characteristics, such as gender, income and age. In order for the survey to have been carried out successfully, it was necessary to generate a sample of inhabitants who are active housing planners (Berkeley Group, 2014).”

e. Sample and sample technique

The correct display of the population is independent to the sample generated. The sample is a representation of the number of visitors who come to inquire about pricing and acquisition of single parent housing as far as Woodberry Down estate is of concern. This study however, will target the audience between 18-69 years old. The sample technique will incur Questionnaire where the author is acquainted with several theories to formulate the questions.

The report however, will formulate a questionnaire and present to the visitors to ascertain views on the Woodberry Down Estate programme and as far as single parent aspect is taken into account. The regeneration of the estate will avail sample technique with an initiation of five crucial parts questions within the questionnaire. The first part of the questions will be based on data analysis directed to the consumer’s demography. The second part will be initiated by the closed questions which bear information that will obtain factual information from the respondent.The third part will execute questions based on the consumer’s age proportions as well as income probabilities. The forth part will articulates factors that influences the choice and preference of the consumer while the fifth part oversees factors and importance the consumers will assumes for effecting the programme. The analysis of this question will achieve one of the goals, which is to investigate the influencing factors on the choice housing the single families aspire to initiate. The analysis of responses to the third and fourth part of the questionnaire would also achieve one of the goals of the study to explore the advantages of different types of agencies in the selection of their end-users. All this will be articulated through consumer behaviour model.

f. Pilot study

To finalise the data collected through the help of sampling technique, a pilot version will be created to ascertain and correct any miscellaneous results hence providing the final data collection.Single parent aspiring to acquire housing programme and within the regeneration of Woodberry Down estate programme will be the target audience within the pilot study. Ten pilot questionnaires from the target consumers will be initiated and the feedback tabulated hence any possible adjustments will be unveiled. Any final outcomes from the final version will be executed and tabulated as the primary survey outcomes.

g. Sample type and sampling error

Probability and the non-probability are the two substantial sample types that the report anticipates to execute to eliminate sampling error. It is critical to note that random sampling technique necessitate this study and it is one of the probability sampling types of sampling technique. This sample type assumes homogeneity of the population, which indicates an equal probability of the availability of all elements. Moreover, margin error also known as sampling error indicates a deviation of the results obtained by using the probability sample survey data from the population. There are two kinds of sampling errors i.e. statistical and systematic. In this case, the statistical error was used due to the fact that there was an absence of factors that could seriously affect the study. Consequently, the systematic error depends on the sample size. The larger the sample size, therefore the less is the error. Accordingly, for a simple random sample of 95% the probability level would be 5 percent. However, for a specific population of this study, which is 8,758, the sample size should be from 22 to 25.

h. Fieldwork results

This is another crucial part that will incur the use of the personal survey collection. There will be print out of questionnaires that will be spread out by individuals to the respondent as well as participants. Fieldwork results will be monitored closely to ensure that the aspect of reliability based on the survey is taken into account.

i. Data analysis

To execute data analysis, the report will employ quantitative data analysis technique. The processed data will be tabulated on a matrix table in conformation to the outlaid final questionnaires results. The data will therefore be recorded using numerical codes. The processed information will be analysed and tabulated inform of graphs as well as trends.

Conclusion

As far as impact assessment stages is of concern, it is so evident that owning a house as a single parent is not easy given that one has stretch budget in relation to the tough job he or she is doing that requires attention at large. Single parents as well as mothers require sacrifices to meet the aspect of home ownership. The purpose of this report was to analyse and discuss possible ways that correlates with IA policies on integration of stakeholders, community, state members as well as regional levels as far as Woodberry Down Regeneration is of concern based on the health care issue. As far as single parent and Woodberry down estate housing are of concern, this extended report will devise a methodology to assess the impact on a defined population or community of this area. The findings necessitate that the result from both drivers for change and against the total numbers to reduce negative impact and the challenges single parents meets hence, reducing cost and maintaining the organisation value and the fate of the single parent’s mothers.

Bibliography

Berkeley Group (2014) Living at Woodberry Down. [Online] Available from: http://www.berkeleygroup.co.uk/media/pdf/2/4/Woodberry_Down_Social_Sustainability study.pdf[Accessed 2nd November 2014].

Beard, C. & Billett, A. (2010) Health Impact Assessment: Passionate about health. Guidance 2nd Edition, available from:http://www.gateshead.gov.uk/DocumentLibrary/Care/strategies/SOTWHIAGuidelines12012010v7final.pdf

Hackney Council. (2014) Woodberry Down Regeneration. [Online] Available from: http://www.hackney.gov.uk/woodberry-down.htm#.VGs0J_msWSo [Accessed 4th November 2014].

Kemm, J. (2012) Health Impact Assessment: Past Achievement, Current Understanding, andFuture Progress. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Kemm, J., Parry. J. & Palmer, S. (2005). Health Impact Assessment: Concepts, Theory,Techniques And Applications. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

O’Mullane, M (2013) Integrating Health Impact Assessment With The Policy Process: Lessons And Experiences From Around The World. Washington DC: CRC Press.

O’Reilly, J., Truman, P., Redmond, S., Yunni, Y., Wright, D., Cave, B. & Haq, G. (2006). CostBenefit Analysis of Health Impact Assessment. Department of Health & York Health Economics Consortium.

Robert, M. (2001), Understanding social problems, Great Britain T.J. International Ltd.,Padstow, Cornwall, Massachusetts, USA, Blackwell. http://www.Locallabourhire.co.UK [Accessed: 13th November 2014].

Woodberry Down Clinical Commissioning Group. (August 2013). Joint Strategic Needs Assessment for Woodberry Down. Woodberry Down Health and Wellbeing Board.
Retrieved from: http://www.woodberrydownsccg.nhs.uk/Get_Involved/Twoodberry%20woodberry%20healthimpact%20Health%20Joint%20Strategic%20Needs%20Assessment%20Part%20One%20%20Population%20Needs.pdf [Accessed: 10th November 2014].

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The method that built science

Science is no easy enterprise unless the decay in the inquisitive mind of man takes the form of a lingering revulsion against one of humanity’s most productive disciplines.

The scientific method is by all means the cornerstone in the advancement of the major as well as the minor theories and derived knowledge in the scientific world. Dating back to decades in its progression, the utilization of the scientific method has led to a number of refinements in the established principles in the domains of science as well as the refinement in the scientific method itself. In effect, the mutual benefit gained from the application of the scientific method with regards to the analysis of numerous scientific cases and to the broad investigations that underline the basic precepts and consequent principles has placed an edge over the credibility of the science.

This is in contrast to the several other means that are apart from and exclusive to the scientific enterprise in obtaining vital as well as crude information with regards to the natural and physical realm. Hence, in order for one to be able to effectively utilize the scientific method, a look into its parts and details is essentially contributive inasmuch as it is beneficial not only to the individual employing the method but also to the community in general.

The initial step in the scientific method is commonly identified as observation which refers to the use of the sensory perception or oftentimes with the aid of specific instruments in examining the phenomena contained within the physical or natural environment. After arriving at a description of an event or a set of events or objects, a tentative and educated explanation of the observed event then proceeds. This process is oftentimes referred to as the formulation of the hypothesis which provides a partial, unofficial and unverified elucidation on the observed phenomena.

With the hypothesis already in hand, what transpires next is the actual testing of the tentative explanation. This is done through the process of experimentation with all of the necessary material and equipments utilized in order to arrive at the resulting data. The resulting data after the experiment is then gathered and recorded so as to have a list of available information that will serve as the background for the hypothesis. Before arriving at any set of final conclusion with regards to the phenomena, an interpretation of the resulting data is necessary.

This step provides the crucial link that stands between the conclusion, oftentimes coming in the form of a generalization, and the data collected from the experiment. Further, the interpretation of the data can be done in several ways, largely depending upon the type of data gathered and the domain in science under which it falls. Generally, the interpretation of the data yields the necessary bases or sets of premises that will be generalized and placed in support of the conclusion.

With all the essential data already acquired as well as the interpretations of these sets of data from the variables provided in the experiment, a generalization of all these then follows. The conclusion serves as the pinnacle of the scientific method that started from mere observation of phenomena.

Not only does the conclusion fits as the highlight of the scientific method, it also serves as the fundamental verifying statement or statements for the hypothesis, thereby granting the formulated hypothesis either with a substantiated and authenticated merit or a falsifying remark. There, too, are instances wherein the hypothesis is left hanging by the conclusion as the latter oftentimes arrives at a differing point whereas the hypothesis remains inconclusive although experimentation has already been performed.

In general, the scientific method along with its intricate steps has provided an extra muscle for the scientific community to be able to better shape its scopes and foundations. Being able to understand the underlying steps in the scientific method is an essential and useful means in arriving at a more concrete exploration of numerous phenomena and the domains in which they fall under.

Reference

Kramer, S. P. (1987). How to Think Like a Scientist: Answering Questions by the Scientific Method. New York: HarperCollins.

 

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Nutrition and food science: energy balance

Nutrition in general is a concern for adolescents, who are entering a stressful, confusing, and sometimes frightening time of social, emotional, and physical development. Healthy diet and regular physical activity help children and adults feel better, learn and work more effectively, and avoid developing a variety of risk factors for disease. The key to weight control or weight management is keeping energy intake (food) and energy output (physical activity) in balance; that is energy balance.

Read also: Domestic Activities and Chemicals

When you consume only as many calories as your body needs, your weight will usually remain constant. If you take in more calories than your body needs, you will put on excess fat. If you expend more energy than you take in you will burn excess fat. The relationship of energy balance to body weight can be summarized by the following equations:
Energy Intake = Energy Output = Weight Maintenance

Energy Intake > Energy Output = Weight Gain

Energy Intake < Energy Output = Weight Loss

Weight management means keeping your body weight at a healthy level. Regular exercise and a healthy diet are a must when it comes to controlling your weight. A weight management plan depends on whether you are overweight or underweight. Many people mistakenly believe that they only “burn calories” when they exercise. In fact, your body is burning calories all of the time (yes, even when sleeping!). Calories are used to keep

basic body functions going, to metabolize the foods you eat, and to do any form of physical activity. Exactly how many calories people need varies, depending on such factors as gender, current body size, activity level and body weight goals a wise choice to achieve a healthy weight. A safe, tried-and-true method for long-term weight loss is to reduce calories by decreasing portion sizes when people tend to eat. When trying to lose weight or hold steady at a desired one, there’s no need to turn to the latest “diet” or outcast your favorite foods. Small changes to your diet and exercise routine can make a big difference.

A healthful eating plan can include all your favorite foods if they are in reasonable amounts and balanced out with daily physical activity. Aerobic physical activity, if no health prohibitions, will assist in increasing muscle tissue and also in burning calories. However, care should be taken not to exercise more frequently and more intensely that is required for good health or to compete well.

Physical activity should be balanced with diet to maintain a desired weight. Experts have come to believe that this approach of weight management is reasonable and promising. No proven side effects, however, success of weight efforts should be evaluated according to improvements in chronic disease risk factors or symptoms and by the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, not just by the number of pounds lost/gain.

But if you are over 40, have been inactive for some time, suffer from shortness of breath or weakness that interferes with daily activities, or suffer from a chronic condition, you should consult a physician before you begin any effort to reduce your weight or increase your activity level. Education may be necessary for an understanding of energy balance and basic nutrition principles.

REFERENCE

Atkins, R. (1981). Dr.Atkins: Nutrition breakthrough. New York, U.S.A: Bantom Books.

 

 

 

 

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Science and Religion

Science and Religion (SRP 420) Science and Religion–two disciplines that at first glance seem to be completely separate modes of thought. After more careful examination one comes to realize that they bump into each other often. Indeed, science and religion seem to have a complex history involving both conflict and resolution. Many theologians, philosophers, and scientists have developed theories on how science and religion can coexist. One such man is John Polkinghorne a scientist and philosopher; he has developed his own theory on the relationship between science and religion.

In the first chapter of his book Quarks, Chaos, and Christianity Polkinghorne lays out his theory for the coexistence of science and religion. He begins by discussing the impressiveness of science and its many accomplishments. Next he goes on to discuss the truth of religion and challenges the claim that religion is simply a personal truth or an opinion, while science is fact. He quickly claims this statement is false, because making this conclusion would be a, “fundamental mistake of the most disastrous kind” (Polkinghorne, 2).

This faulty conclusion about the integration of science and religion, according to Polkinghorne, has is often made because of two mistakes: about the basis of scientific knowledge and the other about religious belief. The general mistake that has been made about science is that it is a simple process in which a prediction is formulated, an experiment is performed, and presto a new discovery is made. In actuality there is much more involved in the art of scientific discovery. For instance, scientists often do not have pure facts, but rather they are dealing with knowledge that they must interpret for themselves.

To interpret knowledge, according to Polkinghorne, is often quite difficult and requires one to formulate a point of view or an opinion in order to reach a conclusion. Choosing a point of view or having an opinion requires people to be bold and brave because they are betting things happen in a certain way. Therefore in science fact and opinion are constantly mixed up with one another. The major mistake people make in religion is that is that it involves a kind of “leap into the dark” (Polkinghorne, 10). While religion does involve faith and faith does sometimes require a leap, it is in no way a leap into the dark.

Polkinghorne criticizes this theory by asking a variety of questions such as: what would be the purpose of religion if this were true? Why would anyone be religious if it involved such blind trust? (Polkinghorne, 2) Therefore, he concludes religion must be a leap of faith, but it is a leap into the light. The main point Polkinghorne is making here is that religion can only be of real value if it is actually true, otherwise he claims religion would simply only be a, “technique for whistling in the dark to keep our spirits up” (Polkinghorne, 14).

The conclusion reached at the end of the argument is that science and religion are “intellectual cousins,” (Polkinghorne, 11) in that they are both searching for truth, but neither can say that they have achieved it and each must base its conclusions on an interaction between interpretation, experience, and opinion. They both also must always be open to corrections if mistakes are found, because they are part of a kind of wonderful human journey to understand and be in sync with the physical and spiritual world around us.

Nevertheless, there are major differences between science and religion that cannot be overlooked, and Polikinghorne points out these differences. Essentially science is dealing with a physical world that we are able to poke and prod even if we cannot always see exactly what is happening. However, religion cannot be put to an experimental test in the same way that science can. Although science and religion are different in this way they are still both attempts to understand even if they go about in different ways. Overall, I think Polkinghorne offered a solid argument for the coexistence of science and religion.

As a science major I really appreciate the fact that Polkinghorne is an inhabitant of both the scientific and religious community. Like Polkinghorne I agree with the argument that neither science nor religion can offer an ultimate understanding of the world around us, but if they work together in harmony it is possible that they will eventually be able to achieve a greater understanding. In considering science and religion one must understand that neither can tell you everything and believing that one form of knowing can tell you everything forces a person to take a very diminished view of life.

In conclusion, Polkinghorne offers a simple and straightforward argument for how science and religion can exist together without contradiction. While the argument if fairly simple it is also effective and the main point is that science and religion are just different attempts to answer the same questions. Neither can answer these questions on their own to achieve greater understanding of the physical and spiritual world around us, both science and religion must be considered. Works Cited Polikinghorne, John. Quarks, Chaos, & Christianity. NY: Crossroads, 1994.

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Decision Science for Business

BUSI 508 MIDTERM EXAM PREPARATION – General Information: – Exam counts as 20% of your overall grade – Exams are 100% individual effort–discussions among classmates are prohibited. All reference materials (books, notes, etc. ) shall be closed while taking the exam – There are 48 multiple choice questions: — (General Knowledge) 33 questions which will test your basic knowledge of history, importance of operations research/management science techniques, model terminology, etc. These questions are worth 1 point apiece – (Applications) 15 questions that will require you to analyze screen shots/graphics from Microsoft Excel and interpret information regarding an applied problem. These problems will be very similar to the work you have done on the Excel Exercises and Cases however will not require you to actually use Excel, simply be able to interpret information from the screen shots/graphics. Most of the applied-type problems will be worth 2 points, though some are only worth 1 point depending on the level of difficulty – Once the availability period opens, you will have 2 hours to complete the exam.

