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Essays on Social Networking

SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AS IMPORTANT TOOLS TO FOSTER RELATIONSHIPS Main ideas: 1. Social networking sites in schools and universities play an interesting role in order to improve abilities. 2. The advantage of social networking is reconnecting people. 3. Social networking sites offer some useful services to create a good environment among friends and family members. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AS IMPORTANT TOOLS TO FOSTER RELATIONSHIPS Nowadays, internet and social networking sites have become in useful tools that allow people around the world to communicate and to spread interesting information.

They have been used to support politicians during presidential elections. For this reason I do agree with the fact of considering social networking sites as important tools to foster relationships. In the field of education, these sites are very useful, since students have the opportunity to interact with others by planning and working on school assignments. Teachers on their part also find internet as an interesting tool, using it in their classes realizing that it will be helpful to improve students’ skills and also to foster their relationships and create new ones.

On the other hand, it would be important to mention that one of the advantages of these sites is that they give people the chance of reconnecting with friends and family members that have not been in touch with for a long period of time; allowing them to strengthen and build good relationships. Besides that, the social networking sites, offer some services, such as free messaging, photo storage, games among others; that people can use to spend their free time and also to share memorable events with the family and friends.

This aspect is very important when looking for a good environment with family members and friends. As a conclusion, it would be relevant to mention that one of the purposes of the social networking sites is to give spaces of interaction to people and also to let them get informed about interesting and updated topics. These two aspects build and foster their relationships with the society through the communication.

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Essay on Social Networking Sites

Essay on Social Networking Sites Social networking sites peaked the year 2007. These sites encouraged online social connections. Early sites such as SixDegrees. com and Friendster allowed people to manage a list of friends. One drawback to these sites was that they did not offer users the ability to publish content like blogs. Social networking sites begin with a group of founders sending out messages to friends to join the network. In turn the friends send out messages to their friends, and the network grows. When members join the network, they create a profile.

Depending on the site, users can customize their profile to reflect their interests. They also begin to have contact with friends, acquaintances, and strangers. Founded in 2002, Friendster used the model of friends inviting friends to join in order to grow its network. It quickly signed on millions of users. Unfortunately, as the site grew larger, technical issues surfaced. Painfully slow servers made it difficult for users to move around the site. Additionally, management enforced strict policies on fake profiles. These false profiles, or “fakesters,” as they were known, were deleted by the site.

This approach turned off users. Eventually, Friendster began to lose members in the United States. Fellow networking site SixDegrees. com closed its doors after the dot-com bust in 2000. Within a few years, these early social networking sites found their popularity declining. At the same time, a new social networking site called MySpace was beginning to take off. THE RISE OF MYSPACE MySpace brought together the social features of networking sites and the publishing capabilities of blogs. The combination of the two tools struck a home run with teens. Young people were looking for a more social way to blog.

MySpace provided the solution. In 2003 Tom Anderson and Chris DeWolfe launched MySpace in Santa Monica, California. As music fans, the pair designed the site as a place to promote local music acts. They also wanted to be able to connect with other fans and friends. On MySpace, users created a Web page with a personal profile. Then they invited other users to become their friends. According to DeWolfe, the bands were a great marketing tool in the beginning. He said: “All these creative people became ambassadors for MySpace by using us as their de facto promotional platform.

People like to talk about music, so the bands set up a natural environment to communicate. “1 Anderson and DeWolfe were determined to keep MySpace an open site. Anyone could join the community, browse profiles, and post whatever they wanted. User control was one of their founding principles. It also made initial financing hard to find. According to Anderson: “We’d get calls from investor types who wanted to meet us. They would say ‘Your site isn’t professional. Why do you let users control the pages? They’re so ugly! ‘”2 In the meantime MySpace continued to sign people up. Teens and young adults loved the site.

They flocked to create their own profiles. The ability to customize pages, load music, and share videos added to the MySpace appeal. Unlike other early social networking sites, MySpace gave users a media-rich experience. Users could express themselves on their Web page by adding music and video clips. At the same time, they could socialize with friends. MySpace made social contact easier with tools such as e-mail, comment posts, chat rooms, buddy lists, discussion boards, and instant messaging. MySpace brought together the ability to express oneself and to socialize in one place.

The timing was perfect. Over the next two years, MySpace grew at a tremendous pace. The site’s success brought attention from investors. Rupert Murdoch, famous for his media empire, wanted to buy MySpace. Murdoch had interests in television, film, newspapers, publishing, and the Internet. In 2005 Murdoch purchased MySpace for an amazing $580 million. By early 2008 MySpace had grown to a mind-blowing 110 million active users. It signed an average of thirty thousand people up every day. One in four Americans was on MySpace. The Web site had become the giant among social networking sites.

It was the most trafficked site on the Internet. MySpace’s influence traveled outside of the United States. The company built a local presence in over twenty international territories. MySpace could be found in places such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, and Latin America. In a few short years, MySpace had become a worldwide cultural phenomenon. SOCIAL NETWORKING BEYOND MYSPACE The success of MySpace in the social networking arena spurred the development and redesign of many other online social networks. Some sites appealed to a general audience.

Others, such as Black Planet, LinkedIn, and MyChurch, sought to serve a niche market. Facebook was one site that emerged as an alternative to MySpace. In February 2004 Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg launched Facebook. The site began as a closed network for college students. Closed networks only allow users to join if they meet certain criteria. In contrast, sites such as MySpace and Friendster were open social networking sites. Anyone could sign up for an account. Open and closed social networks have advantages and disadvantages. Open networks foster interaction between adults and teens.

Parents can check up on their teen’s profile and decide if they are comfortable with their child’s online image. On the other hand, open access means that profiles are completely public and can attract unwanted attention. Closed networks are generally smaller. As such, there is a greater chance a user will know other members both online and offline. But a closed network blocks parents from reading their teen or college student’s profile. Being closed also limits a social network’s ability to grow and attract new users. As a closed college network, Facebook grew by adding more colleges to its network.

By the end of 2004, Facebook had almost 1 million active users. As Facebook’s popularity grew, it expanded beyond colleges to high school and international school users. At this point, however, the site was still restricted to a limited pool of student users. In 2006 Facebook made a pivotal decision. It opened the network to the general public, expanding beyond its original student base. By May 2008 Facebook boasted over 70 million active users. At that time, it was the second-most trafficked social networking site behind MySpace and the sixth-most trafficked site on the Web.

As an alternative to MySpace, Facebook’s social network gained popularity with business professionals and colleagues. Facebook’s purpose was to help users connect online with people that they already knew offline. Unlike the wild-looking pages found on MySpace, Facebook promoted a clean, orderly online experience. VIDEO- AND PHOTO-SHARING SITES Online social networking evolved into a full multimedia experience with the arrival of video- and photo-sharing Web sites. Users could upload visual content to share with friends and other users. Photo-sharing sites such as Flickr enabled users to transfer digital photos online to share with others.

Users decided whether to share their photos publicly or limit access to private groups. Users could also use the site’s features to organize and store pictures and video. One of the most popular video-sharing Web sites was YouTube. The site, founded in 2005, used Adobe Flash technology to display clips from movies and television, music videos, and video blogs. Users could upload, share, and view video clip topics from the latest movies to funny moments captured on film. Not everyone wanted to create a profile, write a blog, or upload pictures and video.

Other social networking tools allowed these users to participate online. E-mails sent messages to a friend’s electronic mailbox. Instant messaging was a real-time conversation between two people online at the same time. Comment posting allowed users to interact and talk about a friend’s blog, profile, or pictures. Even online gaming was a form of social networking, allowing players to meet other people with similar interests online. WHY IS ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING SO POPULAR? The popularity of online social networking has prompted researchers to explore the similarities between online social networks and tribal societies.

According to Lance Strate, a communications professor at Fordham University, social networks appeal to people because they feel more like talking than writing. “Orality is the base of all human experience,” said Strate. “We evolved with speech. We didn’t evolve with writing. “3 Irwin Chen, an instructor at Parsons design school, is developing a new course to explore oral culture online. He agrees with Strate. “Orality is participatory, interactive, communal and focused on the present,” he says. “The Web is all of these things. “4 Michael Wesch teaches cultural anthropology at Kansas State University.

He studied how people form social relationships while living with a tribe in Papua New Guinea. He compared the tribe to online social networking. “In tribal cultures, your identity is completely wrapped up in the question of how people know you,” he said. “When you look at Facebook, you can see the same pattern at work: people projecting their identities by demonstrating their relationships to each other. You define yourself in terms of who your friends are. “5 Despite the connections between social networks and tribal cultures, significant differences exist.

In tribal societies relationships form through face-to-face contact. Social networks allow users to hide behind a computer screen. Tribal societies embrace formal rituals. Social networks value a casual approach to relationships. Millions of people across the world have joined online social networks. Perhaps their popularity stems from our innate desire to be part of a community. According to Strate, social networking “fulfills our need to be recognized as human beings, and as members of a community. We all want to be told: You exist. “6

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Local Study About Social Networking

TOPIC: CORRELATIVE ASSESMENT OF REALITY TELEVISION AND SECONDARY STUDENTS VALUES FORMATION IN STO. NINO FORMATION AND SCIENCE SCHOOL DURING S/Y 2012-2013 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND IT’S BACKGROUND Introduction: The world today Is being controlled by the technology. With all the various types of new inventions and gadgets. People are slaves of all the product of the intelligence of mankind. People follow the trends of the world, whatever is new, people do follow. The influence of media Is a very big destruction to humankind. The invasion of new television programs are trending especially to the teenagers.

Reality television began in 1948 with Allan Funt’s TV series Candid Camera. Reality Television is a television programming that presents purportedly unscripted melodramatic or humorous, situation, documents, actual events ,and usually features ordinary people instead of professional actors. Reality television represents the life of rich high class individuals who thrive off drama, materialistic items and fame. Girls are being very liberated and show off their interest on men, or they do the first step instead of the guy moving first. Reality television shows series as an entertainment purpose to all of it’s viewers, young or old.

Producers want viewers to think and believe that these shows are not scripted. Most of the individuals are most of the times very selfish, childish and materialistic. When people watch reality television programs, they indicate to think that what they are seeing or what they are watching are true to life. And because of that, they believe that what they see on TV is what life really is. Viewers of reality television who are addicted to these daily programs often get deeply involved into any situation. Often, certain reality television shows are based on topics that have no thought process or concepts.

The audience thus gets hooked on to television shows, which do not really have any intelligent concept. For example, these shows often highlights constant fights or disagreements between a group and even telecasts certain moment not suitable for viewing for a family audience. However, some shows may even show positive things, which viewers can learn and apply in their daily life. For example, a person cal learn about teamwork or be motivated in life to achieve their goals or even chase a dream. It Is a problem because reality television programs, are not exactly real life on camera.

Rather, the shows are edited and scripted in being a melodramatic television show to make it more interesting and more exciting. The producers edit and script these to show to make It to have more conflict, more danger, more of negative things.. History has shown that when a mass of people can easily be controlled by a single person or a group of people that results to causing of grave harm. The influence of reality television characters, especially those who are teenagers, because they are influencing teenagers very effectively, especially with daring segments of the television programs.

Especially, to think that this is a reality television show. Reality television is not really reality. Unluckily, many people think that It Is. These television shows draws hundreds, thousands, and even millions of viewers from all ages because It Is entertaining. It has been the focus of so much criticism because of doubtful honesty messages of some of the shows depict. Unrealistic expectations. The late novelist Kurt Vonnegut once described media in terms that may apply to reality shows.

He explained how TV and movies have caused people to expect reality to be much more dramatic than it really is: “… because we grew up surrounded by big dramatic story arcs in books and movies, we think our lives are supposed to be filled with huge ups and downs. So people pretend there is drama where there is none. ” Nothing proves Vonnegut’s theory like America’s love for reality TV. Shows such as “The Real World” and “The Hills” are filled with over-dramatic fights and intrigue. But unlike books and movies before them, reality TV claims to be representative of real life.