Your clock starts as soon as you open the exam so you must submit the exam within 2 hours of opening it – Content: – General knowledge on the background of operations research/management science – Value of operations research/management science – Modeling basics (types, applications, etc. ) – Linear programming/Integer Linear Programming basics (difference between the two, building an LP/ILP model, integration of the model into Excel, optimal solution, feasible region, establishing constraints, bounded/unbounded solutions, sensitivity analysis) Network Modeling basics (the Transshipment Problem, nomenclature associated with the visual network model, establishing the model, basic forms of constraints depending on the type of problem – How to Prepare (**Suggestions**): 1. The readings from the textbook are imperative! Simply using the notes that have been provided in the course is not sufficient; this exam assumes you have completed and have a solid comprehension of the assigned readings from the textbook. . This exam assumes you are capable of developing and interpreting Linear/Integer Linear Programming models, sensitivity analysis (as it applies), and network models (both the development of the model and understanding the graphic representation of the model showing the nodes and arcs). If you have successfully completed the Excel Exercises and Case problems, you should be adequately prepared for the applied portion of the exam.

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Sociology as a Science

More… The case for sociology as a science * 1. The Case for Sociology as a Science 1. Introduction In this paper, I try to put forward several points in favor of sociology as a science. In the course of argument, I will also discuss the problems of ” value free” sociology and scope of sociology. 2. What is science? To answer the question if sociology is a science or not, first we need to know what is science, otherwise the question does not make much sense. Actually current philosophical views on the nature of science are diverse, and largely liberalized from previous views.

First, they no longer accept strong criteria of falsification as a scientific method. There are several ways to formulate falsification, but her e I mean something like this: scientific theories should make observable predictions and we should discard a theory if we find only one discrepancy between a prediction of the theory and an observation. Because even physics cannot meet such a strong criteria, now philosophers like Lakatos (1970) admit tolerance to such failure to some extent. Another new movement in philosophy is the attack on the universal laws.

Cartwright (1983) argued that seemingly universal physical laws are not really universal, from logical point of view. This and other reasons (note1), Cartwright (1983) and Hacking (1983) presented a new view of science in which piecemeal “models”, instead of universal laws and theories, play the central role of scientific investigation . Here, “models” means oversimplified mental pictures of structure. For example, planetary model of atoms is long known as an oversimplification, but still it is widely used by chemists as a convenient way for thinking about chemical reactions.

Feature Article – Sociology Test

I do not have enough space to give a definition of science, but these considerations will be enough to help our judgment on the status of sociology. 3. Is sociology a science? With the analysis of science in the previous section in mind, let us turn to sociology. Early sociologists tried to establish sociology as a science, and their arguments are mainly on the methodology of sociology. Comte claimed that sociology uses four different kinds of methodologies, namely observation, experiment, comparison and historical research as a special case of comparison (CST pp. 9-90, SCS pp. 42-54). These are the methodology used in several other scientific fields, especially in biology. So if his sociology had really followed these methods, it would have been a strong case for sociology as a science. But actually he never did empirical research (CST p. 110), so we cannot take his argument at the face value. But his argument influenced on other sociologists, especially Durkheim. For Durkheim, sociology is a study o f social facts (CST p. 185). A social fact is ” a thing that is external to, and coercive of, the actor” (ibid. emphasis original). Because they are external, social facts cannot be investigated by introspection (ibid. ). We should use empirical research. A typical use of this methodology is in his analysis of suicide (CST p. 195). Durkheim used statistics on suicide rate to establish his argument that suicide is a social phenomenon. He refused alternative hypotheses because their predictions did not agree with the actual statistical data. This is an admirable attempt of empirical research of society, but there are several problems.

Durkheim applied too strict criteria of falsification to rival accounts. Adoption of these strict criteria is suicidal for sociology, because it is hard for a sociological theory to make a precise prediction, let alone to make a precise and correct prediction (and without this, the falsification criteria do not work). Another related problem is in his reject ion of introspection as a sociological method. This restricts the scope of sociology too narrowly, and in fact even Durkheim’s own study becomes impossible.

For example, Durkheim’s definition of suicide is “any case of death ‘resulting directly of indirectly from a positive or negative act of an individual against himself, which he knows must produce this result'” (ED p. 32). But, without using introspection, how can we decide if ‘he knows’ the result or not, from external evidence only? I think that Weber’s methodology provides an answer to these problems. His key word in this point is “Verstehen,” a German word for “understanding” or “interpretation” (CST pp. 222 -224, FMW pp. 55-56).

According to him, we can “understand” other people’s motivation through introspection of our own intentions, and this kind of knowledge is necessary for sociology. This is exactly what Durkheim denied as a method of sociology, but as we saw above even Durkheim himself used this “understanding” in his actual work. But, o f course, the problem is if this is permissible as a scientific method. Strong falsification of a theory is almost impossible by such “interpreted” facts, because if an interpreted fact runs counter to the theory we can just change the interpretation.

But, as we saw in the last section, such strong falsification is given up by philosophers of science as too strict a criteria. Moreover, the arbitrariness of interpretation is not as great as one might worry. For example, Comte’s three stage theory (the detail of the theory does not matter here) has no follower today because there is no way we can reasonably interpret the evolution of society as obeying such a law. In this case we can say that Comte’s theory was falsified.

As far as we have this minimal possibility of falsification, we can admit “Verstehen” as a scientific method of sociology, thus ” interpretive” sociology as a science. Before we proceed to next section, I would like to make a brief remark on the use of models in sociology. One of the reason people may argue against sociology as a science is the lack of the sociological theory. We have Marx’s theory, Durkheim’s theory, Weber’s theory and so on, but none of them are shared by all sociologists.

This seems to make a strong contrast with other fields of science where scientists agree on the basic theories. But, as we saw in the last section, some philosophers think that even in other scientific field what scientists are working on are piecemeal models, not a universal theory. And as f or such models, we can find abundant models shared by many sociologists. Actually, this is what Weber called “ideal types” (CST pp225-228). Ideal types are constructed through exaggerating some features of real cases. By comparing with ideal types we can find characteristics of each real case.

These ideal types are useful conceptual tools for sociology just in the same sense as the planetary model of atoms is a useful conceptual tool for chemists. So, in this point, the difference between sociology and other scientific fields is not so great as it seems to be. 4. On “value free” sociology. To talk about “value free” sociology, I introduce a distinction made by philosophers recently (e. g. Laudan 1984). This is the distinction between “epistemic values” and non-epistemic values. Epistemic values are related to a special type of question “what should we accept as knowledge (or a fact)? Logical consistency, empirical adequacy, simplicity etc. are the criteria to answer such a question, and they ar e called epistemic values. On the other hand, other values are supposed to be used to answer the broader question “what should we do? ” These are non-epistemic values. With this distinction, we will find that the claims of ” value free” sociology made by ea rly sociologists were actually the claims for independence of epistemic values from other values in sociology (even though they are not conscious about this distinction). First, let us see the case of Spencer.

Spencer distinguished several kind s of emotional biases, and claimed that we should exclude these biases from sociological research (CST pp. 124-125). None of these biases are epistemic value as characterized above. Moreover, the Spencer’s claim that we should exclude these biases is a value judgment, but this is an epistemic value judgment, and as far as this claim itself is not affected emotional biases, to apply such a value to sociology should be O. K. So Spencer’s argument agrees with my definition of “value free” sociology. The same argument applies to Weber.

Weber says that teachers should not exploit the circumstances in a lecture room to imprint upon the students his personal political views (FMW pp. 146-147), because the task of teacher is to teach his students to recognize” facts that are inconvenient for their party opinions” (FMW p. 147). Again this is a value judgment, but epistemic one. Apparently sociology (or any other science) cannot be free from all values (because the ideal of “value free” sociology itself is a value), but at least it can be free from non-epistemic kinds of values, when we decide what is a fact and what is not.

I guess even Marx can agree this notion of “value free” sociology to some extent. Of course in Marx’s theory the value judgment and the theory are inseparably related, but his actual arguments show that he distinguished these two things. For example, Marx criticizes Ricardo in “Theory of Surplus Value,” but the primary reason he criticizes Ricardo is not that Ricardo is capitalist, but that Ricardo’s conceptual scheme is insufficient because it cannot deal with certain cases (KM pp. 398-409). Thus the criteria for this judgment is pistemic values, not other kinds of value. I think that this way of argument gives Marx’s theory its persuasiveness. Of course I admit non-epistemic values and sociology have many interrelationships. For example, the choice of research topic is influenced the sociologist’s personal values, and sometimes a result of sociological research has immediate normative implications (e. g. Marx’s analysis on alienated labor; KM pp. 77-87). But still, I think, at the point of accepting something as a fact, we should be free from non-epistemic values. 5. On the scope of sociology

Comte thought that sociology is the study of social statics (social structure) and social dynamics (social change) (CST p. 94). Durkheim thought that sociology should deal with social facts. Simmel claimed that “everything which was not science of external nature must be science of society” (SCS p. 29). Does any of them have the right answer? I don’t think that there is anything right or wrong on this topic, but my own preference is Simmel’s answer quoted here. I think that Comte’s and Durkheim’s answers tried to restrict the subject fie ld of sociology to establish sociology as a independent scientific field.

But now no one would doubt sociology is an independent field (even though someone might object that it is not a “scientific” field). In this situation, such a conscious self restriction of subject matter is nothing but an obstacle to interdisciplinary cooperations with psychology and other neighbor fields. This is why I like Simmel’s answer. 6. Conclusion According to the liberalized philosophical view on science, there is nothing wrong with admitting Weber’s “Verstehen” and “ideal types” as scientific method, thus admitting sociology using these methods as a science.

Recent distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic values makes the claim of “value free” sociology intelligible, and I think it is a reasonable position if taken in the sense I defined. I also briefly talked about the scope of sociology, and argued that we should not be restrictive on the subject matter of sociology. For example, even in physics, the scientists in closely related fields sometimes accept mutually inconsistent theories in each field and have no problem. This shows that

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Conscience vs. Society

Conscience vs. Society Conscience and society are often in conflict with one another. Your culture and the people around you may be telling you to do one thing, while in your heart; you feel that a different way is the way to go. This is exactly what happens in Sophocles’ play Antigone. Ismene, Haimon, and Creon all have a difficult time choosing between following what their conscience is saying and what society thinks, which leads to conflict between the characters. Ismene faces this conflict of conscience vs. society when deciding whether to help Antigone bury Polyneices or not.

When Antigone asks her if she is going to bury him with her, and if she even cares about her brothers, Ismene says “They mean a great deal to me; but I have no strength to break laws that were made for the public good. ” (Prologue, 62-63) Ismene wants Polyneices to have a proper burial as much as Antigone does, but she does not feel that it is worth the risk of her own death. She has to choose between risking her life to bury her brother, or living with the guilt of Polneices never being fully put to rest. This leads to conflict between her and Antigone because she feels abandoned by her sisters’ choice to not help her.

Haimon faces the problem of conflict vs. society when he talks to his father, Creon. After Creon sentences Antigone to death for breaking his law about burying Polyneices, Haimon says; “For me your judgments and the ways you act on them are good. I shall follow them… don’t let you mind dwell on just one thought, that what you say is right and nothing else. ” (Scene 3, 720-21 and 799-800) At first, Haimon is saying that he will follow and agree to anything his father does or says; but then, he goes on to say that his judgments may not be correct and that he should stay more open-minded on his decision.

At first, Haimon starts by saying what his father would want him to say, but then changes his mind and speaks of what he knows is right. This leads to conflict between his father and him because he is not just saying what his father wants to hear anymore. Finally, Creon faces this conflict after Teiresias shares his prophecy. When he tells Creon of his fate if he does not bury Polyneices and free Antigone, he faces a hard decision: “It’s dreadful to give way, but to resist and let destruction hammer down my spirit, – that is a fearful option too. (Scene 5, 1225-27) He has to choose between what everyone (even the gods) wants to happen, which is to let Antigone go and give her brother a proper burial, and what he thinks is right, which is to kill Antigone off and let Polyneices rot on the battlefield. This is the first time in the play he actually listens to reason, even if it is for his own benefit. This leads to conflict within himself. The characters in this play go through many conflicts, a lot of which have to do with choosing between what society thinks and what that character thinks.

Ismene has to choose between following the law and breaking it to bury her brother, Haimon has to choose between following his father or going against him for the woman he loves, and Creon must choose between letting Antigone die and Polyneices stay unburied or burying him and letting Antigone go. This all leads to conflict between the characters and themselves. The concept of conscience vs. society is nothing new and will continue to be a point of conflict in peoples’ lives until the day they die.

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How Science and Technology Is Going to Change the Future

how the science and technology is going to change the future ! Introduction Science and technology is a systematic representation which helps to build or organize one’s knowledge and to acquire intelligence with some experiments and explanations. The words “science and technology” are derived from the latin and greek words ‘SCIENTIA and TECHNOLOGIA’. This topic is explained with some details below. History of Science and technology

The history of science and technology is indentified as a field of history which examines how HUMANITY understands the natural world which is called science and their ability to manipulate it which is termed as technology. Before the word scientist was invented in 1833 , scientists were known as Natural Philosophers. Greatest achievements and inventions The first and foremost invention of mankind is nothing but a “WHEEL” which further passed down in the inventions of screws , levers etc.

By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery in technology by making mankind sufficient to leave the atmosphere of the earth and explore space , another important invention is satellite. The first artificial satellite SPUTNIK-1 was built by SOVIET UNION which was launched on 4th OCT 1957 after revolving around the earth 1440 times which is equal to 60 million miles for 3 months burnt to ground on 4th JAN 1988 which is one of the greatest achievement in human history.

Harzadous Developments The growth and development of the harzadous side of science and technology began at the start of the world wars , the invention of ZEPPELIN, a type of rigid airship and other warcrafts such as TANKS, SUBMARINES and BATTLESHIPS caused unestimatable loss to humanity around the world . To tackle the enemies new research and inventions were brought in which resultd in the harzadous poison ‘POLLUTION’ that caused damage to our earth and us at present. Welcome to the FUTURE !!!

Technology developments tends to make the life for humans ‘STRESSLESS’. Technology upgrade concept such as flying cars , bullet trains , cloud computing enables humanity to reach their destinations swiftly and complete the works fastly thereby saving time and energy . Therefore Technology development helps the future generations fulfilling their needs. Greener IDEAS! Pollution in the world can be controlled by some of the following methods like RECYCLING , REUSING and preventing the methods and inventions that cause Pollution.

Technology deveolpments are profitable to future generations when it combines with the greener ideas! , for example in 2008 the world’s first bio degradable computers “the IAMECO” was built from the waste products of lumber and pulp industry in Ireland. Conclusion From these things we can conclude that technology development is needed but development which creates a pollution free earth is appreciatable. Therfore the final conclusion is “GREENER THE WORLD BRIGHTER THE FUTURE”

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The Mind-Body Issue in Science

Neuroscience is the study of the brain and psychology is…well, the answer to that question is not exactly clear.  A direct interpretation of the word “psychology” boils down to “the study of the psyche” or “the knowledge of the psyche”, but psychology does not have a definition of the psyche and, in general, they do not believe in it.  Psyche comes from the Greek word meaning soul, so the psyche is actually the study of the soul, and yet psychology today has more or less become a study of the mind, and ironic situation since neither psychologists nor neuroscientists believe in the existence of the mind.

The generally held accepted view of the mind is that the mind arises from the activity of the brain.  Thus, a major philosophical concern of neuroscience is, “Does the mind exist separate and independent of the brain?”  The generally accepted answer to this question is, “No.  The mind is an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity.”  In the past, efforts were made to resolve this problem with philosophical arguments such as Fredric Weizmann’s ideas about genetics and embryology (Forsdyke, 1999) and Michael M. Sokal ideas about phrenology.

Today, we can conclude that the mind/body problem of science has been successfully resolved despite the obvious fact that the resolution has yet to be recognized or acknowledged!  We can now take pride that the resolution to this dilemma did not result in confirming the “pervasive” 19th-century fear humans might ultimately be viewed as “mere machines” lacking souls. (Jacyna, 1994)

Despite the generally accepted view that the mind is merely an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity, more or less superimposed over brain activity, there is actually no evidence to support the idea.  To date, all of the available data, without exception, suggests that the mind and the brain are two separate but interacting ‘things’.  Whatever evidence that does not suggest this is neutral.  The evidence is sufficiently strong to have swayed diehard monists (who believe that the mind is the brain) into becoming dualists (who believe that the mind and the brain are separate).

Upon a review of the available data at the end of his life, the late neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield, MD (1891 – 1976), a former monist, concluded the evidence, “…it comes as a surprise now to discover, during this final examination of the evidence, that the dualist hypothesis seems the more reasonable of the two possible explanations.” (Penfield, 1975)  Although the available data may support Penfield’s conclusion, there are still some interesting, intriguing and difficult questions to answer such as, “What is the realm of consciousness and the mind,” “How does consciousness and the mind and the realm of mind relate to the brain and the physical body,” and “Does a mind exist independent of the brain and the physical body?”  We can briefly address each of these questions separately.

The central problem with the dualist point of view is that the mind exists as an abstraction unless it arises from brain activity.  If the mind exists separate and independent of the brain, the answer to our first question is that the mind exists as an abstract field as proposed around the 1920s by developmental biologist Paul Weiss. (Weiss, 1926)  Then, in the mid and late 1930s, Dr. Harold Saxton Burr and his associates discovered just such a field. (Burr and Lane, 1935; Burr and Northrop, 1939)

Dr. Burr discovered that all living things are molded and controlled by invisible and intangible electro-dynamic fields, that he called “L-fields” for the “fields of life”.  John White and Stanley Krippner call the L-field the “‘bridge’ or intermediate link between the mental and the physical…they offer evidence that the mind and body are quite separate….” (White and Krippner, 1977)

If Burr’s findings are correct, it seems apparent that consciousness and the mind are electrodynamic fields that interact with the physical body.  Burr was able to make a definitive connection between the L-field and wound healing and between the L-field and the mental functions and mental states of individuals.

Burr and his colleagues found that they could make impersonal, objective measurements of the mental and emotional states of psychiatric patients and that their electrical measurements generally agreed closely with psychiatric diagnoses.  Consciousness and the mind somehow relate to the brain and the physical body through an electrical connection or bridge of sorts, forces associated with and coupled to cells. (Jerndal, 1982)

Finally, although the preferred view of the mind-body/mind-brain issue in neuroscience and psychology is the monistic view which states that the mind is merely an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity, it is apparent that the mind transcends physical functions of the body, but there are concerns such as can more detailed studies be provided to determine if the mind can be associated with the L-field?  Burr, Ravitz and their colleagues provided evidence that established a relationship between nerve and other tissue and that made useful neurological and psychiatric measurements that were associated with mental functions.

Therefore, they succeeded in establishing a firm connection between an abstract but very real field and the tangible nervous system.  This data provides concrete evidence for the existence of an independent mind that transcends the functions of the physical body.  Thus, it appears that the mind-brain and mind-body issue can be laid to rest.  Now, the problem is, “How to get the word out.”  Perhaps that leaves us right back where we started, at least for now.
References

Becker, Robert O. and Gary Selden (1985).  THE BODY ELECTRIC.  Electromagnetism and The Foundation of Life.  New York, NY: Quill, William Morrow.

Burr, H. S. (1952).  Electrometrics of Atypical Growth.  Yale J. Biol. Med., 25, 67-75.

Burr, H. S. (1972).  The Fields of Life:  Our Links with the Universe.  New York, NY:  Ballantine Books.

Burr, H. S., and Lane, C. T. (1935).  Electrical Characteristics of Living Systems.  Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 8, 31-35.

Burr, H. S., and Northrop, F. S. C. (1939).  Evidence for the Existence of An Electrodynamic Field in the Living Organisms.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 25, 284-288.

Eccles, Sir John C. (1951).  Hypotheses Relating To The Brain-Mind Problem.  Nature, 168(4263), 53-57.

Forsdyke, D. R. (1999). Two levels of information in DNA: Relationship of Romanes’ “intrinsic” variability of the reproductive system, and Bateson’s “residue” to the species-dependent component of the base composition, (C + G) %. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 201, 47-61

Jacyna, L. S. (1994). Philosophic whigs: Medicine, science and citizenship in Edinburgh 1789-1848. London: Routledge.

Jerndal, Jens (1982).  The Field Resonance Approaching Medicine.  Text of a Paper presented at the 3rd World Congress of Alternative Medicine, Colombo, Sri Lanka 22nd October, 1982.

Penfield, Wilder (1975).   The Mystery of the Mind:  A Critical Study of Consciousness and the Human Brain.  Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press.

Weiss, P. A. (1926)  “Morphodynamik:  Ein Einblick in die Gesetzte der organischen Gestaltung an Hand von experimentellen Ergebnissen,” in Abhandlungen zur theoretischen Biologie, (J. Schaxel, ed.), Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin.

White, John, and Krippner, Stanley (1977).  Future Science.  Life Energies and the Physics of Paranormal Phenomena.  Garden City, NY:  Anchor Books.

 

 

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Change and Continuity Over Time-Scientific Revolution

In the time from the 1300s to the 1800s, ideology, scientific knowledge, and religious understanding changed from superstitious ideas to rational and factually supported theories while views of religion stayed the same. Throughout scientific history, religion has played an integral role. During ancient times, changes in weather and sicknesses were thought to be caused by the moods of the gods. In the 1300s the scientific revolution began in Europe, changing from a science ruled by illogical beliefs to knowledge with a focus of understanding the logical laws of God’s creation.

This scientific revolution was started by observant, brilliant minded thinkers who dropped superstition and proposed a creation that is knowable. During the Middle Ages scientific studies did not were not as prevalent as they are today. Other areas such as religion, art, and philosophy were being developed, but without the scientific knowledge to back them up. The powerful Roman Catholic Church promoted traditional dogmas based on Greek philosophy that hindered the scientific movement.

This imbalance of knowledge caused much of science to give way to superstition. Up until the 1300s the gap of scientific knowledge was filled with this superstition. Through lack of scientific pursuit, superstition and pagan beliefs began to creep into the middle Ages learning. Medicine consisted more of chants, spells, and ways to draw out evil spirits than what was healthy for the patient and little was known about astronomy, physics, or anatomy.

During the late 1300s, after the Church had been discredited by the Black Death, science started becoming more important. New ideas were developed, processes changed, and the culture in Europe started moving away from superstition and into the scientific processes. We typically think of the scientific revolution as a change in natural science and technology but it was really a series of changes in human knowledge within Europe itself. In various fields of scientific study they sought rational explanations to these beliefs with astronomy, anatomy, and physics.

In the field of astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus rejected the view of pagan Greeks that the planets rotated around the earth and said that they actually rotated around the sun. Galileo, seeking to understand the verse, “God is light”, determined that our sun is only one of many in the known universe. Later Isaac Newton developed the idea that the universe is mechanical and there are laws that cause the world to operate predictably. Many of his theories gave the world of science a better understanding of mathematics and physics.

Along with the many new discoveries, observation changed the methods of experimentation. The scientific method was developed and allowed people to test ideas and perform experiments in controlled conditions to help them understand the natural world. This brought on new inventions such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer, which helped to further expand knowledge and experimentation. Scientific institutions were built, new methods and theories were taught, and knowledge took the place of superstition.

This continues to be driven by man’s religious behavior to understand consciousness. Einstein’s famous “Special Theory of Relativity” suggests the mystical truth that “God is light”. Light is apart from time, space, and matter, yet it fills the voids of our existence and sustains all life. Light has no mass, no distance, and is constant in time and presence. Christ is the “Light of the World”. This idea had remained the same throughout the time period and was supported in the fields of science which left this idea to go unchanged.

Many scientific reformers such as Isaac Newton, and Nicolaus Copernicus had said that God was the source of their knowledge and the reason for their discoveries. Yet superstition and illogical beliefs are pervasive. For example, the dogma of evolution is founded in atheism whereas creationism takes on views that support God’s creation of the earth. Many religions today use science to support irrational ideas. In the time from the 1300s to the 1800s, ideology, scientific knowledge, religious understanding changed from superstitious ideas to rational and factually supported theories while views of religion stayed the same.

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Fear of the Power of Science in Frankenstein

Some readers have seen the novel as an illustration of the fear of the power of science. To what extent do you agree with this view of the novel? There are many different readings of ‘Frankenstein’ by Mary Shelley, first published in 1818. The traditional reading sees the novel being about a man getting punished by God for crossing his domain. Many different Gothic themes are used in the novel to create a sense of fear in the audience, not just in the fear of science but the fear of the power of science and the influence this power has on Victor’s character. Frankenstein’ serves as a warning to others of the power of science and creates a sense of fear in the audience. One of the key ways Shelley creates this fear is through the juxtaposing references to nature, helping to serve as a warning. In the midst of Chapter Four, when Victor is engrossed in his work, a paragraph is added describing the beauty and nature around him. Through describing the outside world as ‘beautiful’, Victor is admitting that the world is already beautiful and by ignoring that, he is being ignorant.

If Victor had left his house, maybe the beauty of the world could have lifted him out of his depression and stopped the future events. This sense of foreshadowing in the novel creates the sense of fear in the power placed in Victors hands; he knows he is wrapped up in his work ‘neglect the scenes around me’, and through this unhealthy obsession is left with nothing. By adding the beauty of the summer months it further highlights how obsessive Victor had become as time speeds up and months pass within a short section of the novel. The language used in ‘Frankenstein’ to describe his task is interesting to note.

The opposing views throughout the novel, adds the retrospective notion towards the story, as he is telling the story having learnt his lesson. ‘If the study to which you apply yourself has a tendency to weaken your affections and to destroy your taste… then that study is certainly unlawful’. The sense that Victor has learnt from his mistake, creates the interpretation that ‘Frankenstein’ is a morality tale. Morality tales flourished in the 16th century and were often seen as personifications of good and evil usually involved in the struggle for a man’s soul. Victor, the rotagonist, can be seen as a representative of society as a whole, with Victor representing the many scientific discoveries at the time. During the 19th Century, Science was controversial as it questioned many fundamental religious beliefs such as Creation and God. Shelley uses the novel of ‘Frankenstein’ to address the problems with advancements in science and the fundamental consequences of those playing God, thus creating a sense of fear of the power that many were acquiring at the time. The setting is an important feature in Gothic literature and the fact that Victor has isolated himself is influential in the structure of the novel.

Victor describes where he works as a ‘solitary chamber’ or ‘cell’ implying he has trapped himself there. This fuels his obsession in creating his ‘monster’ as he has little or no contact with the outside world. The negative description of the room where he works, ‘workshop of filthy creations’ and ‘slaughter house’, creates a dark and creepy atmosphere in the novel, with this use of darkness evident throughout and a key concept in Gothic Literature such as ‘Dracula’. The isolation he creates adds a sense of fear not only to science but a fear towards Victor as his obsession could lead to him becoming crazy.

Although one could presume that a fear of science is being created, this can be argued. Many would argue that actually it is the fear of the unknown that is evident in ‘Frankenstein’. Victor is exploring something that no one has ever done and thus the path to his discovery, although with good intentions, is flawed. During the 19th Century, the new scientific discoveries were controversial with many going against Religion. The description used such as ‘fire tissue’ and ‘sizzling light’ of lightning, reflects Victors experiments with conducting electricity through organisms.

During the time, Johann Willhelm Ritter, had done experiments whereby he would pass electricity from metal conductors into frog’s legs and this is referred to in the novel. Ketterer says that Shelley’s awareness and fascination with the big scientific discoveries of her day is highlighted in the 1831 version of Frankenstein, where Victor asks his father to demonstrate that lightning is electricity. The novel ‘Frankenstein; is a response to these scientific advancements acting as a warning to those playing god ‘How dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge’ creating fear in the unknown not just in science.

Following on from the fear of the unknown, some would argue that it is also the fear of change in ‘Frankenstein’. Religion was a fundamental part of society and many believed that Science was a usurper to Religion and many would still believe that today. ‘In other studies you have gone to where others have gone before’. Unlike subjects such as History, Victor believes Science is about change and therefore oversteps the boundaries of discovery; it is the reference to the sublimeness of his task that makes this more evident. ‘In scientific pursuit there is continual food for discovery and wonder’.

The fear not only in the power of science but in the ‘discovery’ is clear in ‘Frankenstein’ with continual conflict between the two. The novel describes the ultimate consequence of those attempting to cross two of Gods domains, ‘man’ and ‘God’. Victor creates the monster, which challenges the advancement of technology during the industrial revolution and thus a fear of industry and scientific advancement, not necessarily the direct fear of science. The fear of the power of science is a concept that can be seen clearly in ‘Frankenstein’.

Although, it can be argued that it is the fear of the unknown or change, the real fear is in the power of Science. Victor’s obsession with science allows him to feel powerful and thus make mistakes, that when retrospectively telling the story he is able to recount and acknowledge. The power placed in Victors hands when he is able to create life, is ultimately the one to be feared. Shelley’s ability to subtly create fear through setting, language and structure is important in creating the fear of the power of science which is crucial in this Gothic text.

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Media/Medical and Science Ethics

The rapid advancement in technology made humans so fearsome about the dangers it brings them—most especially of the danger that will cause their extinction. It is not mere computer or cellular phone that advances. Today, genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics (GNR) make that constant fear to knock on the feet of human race more frequent than ever.

Dr. Ralph Merkle, in his essay entitled Nanotechnology: It’s a Small, Small, Small, Small World (2000), pleasantly drew a future that is happily gains from the various benefits of nanotechnology in almost all areas from which life greatly depends. He said that nanotechnology is being pushed through towards an objective. That is to “make almost every manufactured product faster, lighter, stronger, smarter, safer, and cleaner.” He even enumerated benefits that nanotechnology may provide humanity especially on transportation, atom computers, military applications, solar energy, and medical uses.

Dr. Merkle has laid down very good arguments. He will surely make good impressions to whoever reads his essay. Dr. Merkle, who became scientific in describing when and in what manner humans will use nanotechnology, is indeed an ethical engineer and inventor. He became solely after to whatever nanotechnology can give humans to improve their everyday living. But all the benefits he said in his essay are also the weaknesses of his arguments and he was not able to draw more sentences to defend them. Though Dr. Merkle missed to include in his essay the dangers at par with the benefits of nanotechnology, Dr. Bill Joy provided them is his essay.

Dr. Joy, in his essay The Future Doesn’t Need Us (2000), materialized and defined that fear. In lieu with the fast-paced technological advancement, he overshadowed a future dominated either by elites that uses GNR as a machinery to eliminate the masses or by egoistic individuals who work hard to aim vested interests or by the robots themselves with the powerful wit as much as that of a human being. Dr. Joy constructed such plausible reality in a logical structure, discussing how and what did technological advancements play in human community for the past centuries. Indeed, he showed how dangers go in parallel with the advantages and benefits of technology.