This helps people believe more than ever before that life should be full of dramatic ups and downs that don’t really exist. Enjoying misfortunes for others. Waite also expresses the fear that reality shows such as “Temptation Island” bring out viewers’ attraction to mortification. “Temptation Island” revolved around trying to get monogamous couples to be unfaithful. Waite says of heavy watchers of these sorts of shows, “They expect it’s OK to humiliate and to be humiliated by others, instead of thinking there’s something wrong with this behavior. ” The worst human behavior.

Psychologist George Gerbner and Larry Gross of the University of Pennsylvania developed the “cultivation theory,” which asserts that prolonged exposure to television can shape viewer’s concept of the world. Basically, the more television someone watches, the more he will believe the world is as it’s presented by the TV. I can see how this might apply to older generations who didn’t grow up in the Information Age. Take my grandpa, for example. He watches nothing but the news and he’s convinced the world is a violent and dangerous place. I’d probably think that, too, if all I watched were reports of thefts, shooting, and terrorism.

I wonder if the “cultivation theory” applies to reality TV shows. If I did nothing but watch “Big Brother” all day, would I start to believe there were cameras scattered throughout my home and my family was conspiring to vote me out of the house? Voyeuristic Urges The idea that reality TV nourishes voyeuristic behavior sounds like a great argument. Who would want to raise a society of Peeping Toms? Thankfully, this criticism has no merit. Voyeurism is, by definition, “the practice of obtaining sexual gratification by looking at sexual objects or acts, especially secretively. ” The key word here is secretively.

All voyeuristic pleasure is removed if the person being watched knows she’s being watched. A threat to intelligence Reality TV critics claim that these shows pander to the ill-witted and somehow manage to make the rest of us dumber for watching. I don’t think it’s possible to lose brain cells or cognitive functioning simply from tuning into a TV show. I think a far greater concern for critics is the sense of superiority viewers derive from watching reality TV. The truth is many people watch these shows to feel better about their own lives. What does that say about our society’s ability to promote a healthy self-image?

Entertainment Critics of reality TV argue that television should be used to education, inform, and enlighten viewers. I agree television is an excellent medium for teaching, decimating information, and promoting the arts, but it is also a vehicle for entertainment. It’s a way to peer into another world for amusement and fun. Television offers viewers a needed break from the daily pressures of life; it’s a healthy occupation for the mind. These are just some of the reasons why we are really decided to study about this topic. It Is a stepping stone for us for all the teenagers out there, especially with the secondary students here in SNFSS.

This Is to prevent bad things to happen. And open up there eyes in what they know and see about reality television programs. It Is not that when we enjoy, what we see or what we do, you think that It Is right. But It’s not, sometimes, It’s really easier and more fun to the bad or wrong things, especially Now a days. Technology Is getting better and better, and the media invades the world, It conquers peoples mind and beliefs. The goal that we wanted to achieve in studying this topic Is to open everyone’s eyes in what reality television programs Is all about.

We carry on this analysis and research because we are craving to know what are the positive and negative effects of TV programs on the values formation of the secondary students In SNFSS during SY 2012-2013, and the possible effects and feedback of reality TV programs. Theoretical Framework Kohlberg’s theory of Moral development, Is a theory based upon research and interviews with groups of young children. A series of moral dilemmas were presented to these participants and they were also interviewed to determine the reasoning behind their judgments of each scenario. Kohlberg as not interested so much In the answer to the question of whether Heinz was wrong or right, but In the reasoning of for each participant’s decision. The responses were then classified into various stages of reasoning in his theory of moral development. Level 1- Stage 1 (Obedience and Punishment) The earliest stage of moral development Is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules Is important because It Is a means to avoid punishment.

Stage 2 (Individualism and Exchange) Children and adults account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity Is possible at this point in moral development but only If It serves one’s own. Level 2-Conventional Morality; Stage 3(Interpersonal Relationships) Often referred to as the “good boy- good girl” orientation, this stage of moral development Is focused on living up to social expectations and roles.

There Is an emphasis on conformity, being “nice”, and consideration of how choices influence relationships. Stage 4(Maintaining Social Order) At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus Is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority. Level 3- Post Conventional Morality; Stage 5( Social contract and Individual Rights) At this stage, people began to account for the differing values, options and beliefs of other people. Roles of law are important for aintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards. Stage 6(Universal Principles) Kohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning Is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even If they conflict with law and rules. Conceptual Framework Input Throughput/Process Output Results of the survey form the secondary students. 1. Observation on the ongoing survey. Profile Variables: 1. Surveys about the given problems from Grade 7 to 4th year High school. . Comparisson of watching and not watching of reality television programs. Compare about the difference between the answers of the grade 7 and 3rd year, 2nd year and 4th year High school students. Surveys on 10 to 15 people Grade 7 and 3rd year HS 2nd year and 4th year HS Figure 2: Conceptual Framework of the study depicting the profile variables and the results of the survey from the secondary students The first box on our figure is the input. We have our profile variables, the first one Is having surveys about the given problems from Grade 7 to 4th year High school.

And the second one Is the comparison of watching and not watching reality TV shows. These are the required or available data to be used in our surveys with the secondary students of SNFSS. The second box on our figure Is the throughput or the process. Our process would be like this. We will conduct a survey from 10 to 15 people of the grade 7 and 3rd year high school students and we will be observing and comparing It with the result of the survey of the students from the 2nd year and the 4th year High school. We will be comparing the differences between the 2 sets of batch of students.

The third box on our figure Is the output and In It Is the results of the surveys. Hypothesis (Null Hypothesis) There Is no unnecessary effect of watching reality TV programs In the values formation of the secondary students of SNFSS during SY 2012-2013. Statement of the Problem 1. What Is the most commonly reality television show being watched by the secondary students of SNFSS (SY 2012-2013)? 2. How does It help you In your daily living in school or at home? 3. What are the advantages of watching different reality TV programs? 4. What are the disadvantages of watching different TV programs?

Scope and Delimitation This study Is conducted and done to the secondary students of the Sto. Nino Formation and Science School during the school year 2012-2013 to know If there Is a unnecessary effect of watching reality TV programs In the values formation of the secondary students. Pinoy Big Brother Is one of the most famous reality TV show here In the Philippines, and next to It is the Survivor Philippines etc. Our main focus In our study Is to know the advantages and the disadvantages of reality TV programs In the Values formation of the secondary students here In SNFSS.

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Privacy on Social Networks

Network Sites (SNS) are websites that allow users to upload information to a public profile, create a list of online friends, and browse the profiles of other users of the SNS. The websites have membership rules and community standards. Users disclose identity-relevant information via their profile to others. This information is referential, directly referring to a person, or attributive, describing attributes to the data subject. Although most laws and regulations restrict the access to referential information, attributive information is not protected as such.

However, the aggregation of large amounts of attributive information on SNS profiles poses new privacy risks, disclose identity-relevant information via their profile to others. Also, the privacy options in social networking sites do not work out in the way they are supposed to do. Keep your private life private! What does social network do? In real life, you have a circle of your friends. But what about their friends? And the friends of the friends of your friends? You can get to know people from literally any part of the world.

That means you are sharing information with them. And that also means you are sharing a lot of information that you don’t want to share! Information spreads faster through a Social Network Site than through a real? life network. Information might be disclosed to a group of people unexpectedly, because the digital information is easily copied, can be stored indefinitely and is searchable. It especially harms users when information travels through different social spheres, and ends up with people whom it was not intended for.

People have been fired, missed out on job interviews and academic opportunities, and been suspended from school for instant messages, wall posts and other messages they mistakenly thought were like private real world conversations with friends. Do not post anything in social networks that you won’t want to shout out in public. You can send private emails for that, but NEVER social networks. Social network is a place where you never know whom you are sharing private information with unless you yourself created the network! So be careful, stay safe! Applications and external links on social networking sites

Have you ever used the ‘applications’ of facebook, myspace or any other social networking sites? Did you read the policies of that site about those applications? In most cases, the games or applications owners have access to almost all of your information that you provided in your social networking account. Moreover, they may also use them for commercial purposes. Some of these applications may offer you to participate in a survey to earn ‘credits’ or virtual ‘money’. You might, for example, earn some quick Farmville cash by answering a brief survey. Sounds a lot better than using your credit card, right?

But you’re probably safer breaking out your wallet. TechCruch cites one instance in which players could win currency if they filled out such a survey. At the end of the survey, they would be asked to provide their phone number so that they can receive a PIN via text to get the results. Once they’ve entered that PIN into the site, they’re subscribed to a horoscope service for $9. 99 per month–something they won’t know unless they diligently read all the fine print. Ouch. The victims could immediately try to cancel the subscription, of course, but they could still end up being charged.

Unwanted charges aren’t the only thing players are susceptible to: Social networking games make you a target for viruses and hackers as well. You will find a couple of threads in Zynga’s community forums in which moderators warn users against accepting any gifts or invitations within a certain game on Facebook. (They didn’t specify exactly what would happen if users accepted these buggy gifts or requests! ) Sometimes users also claim that a bug in the game wiped out all of their game progress. That can be pretty devastating for someone who has dedicated lots of time and money to it.

Laws to minimize privacy threats Not all threats for privacy in Social Network Sites materialize and damage users in the same way. A risk analysis approach is needed to incorporate these insecurities into the analysis. The experts identified multiple threats for users of Social Network Sites. When these threats materialize, they become incidents that affect a certain amount of people. However, not all of these incidents damage users in the same way. The damage incurred depends on the type of threat and the perception of the user.

Laws are directed at preventing the threats from materializing. More specifically, American tort laws create means for people to find compensations against the damages they incurred. Experts rate to what extent the tort laws address the threats for privacy and resulting damages they identified. The ratings of the various tort laws are depicted in illustration below. In 1986, Congress passed the Stored Communications Act as part of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act to address privacy issues attendant to the advent of the internet.

Through the SCA, Congress intended to restrict disclosure of private communications by providers of electronic communications services. However, when Congress passed the SCA, the internet was in its infancy. The few networks available to consumers, such as Prodigy and America Online, were self-contained, and most people had never heard of the term e-mail, let alone utilized the limited form of electronic messaging that existed at the time. The World Wide Web did not yet exist, and it would be nearly a decade before the introduction of the web browser in the mid-1990s.

Do you think the social networking sites abide by laws? Just because they are popular and big-game websites, doesn’t mean their policies are always convenient for you. The Privacy Policies of popular social networking sites were found contradictory to the Canadian privacy law. In July 2009, the Privacy Commissioner of Canada issued a report on an in-depth investigation triggered by a complaint from the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic.

Third-party application developers Deactivation of accounts Personal information of non-users Accounts of deceased users Uses of user information Facebook did agree to change their privacy policies to avoid being banned or may be sued by Canadian government. But did that really make any difference? The Privacy Commissioner herself expressed dissatisfaction with the result. “While Facebook took some steps to resolve privacy concerns, the Commissioner remained dissatisfied by Facebook’s response at the end of the investigation.

She was particularly concerned about the risks posed by the over-sharing of personal information with third-party developers of Facebook applications such as games and quizzes. ” [Source: News release from Privacy Commission of Canada; Ottawa, August 27, 2009: ‘Facebook agrees to address Privacy Commissioner’s concerns’] As having access to other people’s private information is getting easier, laws can do a very little to protect us. We, ourselves have to be aware of where our information is going and who can have access to it.

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The Death of Human Interaction: A Pitfall of the Social Network

Not that many years ago there was a thriving business in my hometown of Columbiana, Ohio called The Lazy Bean Cafe. When it moved into its location in mid-2002 it was the place to be for all the kids (and even adults) in the community. It was the only place in town that made and served smoothies right in front of your eyes. The prices were doable for even the kids my age to get something a few times a week. The Lazy Bean also supported local art by having free concerts every Friday night for local bands. It was the place where you would meet friends to go somewhere or just to hangout in the Cafe.