He, however, like any other individual, has all the reason to be fearsome about the technological advancements vis-à-vis GNR. History tells the world how did the arrangement of atoms forming a huge atomic bomb become so destructive—removes geographical and topographical places and killed thousands of people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This is just one of the grave mass deaths and destructions that shook the whole world until now. History also tells us how technological advancements on medicines permitted the rise of new medicines aimed to secure individuals from the former medicines. It is, Dr. Joy points out, in the hands of the “wrong people” that such potential dangers are permitted to happen and may do “mishandling, abuse, and accidents” to recur over and over again.

Each of the two essays could be said as complement to the other; however, this accompaniment discloses another significant issue: Which of the two needs more importance, the duties or consequences of technology?

The abovementioned question now asks further question, who among the two makes a better point? Dr. Merkle is pushing through the duties technology provides humans—the duty of improving everyday life through manufactured products that were equipped with more efficiency, while Dr. Joy stresses on the consequences that make technology endanger life—the pros and the cons of technology and how it contributes to human’s extinction in the near future. For instance, the medical application of nanotechnology will lead to a better medical treatment of illness, Dr. Merkle said.

The assurance, however, that it will lead to a better, and perhaps safer, treatment is blurry. The creation of anti-antibiotics will testify to such inadequacy. Another example would be the military uses of nanotechnology to create better and more effective weapons. A country which has strong weapons to use during wars will, of course, able to claim the victory. Nanotechnology will be of great help in creating such weapons. However, if the opportunity to use nanotechnology– to arrange atoms in a way creating weapons—were given and used for mass destructions by, to what Dr. Joy pertains, “bad people,” we will witness on this part the disadvantage.

Whether the phenomenon is an unseen/unpredicted occurrence or a willfully-done event, the raison d’être remains: to every duty of technology there is a parallel consequence. Too bad that when the consequence is bad and/or destructive, it cost us million lives and million-worth assets to vanished in split seconds, or it costs our daily living to be gradually ruined everyday.

Whether duty or consequence deserves more regard, some would still think if we are to coexist with technology harmoniously or end up victims of it, like Dr. Joy thought of. But still, like what Dr. Merkle tells us, “a lot would depend on when we start.”

As technology and knowledge rapidly changes, man has become wiser than ever. But the question to both Dr. Merkle and Dr. Joy also bothers even ordinary individuals, where are we headed as human race given that we are placed in now highly technological world?

Dr. Joy tells that many things greatly depends on humans—that is if we will still be driven by societal transformation, progress, and well-being. If not, “progress will be somewhat bittersweet.”

True enough, humans coexists in a one world. To clearly define the duties technology should and at the same time eliminating, or the least expense, minimizing, the dangers it may give us, molecular manufacturing (as part of the nanotechnology) “requires the coordinated efforts of many people in many years,” as what Dr. Merkle said.

At the end of the day, the challenge to us is more likely to be as particular as how to protect life; improving it is perhaps a higher task that awaits us.

 

 

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Book Analysis: The Science of Muddling Through

A Summary of: The Science of “Muddling Through” By Charles E. Lindblom Public Administration Review, Vol. XIX, No. 2 (Spring, 1959), 79-88 I. Introduction This article discusses two different strategies for comparing policies. The first strategy, Lindblom entitles Root, or Rational-Comprehensive Lindblom refers to the second strategy as Branch, or Successive Limited Comparisons. After a brief explanation of the two systems, he goes on to argue the superiority of the Branch system over the more commonly discussed Root system II. Root

The Root approach, or Rational-Comprehensive, is best utilized for more simple problems, according to Lindblom, due to the necessitation of massive intellectual capacities and sources of information. He states that this approach is generally not correct for policy analysis, as time and money are restrictions in these scenarios. He also states that public agencies are effectively instructed not to practice the root method, due to political or legal constraints Ironically, the common literature tends to preach formalization of this method. This leads to many practitioners acting against the philosophy commonly published.

Lindblom lists the characteristics of the Root approach as the following:

  • Clarification of values or objectives distinct from and usually prerequisite to empirical analysis of alternative policies.
  • Policy-formulation is therefore approached through means-end analysis: First, the ends are isolated, then the means to achieve them are sought.
  • The test of a “good” policy is that it can be shown to be the most appropriate means to desired ends.
  • Analysis is comprehensive; every important relevant factor is taken into account.
  • Theory is often heavily relied upon.

As this theory is often discussed, Lindblom assumes it is familiar to the reader and shifts his focus to explaining and clarifying the alternative. Most of the article revolves around the Branch approach, or Successive Limited Comparisons. III. Branch The Branch Approach, or Successive Limited Comparisons is the approach Lindblom claims most administrators use for their approach to understanding complex problems. Lindblom assigns the following characteristics to the Branch approach:

  • Selection of value goals and empirical analysis of the needed action are not distinct from one another but are closely intertwined. Since means and ends are not distinct, means-end analysis is often inappropriate or limited.
  • The test of a “good” policy is typically that various analysts find themselves directly agreeing on a policy (without their agreeing that it is the most appropriate means to an agreed objective).
  • Analysis is drastically limited:
  • Important possible outcomes are neglected.
  • Important alternative potential policies are neglected.
  • Important affected values are neglected.
  • A succession of comparisons greatly reduces or eliminates reliance on theory.

The Branch approach could be illustrated as continually building out from the current situation, slowly, by small degrees, one step at a time. Lindblom then elaborates on the Branch approach throughout the remainder of the article. a. Intertwining Evaluation and Empirical Analysis In this section, Lindblom explains how the Root method breaks down its handling of objectives and values. He states that clarifying values prior to investigating alternative policies produces several problems. The first problem is that citizens, congressmen, and public administrators frequently disagree on many critical values.

Second, even when an administrator opts to choose his own value set for guidance, he often will not know how to rank conflicting criterion. A third problem arises concurrent to the previous two “Social objectives do not always have the same relative values. ” These common problems often lead administrators to ask a question like the following: “Given the degree to which we are or are not already achieving the values of good public relations, is it worth sacrificing a little speed for a happier clientele, or is it better to risk offending the clientele so hat we can get on with our work? ”

The answer, of course, varies according to the situation. The particular difficulty with values is the issue with attempting to state marginal objectives in forms other than particular policies. This leaves administrators attempting to choose between policies that offer different marginal combinations of values. Lindblom closes this argument with two summarizing points. First, for complex problems, the Root system is impossible and irrelevant, while the Branch method is possible and relevant.

The Branch method is possible because the administrator does not need to attempt to analyze any values except those where the alternative policies differ, and this differentiation is only notable marginally. This drastically reduces the need for collecting information on values or objectives, which keeps the capacity for comparing values within reason. b. Relations Between Means and Ends Generally, and according to the Root method, decision-making is considered to be a means-ends relationship.

The means are to be evaluated and selected depending upon the ends which is selected independently and before choosing the means. But this is difficult unless the values have been agreed upon and are stable at the margin. This relationship between the means and the ends does not exist with the branch method, as both are chosen simultaneously. c. The Test of “Good” Policy Under the Root method, a decision can be considered correct if it can be shown to attain some specified objective. This objective must be defined beyond just describing the actual decision.

If administrators cannot agree on the objectives, the Root method offers no test For the Branch method, the test is agreement on the actual policy, which may be possible even when agreement on values has proven impossible. Different ideologies can agree on different policies, even if the agreement is based on different reasoning. Lindblom states that “agreement on policy thus becomes the only practicable test of the policy’s correctness. ” The Branch method relies upon agreement whenever possible. d. Non-Comprehensive Analysis It is impossible to take every important aspect of a problem into onsideration unless the problem is very narrowly defined, therefore limiting analysis. Simplification of complex problems is imperative.

Lindblom illustrates that under the Root method, simplification is achieved systematically through limitation of policy comparisons to those policies that differ in relatively small degree from policies presently in effect. It is only necessary to study the aspects in which the alternatives and their consequences differ from the current norm. This limitation reduces the alternatives under consideration and simplifies the investigation of each of these alternatives.

It only becomes necessary to study the respects in which the proposed alternative and its consequences differ from that norm. i. Relevance as Well as Realism In the west, policy analysts tend to limit their analysis to marginal differences in policies that are chosen to differ incrementally. Democracies tend to change policies incrementally. By simplifying the policy by limiting the focus to slight deviations, the most value is made of available information. “Non-incremental policy proposals are therefore typically not only politically irrelevant, but also unpredictable. ”

Another way to simplify analysis is by ignoring important potential consequences of the possible policies, and also ignoring the values associated with those neglected consequences. Even if the exclusions are made at random, the policies may be formulated more intelligently than by attempting to achieve a comprehensiveness which is too extensive. ii. Achieving a Degree of Comprehensiveness The potential for losing important values is present in any organization. The benefit of a hypothetical division of labor is that every important value has its own watchdog; these watchdogs can guard their respective interests in two ways.

First, they may redress damages done by other agencies. Second, they may anticipate and avoid injury before it happens. In the United States, no part of government attempts comprehensive policy overviews on things such as income distribution, yet a policy evolves. This incremental policy-making pattern fits with the multiple pressure pattern. When this particular type of policy-making model is followed, it is easier for one group to anticipate the moves of another group. It is also easier for these groups to make adjustments for injuries already accomplished.

Administrative coordination occurs as each of these agencies adjusts its policies according to the concerns of the other agencies in a fragmented form of decision-making. Branch method exclusions are deliberate and systematic, yet it does not necessarily disregard long-run considerations. Sometimes the only way long-run objectives can be given enough attention is through neglecting the short-term considerations. e. Succession of Comparisons The last element concerns the comparisons. These comparisons proceed in a chronological order. When the policy maker uses a succession of incremental changes, serious lasting mistakes can be avoided.

First, he learns from past sequences of policy steps, and gains knowledge of the probable consequences of similar steps. Second, he can avoid big jumps that may require predictions he does not possess the knowledge to adequately make. This is because he never expects his policy to be the final resolution. Third, he is able to test his previous predictions as he slowly moves on to the proceeding steps. Fourth, past errors can be fixed relatively quickly. For policy-making purposes, the analyst need only know the consequences of each of the policy aspects as they differ from the others. iii. Theorists and Practitioners

The Branch system explains why administrators often feel that outside experts are not helpful and would rather work off of gut instinct than following the advice proposed by theorists. Lindblom gives two reasons why theory can have limited applicability in policy-making. First, it is greedy for facts and can be construed only through a great collection of observations. Second, it is generally insufficiently precise for application to a policy process that moves through small changes. Only in restricted areas is economic theory precise enough to become particularly helpful when resolving policy questions. v. Successive Comparison as a System Lindblom concludes that the Branch system is indeed a legitimate system, despite its imperfections.

He reminds the reader that the Branch method lacks a built-in safeguard for all relevant values, and it may lead the decision-maker to overlook potential policies simply because they are not suggested. One of the benefits of clarifying this method is “the light it throws on the suspicion an administrator sometimes entertains that a consultant or adviser is not speaking relevantly and responsibly when in fact by all ordinary objective evidence he is. While much of organization theory argues the virtues of common values and agreed organizational objectives, for complex problems in which the root method is inapplicable, agencies will want among their own personnel two types of diversification: administrators whose thinking is organized by reference to policy chains other than those familiar to most members of the organization and, even more commonly, administrators whose professional or personal values or interests create diversity of view… so that, even without a single agency, decision-making can be fragmented and parts of the agency can serve as watchdogs for other parts.

IV. Conclusion Lindblom’s argument basically attempts to legitimize the decision-making processes that are already frequently in use. He points out a gap between the theory advocated by policy academics and the real-world problems faced by decision-makers. He explains how and why the current work-around is legitimate and worthy of acceptance. The Branch method, as he calls it, simply needs to be recognized as having merit. By pointing this out and attempting to define the Branch method and its attributes, he is opening the door for academics to begin theorizing on this method, as well.

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Ten Most Beautiful Experiments

Science in all of its forms and varieties has surpassed many events that have changed its path and the way many individuals view the art. The experiments behind the many concepts of science seem all together complicated and uninteresting when viewed with the naked eye. But, when the cloth is pulled away from the shun reality we truly see what a beautiful experiment is. In the eye of a scientist, beauty lies in the simplicity and ingenuity of the design, and the unambiguous result that opens a new world of understanding.

In George Johnsons’ book, The Ten Most Beautiful Experiments, he explores the difficult experiments and explains them in the simplest form. This book establishes a state of wide-eyed wonder through white light split into a rainbow, locating pulse in our own neck, and allows us to peer through a microscope or fire up a Bunsen burner for the very first time. The ideas of many known figures such as Galileo, Newton, and Pavlov, as well as many unsung heroes such as Harvey, Galvani, Joule, and many more are explored in this simple yet enticing book.

The first chapter describes Galileo’s studying motion by focusing on a ball experiment instead of the famed Galileo dropping things from the leaning tower of Pisa. In fact in this book Johnson believes that the whole phenomenon never happened and instead focuses on the science of the matter. Galileo carved a groove down the centre of a board about 20 feet long and 10 inches wide. Then he propped it at an angle and timed how quickly the balls rolled down the track. What he discovered was that the distance the ball travels is proportional to the square of the time that has elapsed.

Along the ball’s path, he placed cat-gut frets, like those on a lute. As the rolling ball clicked against the frets, Galileo sang a tune, using the upbeats to time the motion. This series of events allowed Galileo to show that heavier objects do not fall faster than light ones and to figure out the math for the acceleration of falling bodies. The second chapter describes how William Harvey showed that one form of blood circulates throughout the body, not two. How did an individual display such a complex finding, Harvey had the help of a snake. He needed to observer the flow of blood at a slower pace than many had tested before.

Which gave him the idea to use a reptile since they have colder blood, which made its heart beat more leisurely Harvey sliced open a live snake and, while pinching its or main vein, watched as the heart into which it pumped blood grew paler and smaller. He then pinched the snake’s main artery and saw how obstructing the flow caused the heart to swell. When Harvey released the grip, the heart refilled and sprung back to life. Pinching the heart’s main artery had the opposite effect where the space between heart and forceps became gorged with blood, inflating like a balloon.

It was the heart, was the driving motor, pushing red blood to the extremities of the body. By completing his radical experiment Harvey proved that blood circulated an idea that was so far-fetched managed to overturn the assertion of Galen. In fact Galen had taught that the body contains two separate vascular systems. The first was a blue “vegetative” fluid, the elixir of nourishment and growth, coursed through the veins. The second was a bright red “vital” fluid travelled through the arteries, activating the muscles and stimulating motion.

Invisible spirits, or “pneuma”, caused the fluids to slosh back and forth like the tides. The third chapter describes one of the most famed scientists of all time Sir Isaac Newton. He had many discoveries some relating to gravity, calculus, and light spectrums. Newton carefully reviewed what others before him had found and added some observations of his own. In Newton’s day, Europe’s great scientists believed that white light was pure and fundamental. When it bounced off a colored object or passed through a tinted liquid or glass, it became stained somehow with color.

Newton cut a hole in his window shutter and held a prism in the path of the sun, spreading the light into a spectrum. Then he funneled the spectrum through a second prism. He allowed the colors to pass, one by one, through the second prism. Starting at the red end and progressing toward the blue, each color was bent a little more by the glass. Through this exercise Newton had discovered that light consisted of a heterogeneous mixture of different rays. The fourth chapter describes Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier who changed the theory of ash by discovering oxygen.

In his experiment he took mercury and heated it in a closed beaker, to develop an almost closed system. Lavoisier heated this until a crust formed or calx which is a reddish color in mercury. After a few days of doing this when he wasn’t producing anymore of the calx, he skimmed it off and isolated it. He placed the isolated mercury in a flask and heated it until it started giving off a gas. He noted that it burned “with a dazzling splendor”. Calx was not metal without phlogiston, but metal combined with name oxygen. Left behind in the flask was a gas that extinguished flames, now called nitrogen.