A place where people of all ages would meet to catch up with old friends or spend time with the friends they see daily. And so business was thriving for the owners of the Lazy Bean Cafe. For a few years, things went on this way. Even through the beginnings of the recession the cafe remained strong and stable. Overall, the people of my small community saw little effect, for the most part, from the recession. Which is why things stayed mainly stagnant as far as the local market was concerned. Yet for some reason the Lazy Bean cafe was losing business.

People were just not going there anymore. Personally, I know my friends still always had money to spend. The Cafe wasn’t doing anything that would drive people away, at least not at that point in 2007. Everything was how it always had been, except that people just weren’t buying their product anymore, and people weren’t meeting or hanging out with friends their anymore. So in late-2008 they had to start taking drastic measures to keep their business afloat. They fired some of their workers and lowered the amount of hours the Cafe was open. Things didn’t improve.

So about a year after they did this they had to increase the prices of their product in order to make ends meet, which drove away most of the remaining consumers. They lasted only a few months after they changed their menu prices. The members of the community were quick to blame the company’s change of menu and prices for the reason their business was plummeting, but I saw through it. I know they wouldn’t have had to change their menu if people were consistently coming to buy their products. The reason that the business failed wasn’t because of anything they did.

It was because people were no longer having conversations over bagels and coffee in their restaurant. There was no longer a need for a public place for people to meet up and talk. Their target market had been taken over by something more convenient, and the real world atmosphere they created was being replaced by something with no feelings or emotions at all. Something made of cold metal and wires. Something cheaper and easier to be a part of. Something that allowed you to have your entire social circle at your finger tips: an internet based social network.

Since it’s inception in 2004, Facebook has surpassed Decayenne, Friendster, Myspace and all other social networks and become the most populace internet website in the world. More than five-hundred million people have joined the Facebook experience since its beginning and it is growing with every second of the day. Most of these users log on to Facebook everyday; and why shouldn’t they? It’s the easiest way to keep in contact with what their friends are up to as well as tell them what they have been up to.

Sure does beat the heck out of having to walk somewhere to meet them and talk in person. Saves time, money, and most importantly energy. Now, you don’t even have to dial a phone number to talk to someone in real time. You just click their name and a box pops up for you to message them. Still, can you actually say that you are talking in “real time,” can you even really call it a conversation? After all, you can’t see the person at all. Well, you can’t SEE them when you are talking on the phone either! That is true, but at least you can hear their actual voice.

At least on the phone you don’t have to guess at which syllable they were emphasizing. You don’t have any confusion as to what is meant by what they said when you hear the inflection of their voice coming directly from their mouth. On the phone, you can hear the timing in which things are said. You instinctively become aware of a certain tempo in the conversation and that allows the conversation to flow. Facebook chatting destroys all of this natural human interaction. People no longer have to respond immediately like they would on the phone or in person.

They have time to think of exactly what they would want this person to hear. Further diminishing, not only a person’s instinctive personality, but also skewing the way they are seen by the one they are talking to. Forming an unnatural bond between these people who may know nothing about the actual person, the one behind the mask being displayed. With the benefits of this new digital age come the drawbacks that we are all too aware of. Dateline’s To Catch A Predator is just one such source that exposes what happens when you think you’ve gotten to know someone online.

Although this is an extreme case for a situation that has been fiercely combated, these things happen on a much smaller scale on these social network sites daily. This is partially because when human’s interact in person, we absorb all things about that person – their facial expressions, body language, voice inflection, tone of voice, speech volume, and the overall aura that a person gives off. So when all of these things are taken out of the equation and all we have are the person’s words, we begin to interpret what they are saying our own way.

We begin to craft this person in our head that does not match who they are in real life. We make them into something more drastic than they are, whether that be good or bad. The reason we do this is because the human mind, by nature, is used to having the whole experience when we are talking to people. Our brains are used to having all of the aspects listed above when we are conversing with a person. So intuitively our head begins to replace these missing elements with things that it does recognize. Which could be memories of the person, things you have dreamed of or even had nightmares of.

The brain brings in things it has thought about before to fill in the missing gaps. Forging an unbridgeable gap between these people, caused by the natural happenings of their brain. So, since one cannot control the instincts of the human mind, who is there to blame for this loss of human connection? These social networks have made it so we no longer have to, or want to, leave our computers to talk to our friends. They have allowed us to form these people in our heads without ever really knowing about them. This networks make it simple to keep in touch, but impossible to actually touch those we talk to.

Imagine that all of your friends, all of the people you care for, are symbolized by a cotton ball. Now, a general term for that cotton ball is a “Monkey Sphere. ” The reason it gained such a name was because, while testing monkeys, scientists noticed that all monkeys tended to have only about 10 to 12 other monkeys that they could cooperate with at one time. Their “monkey sphere. ” They are all the monkeys that one would care for, defriend, marry, etc. And any primate outside of this sphere the monkey rejects. After this research was taken, these scientists wanted to see if the same principles applied to humans as well.

Now although they are still running tests, it is clear that the human’s sphere is no doubt larger than a monkey’s just by the nature of the human brain. It simply holds more information. However, it still has its capacity for overall inter-human relationships and affections just as the monkey’s brain does. This finite amount of human connection can be most easily displayed as, like I had stated above, a cotton ball. Without the use of these networking websites your cotton ball would, no doubt, be smaller. And will get smaller the older you get. The ball will be very small and very clumped up, but very dense.

Meaning, the relationships you do have are extremely close and personal relationships. Relationships where you almost know what the person is thinking or what they are going to say, without having to ask them. Facebook can’t give you that. What it can give you, however, is a much wider cotton ball. A much more outstretched monkey sphere. It does allow you to keep in contact with people that you would otherwise lose touch with. Still, by doing so it thins out the cotton ball a great deal. Someone with this cotton ball has few or no close personal relationships.

They never felt the aura of the other individual in person, so they never know exactly what this person is all about. People like this will never experience a true, deep connection with another person. Never realize the similarities that lay within all people. These social networks would combat all of this by saying that their whole purpose for the site is to expand the monkey sphere. Which they do, no doubt about that. These sites definitely allow people to find and reconnect with people they have lost in their past. It lessens the social, cultural, and geographical divide throughout the world and allows more people to care for more people.

And while doing so, decreases the separation between all people. Which are all undoubtably good things. We want people to care for other people. We want to encourage new relationships and rekindled ones alike. But at what cost are we constructing these relationships? We are sacrificing real human connection. We are losing the human touch, the human condition. We are steering away from personal contact and toward a world where people talk only through the digital realm. And if we keep this up, soon human interaction will be nothing but short statements and awkward pauses.

Soon our monkey sphere’s will be so stretched out that they won’t be monkey sphere’s at all. They will be pulled so thin that we start to lose people off the edges. Then since the whole thing is spread so thin it is only a matter of time until even those at the center of it our lost in passing. All because there was no actual interaction between these people to tie them tighter together. Leaving us as only isolated and lonely individuals. Broken entities wondering lost in a world of blank, empty faces. We can’t allow this to happen. We have to take these technological advances as what they are, secondary ways of communications.

If we allow them to replace face-to-face discussion then we are destined to lose the the greats part of the human condition. Which is knowing, appreciating, and experiencing other people and their personalities. We need to resuming the bagel-and-coffee talks. The walks together to the corner bistro or down the street. We can’t lose the desire to be in the presence of other people. Or Lazy Bean Cafes everywhere will continue to close. Public social networks will become a thing of yesteryear and we will lose ourselves in a sea of people pretending to be what they are not. And, ultimately, we will lose ourselves along the way.

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The Use of Social Networking Sites

By Ogechi Ebere By Ogechi Ebere Their Advantages, Abuses and Dangers. Their Advantages, Abuses and Dangers. The Use of Social Networking Sites The Use of Social Networking Sites Introduction: Human beings by and large are social. They feel an inherent need to connect and expand their connections. There is a deep rooted need among humans to share. In the past, due to geographical distances and economic concerns, connections between people were limited. A social network is made up of individuals that are connected to one another by a particular type of interdependency. It could be ideas, values, trade, anything.

Social networks operate on many levels. Initially social networking happened at family functions where all relative and friends would conglomerate under one roof. Social networking has always been prevalent; it is just that in these times the face of social networking has changed. Where earlier the process was long drawn, involving a chain movement where in one person led to another through a web of social contacts, today the process is highly specialized. I’ll introduce to you the most must-know advantages and disadvantages, dangers of social media so you’ll be aware of how to use it in the safest and most valuable possible ways!

Advantages of Social Networking Sites: 1) Low Cost Communication (essentially free) If you go on to social networking sites such as Facebook, Bebo or MySpace, you can send messages back and forth to multiple friends at once, absolutely free from charge (apart from the cost of actually running the internet, and computer etc. ). 2) Making New Friends You are given the opportunity to make new friends via such sites, whether that be ‘suggested friends’ (a friend of a friend) or online relations that can be formed due to a shared interest or hobby. 3) The Ability to Upload Videos and Images

Most Social Networking platforms have the capability to allow you to upload particular media. So a wide selected audience can view your pictures and videos. Saving you having to send images and videoes directly to each person you want to see them, instead they can simply pop over to your account profile and view them. 4) The Ease of Setting Up Events Facebook allows you to create events, which is an online organised meeting to do something (in the real world) with a set time and place, so via Facebook you can offer invites to the event and make announcements etc.

Again saving time, as you aren’t having to go around communicating to everyone individually. 5) Sharing Knowledge Social networking sites give you the capability to share information with ease, and by doing this Julia Porter states that people are able to “increase both their learning and their flexibility in ways that would not be possible within a self-contained hierarchical organisation” – this particular statement was is in regards to passing information around scientists, however it can also be applied to other organisations also. ) Finding Old Friends Social networking is a great tool to reunite with friends, with social networking sites such as “Friends Reunited”. Where a simple sign-up and filling in a few details – you have just allowed yourself to be found by old friends. 7) Tools for Teaching As students are using a wide range of social networking sites already, teachers have taken advantage of this. Teachers have started to bring up online academic discussions (through threads and chat rooms) – for their students to participate in.

Social network platforms also provide teachers with the ability to help students out with homework and communicate with parents. 8) Pursuing Jobs and Work Experience Twitter in particular is a great tool for this, tweeting that you are interested in a particular job or internship could be a great step to actually securing one. As your followers may not actually have a opportunity for you, but they may know people who do – so you don’t only tap into your network, you tap into the network of the people who are following you (i. e the friend of the friend’s network).

Disadvantages of Social Networking Sites: 1) The Invasion Of Privacy It has been addressed on many occasions in the news and in the press, that we are giving away too much ‘personal information’ about ourselves, and that this is leading us to becoming vulnerable to the likes of identity theft etc. 2) Reducing Worker Productivity There has been evidence to suggest social networking sites are harming businesses. Their employees are wasting time right throughout the day by participating in social networking sites rather than actually working.

It has been stated that Facebook alone is accountable to wasting more than ? 130 million a day in the UK. 3) How Much Do Social Networking Sites Know? Perhaps social networking sites have learnt a bit too much information for comfort, Facebook knows via their program ‘Facebook Beacon’  that analyses our natural online behaviour – how long we are on the internet for, how often we visit certain websites etc. They monitor your activity even when you aren’t actually even logged in to Facebook! 4) Potential to Cause Harm

There has been many reported cases, where fake accounts have been made, that lead to horrific tragedies. Such as in October 2006 a fake MySpace account was created that was given the name of Josh Evans that was closely linked to the suicide of Megan Meier. 5) The Case of Cyber-Bullying As many young teenagers are using social networking sites as a form of communication, this just provides bullies with another opportunity to traumatise their victims. With few limitations from social networking sites to what people can actually post, bullies have the ability to publish offensive images and comments. ) “Trolling” These are rather common occurrences where individuals will post within a social network, to either annoy or spark a reaction through a post or general comment – these people are often referred to as Trolls. Not really bullying, more being a nuisance on the social network. 7) Causing a Lack of Personal Communication There is a concern over people becoming so reliant upon the convenience of social networking sites that they aren’t actually using ‘real-life’ verbal skills and they losing out on social intimacy with other people. ) Psychological Issues Studies have been conducted where the results suggest that people are becoming addicted to social networking sites – e. g. a case of fourteen year old spending over eight hours day on Facebook etc. . There is also evidence to suggest that these sites can cause a person to feel ‘lonely’. The Dangers Of Social Networking Sites: There are many inherent dangers of social networking sites because of the way the websites work. One of the biggest dangers is fraud, sometimes having to do with identity theft.

Because these sites are based on friends and the passing along of bits of personal information, thieves realized the potential instantly. There are endless social networking scams that crooks can try to pull off with this medium and we have only seen the “tip of the iceberg” so far. The newest mainstream social network is twitter. It’s based on people following others and getting to read their tweets of 140 characters or less. This is one of the dangers of social networking sites because many people want as many followers as possible and they aren’t shy about what they say in their tweets.

This highlights the trouble with Twitter and many other social networking sites. Many people’s goals on these sites is to have as many friends as possible and they just don’t think before they message or add friends. Unfortunately, this sets them up to be victimized by one scam or the next. The biggest social network in the world is facebook. Started in 2004 by a Harvard student, this site has had a meteoric rise. Facebook has become a huge software platform that houses every application imaginable and millions of games and groups and users. This brings us to another one of the dangers of social networking sites.

With the goal of becoming bigger than big, can these sites really protect the average users while on their site? Yes, this should be up to the individual user, but certain things cannot be controlled by the user and when the site has 200 million users (100 million log in everyday! ), how much resource can be used for protecting clients of the site? With so many people logged in everyday that contribute personal information constantly, the crooks have followed and committed ”Facebook identity theft” to get what they need. There are truly endless scams they have tried and will try to pull off on the social networks.

Teen Social Networking By The Numbers: * 51 Percentage of teens who check their sites more than once a day. * 22 Percentage who check their sites more than 10 times a day. * 39 Percentage who have posted something they later regretted. * 37 Percentage who have used the sites to make fun of other students. * 25 Percentage who have created a profile with a false identity. * 24 Percentage who have hacked into someone else’s social networking account. * 13 Percentage who have posted nude or seminude pictures or videos of themselves or others online. acebook identity theft like any other online identity theft, can be extremely dangerous for teenagers. With their brain still developing, it is very easy to take advantage of them by pretending to be someone else (usually a crush). There have been many cases like this and it devastates the teen when the criminal reveals that it was a hoax. Many teens have fallen into deep depression or even lost their life, an enormous tragedy and one of the biggest dangers of social networking sites. Be Careful! Be Careful! There are thousands and thousands of facebook impostors out there looking to make an easy buck or harass people they know.

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Social Networking and College Athletes

Freedom of Speech in College Athletics Brent Schrotenboer argues that the reputation of colleges is more important than the views and opinions of a student-athlete that attends such colleges. Student-athletes participating on the women’s soccer team at San Diego State University were suspended for posting inappropriate pictures and statuses on a social networking site. They were warned by their coach that a punishment would be issued upon their continuance of posting such statuses about consuming alcoholic beverages and criticisms of the soccer program.

The students did not heed their coaches warning and were thus penalized for it. The student-athletes felt that the punishment violated their fundamental right of freedom of speech outlined in the Constitution. College administrators are desperately searching for a solution to this ongoing problem that allows anyone to access the postings of college students and athletes alike. Some colleges allow the discretion of college coaches to regulate their players’ social networking activities and others set regulations for all sports programs.

The total prevention of the use of social media by college athletes should not be implemented by college administrators because alternative solutions exist such as programs that aid coaches in controlling students’ social activities, social media is a valuable tool for student-athletes to connect with their fans and the world, and criticism is a fundamental right owned by any citizen of the United States.

As the issue of social networking in the college environment increases in difficulty, solutions to this debate have been researched, and one potential aid to coaches is the development of applications to help monitor student-athletes social media postings. Medcalf explains that Varsity Monitor is a firm that provides a computer application that allows schools to filter and identify problematic social media activity (“Policing”). Applications such as Varsity Monitor can greatly increase the power of coaches in regulating what their athletes post without encroaching on the right of freedom of speech.

These applications do not prevent the athletes from posting inappropriate statuses, yet they allow the coaches to filter the statuses and delete them if warranted. This does not take away the freedom of speech because once the posts are up anyone can see them, so the act of free speech is upheld. If the coaches do not want the statuses to be continued to be seen however, they have the ability to delete them at their own discretion.

The coaches should clearly include that the applications are being used in their code of conduct if one exists at the university or college so as to prevent discrepancies among players and coaches when the coaches use their application to delete a post. Social media is a very effective way for fans and peers of college athletes to connect with each other. It is also used to quickly convey news about the team or college from the players to the fans which is considered vitally important to the recipients of the news because they want to support their favorite team.

Bruce Feldman interviewed Matt Barkley, USC’s starting quarterback who frequently uses twitter, and he stated “It’s my own words, my own thoughts that are coming directly from me, they (the media) can’t twist your words, because that’s exactly what you wrote” (“Social-media”). The social networks allow the athletes to voice their own opinion that is not altered by the media because what they post is exactly in their own words and it is not relayed to the public by a separate news writer or analyst.

This is a valuable aspect of social networking to college athletes because it solidifies their right of freedom of speech, and it allows their true opinion to be relayed directly to their fans. This also means that student-athletes must take responsibility for their own posts, and be aware that a negative response from their fans and the public is a possible outcome in reaction to their posts. Criticism is an important factor included in the freedom of speech, and at times it can be very controversial.

College athletes must be aware of what they post and they must consider if they post criticism that it may be risky. College coaches around the nation agree that student-athletes can be immature, and it is their responsibility to guide their players in what they say and do when in the public light. Zain Motani writes that we acknowledge that athletic departments and universities need to protect their brand, but at what point does this monitoring become Big Brother like and overstep the boundaries of what is and is not okay? (“The Use of Social Media”).

Coaches should guide their players in what they say instead of over regulating their social networking policies in order to uphold the first amendment which includes the freedom of speech. Many colleges and universities agree that their reputations cannot be tainted under any circumstances and they will take any degree of action to prevent a scandal associated with their respected college. Many administrators have the opinion that the easiest way to prevent a scandal is to ban all social networking activity by student-athletes.

Another policy that is being enforced at universities is that the players are required to give their passwords to their coaches. These policies violate the freedom of speech because it completely prevents players from expressing their own opinions. In this regard, college athletes are just like any citizen of the United States, and preventing them from using social networking sites takes away their constitutional right. The ongoing debate between coaches and their student-athletes seems monumentally difficult to resolve.

Finding a solution that pleases both sides of the argument is a delicate procedure. New technologies should be researched that allow coaches and administrators to exercise their power of regulating what their athletes post without angering them. An application like Varsity Monitor can be implemented with improvements that give coaches the ability to monitor and regulate what their athletes post before they are submitted for the public to see unlike the present programs that only allow the deletion of already posted statuses and pictures.

However, the use of these applications must be aware to the athletes and explained in detail in order to prevent misunderstanding between the two parties. Coaches can include what applications they are using and how they are using them in their original code of conduct that is signed by both coach and athlete. This can entirely prevent the posting of inappropriate statuses and pictures by student-athletes for good.

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Utilizing Online Social Networking Sites Paper

Utilizing Online Social Networking Sites Paper Class: BSHS/352 Technology is constantly expanding and making it easier and more convenient to communicate and network with individuals and various organizations that we may not otherwise of had the opportunity to connect with. One area of technology that is growing at a fast rate and offering individuals and businesses, rather it be their professional life or personal the opportunity to make lasting connections is social networking sites. Social networking has become an excellent tool for businesses and individuals to connect and share information that can prove vital to their business.

Sites like Facebook and LinkedIn are becoming popular and are an effective way to grow your business whether it is through networking with similar organizations and getting beneficial information from them or expanding your cliental by reaching out to those who may need or want your services. LinkedIn has become a vital tool used by the working professional, assisting them with making connections or linking up with other working professional to share what work and what doesn’t work as well as connecting them with local or online support groups or networking groups.

Members of LinkedIn are able to create a profile that gives a detail list of their educational background as well as their work experience. Users are able to browse the social networking site to view the profiles of other individuals, organizations, or companies within their field and follow the organization of choice and their postings. My ultimate dream is to create a nonprofit organization that is geared toward targeting at risk youth and their families.

The whole concept is to help the whole family and not just focus your attention on the youth that may be having emotional or behavioral issues but offer mental and emotional support for the entire family, implementing various programs and workshops that will assist the entire family in growing, working, and playing together. Networking sites like LinkedIn can prove to be vital as I take the steps necessary to make this dream a reality. As I was browsing through the site I came across a few groups in my local area that met up monthly for lunch to discuss the ideas and challenges of those looking to start a nonprofit.

I also took the time to search for companies or organizations that were geared toward working with and advocating for children. I was really quite excited to be able to look at their profile, view their web pages and doing so helped me to get some ideas and get my juices flowing. I have considered making connections with the various organizations I have seen on LinkedIn in hope that they could link me to information, people, and training opportunities that could possibly put me one step closer to my dream.

I am also interested in going to the next luncheon for nonprofit communicators in Raleigh just to get feedback regarding my idea and you never know someone at one of these luncheons could either help me get closer to making my dream a reality or can link me to an individual or organization who can. I have found sites such as LinkedIn can prove to be extremely beneficial in making lasting connections within the business community and it gives those with businesses the opportunity to link up with other businesses to get feedback, advice, and possibly connect you with someone who can help you take your organization or company to the next level.

This site also enables professionals to come together with the common ground of helping and motivating each other. Within the human service field this site can connect you to so many resources that can only assist in providing your clients with the ultimate experience. Having a site where human service workers from all fields and from all areas can come together online and share their experience, advice, and resources can prove to be helpful to the community as a whole.

LinkedIn not only connect likeminded people but it offers an opportunity to share information regarding training and workshops that could assist organizations in staying up to date with the latest software and/or regulations. Such training and workshops can keep your organization competitive and allows you to offer your clients the best possible service. The best way to keep any business or organization growing is to continue to gain knowledge in your particular field.

Always be willing and open to learning and growing, this is what the training and workshops are there for to assist businesses and organizations in improving their techniques and staying relevant and competitive. Sites such as LinkedIn can offer you the ability to gain knowledge and training from some very successful people. Human service workers who use online social networking sites such as LinkedIn can find being affiliated with professional groups and connections to offer more than just sharing experiences, advice, training, and connections to resources.

Another benefit to being a part of an online community such as LinkedIn is the ability to request referrals from the connections you met online. Users can also request sponsorships or recommendations from other users. Human service workers who are affiliated with sites such as LinkedIn may also be able to connect with local churches that could assist connecting the human service worker to the communities that need their assistance the most. Employers often look at profiles on these online social networking sites to assist them in finding employees as well.

Although social networking sites such as Facebook and LinkedIn are excellent tools to stay connected to various resources there are other technical tools that can be used to expand and maintain your connections. Smartphones have proven to be a vital tool to use as well with various applications directed at making the life of professionals easier. The goal of a human service worker is to effectively and efficiently assist the client in improving their lives and often times this requires connecting them to other resources.