Lavoisier discovered the nature of oxidation and the chemical composition of the air. The fifth chapter and probably one of the most interesting was of Luigi Galvani the man who accidently discovered “animal electricity”. Galvani found, the frog’s leg would move, seemingly of its own accord, as it hung from a hook, even in the clearest weather. His fellow citizen Volta was assured that electricity was produced by the touching of two different metals. In this case was the frog’s leg had hung on a brass hook from an iron rail, virtually being non-biological.

Volta confirmed that electricity can indeed come from two metals through his invention of the battery, while Galvani went on to show that there is electricity in the body. He took a dissected frog and nudged a severed nerve against another using a probe made of glass. No metal was involved, but when nerve touched nerve, the muscle contracted as if someone had closed a switch. The sixth chapter describes Michael Faraday who had performed a suite of experiments showing the linkage between electricity and magnetism. Throughout these experiments he invented the the electric motor and the dynamo.

Using an Argand oil lamp, Faraday projected polarized light through a block of glass, alongside of which sat a powerful electromagnet. Holding a polarizing filter, called a Nicol prism, to his eye, he rotated it until the light was extinguished. Then he switched on the current. The image of the flame suddenly reappeared. He turned the magnet off and the flame disappeared. The magnetic field, he realized, was twisting the light beam – and if the polarity of the field was reversed, the light beam rotated the other way.

Faraday had unified two more forces, demonstrating that light was actually a form of electromagnetism. The seventh chapter was on James Joule and how he discovered that heat was just not nay simple thing but a form of motion. Joule’s effort to show that heat and work are related ways of converting energy into motion. This is probably why energy and work are measured in Joules. He took it upon himself to test the theory of caloric or invisible heat in which it will rise up the shaft until you can feel the warmth in the handle.

According to this theory, the reason something gets hot when you rub it is because you abrade the surface and let some caloric out. However Joule tested this theory by a rigging of pulleys and weights, he spun a paddle wheel inside a vessel of water and carefully measured the change in temperature. The motion of the paddle made the water warmer, and the relationship was precise where raising one pound of the liquid by one degree took 772 foot-pounds of work. The eighth chapter discusses Albert Abraham Michelson and he set out to prove the existence of the aether.

This substance was the fixed backdrop of the universe in which our planet swam as it moved through space. In his apparatus, two beams of light travelled in perpendicular directions. The beam moving upstream with the earth’s orbit was slowed by the wind of the aether, while the other beam should be less affected. By comparing their velocities with an interferometer, Michelson would calculate the motion of the Earth, but the speed of the two beams was the same. With help from Edward Morley, Michelson made the measurements much more precisely. Still there was not a hint of aether.

In fact, the experiment was a beautiful failure. The ninth chapter discussed man’s best friend thanks to Ivan Pavlov, who had shown how learning was a matter of creatures forming new connections in a living machine. Contrary to legend, Pavlov hardly ever used bells in his experiments with salivating dogs. He conditioned the animals to distinguish between objects rotating clockwise or counter-clockwise, between a circle and an ellipse, even between subtle shades of gray. First, a dog was trained to salivate when it heard an ascending scale, but not a descending one.

The melodies were played and the spittle collected. Through simple conditioning, the dog had categorized the music it heard into two groups, depending on whether the pitches were predominantly rising or falling. The mind had lost a bit of its mystery, The tenth chapter or final experiment was on Robert Millikan and how he showed that charge, came in discrete quantities. Millikan’s used two round brass plates, with the top one having a hole drilled through the centre. Both plates were mounted on a stand and illuminated from the side by a bright light. The plates were then connected to a 1,000-volt battery.

With a perfume atomizer, Millikan sprayed a mist of oil above the apparatus and watched through a telescope as some of the droplets fell into the area between the plates. As he jerked the voltage, he watched as some drops were pushed slowly upward while others were pulled down. Their passage through the atomizer had ionized them, giving the drops negative or positive charges. Thus resulting in what we now call electrons. Johnson’s book makes one wonder whether contemporary science might benefit from a bit of the passion and poverty that helped shape these ten beautiful experiments. One might even ask why these and why not include women.

Johnson did not play favorites in fact he even mentioned how at one point after publishing the book he had second guessed himself but either way the book accomplished one thing of any. It accomplished in teaching me how the things that I take a mere facts were the hard work of trial and error of many individuals. Such as Harvey for example who proved that blood circulates in one form throughout the body. Something that I just take as a given and don’t consider the amount of work needed to formulate this conclusion. Johnson put it in such a simple context that appreciating the work was truly beautiful.

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How Will Science and Technology Change Our Lives in the Future

EMOTIONS AS BLOCKS OR LESSONS There has always been a question in my mind regarding the use of emotions in attaining enlightenment/self-awareness. It is said that emotions come and go in waves. That often times we try to suppress the negative emotions like anger, lust, greed, jealousy, fear, sadness etc. thereby creating a shadow space in ourselves comprising all the unaccepted parts of ourselves like the negative emotions. If we were to allow these emotions to run their course than they would simply pass through our body without leaving any residues.

It is in generating/offering resistance to the emotions that we build the obstacles to the free flow of energy in our body. Given that all emotions are energies of different patterns and wavelengths we only need to give them free passage to enjoy good health and wellbeing. So far, so good. But how does one allow a negative emotion to ride through without being adversely affected by it. Say I am in a situation where I feel intensely angry/lustful/greedy/jealous/fearful/sad, allowing the emotion’s wave to flow through I need to remain aware that I am not the emotion. I do not identify with the emotion nor do I deny it.

I take responsibility for the emotion acknowledging that it is mine and I can use the energy in the emotion any which way I want. Patterns of emotional expression Of course there are cultural definitions to the expression of emotions as for example we generally weep when we are sad or sit with a long face, shout or bang doors when we are angry or cringe and try to hide when we are afraid etc. patterns of expressing emotions tend to run in families since that is where we get our most intense emotional training. There might also be genetic predispositions to certain styles of expression.

But emotions come and go in every one. Perhaps even in the most enlightened beings, except I would imagine that they have reached a stage where they experience a constant flow of different sensations, energy in a pure form. No labels, no names, which is what emotions are, our perceptions of situations including our minutest physical sensations. An example For example I see a person across the road it is the next door neighbor, the one I do not like too much. Already the sensations are beginning to get labeled. I pretend I have not seen her in order to not have to interact with her. I put energy into looking away.

There is a tightening of the stomach muscles, a tension in the forehead, all very miniscule, nothing that a passer-by might notice. I barely notice them myself. Yet it is there, the aversion that I practice in order to avoid an unpleasant interaction. The cumulative effect of these unacknowledged sensations all add up to give us the dis-eases that we carry. Hence I maintain that all disease is psycho-somatic. If I see my next door neighbor and allow myself to meet her and learn from the event, recognizing the fact that she has the ability to get my goat, I may perhaps greet her in a civil manner.

Neither expressing a dislike nor feigning a warmth. I might listen to what she has to say, without allowing myself to get hooked into any barbs or taunts she chooses to fling at me, remaining aware of the sensations that arise and pass to the best of my ability. Or perhaps it is a day when I simply do not want to meet her and I cross the street aware of the fact that she might take offense but all the while remaining aware of my motivations and taking responsibility for my actions.

So the next time that I encounter her and she questions me about why I crossed the street I can look her in the eye and tell her that it was because I had a heavy day and had not wanted to put any effort into socializing with her, especially since there are many times when I find interacting with her a challenge. responsibility The point is when I take responsibility I ride the wave of the emotion/sensations rather than feeling that I am driven to act in a certain way or compelled to do such and such. In the latter case the choice is always mine, as far as my actions are concerned.

I have no control over what she might say or do and I do not attempt to have any control over that. The ever wider circle of responsibility The last statement is a bit gray. I believe that we are eventually completely responsible for our reality. So if my next door neighbor is nasty with me, it is also because I send out some negative vibrations towards her that she un/consciously reacts to. If I meet her with love and compassion in my heart then there is no way that she would fling any taunts or barbs at me. It might be that she serves as a mirror for my insecurities.

Perhaps, I am an unmarried woman living with my male partner. In my culture this is still a new thing. I imagine that her negativity is a sign of her lack of acceptance of my sexuality. She may or may not have these issues but as long as I have these insecurities I will find someone or the other (most likely her), who reflects these back at me as a reminder for me to address these issues in myself and find my peace with them. Whether I see the interactions as lessons or just as unpleasant events that one has to grit one’s teeth and bear, is again a matter of my choice, conscious or otherwise.

Wow that is a big fat load to carry. So I am responsible not just for my actions, thoughts, feelings and attitudes but also for other people’s behavior! Phew that is huge. No wonder most people want to escape into fantasy and make the movies such big business. But the fact remains we cannot forever put our heads in the sand. Some time or the other we will have to acknowledge the truth so might as well start now. And be gentle with ourselves on this journey. It is after all a journey of self-acceptance as much as of self-awareness/understanding. Read more at Buzzle: http://www. buzzle. com/editorials/9-15-2006-108809. asp

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A Day in the Life: Career Options in Library and Information Science

Pricilla Shontz has been known for her understanding of the major issues of library developments during the current systems of referencing and research that are involved in making library procedures more organized. Her idealisms of library management has actually increased the knowledge of librarians in assisting the development of book and literature arrangements that naturally suits the needs of the students and researchers at present.

Her implicative suggestions in the matter actually increases the competency of the library systems in making an impact on the increased need of researchers today for referencing approach in libraries. The book of Shontz actually intends to show the matter of concern that is supposed to be understood at present with regards modern library systems including that of involving information technology within the arrangement of references readings in libraries.

Obviously, this reading increases the capability of the library professionals in getting along with the modern flow of technology and referencing systems. This reading then introduces the new systems of understanding with regards library arrangements and organization that would be most suitable for the modern students and researchers of the modern society.

As noted by the author herself, she described the life of the librarians today much more different than that of the lives of the librarians before (19). Likely, she wants to show how much technology changed not only their job but also their lives as major custodians of the different mediums of references and study that would be most helpful to the current generation as they face further challenges in the said field of social life.

A librarian is naturally expected to spend at least 60 percent of her or his whole day inside the library trying to accurately arrange reading materials and other mediums for research that are to be used for further progress of the society. With the implication of the modern technology, however, the said 60 percent of a day-time of a librarian could now be divided into different tasks that they could complete for a whole day for the betterment not only of the references but of the whole library establishments as well. (Career Profiles, Internet)

The book consisted of chapters that introduced different essays from different authors who are likely able to present the principles of library professions that Shontz herself appreciate and aim to apply. The summary of the said essays particularly want to integrate the old system of library organization with the modern systems of computing. Today, the use of OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) is already appreciated among libraries around the world (Career Profiles, Internet).

This particular innovative design for cataloging has naturally increased the accuracy of referencing in the libraries (Shontz, 19).  The referencing system likely increased the matters of accuracy among furthering studies in the different sections of understanding such as medicine and psychology as well as mathematical studies that increases the understanding of the different theories connected with furthering technology (Shontz, 21). Suddenly being electronic in the system has caused considerable insecurities to old librarians in the field, although practicing the said profession through following the said innovations in technology makes all the sense in the changes being adapted within the system (Shontz, 24).

Likely, the matter of development increases the capability of library professionals in handling the needs of their clients [mainly the students and the researchers as well] in a more effective matter.  As noted from the reading, the modern process of Information Technology could be utilized to increase the competencies of the librarians in handling the needs of their clients in a more efficient time.

This is primarily because of the fact that e-technology makes a more organized library that would help well in referencing and literary organizing systems. Moreover, the possible integration of the old and new systems of library handling actually gives a higher level of competency in the said system thus making the process more effective for the sake of social progress as well.

It could be observed that most people are now concerned with technological systems. In terms of library professional approach, it could be noted that the application of information technology also increases the competency of the said profession. The presentation of the author with regards this truth actually makes the matter more understandable and clear for others to comprehend with and thus make use of the information for actual application within the said profession. Overall, the discussion held by the writer of this book is considerably excellent in presenting the cons and pros of the said system of library approach.

Reference:

Priscilla K. Shontz. (2007). A Day in the Life: Career Options in Library and Information Science. Libraries Unlimited .

Career Profiles. The Princeton Review. A Day in the Life. http://www.princetonreview.com/cte/profiles/dayInLife.asp?careerID=87. February 25, 2008.

librarian.net: putting the rarin back in librarian since 1999. A Day in the Life. http://www.librarian.net/stax/1511/a-day-in-the-life/. (February 25, 2008).

 

 

 

 

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Knowing Pseudoscience

Pseudoscience is some form of knowledge, belief or research that claims (or appears) to be scientific, but is not actually following a scientific method.  Peer review and independent research by others may fail to prove the claims.  Superficially, such claims may appear scientific to people.

Some of the techniques mentioned in the article that are used by the website to sell their products include:-

1. The research findings or market findings provided by the pseudo-scientists appears to be unprofessional and sloppy.  They may often quote newspaper reports, media coverage, people’s gossip, ancient books, and other pseudoscience books.

2. Pseudoscientists provide facts that emotionally appeal to the audience and provide spectacular results to problems experienced by them.  They may even provide facts to support these results.

3. Pseudoscientists often make people indulge in an irrational form of thinking known as ‘magical thinking’ which is an age-old human habit.  Scientific investigations conducted to prove such facts may be unsuccessful.

4.  Pseudoscientists provide evidence that is different from those provided by systematic studies.  Often a lot of importance is given to unverifiable testimony from people and eyewitnesses, stories, real-life experiences, rumors, gossips, anecdotes, etc.  Studies conducted by professionals are ignored, misinterpreted or even proven wrong.

5. The pseudo scientists do not give reference to previous systematic studies and investigations conducted.  The only give false facts directly, which often cannot be proven right.  They may not allow their claims to be put to a more meaningful test, but may instead suggest some unscientific crazy experiments.

The website claims that the tapes can make the individual achieve ‘anything and almost everything’ and ‘As you grow, a series of events occur which build your personality….and your whole self…’  The article says that pseudoscientist often make extraordinary claims that may be not scientifically true.  Repeated scientific experiments conducted independently by others fail to prove such clams.

They also try to influence the individual by encouraging him/her into magical thinking (belief that one’s thoughts, words or action will create results that will defy the laws of nature).  Magical thinking is an old human habit, and often unknowingly we tend to indulge in it.  Pseudoscience may begin by providing facts that emotionally apply to the audience, and provide spectacular results to people’s problems.  They may even provide evidence to support their results.

The Websites claims appreciation from renowned organizations and references such as the Russian Government, CNN, Boston University, etc.  The Russian Government may not be able to monitor implementation of ‘Subliminal messages’, as Private TV channels are free to broadcast what they want.  The website gives a positive comment by CNN.

However, it did not give the exact person or the date on which these observations and comments were made.  The article says that pseudo-scientists often quote newspaper articles, press reports, collect rumors and gossips, and may even quote other books or organizations that are false or even non-existent.  The research done by the pseudo-scientists usually appears to be unprofessional and careless.

The website gives testimony’s of several ‘satisfied customers’ (as claimed by the company) such as George Montgomery, Philadelphia; Joe Martin, Tampa, Florida; Carole Dallas, Portland; Paul Smiley, Richmond; Sherry Fusco, Bois; etc.  Often pseudo-scientists do not give importance to systematic studies provided by professionals and instead give undue importance to the views and testimony’s from unverifiable customers.  They may not permit their products to be subjected to true scientific studies.

The website also offers a one-year guarantee for their products.  The Website has not quoted any proven studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of their products.  Guarantee may be a method of compensating for this (to attract the customers into buying their products).