Social networking sites such as LinkedIn can assist human service workers in making numerous connections all at the touch of a mouse to various resources and training opportunities. Having online support that provide advice, training, and encouragement, of the human service worker can assist them in helping their clients meet their goals. Reference: 2012. LinkedIn. com. Retrieved from http//www. linkedin. com/home? trk_tab_home_top

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Social Network Essay

Social network essay Social networking can be a useful tool for keeping in touch with friends and family but when it is used to substitute it for actual face to face contact it can be a dangerous thing. You can’t lie; social networking is a very large part of our lives. In September 2011 Facebook registered 800 million users. Social networking can have good effects on people and help them out but it can be used inappropriately and can have very disastrous effects on people’ friends that you want s lives.

Social networking may have some cons but if used properly it can be a very useful device. When used properly it can help you stay in touch with people you wouldn’t normally be able to like friends or family overseas. Instead of having to call or write a letter you can just talk over the internet. It may not only be family or friends that you want to talk to, there might be someone that you like but don’t have the confidence to talk to them. You can build up your confidence over the internet and not worry about stumbling over your words.

One of the arguments that people who are against social networking is that it can reduce face to face contact but if you use it well then It can actually increase it. You can organise things very easily compared to other ways like over the phone. Things like Facebook can be very helpful if used right but that can be the problem. People may feel they are being social but online interaction is no substitute for face to face contact. “Facebook is a tool. I compare it to a car: you can drive to isolate yourself from others or you can drive to meet people.

If you use Facebook to increase face-to-face contact, it increases social capital. ” It can help people but only if you do the right thing. This can be a really bad thing about social networking, it can promote loneliness. People will feel as though they are being really social but really they are becoming lonelier. People will feels as though no one really knows who they are and what they are really like. It can make people even worse when they see a new photo album or post saying “best day eva” tagged with some friends. That can make people feel left out and not part of a group.

It can make people jealous of others and why they didn’t get invited. It isn’t always accidental when people get hurt though. Social networking can be good if it is used correctly but the problem is a lot of people don’t. People don’t always realise that posting something when you ten or fifteen can come back to hurt you when you are twenty-five. You could do something or have photos of you on Facebook when you were younger and then you are going for a job and they find it you could end up missing the job just because of that. It can give kids a much easier way to bully their peers.

In the schoolyard you can have teachers around to stop it but over the internet there isn’t someone there to stop it. You do have to be careful about who you are talking to because they might not always be who you think. You shouldn’t add people who you don’t know because you don’t know who they are and what kind of person they are. Social networking can be a good thing but it must be used correctly. Social networking is a good thing but it must be used correctly or else it becomes a very dangerous place for everyone. It can be a very useful and important device but it may be us who end up destroying it.

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The Positive Part Social Networking Web Sites.

THE POSITIVE PART Social networking Web sites are helping businesses advertise, thus social networking Web sites are benefiting businesses – economically. Social networking Web sites are helping education by allowing teachers and coaches to post club meeting times, school projects, and even homework on these sites. Social networking Web sites are enabling advancements in science and medicine. Job hunting Stay in touch with friends Positive causes/awareness THE NEGATIVE PART

The very nature of such sites encourages users to provide a certain amount of personal information. But when deciding how much information to reveal, people may not exercise the same amount of caution on a Website as they would when meeting someone in person. This happens because: * the Internet provides a sense of anonymity; * the lack of physical interaction provides a false sense of security * they tailor the information for their friends to read, forgetting that others may see it.

Sharing too much information on social networking sites can be problematic in two ways: firstly, it can reveal something about you that you’d rather your current or future employer or school administrator not know, and second, it can put your personal safety at risk. Another potential downside of social networking sites is that they allow others to know a person’s contact information, interests, habits, and whereabouts.

Consequences of sharing this information can range from the relatively harmless but annoying—such as an increase in spam—to the potentially deadly—such as stalking. Another great issue of concern with social networking web sites is that of child safety. Research has shown that almost three out of every four teenagers who use social networking web sites are at risk due to their lack of using online safety. Joly, Karine, 2007) A lot of the web sites do have an age requirement but it is easily bypassed by the lying about of one’s age. Even if they don’t lie about their age the average age requirement is around fifteen years old. Predators may target children, teens, and other unsuspecting persons online—sometimes posing to be someone else—and then slowly“groom” them, forming relationships with them and then eventually convincing them to meet in person.

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Social Network and Dangerous New Form

Instagram can be a dangerous new form of social networking. Smart phone users now have an option to download an app called Instagram. Although it is the new, trendy thing to do, it can be an issue. The basics of Instagram are to post only pictures. Users can put a small bio about themselves, but it is nothing like the other social networks where users will post all sorts of pointless information. When a picture is posted, users can put a caption for it and the caption is often followed by things called ‘hashtags’.

Examples of these include #pretty, #somuchfun #beach, or whatever it is pertaining to the photo. In the search section, users can search for words or phrases that have been hashtagged. There are choices to “follow” other Instagram users, but the main issue is that of the user doesn’t want to be followed by somebody, they have no choice. On other social networks, there is an option to accept or decline followers, but on Instagram there is not. Instagram is generally used by people between the ages of 14 and 25, which makes it a lot worse that there is no way to keep away potentially dangerous users.

When somebody searches for a hashtag, every use of that hashtag by every Instagram user pops up. There is no need to be following a person to look and “like” their pictures. Although there is an option to set your Instagram profile as private, only a minority of people actually do it. I have and use my Instagram every day. I love it. I think it is great to be able to only post pictures and to only be able to see pictures that others have posted.

My main stream of pictures doesn’t get all crowded up with people posting pointless statuses about their life and annoying political references. I do have negative thoughts about it though. I hate it when strangers like or comment on pictures that I post. I am being followed by people I have never met and no nothing about and I cannot do anything about it. I am sure to only post pictures that don’t show where my location is or put any captions about there I live. I would hate to see some horrendous things happen to users of Instagram because of ignorant mistakes like that.

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Formal Speech( Social Networks and Cyber Crime)

S P E E C H #03 Thank you Chair, As we know in the today’s world networks and communication has become a new dimension of our society. Almost everyone in our world is aware of internet and social networking sites on it. Now a day’s any rupture in internet can collapse the world economies and administrations. A large part of our population is rather prone to cyber crimes; yes the lovable internet is also a place to exercise easy piracy, frauds, hacking and other criminal activities.

Cyber-threats are without doubt a new security challenge. Like most countries, Finland is increasingly dependent on a secure and functioning cyber-space and therefore increasingly vulnerable to unexpected and rapidly-emerging cyber-attacks. That is why we aim to become a global forerunner in cyber-security. While this will be the first such national strategy of its kind, the overall approach builds on decades of co-operation and co-ordination in crisis preparation and management.

The guidelines for the new cyber-strategy were laid down in 2010 in the government’s broader Security Strategy for Society and the European Union’s Convention to counter cyber threats. At the moment, however, responsibility for cyber-security remains scattered between many different organisations and stakeholders, reflecting their specialist areas of expertise. This has slowed the creation of common objectives, with key decision-makers acting in relative isolation. Procedures and responsibilities during a nation-wide cyber-crisis have also yet to be defined with sufficient clarity.

One of the main tasks of the current process, therefore, is to assess the need for a new authority to co-ordinate the strategy at a political level, as well as organising responsibilities at the operational level. Many of the risks of cyber-attacks are shared between the governments and the private sectors. And since most of the critical infrastructure is owned by the private sectors, the job of identifying and managing cyber-risks must be done in partnership. The forthcoming strategy will respond to all of these challenges by comprehensively analysing cyber-threats and deciding on the best way forward.

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The Bad Side of Social Network

The bad side of social networks Social network is been lately very popular in society. Because of this all the users wants to be aware of what the other person is posting. Social network is a bad influence for most of the people because sometimes it appears windows that you don’t want to see. Social networks has changed the way people interact. In many ways, has led to positive changes in the way people communicate and share information, however, it has a bad side, as well. Social networking can sometimes result in negative outcomes, some with long-term consequences.

It’s a waste of time because you don’t take advantage of your free time in some pages like games or Facebook, MySpace, Hi5, etc, while you can be reading a book or cleaning your room or whatever. You’are in diasplay to all the people, like in facebook you upload a photo of the place you are and everybody see’s where are you at. Many social networking sites regularly make changes that require you to update your settings in order to maintain your privacy, and frequently it is difficult to discover how enable settings for your appropriate level of privacy.

Related reading: The Other Side of Email

Because of this, many users do not realize how much private information they are allowing to become public by not re-evaluating settings every time the network makes a change. Tagging can also serve as an invasion of privacy. When social networking sites have a “tagging” option, unless you disable it, friends or acquaintances may be able to tag you in posts or photographs that reveal sensitive data. In other way it can be good to have facebook or other social network, but just for fun and reconect to old friends, like the friend in primary school that you never saw them again.

But most of the time social networks are bad because is a waste of time, it can cause an addiction, and maybe cause a lot of problems. In conclussion, while social networking has clearly demonstrable negative impacts, it is most likely here to stay. Deciding whether you or your children will use social networking is an individual choice. By using it responsibly and encouraging your children to do the same, you can harness the benefits of social networking while avoiding the drawbacks.

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Are Social Networking Sites Good for Our Society?

Are social networking sites good for our society? Specific Purpose: In today’s lifestyle, it is admitted that Social Network Sites bring convenience, efficiency, fast, speed and width for adolescents’ interpersonal relationship development, but some people don’t know It also brings many negative impacts that social networking sites. Central Idea: Social networking sites have a negative influence on children, teenagers and adults. This paper will demonstrate that social networking sites do cause more harm than good. Introduction:

A social networking site can be defined as an online service that is based around the building and reflecting of social relations among individuals with common interests or social ties. Social networking sites such as Face book, Friendster,Tribe. net, MySpace and Twitter all vary slightly, but the one main feature they have is that they enable users to create a profile within the website to represent themselves and allows users to interact through email, instant messaging and other integrated communication channels within the site.

The popularity and growth of social networking sites over the past five years has been colossal, as many people from all over the world join up to this social phenomenon for varied reasons. Today, there are more than 500 million active users on face book and users spend over 700 billion minutes per month on this social networking site (Facebook, 2012). As the technology of Web 2. 0 improves and advances, social networking sites have an even bigger impact on society and human relationships, both positive and negative.

I’m going discuss the three main reasons why social networking sites bring many negative impacts pose on today’s media savvy generation. I. Identity theft. A. Identity theft has become a result of the rapid expansion. 1. Total of 810,000 Australians of personal fraud in or identity theft in 2008” (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008). B. Sites such as MySpace, Facebook and Twitter identity theft in two mains Ways. 1. The first being is that sites encourage you to “edit our profile”. Users share a variety of information about themselves on their Facebook profiles. 2. The second main issue is the privacy settings on these social networking sites also help personal fraud. II. The weakening of strong ties and isolation. A. The way we communicate with our peers and with strangers over the internet are changing. 1. Weakening our strong ties and also bring about physical social isolation

Similar article: Snatch Theft Essay

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Questionnaire for Social Networking Sites

Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 1 A Study of the Effects of Social Media Use and Addiction on Relationship Satisfaction Kathryn Porter Jessica Mitchell Meghan Grace Shawna Shinosky Valerie Gordon Chapman University Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction Abstract Based on traditional theories of relationship satisfaction and Internet dependency, this study examined the relationship between social media use and addiction to interpersonal relationship satisfaction with an individual’s closest relationship. Two hundred nineteen (N = 2 19) individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 who are users of social media participated in an online questionnaire about their satisfaction with their closest interpersonal relationship. Our results were based on one-tailed correlations between time spent on social media, social media withdrawal, and their connection to relationship satisfaction. The results did not support our hypothesis and there was a negative correlation between social media use and relationship satisfaction. Further implications and future investigations of the effects of social media use are discussed.

Keywords: relationship satisfaction; social media use; Internet dependency; interpersonal Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction Social media, a web-based and mobile technology, has turned communication into a 3 social dialogue, and dominates the younger generation and their culture. As of 2010, Generation Y has outnumbered Baby Boomers, and 96% of Gen Y has joined a social network (Qualman, 2009). Social media is now the number one use for the Internet, and this percentage is growing larger every day (Qualman, 2009).