References:

Coker, R. (2001). Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience. Retrieved December 17, 2006, from Quack Watch Web site: http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/pseudo.html

Subliminal Self-Improvement.com. (2006). Home. Retrieved December 17, 2006, from Subliminal Self-Improvement Web site: http://www.subliminal-tapes-self-improvement.com/index.html

 

 

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Harnessing the Science of Persuasion

Persuasion works by appealing predictably to deeply rooted human needs. The rest of us can learn to secure consensus, cut deals, and win concessions—by artfully applying six scientific principles of winning friends and influencing people. Cialdini draws on decades of research in experimental, especially social psychology to distill “six fundamental principles of persuasion”. Some of these principles will seem simple and completely obvious at first sight, but looking deeper into them reveals how well they work and why, making the reader more likely to apply already-implicit knowledge.

The first principle is that people are more likely to follow or agree with someone who they like because of some similarity with that person, or due to praise received. Second, people are more willing to cooperate with those who like them. This can be difficult to put into practice, but most of us have plenty of room to find more things we genuinely like about those we interact with. Third, experiments have confirmed our intuitive views that people tend to treat each other the same way they are treated. Therefore, doing someone a favor before seeking one can be both ethical and effective.

Fourth, people are more likely to keep promises they make voluntarily and explicitly. So, get commitments in writing (and preferably publicly). Fifth, people do defer to experts, but do not assume that your expertise is fully known or appreciated. Finally, people want more of something that they believe is scarce, so exclusive information is more persuasive (and valuable) than widely available information. These principles are clearly illustrated by studies and cases, providing the reader with effective tools for strengthening leadership with better persuasion skills.

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Neuroscience of personality

This paper will deal with the question of whether or not neurosciences and neuroanalyses would provide scientists and researchers with a clue about one’s personality, and why one does the things that he does. Can neuroscience provide an answer to how psychological capacities develop and function in the social world? The paper will also talk about the fact that the nervous system of the human being is confirmed in one’s personality, and that today, it is possible to tackle personality as a scientifically backed concept, rather than as a philosophical mystery that nobody can really comprehend.

Neuroscience of personality

Most scientists and psychologists alike feel that personality, and the study of human personality and behaviors occupies a strange and lowly position among the annals of human psychology, despite the fact that the topic of ‘personality’ and ‘traits’ crops up quite often during the course of even a normal conversation between two adults.

As a matter of fact, the study of personality changes even induces disdain among some individuals, perhaps because of the extremely subjective nature of the subject, and also because of the historical tendency to describe the structure of personality rather than the intrinsic nature of personality. However, with the development of neuroscience over the years, it may possible at last for the study of personality to undergo a ‘scientific makeover’, and to study the human brain through imaging, in the hope that the molecular genetics causing variations in human neuro-transmission would be able t provide an idea into the most pressing questions that exist today on human personality.  (Pickering D Alan, Gray A Jeffrey (1990)

The question here is whether or not neuroscience would be able to provide the answer to the critical issue of the manner in which a typical human personality develops and functions in the social world. Caspi, Berr and Elder (1989) provide important research on the relationship that exists between personality and socio economic conditions, and one interesting example was the personality changes observed in people who happened to grow up during the years of the Great Depression.

Most of these people exhibited a tendency to temper and great anger, aggression, short temperedness and so on, and further research revealed the astonishing fact that economic outcomes during one’s childhood would influence one’s personality through the years, and one would show ill temper if one had been economically deprived during one’s childhood. This would also influence their occupational status as they matured, and it was found that those individuals from higher class households would in all probability enjoy a higher occupational status when they were adults, while those who grew up in a deprived atmosphere would display a lower occupational tendency when they were older.

Recent research has revealed the fact that within a social situation, a human being will at first interpret the situation, before he responds to it, and this in itself would explain the ways in which his psychological capacities develop and function in the social world, rather than a study of the anatomy of the brain as in neuroscience. The importance of a particular social situation may differ from one individual to another, and it is important to remember that many situations do not have a fixed meaning; the meaning would depend on the person within the context.

Take for example a situation in which a person tells jokes: while it may be fun for one person, it may be an anxiety provoking situation for another, while for another; it may be some sort of competition. Those personality theorists who work within a psychoanalytic, behavioral, and trait-theory context may find that they are able to successful identify certain principles of personality functioning that would transcend the social circumstances in which the individual finds himself, in much the same way that a biologist may make an attempt to identify the basic principles of human anatomy and physiology that would transcend social circumstances. (Pervin, Cervone and Oliver (n.d.)

Katherine Kalliel states that in their book ‘Neurodynamics of Personality’, authors Grigsby and Stevens discuss the commonality to be found between personality development and neurosciences and neurodynamics, and she also states that the authors offer the opinion that “personality reflects the emergent properties of a dynamic, hierarchically ordered, modular, distributed, self-organizing functional system, the primary objective of which is the successful adaptation of the individual to his or her physical and social environment”. (Kalliel, M Katherine Ed.D (2000) This would bring one back to the question, “Can there be neuroscience in personality?”

The answer, in all probability, appears to be ‘Yes’ in today’s situation and given today’s modern research and growing interest in the subject. In my own family, this may well manifest itself in my behavior at times of stress. While it is wide knowledge that stress would cause numerous health problems in an individual, like for example, elevated blood pressure and a suppression of the immune system, it is with the help of neurosciences that this aspect of human behavior has been analyzed, and a solution found.

Today, when I feel my stress coming on and increasing because of a particular situation, and I am able to feel my personality changing as a result, I can believe that neuroscience has helped me cope with a situation over which I may have no control, but for the knowledge that it is my own behavior that is elevating the stress levels in my body, and that it is I who must learn to control it successfully. (Navasaria, Neha (1998)

This in effect is what neuroscience has been able to achieve, in its research on human personality and on personality changes.

References

1.Pickering D Alan, Gray A Jeffrey (1990) Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research Google Book Search Retrieved on January 14, 2008

http://books.google.com/books?id=2s_c4uMgM-YC&pg=PA277&lpg=PA277&dq=neuroscience+of+personality&source=web&ots=q8kc8JFVgO&sig=tsuXQ7TNbkq9_yJKRnWC5M5vSjM

2. Pervin, Cervone and Oliver (n.d.) Theories of Personality Retrieved on January 14, 2008

3. Kalliel, M Katherine Ed.D (2000) Neurodynamics of Personality American Psychiatric Foundation Retrieved on January 14, 2008

http://www.psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/52/6/847

4.      Navasaria, Neha (1998) The Understanding of Behavior and the Brain Serendip Retrieved on January 14, 2008

http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro98/202s98-paper1/Navasaria.html

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Micro and macro theories in political science focus

INTRODUCTION
Countries exist to interact with other nations and states in the international arena. Thus, no country or nation is an island unto itself. As a result of this, isolation from international activities becomes very impossible. In the course of interaction countries tries to gain advantage over other countries, and this has been the basis of conflict and disagreement. Sometimes, if this is not properly handled it will lead to war.

Scholars from different academic disciplines have posited many causes of war. Thus, the great debate over why war occurs has been approached from different dimension. For the historians, scholars like A.J. P. Taylor famously described wars as being like traffic accidents. But this approach has been criticized in the view that some leaders of states make conscious decision in embarking in war and this is not accidental.  For the Psychologist, human beings, especially men are inherently violent.

This violence displacement where a person transfers their grievances into bias and hatred against other ethnic groups, nations, or ideologies “(Wikibooks: 2005).  Other psychologists argue that the mental unbalanced state of men who rule and control a nation, combine with their human temperament has been the basis of the occurrence of war. “This school argues leaders that seek war such as Napoleon, Hitler, and Stalin were mentally abnormal; screening process, such as election, could prevent these types from coming to power, war would end”.  (ibid.).

The Anthropologists see the occurrence of war as a fundamentally cultural, learnt by nurture rather than nature. The Sociologists have Plethora of perspective in seeing the occurrence of war. Some see war as the product of domestic conditions, with only the target of aggression being determined by international realities. Others that differ from the traditional approach argue that it is the decision of statesmen and the geopolitical situation that leads to war.  The Economist argues war can be seen as an outgrowth of economic competition in a chaotic and competitive international system.

Having looked at the diverse and divergent viewpoint from which these scholars from different discipline has posited as the cause of war, this write up tend to look at the political aspect of why war occurs. As a result of this, various theories in the political science field would be applied to enumerate the reason behind the occurrence of war.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Political science has been described as a hospitable umbrella for many disciplines all connected somehow with the operations of government or people acting in relation to government.

According to Alfred Cobban, as quoted in Oyediran (1998:3), Political Science is a devise invented by university teachers for avoiding that dangerous subject politics without achieving Sciences”.

Thus, political science is that social science discipline that seek to study government and how politics that has to do with the use of power, rule and authority in any human relationship is being conducted.

The study of political science, the normative and the positive approach is adopted while scholars, such as Plato and Aristotle sought to identify the characteristics of politics, their causes and effects, leaving aside moral judgements about their goodness or badness. Therefore, it is seen that modern political scientists adopt a positive theory to issues that pertain to the field of study, hence, ”what ought to be”. (Robert Dahl cited by Gerring, 2005:2).

THEORY: Theory is defined as abstraction from the real world in order to give explanation to phenomenon. Thus, theories give explanation to the relationship that exists between variables. Theories are tested hypotheses that are generally accepted it is used through known facts to give an explanation to the unknown.

WAR: War can be defined as conflict that arises from disagreement, which result into military combat and the end results which is destruction of lives and properties.

War can be classified into civil wars and foreign wars. Civil wars, are those wars that occur within a nation or a state as a result of the emergence of factions that are loyal to an identified group. A typical example of civil war in contemporary time is the civil war in Liberia in the 1990s, between late Samuel Deo faction and Charles Taylor faction. Another typical example of civil war is the 1967 to 1970 civil war in Nigeria, between the Federal troop and the Biafra faction that seek to secede from the Nigeria Federation.

Foreign war is war that involves combat between or among sovereign nation or states. Example of this is World War 1 and World War II.

In recent times the war between Iraq and Kuwait, and the US Allied Forces in the 1990s.

Another version of war in contemporary political world is the cold war that had existed after the world war associated with the bipolar bloc i.e. the eastern bloc and the western bloc. This cold war is unlike the real combat war where physical and military combat is carried out, but it has to do with war in international arena, that pertains to foreign policies and international pacts and agreement, that tend to be contended for:

This cold war has made many countries to support either of the two factions. But, some countries, like in Africa adopt a different stand, the Non Aligned Movement is pursued as the foreign policies in these black nation. The cold war suddenly collapse in 1989, this brought an end to the bipolar structure of the international system.

POLITICAL THEORIES ON THE OCCURRENCE OF WAR
Political theories on the emergence of state can be utilized to explain the occurrence of war. Here, the Hobbessian theory of state and the force theory are readily applicable to why nation engage in war.

The Hobbissian theory postulated by Thomas Hobbes, explain the human state of existence in what he called the “state of nature”. According to him, “nature has made man so equal in faculties of the body and mind and though there be found one man sometimes manifestly stronger in body or of quicker mind than another is not considerable as that one man can claim to himself any benefit to which another may not possess as well as he” (Hobbes, 1946).

The equality of man here means they tend to nurse the same aspirations and desires, ends and the same hope. But the uniformity of aspiration tend to be evoke problem since the resources e.g. power, political influence, is a scarce resource that can not go round every body. Thus, it become problematic when two persons desire the same thing, which they cannot both obtain, they are likely to become enemies and always will seek to destroy one another.

In applying this scenario to sovereign states, the scarce resources that each state seeks to obtain for itself, this brings about competition and invariably lead to the emergence of war, if such competition gets to the extreme and the level of tolerance becomes unbearable. According to Ighadola (2000: 12), “human competitiveness for status symbols are always characterized by fighting where this happens outside the preview of any settled and civilized state, the picture of the “state of nature” comes to the fore boldly”.

The state of nature as stipulated by Thomas Hobbes, is the time when men lived without a common power to keep them in check; i.e. every man is a government and law unto himself, there is no formal contract to the establishment of state and government. In state of nature, war of every man against every man was the perceptual condition of human relations. Thus, man is brutal and exhibited a hostile tendency towards those around him. It is also argued that, “War, as Hobbes used the concept, did not necessarily denote actual fighting, rather it meant the disposition to fight” (ibid)

Man in the state of nature did not engage in perpetual warfare, he was only perpetually inclined to fight to acquire what he desired and to protect what he already possessed. The inclination in man to be aggressive in competition and fight is moderated by the fear of death. Thus, the disposition to fight to is further heightened by the absence of centralized authority. In the international political arena before the emergence of international organization like the United Nation, the broke out of World War I and the emergence of World War II, is as a result of absence of a strong centralized International authority. The League of Nations collapsed as a result of the Second World War. This led to the emergence of the United Nations; that is acting as a centralized authority in the international arena, in preventing the outbreak of conflicts among nations or states.

Another angle of the Hobbessains theory sees Man’s selfishness and self- seeking nature ensures, without a superior restraining force, the condition of the state of nature that would remain permanent. This results in a threat to the condusive actualization of human potentials and insecurity. In applying this to the emergence of wars among nations, it is seen that the selfishness and self-seeking nature of some nation has prompted them into encroaching into the rightful possession of other nation. In order to defend their possession, these other nation would recourse to protect itself by engaging in war. Most times, this has been the base of war among nations.

Thus, Hobbes has proffered a centralized authority that is imposed in one individual as a solution to avert this state of nature, so as to prevent the brutish and aggressive nature in man, and thus, reducing the outbreak of war.

Critics have pointed out that Hobbes advocacy of absolute power puts a hole in his argument. The central authority or sovereign should operate the law made, fairly and equitably among the people not absolute authority in one man. Thus, central power is advocated that is democratic, in place of the sovereign ruler of Hobbes. This is because the sovereign ruler is taken from society and has its own selfish desire, which could lead to autocratic rule, i.e., he cannot be outside society and therefore cannot be above the law. (ibid:15).

Another political theory that can be use to advocate for the emergence of war is the Marxist theory. Karl Marx theory concentrates both on political and economic perspective of the state.  In his view, the society is divided into two main classes, i.e. the bourgeoisie and the proletariats, and this has always been the driving force behind conflict in society and its attendant social change.

Marxist theory of war argues that all war grows out of the class war. It sees wars as imperial ventures to enhance the power of the ruling class and divide the proletariat of the world by pitting them against each other for contrived ideals such as nationalism or religion. ( Wikibooks, 2005).

Marx and Engels posited in The German ideology that with all the mischief’s contradictions and crisis inherent in the capitalist mode of production, the proletariat bears the entire burden without enjoying its advantages, they become isolated from society. Having been driven to the wall, they are forced into the most decided antagonism to the other class because an alienated man is a revolutionary man. (Marx, et al, 1977).

Hence, Karl Marx see wars as a natural outgro9wth of the free market and class system, and will not disappear until a world revolution occurs. According to Ighodalo (2000:20), “the expectation of Marx is that the destruction of the capitalist system would lead to the end of class antagonism, since the basis of it property ownership would have been eliminated thereby creating a classless society where all give according to his/ her ability and receive according to his/ her needs.”

Another theory of the evolution of state that can be applied to the reason why war occurs is the Force theory. This school of thought holds that the state is a creation of conquest and coercion of the weak by the strong. The state was seen as evil because it was a way of oppressing the poor. However, German writers of the 19th century, contended that force was an essential attribute of a state. (Oyediran, 1998:19). The  Force theory can really be adduce as a basis why war emerge between nation.

Countries that are strong and have mighty military force had in the past annexed weak countries to themselves. They succeeded in doing this by embarking on war with them. In 1939, Finland’s decision to resist the invasions and annexation aggression of Soviet led to the Winter War. “ Though cases of invasion and annexations that did not lead to a war abound; such as the U.S. led invasion of Haiti in 1994, the Nazi invasions of Austria and Czechoslovakia preceding the Second World War, and the annexation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union in 1940.

CONCLUSION
The different Political Theorist has directed their argument on the reason why war occurs, even though not in the same tone and direction, the fact that the selfish interest and self- seeking nature of man and government, has been identified as a major reason why war has been a recurrent factor in the international arena. Even internally, where civil war occurs within the boundary of a country this has retained the same causal factor. The fact is traceable down line immemorial of historical war among nations.

Furthermore, the scarce resource, such as power has been a basis for the eruption of conflicts among nations, since these resource cannot go round, it tend to be conflictual.

REFERENCES

Akhakpe, Ighodalo, (2000), Leading Issues in Political Thought. Lagos: A- Triad Associates Publishers & Printers.

Gerring, John (2005), A Normative Turn in Political Science? Boston University Department of Political Science.

Hobbes, Thomas (1946), Leviathan Oxford: Basil Blackwill Ltd.

 Oyediran, Oyeleye (1998), Introduction to Political Science. Lagos:——-??

Wikibooks (2005), “ International relations: The Causes of War” https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/International_Relations:The_Causes_of_war. (3rd August, 2005)

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Media Science-Stories vs. Scientific

This paper talks about the different ways on how Non-human Animal Communication is laid out. It is mainly a comparison of various takes on the topic, including scientific research, media science stories and how it is being laid out in the natural world. The scientific research it will tackle is about the role of the physical environment on the animal acoustic communication. This is more on the scholarly way of tackling the topic of non-human animal communication, and is based on extensive studies and research.

Another approach is from National Geographic News, which is about a speech project that will be able to understand the communication between non-human animals. This is a media science approach wherein it mixes scientific knowledge regarding non-human animal communication and the dissemination of information through mass media. National Geographic is a well-known scientific knowledge provider through various media means, like print and television.

Accompanying material: Disagreements Between Experts in Natural Sciences

The approach on the topic will be on how they will be able to mix the products of scientific research with the mainstream information paths like television shows and environmental magazines. The final approach that will be tackled will be regarding an internet article which came from an unknown author regarding the concept of language for animal communications. This take is more on how most of the people see the topic, making them able to conceive certain ideas, just like what is stated in the internet article.

Non-human animal communication is one of those topics wherein humans have no solid grasp of understanding. There are various efforts in order to understand more of the concept, but still, knowledge about it still remains limited. One of the efforts being done to further understand this is through scientific research. Many scientists and researchers conduct experiments on how they would be able to establish information regarding the communication of animals.

They test on the possible means of communication, like body signals, excretion of chemicals, or even telepathically, which is not really on the realm of the human understanding. One of these researches is about animal acoustic communication, wherein it emphasizes on the physical characteristics of the world which is perceived by the organism or animal that is being focused on. This research article has been published in the Journal of Comparative Psychology by two authors, which are both from the Animal Behavior Graduate Group of the University of California, Davis (Rundus and Hart).

This article tackles on how the physical environments of the non-human animals play a very big role in their lives. It affects the way they communicate with each other, having certain effects on their communicative signals, since these signals directly reflect the physical characteristics of the environment they are living in. The examples that were tackled were the communication of whales, elephants, frogs and many other animals. It also talked about the different purposes of their communication, like for social relationships, parental bonds, or mating calls.

There are various conditions which were given in order for the communication of these animals to be established. The first condition is the communication of animals in the terrestrial environments. This is comparably the most familiar way of communication to us humans, since we are also terrestrial organisms. This is affected by the physical barriers like different land formations and materials around the terrestrial environments.

This affects the transmission of signals, which are mainly caused by various factors like the type of substrate, the amount and type of foliage, and various geological formations in the area. Communication signals which are transmitted through the air, or airborne signals are also said to be affected by certain factors in the atmosphere, like the temperature of the environment, the speed of the wind, the humidity, turbulence, and also depending on the time of the day or even the season.

Another condition is the communication in the aquatic environment. This is considerably different from that of the terrestrial world, wherein there are different factors to consider. Land dwelling animals greatly differ from the aquatic animals.  It is said that aquatic signals are far more different in the degree of the influence in the terrestrial signals. The propagation of these signals is greatly different, wherein the acoustic signal is several hundred times less than that of the signals propagated in the air. Because of this, acoustic signals are deemed to travel much greater distances in the water. However, these signals are subject to greater distortion of the communicative signals when it passes over long distances.

Humans are also said to intervene with the communication patterns of these animals. The animals’ context of the natural environment is greatly affected by man’s efforts in creating structures or modifying the place to their suiting. Because of these, the animals are forced to adapt with the changes, thus changing their communication patterns as well. Hunting and food gathering of humans have also affected the animal communication, wherein they are forced to seek places away from the people hunting them. Boats in the oceans have distorted the communication patterns of aquatic animals, since their communication signals are also affected. The communicative changes are then adopted by these animals, thus affecting their communication patterns permanently.

Another article on non-human animal communication is from the National Geographic News, which is about understanding animal communications. This is more of an exposition of what researchers call as the Dr. Dolittle Project, wherein it aims to learn more about the animal communication. This is in order to help not only the researchers, but also the people to have a better grasp of animal’s behavior, so that they will be able to improve the means of taking care of them, especially for those in the wild or for the captive animal populations.

A researcher said that in the past, humans are trying their best to teach animals on how they will be able to communicate like humans. It’s just high time for us to change that thinking, and try to learn their language, instead of making these animals learn ours (Mott).

An example is learning how elephants communicate. This is by using a program that captures the elephant’s behavior then puts it into data which is a modified human speech recognition program. This is able to alert the scientists if there are any changes, including the physiological indicators of the animal.

They are using the technology in order to understand these animals more, and that they are able to apply this successfully on elephants. Elephants have been made to wear collars with digital microphones so that the sound will be captured as they go about their daily lives. After the day, the collars will be removed and the information stored their will be analyzed.

One of the aspects that were focused on was the emotion in the elephant’s voices. This is manifested by the hierarchy of the elephants, wherein the subordinates were found to be nervous when they are around  higher-ranking members, an act just like that experienced by humans when they are around their superiors. It is found that there was a nervous jitter in their voices when they approach the superior animals in their herd.

The last article is from an internet source, which have an anonymous source. It is more on the author’s opinion regarding the concept of non-human animal communication, wherein the author believes that language does not separate animals and humans, and that animals do have their language, and that they have the ability of cognitive thought. This is because of the animals’ possession of senses; they are able to see, hear and feel things in their environment. Language is their means to communicate to the world, and it is impossible that they have no actual connection with the world. Their connection is established by that language (Anonymous).

The article expounds the author’s idea that animals are capable of thought and intention since they have certain abilities like sight and auditory capabilities. This is in comparison with the human’s gauge of mental aptitude which is language. The author quotes what other scientists have said regarding language, which is attached to human mentality. Human mentality is definitive of language competence, and that this language gives the people a grasp of their world, their environment. Because of this they are able to understand their world better.

Summary

The differences on the various ways of writing on science lie on who they are addressed to. Scientific Research is the most reliable means of writing on science, since they present the facts straight from the research itself, including the findings of the experiments. Scientific research offers a truthful, factual slice of information straight from the researchers and the scientists.

The only problem is the format that the information is being presented. It is not readily understandable by those who don’t know much of the language the scientific research is written. It is highly technical, so it is assumed that the level of those who will read the scientific research is also high, wherein they are able to understand the raw information being presented to them. This limits this information to those who are able to understand it from how it is written.

Comparing this to media science stories, these scientific writing is comparably understandable to a wider range of audience. It is formatted to be understood by a lot of people, especially the masses. National Geographic News presents light information to the people, and they back up the highly technical information that they offer with explanations coming from the researchers themselves. But the problem with this is that the information being delivered becomes diminished, to the point that it doesn’t necessarily give out the specifics of what is being written. This scientific writing doesn’t focus on the scientific process itself, instead, it tackles more on the outputs of the research and how it will be useful to the people.

On the other hand, the least factual, least reliable scientific writing is the opinions from the people other than scientists or researchers. This is not first hand information, instead, just a summary of their understandings of the topic, which is in this case, the non-human animal communication. The author condenses other information that he got from other authors and other researches and puts it into his own words. This is a highly opinionated writing, that’s why it is necessary to be critical regarding the truthfulness of the information being presented.

Bibliography:

Anonymous. “Animal Communication”.  2005.  Planet Papers. May 2 2007.

Mott, Maryann. “Animal “Speech” Project Aims to Decode Critter Communication”.  2006. Ed. National Geographic News.  National Geographic. May 2 2007. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/09/060926-dolittle-project.html>.

Rundus, Aaron S., and Lynette A. Hart. “Overview: Animal Acoustic Communication and the Role of the Physical Environment.” Journal of Comparative Psychology Vol. 116.Issue 2 (2002): pp. 120-22.

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Importance of Moral Science

In today’s rat race values are eroding fast. There is a total decadence in social and moral values. Children go to schools daily thinking how to scale heights they will reach. How rich education can make them. In today’s cut throat competition even the parents instruct their wards that they should top in the class. The parents want their money back for the investments in schools. The criteria for promotion in schools are marks in sciences and social sciences, but not moral science. But childhood is a very impressionable age.

The mind is like soft wax, so whatever one is taught at a tender age it leaves a deep impression. Therefore Moral science must be made a compulsory in school curriculum. Isn’t it? It is also a science of human soul; it’s a mirror of one’s inward mind, one’s ethics. Moral science inculcates values in mankind and value education is very vital from childhood. Coming to Values It means estimating any person any object any animal. How many of us do so? In affluent families if children lose their belongings like a small pencil box or a lunch box they are quickly replaced by their parents.

The parents think their little darlings will feel inconvenient without those things. My advice to those parents are let your little feel uncomfortable without their lunch or pencil box , then only they will learn And I promise you, next time they would be careful not to misplace them or even prize them no matter what those cost. Moral science helps every child to learn values. If diamonds were found in plentiful like pebbles on sea shore would we have cared to pick them? School is our ALMA MATER, which means My Mother.

Just as a mother instructs her toddlers hoe to value family, schools should preach the pupils HONESTI IS THE BEST POLICY, CHARITY BEGINS AT HOME. Through moral science classes, Children spend so much of their precious time in schools. So schools shoulder the responsibility of imparting moral values to them. Temptations lure us just like the FORBIDDEN FRUIT had seduced Adam. As a result Garden of Eden was confiscated from Adam by God. Our life is also a paradise on Earth.

Moral science can channelize us through spiritual crisis “ His goodness shall follow mw always to the end of my days” Moral science protects us from the corrosive influences, else every one of us would someday turn into Dr Faustus. To make the children self-reliant, confident and responsible citizens we have to give them value-based education, which only moral science can do. After all “Today’s child is tomorrow’s citizen”. Moral science is not a religion-based subject. Rather it eliminates fanaticism, superstition and violence. It preaches LOVE ALL SERVE ALL.

This value is lacking in today’s generation. It helps a child to pay heed to his conscience. Not to be led away by worldly show. Theoretical knowledge is not enough. Teachers should make their life exemplary to their students. The lives of great patriots or spiritual leaders must be brought to the forefront Only Moral science can stem the tide of rapid value erosion and motivate the students towards a healthier life. A child is then trained emotionally, mentally, and physically how to be a responsible citizen or a good son or a daughter.

They can resist wrong peer pressure intolerance and through right conduct lead forward their nation Who knows among these pupils are tomorrow’s leaders or even a spiritual Guru. With the help of schools , the pressure on the parents is also reduced. Thus to all the schools of the modern days it’s my hearty advice that before preparing a new syllabus for the new term please make Moral science as part of the curriculum. Let the light of spirituality shine through the eyes of the little ones.

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Meat Science and Animal Nutrition

I want to get a masters degree in animal industries in order to prepare for my future career. There were two options I’ve been considering, consisting of meat science and animal nutrition. Both options, I believe, would help me land a career in concerned government agencies. It would also open the doors to further studies, such as veterinary medicine, should I decide to pursue it.

From the two options I am leaning more in favor of taking up meat science, as it is more concerned with food safety and nutrition. I am interested in understanding factors that affect the nutritional value and consumer acceptability of meat, which eventually lead to consumer health and satisfaction.

I believe that meat science is not a popular choice for people, but it is equally important to ensure the health of the public. I could gain knowledge that should be shared and disseminated to people.

Thus, this course could equip me with the knowledge I need to serve in government agencies such as the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service, and be a food safety specialist who answers questions of consumers regarding food preparation, storage, and handling. The importance of the role I could play towards protecting the health and safety of the public is a good reason for me to pursue this course.

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Teaching Mathematics and Science in Schools

The way teachers go about their teaching; each day in their classrooms is reflected as ‘teaching style’ or ‘approach’. This approach is better understood when the teachers are observed while they teach. Some teachers prefer activities for children associated with the curriculum, allowing students to chose their activity and complete it by themselves. Some other teachers would want the class to be attentive to them for most of the time. Certain teachers would like students to work in groups. Thus the methods adopted in the teaching-learning process is broadly reflective of the teacher’s viewpoint of what is ‘learning’ and how it should be brought into children.

The process of learning is more successful when children are fully involved with the subject or topic of their learning. This is all the more important when teaching science. Life sciences involving plants and animals; and non-living things are real and can be felt. Experiencing the reality through interaction, makes science not only more interesting, but also easier to understand. Mathematics on the other hand involves a bit more abstract level.

Yet, the symbols, signs and figures associated with mathematics with which children work, are self-created reality. In their effort to learn science and mathematics, children proceed further into the subjects, than just at the surface or base encounter. They analyze and interpret the object of focus and attempt to understand ‘how it works’, ‘why its required’ etc. Thus the child begins to develop reasoning for the facts it sees or understands. It may be the development of a new concept, or altering a previously thought concept, or even rejecting an assumption held till then. The teacher who wants to interestingly engage children in learning science and mathematics must personally sense excitement in learning so as to share it with the children.

The teacher should approach the topic of learning and the query asking children in a balanced and parallel manner. The teacher must be sensitive to the requirements of the children and help them to see relationships and understand explanations. For teachers to be proficient and confident in their teaching, it is essential that they understand the triple interactions involved in learning. The teacher must be conscious that while the child is interacting with him or her, the child is also simultaneously interacting with the focused subject. The focused subject or subject matter interacts with both the teacher and the child; while the teacher also interacts with the querying children and the focused subject.

It is important to know the development of a child’s understanding and ability to reason, with their growth. Such an understanding is absolutely necessary in developing appropriate contents. For instance in the grades K-4, a child associates a comparison, a description, or a manipulation for all objects, it sees around. Although the child doesn’t understand the science of motion while in this grade; activities like pulling, pushing, dropping of objects gives the child an idea of the cause of motion and its control.

Similarly sound, heat, light, magnetism, electricity are broadly perceived through learning, observation and experimentation. However, the child would not be able to identify elements of temperature, magnetic forces, static electricity etc. In the grades 5 to 8, the concept of energy is developed through investigations into the properties of light, sound, electricity and magnetism. In these grades, there is a considerable shift towards quantitative aspects of subjects. In the 9 –12 grades, students are geared up completely to deal with motion, force, energy; being familiar with theoretical observations and laboratory investigations (NJSC). Here they understand the reasoning behind the laws of motion and why energy is conserved. They are also capable of dealing with technological designs and its problems, using the concepts and principles learnt.

The association of brain functioning and educational practices is increasingly becoming an important factor in education. Brain-based findings have been closely monitored by specialists involved in education. The findings of cognitive neuroscience research has considerable bearing on the methodology of education. A new approach connecting brain functioning with education was emphasized in 1983. Leslie Hart, in his book ‘Human Brain, Human Learning’ suggested that by ignoring the brain functioning of students, the success of students is not achieved to its fullest potential.