As a result, the population is becoming more dependent on social media, which has a led to a number of beneficial and detrimental outcomes. The world is more connected now than ever before because of this technology, but what are the implications for interpersonal communication? The role that these virtual forums and technologies play in interpersonal interaction is vital to understand. There have been numerous studies conducted on social media, the reasons why so many individuals engage in it, its effect on users, and its impact on society at large.

Over time, our society is likely to become more technologically advanced, allowing individuals to do almost anything they please, but in a virtual space. With this continual advancement in technology and social media, some believe we will become more engaged with individuals globally, and some fear that technology will begin to isolate people. We are conducting this study to determine if the prevalence of social media addiction has a negative impact on society. The purpose of our study is to determine whether social media addiction and interpersonal relationship satisfaction are related, and if so, to what degree.

Review of Literature Social Media Use Social media is defined as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. 0, and that allow the creation and exchange Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction of User Generated Content” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, p. 61). In this definition, Web 2. 0 is 4 introduced as an interactive, collaborative, and participatory web experience for users (Solis & Breakenridge, 2009). The Web 2. 0 landscape provides user generated content, which can be described as content developed and published by users of these social media sites.

Examples of common social media sites that have millions of users include Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and LinkedIn. There are hundreds of other sites that all serve a unique purpose for an end-user, and new sites are continually developed to increase two-way participant communication and interaction. An end-user in this instance is the individual using these social media sites benefitting from the increased personalized communication. In previous studies, social media has been measured by its frequency of use. Frequency can describe how long the user has been engaged in a social media platform (i. . , how long they have had a Facebook account) or how frequently they log in and use social media in a given day or week. Another standard of measurement of social media use is the amount of updates on one’s social networking site and the amount of interaction between an individual and his/her social media contacts. Frequency is an important variable to understand in terms of social media use because it can play a role in an individual’s interpersonal relationships. It also may play a role in determining what can be defined as social media addiction in a young adult’s life.

A recent study utilized the Uses and Gratifications Theory to analyze students’ social media use (Sheldon, 2008). Sheldon aimed to discover the reasons why students used Facebook, and what gratifications they received as a result. Sheldon indicated that checking Facebook has become a routine behavior for students on the Internet because they are already online (2008). According to Charney and Greenberg (2001), there are eight gratification factors for Internet use: to keep informed, diversion and entertainment, peer identity, good feelings, communication,

Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 5 sights and sounds, career, and coolness. Sheldon’s study indicated that relationship maintenance, passing time, entertainment, and coolness motives were significant predictors for how often students logged into their Facebook account and what they expected to get out of their time spent online (2008). The relationship maintenance and passing time motives also positively predicted the number of hours spent on Facebook (Sheldon, 2008). Social media use is the variable examined in this study to determine the role it plays in relationship satisfaction.

Media and Relationships The success of newer media forms, such as text messaging and social media web sites, has altered the traditional relationship model. Coyne, Stockdale, Busby, Iverson, and Grant (2011) explored how often new technology is used within romantic relationships to communicate, and the correlation between new technology communication and relationship satisfaction. Their study not only dealt with interpersonal romantic relationships, but relationships between family members and friends, as well (Coyne et al. , 2011).

Social media are relatively newer forms of media, allowing users to be more interactive with the content, as well as use technologies (both mobile and web-based) to create an interactive platform where individuals and communities share, co-create, and modify user-generated content (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy, & Silvestre, 2011). During the past decade, it has become far more interactive. Some important aspects of social media are presence, sharing, conversations, groups, reputation, relationships, and most importantly, identity (Kietzmenn et al. , 2011).

The amount of self-disclosure that is revealed through social media creates one’s identity on the Internet (Kietzmenn et. al, 2011). Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 6 Numerous studies have been performed on the formation of relationships using media, as well as media’s influence on these relationships. Although technology can be helpful in beginning relationships, it also can be used as an aid in ending relationships. Because of the natural and virtual distance social media creates, it becomes seemingly easier to accomplish unpleasant interpersonal tasks (Brown, 2011).

This technique of using technology for impersonal interactions using the “techno brush-off,” shows one of the negative effects that social media can have on a relationship (Brown, 2011). An individual’s presence is not necessary in the breakup process anymore because social media can act as mediator. This exemplifies the role changes that technology continues to adopt. The objective of the study conducted by Coyne et al. (2011) was to discover how technology and social media were used in romantic relationships.

The multitude of options for virtual communication includes cell phones, text messaging, e-mail, social networking sites, blogs, and even webcams. To further social media research, Coyne et al. wanted to discover the role each of these mediums plays in the initiation, maintenance, and ultimately, termination, of relationships (2011). Instead of focusing on the specific feelings that social media influences, the researchers chose to focus on the general picture in order to see if extensive use of these media affected satisfaction in relationships (Coyne et al. 2011). The results of this study showed that most couples use some kind of media to communicate with each other, and certain media forms had specific uses (Coyne et al. , 2011). Text messaging was found to be one of the most popular forms of media because of its accessibility, and the main reason for using social media with a significant other was to express affection (Coyne et al. , 2011). Therefore, text messaging was the quickest way to send immediate affection to a romantic partner.

These findings relate to sharing and relationships, Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 7 two of the main aspects of social media previously mentioned. Sharing with a partner, such as via text messaging, can sustain and maintain a relationship, or can cause a relationship’s downfall. As the world of media continues to grow and become more powerful, it is important to understand how media may influence the creation and overall quality of a relationship (Coyne et al. , 2011).

Although it might be too soon to determine the long-term impact of these communication technologies on relationships, it is still important to find out how they have affected relationships thus far. Another study looked at how social media affects relationships, and examined the difference between relationships online and offline (Pollet, Roberts, & Dunbar, 2011). This study highlights the two opinions of online relationships: cyberpessimists and cyperoptimists (Pollet et al. , 2011). “‘Cyberpessimists’ assert that Internet use has a negative effect on social life … cyberoptimists’ point to findings showing that the Internet has a positive effect on social life” (Pollet et al. , 2011, p. 253). Cyberoptimists also support the idea that the Internet is merely a supplement to traditional communication, not a replacement (Pollet et al. , 2011). With the idea of cyberpessimists and cyberoptimists in hand, the authors focused part of their research on the concept of social media use affecting emotional closeness within each offline network layer (Pollet et al. , 2011, p. 254).

The network layers were support groups, sympathy groups, and outside layers (Pollet et al. , 2011). With their findings, Pollett et al. found that there was no difference in the network size or closeness in relationships between people that utilized social media, and those that did not (2011). According to these findings, the beliefs of both the cyberoptimists and the cyberpessimists are inconclusive, since Internet use did not affect interpersonal relationships and closeness in their findings (Pollet et al. , 2011). Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction In order to understand the role social media plays in relationships, especially close ones, we wish to understand the extent to which individuals are dependent on or addicted to their social media use. Internet Dependency There has been a dramatic increase in the use of technology in the average American home, making researchers believe that we are in a new technological revolution (Kelly, 2011). This revolution has brought about many useful tools and devices that allow people to access nearly anything they desire within a few simple clicks.

The ease and accessibility of these new technologies makes it extremely possible to become dependent, or even addicted to them. Internet dependency is the degree to which an individual uses the Internet and the degree to which a user can develop a dependent relationship consistent with “compulsive overuse of the Internet that causes irritable or moody behavior when deprived of it” (Mitchell, 2000, p. 632). As the Internet is becoming more interwoven into daily life, the use of the Internet and/or social media becomes a higher priority.

Young (1999) explained that the “addictive use of the Internet is a new phenomenon which many practitioners are unaware of and subsequently unprepared to treat” (p. 19). With the growing nature of the Internet and media, the idea of dependent relationships is still being explored. In a recent study, Mitchell and Beard (2010) aimed to demonstrate that Internet dependence is measurable. They sought to show the level of dependence among college students, specifically by demonstrating that college-aged individuals and young adults tend to heavily use the Internet, but few are actually addicted.

As a foundation for the study, Mitchell and Beard used CAGE scales originally developed to explore alcohol addiction (see Ewing, 1984). CAGE is an acronym for cut, annoyed, guilty, and eye–keywords of four main questions Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 9 used within the study (Ewing, 1984). Mitchell and Beard adapted the scales to look at how much time participants spent on the Internet and where they used the Internet to determine the levels of potential Internet addiction (2010).

The results of this study explored and validated four factors including heavy usage, time spent, withdrawal, and problem usage of the Internet (Mitchell & Beard, 2010). By exploring the four factors (usage, time, withdrawal, and problem usage), the results succeeded in validating previous works, but more importantly, provided a single scale that could be adapted for future media-related addiction studies. Their study creates a single scale that is consistent with previous studies of Internet addiction, but also expands on the gaps in previous literature (Mitchell & Beard, 2010).

Their findings supported the hypothesis that college students use the Internet often; however, the students are not in a state of addiction that would lead to problem usage or withdrawal (Mitchell & Beard, 2010). In a study intended to learn more about Internet dependency, Sun, Rubin, and Haridakis (2008) sought to investigate relationships among dependency, motivation of use, and the involvement in using the Internet. To explain the connection between the three factors, the study was based around the Media System Dependency (MSD) Theory and the Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT).

MSD puts Internet dependency in a power-dependence relationship, where Internet and media hold the power to keep users reliant (Sun et al. , 2008). While users become dependent and the Internet is used to fulfill needs, the Internet has no dependency upon particular users (Sun et al. , 2008). They linked the three factors together by illustrating that people are motivated to use the Internet to fulfill needs of involvement with others, but the level of dependency ranges due to difference in user motivation and involvement (Sun et al. , 2008).

Results showed that the two most common uses of the Internet were emailing and browsing, and Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 10 the individuals’ motives were to seek information or to correspond with others (Sun et al. , 2008). The researchers found that involvement drives motivation to use the media and Internet, which to varying degrees can lead to a dependent relationship (Sun et al. , 2008). In the future, differentiating the types of Internet use, as well as the content accessed via the Internet, may be factors studied in terms of Internet dependency.

It is a relatively new field with rapidly changing forums, and therefore the research will adapt to discover how Internet dependency shifts over time. In this study, the dependency will be examined to gauge its relevance to interpersonal relationship satisfaction. Interpersonal Relationship Satisfaction Interactions in interpersonal relationships can be conducted verbally, nonverbally and now, thanks to the advent of social media and computer-mediated communication (CMC), virtually.

However, not all communication between two individuals is constructive and/or leads to satisfaction for both or either parties. Interpersonal relationship satisfaction determines the usefulness of the communication, its content, and future interactions (Anderson & EmmersSommer, 2006). Feeling satisfied in a close relationship invites further communication and a sense of comfort with the interaction. In addition, feeling satisfied in a communicative setting leads to immediacy, closeness, and an increased level of self-disclosure with a relational partner.

Relational satisfaction can be defined as “the degree to which an individual is content and satisfied with his or her relationship” (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006, p. 155). If the degree of relational satisfaction is high, the more likely the relationship will be successful and lengthy, as a face-to-face or online dyad (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006). Predictors of relationship satisfaction include perceived similarity, commitment, intimacy, trust, communication satisfaction, and attributional confidence (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006).

Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction Relationship satisfaction has been measured by the degree of these predictors. The higher the 11 degrees of the predictors that are present, the higher the satisfaction for an individual or dyadic pair (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006). It is crucial to understand the implications of these predictors in order to understand their role in social media communication. With how easily and often the Internet is accessed, there is no doubt that it has changed the way we communicate and impacted the quality of romantic relationships.

Relationship satisfaction constitutes a positive level of contentment, wants and needs being met by a partner, and being in a mutually beneficial position in the relationship (Emmers-Sommer, 2004). In her study, Emmers-Sommer explored the effects of quality communication on relationship satisfaction. Participants were asked to record their communication with an individual with whom they had a significant relationship, whether romantic or platonic, for a period of one week (Emmers-Sommer, 2004).

The study intended to demonstrate that both the amount and the quality of time spent communicating improved intimacy and satisfaction within the relationship (Emmers-Sommer, 2004). The study sought to determine which communication qualities and quantities indicated intimacy and relationship satisfaction. The study found that frequent faceto-face interactions improved relationship satisfaction, and it was the preferred method of communicating because of the potential for important nonverbal communication that is hard to distinguish in other forms of communication (Emmers-Sommer, 2004).

The findings of this study provide a better understanding of the communication elements necessary for interpersonal relationships with high levels of intimacy and satisfaction. Anderson and Emmers-Sommer (2006) explored the predictors that indicated how satisfied people were in their online romantic relationships. The study was conducted via online questionnaire and found communication satisfaction, intimacy, and trust to be indicators of Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction relationship satisfaction in online-only relationships (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006).

They also looked at how the amount of time spent online affects the length of the relationship 12 (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006). The results reported that there was a direct relationship between partner communication and relationship satisfaction, and revealed that aspects of faceto-face communication are still necessary in online relationships to maintain satisfaction (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006). Relationship satisfaction and social media. Communication satisfaction is extremely important to online relationships because individuals in these relationships do not have the ability to see each other physically.

The online communication serves as a base for the relationship to grow, maintain, and satisfy each partner. Terminology and communication length are examples of face-to-face communication factors that are present in online interactions. Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and text messaging are part of the relationship life cycle for many partnerships, especially men and women ages 18-24, as these are the individuals who engage in social media most frequently. Satisfaction determines the successful outcomes and termination of a relationship.

This study aims to discover whether social media is detrimental or beneficial to the satisfaction of our target participants. Understanding the correlation between social media use and relationship satisfaction is important as our world becomes more and more enveloped in social media platforms. Our study will explore these relationships and provide an analysis of social media use and its correlation with relationship satisfaction. Just as we will increase our understanding of satisfaction in a relationship, we also hope to discover how the increased use of social media affects these relationships.

After reviewing the existing literature, we conclude that face-to-face communication is important in relationships and that the use of social media and the Internet is on the rise. Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 13 Analyzing self-reported relationship satisfaction, our research will indicate whether relationship satisfaction is correlated to social media use. With increasing access to social media sources, we seek to determine whether or not media use affects relationship satisfaction.

Therefore we propose one hypothesis: H: The more individuals aged 18-24 engage in frequent and continued use of social media, especially Facebook, Twitter, and instant messaging (AIM, SMS, and BBM), the lower their relationship satisfaction will be. Method Participants After posting the survey on SurveyMonkey. com for two weeks and advertising its link through social media networks and email, we received a total of 219 participants who completed the online survey. The large majority of participants were females, who made up 71. 7% of the sample, while men made up 17. %. Out of the 219 participants, 134 of them identify as white (61. 2%), 26 as Asian (11. 9%), 18 as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino/a (8. 2%), seven as from multiple races (3. 2%), five as an ethnicity not listed (2. 3%), three as Black or African-American (1. 4%), three as Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (1. 4%), and one as American Indian or Alaskan Native (. 5%). The participants had a variety of education levels: 71. 2% had some college but no degree or were currently in college, 12. 3% had a bachelor’s degree, 2. 7% had an associate degree, 2. % had a high school degree or equivalent, and . 9% had a graduate degree. Our study targeted young adults aged 18 to 24 who used social media frequently in their daily lives. We found that, of the 219 participants who completed the survey, 203 (92. 7%) used social media multiple times per day, while nine (4. 1%) participants used social media once a day and seven (3. 2%) participants used it only a few times a week. The vast majority of participants Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction (98. 2%) had a Facebook account (two participants did not have an account) and 54. % had a 14 Twitter account (98 participants did not have a Twitter account). The mean age of these social media users was 20. 47 years old (M = 20. 47, SD = 1. 48, range = 18-24). Toward the end of the survey, participants were asked to think of the latest interaction he/she had with his/her closest relational partner. This partner could be a romantic partner, friend, or a family member. A large number of participants decided to analyze a romantic partner (41. 1%) or a friend (32%), while 12. 3% analyzed their relationship with a parent, 3. 7% with a sibling, and . 9% with a cousin.

The participants in the study not only used social media, but also displayed characteristics of being somewhat dependent on social media. An interesting finding in the study was the participants’ responses to their preferred method of communication. The large majority of participants (51. 6%) preferred to communicate via text messages, and the next largest group (31. 5%) preferred to communicate in person with others, followed by Facebook (6. 8%), phone (4. 6%), email (4. 1%) and another method not listed (1. 4%). A number of participants (38. 8%) stated that they check Facebook ten or more times a day, 20. % stated that they check it one to three times a day, 21. 5% check it four to six times a day, 16. 4% check it seven to nine times a day, . 9% do not check Facebook, and . 9% do not have a Facebook account. The majority of those who answered the question with regards to how often they check Twitter stated that they did not have a Twitter account (43. 4%). Of those who did have an account, 19. 2% check it one to three times a day, 8. 2% check it four to six times a day, 3. 2% check it seven to nine times a day, 7. 8% check it ten or more times a day, and 16. 4% do not check their Twitter account.

Participants were also asked how often they engaged in social media while in class, which included Facebook, Twitter, and text messaging. The majority (37. 4 %) stated that every time he/she was in class and had a phone or computer available, they used Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction social media, 20. 1% responded that they do not use any form of social media while in class, 15 16. 4% use social media in class one to two times a week, 15. 5% use it three to four times a week, and 9. 6% use social media in the classroom five to seven times a week.

Another question asked how long participants have gone without checking either Twitter or Facebook. Individuals who had a Facebook account were evenly split between not checking Facebook for one to three days or one to two weeks, both at 29. 7%. The rest of the participants who answered the question responded that they have gone four to six days without checking Facebook (19. 6%), a month or longer (16%) or they did not have an account (. 5%). Only 3. 7% have not gone one day without checking Facebook. The majority of individuals did not have a Twitter account (42. %), but those that did have gone a month or longer without checking the account (22. 4%), followed by 14. 6% who have gone one to two weeks, 10% who have gone one to three days, 5. 9% who have gone four to six days, and . 9% who haven’t gone a day without checking their Twitter account. Finally, when asked if participants have ever terminated their Facebook or Twitter accounts, 72. 1% of Facebook users have never terminated their accounts (23. 7% have terminated their accounts and 3. 2% didn’t have an account), while 51. 6% of Twitter users have never terminated, 40. % were not applicable because they did not have an account, and 6. 4% have terminated their account. Procedures In order to participate, individuals were required to be between the ages of 18-24 and a user of social media. Specifically, the survey asked immediately if the participants were users of Facebook and Twitter since these are two main social media platforms and the focus of the study. These participants were recruited through a variety of forums including Facebook, Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction Twitter, ChapterBoard, Craigslist, and via email.

ChapterBoard is a social network for Greek life chapters to interact, and the survey was posted in a discussion forum. 16 The sampling methods implemented throughout our research were both convenient and snowball sampling. By posting our survey on social media outlets, such as Facebook, Twitter, and ChapterBoard, we reached out to a population to which we were connected. Participants were also encouraged to share the survey link via social media or email to create a snowball effect and increase the size of the participant pool.

An email sign-up was also passed around to communication studies students at Chapman University who were willing to participate in the study. Once someone added their email to a list, he/she would receive an introductory email and a follow-up email containing the survey link to participate. We encouraged individuals participating via email to forward the information to possible interested parties elsewhere. This also added variety to the participant demographics. The participants in this study had to first click on the link posted on one of numerous social media sources or sent to them via email.

Then, before participation in the survey, participants were required to read the consent form and click “Agree. ” After consent was obtained from the participants, they continued on to the survey. The participants answered a series of questions, ranging in topics from social media use to interpersonal relationships to demographic information, before submitting the answers online. There were 59 questions total in the survey. The survey took approximately 10-15 minutes to complete. The survey was live and stayed open for 18 days. No compensation was provided. Measures Time spent on social media.

The scale used to measure time spent using social media was Mitchell and Beard’s Internet Dependency Scale (2010). There were a total of five Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction questions used to measure time spent on social media. Three items measured how much time 17 was spent on social media in a certain time period or for specific reasons (i. e. “I spend more time using social media than just about anything else”). These questions were measured through a Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The Cronbach’s alpha for time spent on social edia was . 84. The scores of the items measuring time spent using social media indicated that individuals spend a moderate amount of time using social media in their everyday lives (M = 2. 89, SD = . 80). Social media withdrawal. The Internet Dependency Scale, created by Mitchell and Beard (2010), was used to measure social media withdrawal. Using a Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree), three items measured social media withdrawal. An example of one of the items is “I cannot imagine going without social media” (Mitchell & Beard, 2010).

The Cronbach’s alpha score was . 63. The survey results indicated that participants would feel some withdrawal from social media after a certain period of time (M = 2. 73, SD = . 80). Relationship satisfaction. Relationship satisfaction was measured through Burns’ (1993) Relationship Satisfaction Scale. Included in the survey were items to measure relationship satisfaction (i. e. “How satisfied are you with your role in the relationship with your partner? ”) using a Likert-type scale (0 = Very Dissatisfied, 6 = Very Satisfied). These questions received a Cronbach’s alpha of . 5. On a 1-7 range, the mean and standard deviation showed that most participants were satisfied with the relationships they referenced to answer the items (M = 5. 77, SD = 1. 14). Results The hypothesis was tested using one-tailed correlations between time spent on social media, social media withdrawal, and their relationship with relationship satisfaction. The Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 18 hypothesis, predicting an inverse correlation between time spent on social media and relationship satisfaction, was not supported, r = -. 02.

The correlation between social media withdrawal was predicted to be positive but turned in negative results as well, r = -. 07. These negative correlations do not support our original hypothesis that the frequency of use and addictive qualities of social media, such as withdrawal, directly affect relationship satisfaction. Discussion This study examined the potential negative effects of frequent social media on the perceived satisfaction of an interpersonal relationship. The phrase social media refers to computer-mediated communication, such as Facebook and Twitter, but can also include text messaging and video chatting.

Our results were based on one-tailed correlations between time spent on social media, social media withdrawal, and their connection to relationship satisfaction. Our hypothesis was not supported and there was a negative correlation between social media use and relationship satisfaction. However, our study uncovered some interesting findings about social media use in the 21st century and provided some insight on the ways in which individuals might communicate in the future. We will discuss the implications of our findings, as well as identify the limitations and improvements that could be made for future research.

Social Media Use Our results indicated that the majority of participants use social media frequently. In fact, our sample showed that our participants use social media multiple times per day. Our results reveal the prominence of social media use among college-aged individuals and validate the importance of studying social media use. As previously mentioned, frequency can have several measures, many of which we employed in our study. For example, Sheldon (2008) measured frequency by asking how many hours users spent on Facebook in a given day, how often they log

Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 19 in to their accounts, how long they have held an account, and how many Facebook friends they have. In one measure of frequency, a large portion of the sample responded that they have been using social media for four to six years. Because our respondents were between the ages of 18-24, we can conclude that they have been users of social media since their adolescence. The continual use of social media over many years indicates that it has become an integral part of daily life for college-aged individuals.

Furthermore, a significant number of participants indicated they access social media while in class, either from a mobile phone or computer. This finding indicates that college-aged individuals frequently engage in social media while accomplishing other tasks, specifically, while attending academic courses. This can be associated with poor academic performance as indicated by Levine, Waite, and Bowman (2007), who found that students who instant messaged more than others show signs of being easily distracted during academic tasks.