The philosophy of the newly developed ‘brain-based’ education is that the brain is used for everything we do; we should therefore know more about it and use it effectively. Contemporary models of brain-based education are multidisciplinary, relying on several disciplines like psychiatry, psychology, cognitive science, sociology etc. Brain plays an important role in the effect of classroom groupings, assessments, physical activity, lunchroom foods etc. Schools’ can affect students’ brain in several ways including through social conditions, stress, nutrition etc. These factors induce brain-based influences by altering cognition, memory and attention.

Neuroscientists Gerd Kempermann and Fred Gage discovered that the new neurons in the brain are intensely associated with memory, mood and learning. The process of neurons can be enhanced through good nutrition, low stress and proper exercise. The brain has the ability to remap itself due to its neuroplasticity (Jenson, 2008). This process can be influenced through reading, meditation, skill-building, career and technical education, and thinking skills, which contribute to student success.

The importance of physical education is also emphasized by brain research. Cognitive scientists, physiologists, educational psychologists and physical educators have strongly endorsed this view. Today more and more schools of education are incorporating the knowledge gained from brain research. Harvard University’s Mind, Brain and Education or MBE program produces postgraduates and doctors who eventually get engaged in interdisciplinary positions, both in research and practice.

A report by the National Research Council Committee in September 2006, on the state of K-8 science education, has determined that science instructions offered in schools today are outdated. These are predominantly based on research findings of about three to four decades early. The report offers groundwork for the next reforms and is based on the recent understandings of how children learn, and recommends a narrower and better focus on important areas of science. It seeks to improve professionalism among teachers and have each aspect of instruction and learning, better integrated with each other.

The Council’s Committee on Science Learning, responsible for science learning in kindergarten to eighth grade had reviewed both, the reforms undertaken in science education in the last decade and the recent understandings of learning and cognitive science. The committee emphasized that young children are capable of intricate thinking and that each student develops an individual understanding of the nature around him. It also stated that the current debate on the importance of teaching content versus teaching process skills, should be put aside and both be replaced by interweaved aspects of science expertise.

The committee has suggested that the curriculum, instruction and assessment should be properly integrated with the focus of fewer, central elements in each discipline, rather than surface level study of a wide topic. It points out that the current science education is based on relatively old assumptions. The current science education underestimates children’s ability of complex thinking and is more attributed to difficulty level in children rather than their ability.

For instructions to be successful, teachers need to have a sound understanding of the subject, know how to teach it effectively and also be familiar with the recent research on student learning (AIP, 2006). Proper, effective instructions can clear misunderstandings and bring understanding closer to perfect. The instructions should include student encounters with science in a sequentially designed and strategic way. Students identified as proficient in science must be capable of explaining the scientific perception of the natural world. They need to be capable of introducing andn analyzing scientific explanations, understand all aspects of scientific knowledge development, and participate in science-based exercises/discussions.

The role of philosophy in developing the intellectual skills of children has been widely acknowledged. The induction of philosophy into the high school academic curriculum is gaining momentum, emphasizing not only the importance of the subject among them, but also the capability of the children for philosophical thinking. Dr. Matthew Lipman (1991), a philosophy professor at Montclair State College in New Jersey, emphasized that bringing philosophy into schools would only enhance the educational experience of children.

The argument here was, philosophy could contribute to critical thinking, which is vital for all other subjects. Empirical evidence also shows that the cognitive and academic skill of children is vastly improved by teaching them reasoning skills early in life, banking on children’s natural inquisitiveness and sense of wonder. Obviously, such development would also contribute to the understanding of science and maths.

It is estimated that about half the secondary teachers in the United States quit teaching within five years. Studies on the selection and services of secondary science and maths teachers reveal their inhibitions of isolated profession, lack of mentoring and dwindled prospects (KSTF, 2005).

It is also important to address these issues, for the success of teaching and learning reforms. The new methods of education for school children, particularly for maths and science should reflect the latest research into children’s ability and brain functioning. Engaging children in philosophical dialogues, also contributes to their ability of sophisticated thinking.

REFERENCES

American Institute of Physics. (AIP, 2006) NRC Report Finds Much of Current K-8 Science Teaching Outdated.  FYI Number 142: December 20, 2006 [Electronic Version] downloaded on 24th Feb. 2007 from https://www.aip.org/fyi/2006/142.html

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The Art and Science of Creating a Monster

Albert Einstein, one of the greatest scientists in the world, believes that there is one question human beings must answer in order to truly understand the implications of existence itself: Is the Universe friendly?  In the vast body of thought both ancient and modern, the answers to this question are numerous and mostly contradictory.  In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, the narrators uniformly answer this question in the negative.  In spite of their disparate stations in life, each storyteller feels separated from his fellows in some way, physically, intellectually, and geographically.  Society does not ease the condition of such lost souls because it is so quick to ostracize and dismiss anyone that departs from its grand ideals of what is acceptable (Williams, 1).

Most artists, scientists, philosophers, and explorers are not celebrated until several centuries after death, if then.  Human beings are extremely social creatures.  In order to function well, people need to feel as though they are a part of something bigger than themselves, that they share a similar path to those around them.  Though he was denied the decency of others, the creature had only one wish; to have a companion made for him.  If he never encountered another living being except for her, he would have been contented in the spirit that there was someone in existence that could relate to him.  Victor Frankenstein, brilliant scientist extraordinaire literally sold his soul for godhood.

At the end of his story, he shares the same fate of his creature: friendless and alone with only strangers to ease his passage into death.  In a sense, one could conceivably argue that Victor suffered just as much as the creature because he had his whole world taken from him—his little brother, best friend and his wife.  In the end, he becomes as wretched as the creature without soul or companionship and perished among strangers.  For one who has known genuine happiness, life’s tragic moments become even more painful.

Robert Walton, the sailor that tells the story of Frankinstein and his creature is equally marginalized.  He is without friends because his aspirations were lofty and his education limited.   When one leaves the path of the establishment to explore new and sometimes frightening realms, or departs from the norms expected for one’s gender, race, or intellectual achievements:  society exacts punishment by banishing him to the fringes.

The creature is the most obviously reviled being in the story.  On a dark and stormy November night, he awakes to Victor’s horrified screeches.  His physical appearance produces instant disgust in everyone he meets, including his “father” and creator.  During the Romantic Era and in Gothic literature, physiognomy was a way to determine a person’s character and inclinations (McLaren, 40).  Elizabeth was thought to be an angel because of her beautiful golden hair and fair countenance, while people assumed the creature was morally degenerate because of his ugly appearance.

The creature had the sallow skin of a dead thing, he was extremely tall, strong, and bright, yet he was very malformed.  In the eighteenth century, ugliness and deviance were heavily correlated.  In many of the stories of the time, the hero and heroine were extremely good looking, virtuous, and talented in some special way.  In contrast, the villain was ugly, amoral, violent, and without conscience.  Even if there were a great degree of credence to this, it would seem that the violence toward others is simply a villain’s expression of loathing both self and society.

“This violent response to his own oppression shares the same elements of many of the post-WWII protest novels.  Protest novels often delineate a relationship between the mainstream dominant society and the “Other,” a character designated for his/her marginalization and oppression within that society”(Scott).  Before departing to the wastelands of the North to end his miserable existence, the monster gives an accounting to himself to Walton, even though he believes that it would not move the sailor to sympathize with his plight.

Little does the creature know that his confessor had lived without a friend or companion.  Had things turned out differently, maybe Walton and the creature might have become friends because both were alone in the world.  The creature’s story is very reminiscent of the tragic poor, malformed vagabonds living on the fringes of society, exposed to only the worst traits and abuses of  other human beings.  As a living creature, the monster wanted to be shown decency, compassion, gentleness and even love and he was denied at every turn.  He hated himself and the world and turned his grief and rage into a force of darkness that would avenge itself on everything and everyone his creator holds dear.

“I desired love and fellowship, and I was still spurned. Was there no injustice in this? Am I thought to be only the criminal, when all humankind sinned against me?”(Shelley, 210).   While some literary critics believe that the monster represents the depravity that lies dormant in all human beings until pushed to the breaking point (Scott), others have determined that he is instead, a voice of social justice.  When external conditions become so unbearable that it takes every ounce of effort to simply survive, this experience justifies any act of rebellion against the social order (Knoepflmacher & Lewis, 165).   To the creature, Victor Frankenstein represented the malignancy and callous disregard for life he encountered in his life experience.  When his last chance for a companion was destroyed in his creator’s ultimate breach of trust, he made it his life’s mission to destroy everything his creator loved without assuming personal responsibility for his death.

Victor Frankenstein, not content with pursuing a normal career in medicine, aspires to godhood.  Because of his hubris, he loses everything he holds dear in his life and dies alone in an arctic desert.  Unlike his unfortunate creation, he represents the very establishment from which his ambitions set him apart.  His childhood was normal in an idealized sort of way.  His parents lavished tons of attention on him and he never had a moment of feeling unloved, neglected, or spurned by other people.  Growing up in Geneva, his life was extremely sheltered, and the people in his life were good and beautiful.  His aversion to ugliness is one of his most pronounced character traits.

When he enrolls in University, he immediately judges the character of his professors based on their physical appearances, “I found even in M. Krempe a great deal of sound and sense and real information, combined, it is true, with a repulsive physiognomy and manners.    In M. Waldman I found a true friend.  His gentleness was never tinged by dogmatism and his instructions were given with an air of frankness and good nature that banished every idea pedantry”(Shelley, 49).

This passage makes Frankenstein appear shocked that M. Krempe would have anything of value to offer him because of his unattractive appearance.  Another despicable character trait is Victor’s inability to take responsibility for his actions.  Once the creature wakes up, he rushes from the room (Shelley, 57).  Later, he allows an innocent woman—the family maid he grew up with no less—to be executed for a crime she never committed to hide the existence of his creature (Shelley, 84).

Robert Walton, not content to explore the vast inhabited regions of earth, braves the cold and ice to look for a northern route to the Pacific Ocean.  He wants to “boldly go where no man had gone before” to paraphrase Star Trek.  However, all he found was an endless wasteland that did not deliver the passage he had sought.  Though he merely serves as the recipient of Frankenstein’s story, he has no one in the world except his sister.  In this sense, he identifies with the creature’s feelings of loneliness.  In his second letter he tells his sister, “But I have one want which I have never yet been able to satisfy, and the absence of the object of which I now feel as a most severe evil.

I have no friend, Margaret: when I am glowing with the enthusiasm of success, there will be none to participate in my joy; if I am assailed by disappointment, no one will endeavour to sustain me in dejection”(Shelley, 18).  While he is normal physically, his educational background sets him apart from others.  He is self-taught, and his curriculum included books of voyages and fantastic adventures, and the poets he had become familiar with were British.  Later, he laments that he is “more illiterate than many schoolboys of fifteen”(Shelley, 19).    Still, he could not help feeling a little pity for the creature’s ordeal since part of it resembled his own, “Once my fancy was soothed with dreams of virtue, of fame, and of enjoyment.

Once I falsely hoped to meet with beings who, pardoning my outward form, would love me for the excellent qualities which I was capable of unfolding.  I was nourished with high thoughts of honor and devotion.  But now crime has degraded me beneath the meanest animal”(Shelley, 209).  In that last desperate section following Frankenstein’s death, we realize that had Frankenstein not treated his creature so ill, he could have become a reliable companion, loyal friend, and confidant…the very thing Walton had become to Frankenstein when he was cold, alone, and starving.  Even as two wealthy white European men, Walton and Frankenstein failed to flourish in a society that was uniquely designed for them.

While the two men and the monster keenly felt their separation from others, the women are practically non-characters.  Even though a woman that inhabited the extremely liberal artistic scene of the Enlightenment Era wrote the story, all the female characters assumed no importance of their own in a truly strong and heroic sense outside of their impact on Victor’s life.  They were objects, not subjects.  Even the monster was able to express himself as a subject, while the women served as props. Still, there was much about them that would potentially interest a reader if the characters were explored in greater depth.  Frankenstein’s mother was a philanthropist who visited poor families and attempted to ease their lot in life.

Elizabeth was very passionate in the defense of Justine when she was falsely accused of murder (Shelley, 81).  As an orphan raised by peasants and adopted into a wealthy family, her character’s death would have been much more dramatic and poignant had she been flushed out more.  While Shelley achieved much as a writer, she did not want to encourage women to become more assertive, and none of the female characters (other than Walton’s sister) survived until the end of the book.

One account states that Shelley believes women must behave differently from men (Schoene-Harwood, 42).   During the Romantic Era, men were the heroes, the creators, the actors in public life and the centerpiece of home life.  Women were the passive observers, and sometimes creators of brilliant artistic works.  Otherwise, the rest of the world belonged to men.

Times have certainly changed, but not as much as people think.  Global travel exposes people to different cultures, ideals, and mores.  In the field of social psychology, the most successful societies assimilate outsiders rather than marginalize them.  To maximize the likelihood of maintaining a peaceful civilization, the newcomers must adapt the mores, values, and language of the dominant culture and the institutions must be able to accommodate the tansition.  When a population is exiled to the fringes, it would possibly create a volatile situation of accelerating tensions between the marginalized group and the dominant group to the point where the people on the fringe begin to attack the establishment in ways both subtle and explosive (Simon, 141-146).

In American history, immigrants were looked down upon and many laws were passed to keep them out.  Eventually, groups of immigrants had begun forming their own communities, keeping the spirit of their home culture alive in a country that neither wanted nor welcomed them.  With the growth of these communities, people no longer have the need nor desire to learn the dominant language.  On a whole, people in the West are gradually becoming more tolerant toward alternative lifestyles, minority groups, and religious preferences, but the bias and prejudice against people not gifted with physical beauty is the final socially acceptable prejudice to hold. Women in the Western World had finally been granted the right to vote; even so, a woman’s value is still vested in her looks and ability to become a wife and mother.

Until a woman’s choice to attain worldly power is respected, they will never achieve the same level of equality that men assume.  Shelley’s women were faithful in their duties of domestics, artists, and lovers, but like many women of the time; were not allowed to express the hidden passion they were forced to repress.  Even in our own society, marginalizing others is still par for the course.  In the US, a strict racial hierarchy is still perpetuated even though the apartheid was legally dissolved in the 1960’s.  There is a great disparity between the races when looking at factors such as life expectancy, disease profiles, and income.

Progress toward a better world is often slow and always painful.  In order to maintain social stability, people did not evolve the ability to accept sweeping changes on all levels.  Appearance in the twenty-first century will become an even greater obsession than it was in the past.  With superior technology to alter, enlarge, or diminish undesirable characteristics, beauty will quickly become associated with social class and personal value.  When Elizabeth was adopted, Frankenstein’s mother believed that she was a higher order of being by virtue of her physical appearance, “a being heaven-sent, and bearing a celestial stamp in all her features” (Shelley, 34).

Victor Frankenstein’s monster was a different order of being himself, he was purely logical, empathetic, and selfless, but he was hideously ugly.  Eventually, through repeated rejection, brutal treatment, and several attempts on his life, he was trained to mold his character to match his looks.  To those living on the fringes, the universe is an extremely unfriendly place indeed.

Works Cited

Caldwell, Janis McLaren. Literature and Medicine in Nineteenth-Century Britain: From Mary Shelley to George Elliot. Cambridge University Press, 2004

Knoepflmacher, Ulrich Camillus & George Lewis. The Endurance of Frankenstein.  University of California Press: 1979

Schoene-Harwood, Berthold. Frankenstein: Essays, Articles, Reviews. Columbia University Press: 2000

Scott, Cynthia C. “The Other: Race, Rage, Violence and the Protest Novel in M. Shelley’s Frankenstein”. The People’s Media Company. 3 Mar. 2007 ;http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/28245/the_other_race_rage_violence_and_the.html;

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Signet Classic, 1965

Simon, Bernd. Identity in Modern Society: A Social Psychological Perspective.  Boston: Blackwell Publishing, 2004

Williams, Kipling D. The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, ; Bullying. New York: Psychology Press, 2005