In addition, Bowman, Levine, Waite, and Gendron (2010) found that students who instant messaged while reading passages read slower and scored lower on comprehension tests than students who instant messaged before reading or those who did not instant message at all. These studies further indicate that social media use by teens and young adults is frequent and can affect their actions and/or behavior. Relationship Satisfaction Relationship satisfaction, measured by Burns’ Relationship Satisfaction Scale (1993), was used to measure one partner’s satisfaction within an interpersonal relationship.

The majority of those surveyed were satisfied with their interpersonal relationship. Similarities, commitment, trust, intimacy, communication satisfaction, and attributing confidence are indicators of relationship satisfaction in interpersonal relationships (Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006). In Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction addition, the quality and quantity of communication in a relationship also contributed to interpersonal relationship satisfaction. Our hypothesis was intended to find a connection 20 between social media and relationship satisfaction.

Our findings were consistent with previous research. The majority of those surveyed were satisfied with their relationships, which could be related to the quantity of communication the participants have with their significant other. In addition, since our research showed that text messaging was the main preferred form of communication, the ease of text messaging increases the quantity of communication, and thus communication satisfaction for those surveyed. Future research could be employed to better understand methods used by individuals to maintain and improve relationship satisfaction.

Communication satisfaction is a major indicator of relationship satisfaction among interpersonal relationships. Our research showed that quality and quantity of communication contributes to communication satisfaction. While social media allows individuals to increase the quantity of communication, it is unclear if social media increases the quality of communication. Implications of the Findings Social media has become an important and substantial communication tool for young adults, as well as the general population. The majority of respondents in the study stated that they use social media multiple times per day.

We also found that participants used social media for a variety of communication and relationship purposes. One of the appealing aspects of social media is that content is user-generated and always changing. The accessibility of social media allows for users to stay connected with people and to contact them more frequently. Our results also indicated that social media use does not have a significant association with relationship satisfaction. These results go beyond the context of communication research to Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction paint a larger picture of societal and communication tendencies.

Through this study, we 21 discovered that regardless of the communication medium, relationship satisfaction is increased with frequent communication among close relational partners. Facebook and Twitter are two examples of social media sites commonly used by individuals aged 18-24. Studying relationship satisfaction allowed us to gain a better understanding of the intentions and motivations for using social media. Communication is an integral part of how we survive, grow, and learn. In the Web 2. 0 world, we are becoming increasingly dependent on social media to communicate with others.

When asked their preferred method of communication our sample stated that text messaging was the medium of choice. This is an example of how society is utilizing new tools of technology to improve and increase communication in interpersonal relationships. The results and implications from this study can be used to improve relationships and communication through social media. Our findings indicate that even though individuals are using social media more frequently in their everyday lives, they are still finding a way to maintain satisfying interpersonal relationships through these mediums.

In the context of our study, individuals did not find social media usage to negatively affect their interpersonal relationships. However, they reported social media to be useful in improving communication in the maintenance of interpersonal relationships. Limitations There are limitations to this study in regards to the measurement of our variables and the participant sample. Our study included 219 participants who were gathered through social media posts and emails, and consisted of a convenient and snowball sample. Utilizing a random participant sample could have provided more sound results.

By extending our survey to our Facebook, Twitter, and ChapterBoard communities, we limited ourselves immediately in terms Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 22 of reach. If there were a way to present this survey through social media channels to produce a more random sample, the strength of our findings would be greatly improved. The ultimate goal of this research is to produce results that could be generalizable. However, when we limit our participant sample, we also limit the applicability of the research to individuals outside of our immediate sample.

With that, another limitation to this study is that the percentages of our participants based on race do not reflect the actual percentages of each racial population in this country. As our study was not random, our sample does not accurately reflect the current racial percentages. For example, within our study, only 8. 2% were Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino/a and only 1. 4% were Black or African-American. These small percentages illustrate that our sample does not reflect the true racial percentages present in the United States population.

A third limitation to this study was the types of relationships about which the participants chose to report. We asked individuals to focus on a relationship with a romantic partner, sibling, parent, friend, or cousin. By only looking at one type of relationship, such as a friendship, we might have been able to determine if social media use had a direct influence on that specific type of relationship. In addition, participants might be more likely to engage in social media use with a particular relational partner, such a friend.

Adding questions measuring the amount of communication between the participant and the individual in the relationship, we could have further discovered if social media was a communication tool that individuals use with a particular individual and determine the extent of their social media usage. A fourth limitation is the consistency of survey questions. There was a question inquiring about the last interaction the participant had in their chosen interpersonal relationship. Instead of purely focusing on social media interactions, we included the option of reporting on

Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction 23 face-to-face communication. To provide more consistent results, our survey could have solely explored interpersonal communication through social media. Finally, our last limitation is in regards to the questions that measured “Social Media Withdrawal” in the survey. The Cronbach’s alpha score for this measure was . 63, which is moderately low. This low score leads us to believe that our scale was not reliable, and therefore could have prevented us from presenting significant findings.

Conclusion Our study utilized a specific population in order to look at the use of social media and its effects on interpersonal relationship satisfaction. As social media continues to be a tool often used to communicate with others, it would be appropriate to conduct further research to determine the long-term effects of social media use on individuals and their interpersonal relationships. From our study, we can see that social media users do not feel unsatisfied with their interpersonal relationships, but instead feel that the accessibility of social media can be used to improve relationship satisfaction with more frequent interaction.

The information gathered through this study can lead to a better understanding of how members of society prefer to communicate and the intentions of their social media use. Future research should be done to discover the reasons why young people prefer this method of communication to others. Do they prefer the immediacy of communication, or perhaps the fact that one can communicate via text messaging while also doing other tasks? Discovering the reasons behind preference for certain methods of communication could help social media developers incorporate these benefits into their own social networking platforms.

Furthermore, when asked their main reason for using Facebook, 76. 7% of the participants replied Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction that it was to interact with others. This implies that future developments of social networking 24 sites should incorporate interactive features so that people can communicate with others easily. As technology continues to evolve and social media becomes more prominent, further studies will need to be executed to determine the impact of continued social media use on the user, as well as society as a whole.

A future study on social media use could analyze the interpersonal relationships that are formed through social media as well as those that utilize social media highly as a form of communication. As society becomes more dependent on technology, the social media outlets available could largely mold the ways in which individuals meet and interact. Another area of future study to consider is examining long distance relationships (platonic or romantic).

By examining these relationships, researchers can determine if individuals in these relationships use social media to communicate, and in turn, look at the effects that social media has in this specific type of relationship. Studying relationships that mostly rely on technology to communicate might produce results indicating some difference in the levels of relationship satisfaction as the two people engage in social media. Finally, more research should examine the feelings (psychologically, physically, and emotionally) of participants when they engage in social media.

This type of research might lead society to a better understanding of the reasons why individuals engage in social media use to such a great extent. As society continues to evolve and depend more on technology and social media, more research will be needed to understand the effects that social media use will have. Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction References Anderson, T. , & Emmers-Sommer, T. (2006). Predictors of relationship satisfaction in online romantic relationships. Communication Studies, 57(2), 153-172. doi:10. 1080/10510970600666834 Bowman, L. L. Levine, L. E. , Waite, B. M. , & Gendron, M. (2010). Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54, 927-931. Brown, A. (2011). Relationships, community, and identity in the new virtual society. Futurist, 45(2), 29-34. Burns, D. D. (1993). Ten days to self-esteem. New York: HarperCollins. Charney, T. , & Greenberg, B. (2001). Uses and gratifications of the Internet. In C. Lin & D. 25 Atkin (Eds. ), Communication, technology and society: New media adoption and uses and gratifications (pp. 383-406). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

Coyne, S. , Stockdale, L. , Busby, D. , Iverson, B. , & Grant, D. (2011). “I luv u :)! “: A descriptive study of the media use of individuals in romantic relationships. Family Relations, 60(2), 150-162. Emmers-Sommer, T. M. (2004). The effects of communication quality and quantity indicators on intimacy and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 24, 399-411. Ewing, J. A. (1984). Detecting alcoholism: the CAGE Questionnaire. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252(14), 1905-1907. Kaplan, A. M. , & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite!

The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68. Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction Kelly, K. (2011). Understanding technological evolution and diversity. Futurist, 45(2), 44-48. 26 Kietzmann, J. H. , Hermkens, K. , McCarthy, I. P. , & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons, 54(SPECIAL ISSUE: SOCIAL MEDIA), 241-251. Levine, L. E. , Waite, B. M. , & Bowman, L. L. (2007). Electronic media use, reading, and academic distractibility in college youth.

CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 560-566. Mitchell, K. , & Beard, F. (2010). Measuring Internet dependence among college students: A replication and confirmatory analysis. Southwestern Mass Communication Journal, 25(2), 15-28. Mitchell, P. (2000). Internet addiction: Genuine diagnosis or not? The Lancet, 355(9204), 632 Pollet, T. V. , Roberts, S. B. , & Dunbar, R. M. (2011). Use of social network sites and instant messaging does not lead to increased offline social network size, or to emotionally closer relationships with offline network members.

Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14(4), 253-258. Qualman, E. (2009, August 11). Statistics show social media is bigger than you think. Retrieved from http://www. socialnomics. net/2009/08/11/statistics-show-social-media-is-biggerthan-you-think/ Sheldon, P. (2008). Student favorite: Facebook and motives for its use. Southwestern Mass Communication Journal, 23(2), 39-53. Solis, B. , & Breakenridge D. (2009). Putting the public back in public relations: How social media is reinventing the aging business of PR. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Sun, S. , Rubin, A. M. , & Haridakis, P.

M. (2008). The role of motivation and media involvement in explaining Internet dependency. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Effects of Social Media Use on Relationship Satisfaction Media, 52(3), 408-431. VanLear, C. A. (1991). Testing a cyclical model of communicative openness in relationship development: Two longitudinal studies. Communication Monographs, 58, 337-361. Young, K. S. (1999). Internet addiction: Symptoms, evaluation, and treatment. In L. Van de Creek, & X. Jackson, Innovations in clinical practice: a source book (Vol. 17; 19–31). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press. 27

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Benefits of Social Networking

The Benefits of Social Networking Social media sites do more good than bad. They allow people to reconnect and create relationships, show creative expression in a new medium, and also bring people that share common interests together. Mark Zuckerberg said, “At Facebook, we build tools to help people connect with the people they want and share what they want, and by doing this we are extending people’s capacity to build and maintain relationships. ” Social media sites allow people to create new relationships and give them the opportunity to reconnect with friends and family.

Increasing communication, even without being able to see a person, strengthens a relationship. Mike Chalmers wrote an article in USA Today that was about military families using Facebook and Skype to contact their families. Army Maj. Thomas Murphy would Skype with his wife and two daughters almost daily while his year in Iraq. “You could break away from the monotony of everyday stress and feel like you’re back home for a bit,” said Murphy, (Chalmers). The connection made his deployment more bearable and eased his return home, said his wife.

Bianca Murphy said, “He was part of their day-to-day life, so there was no adjustment that this was some stranger in a uniform,” (Chalmers). Some people have been able to keep friendships going after high school with social networking sites. Even though they can’t see that person as much as they once did they can see what’s still going on in their life. They’ve also been able to start new ones with the people they meet at college or work. Social media sites also allow for creative expression through blogging, messaging, photo storage, and much more.

AC. Lowney and T. O’Brien presented a case of a 30-year-old patient with pontine glioblastoma multiform. On admission to the Specialist Palliative Care Inpatient Unit, he had a complete right hemiplegia. He would communicate with the staff by using the notepad function of his iPad, and he would also use his iPad to update his blog. He’d updated the blog on an almost daily basis, describing his physical and psychological status, (Lowney). His blog also had messages of support from others with similar diagnoses.

Blogging was this patient’s way to express the existential distress he was feeling since he was diagnosed with pontine glioblastoma multiform. He felt cheated on life, and being unable to hold his 1-year-old son was dreadful to him, (Lowney). Social media sites are a great way to express thoughts and feelings. Blogging is able to help people emotionally heal by connecting with people who also have the same problems and receive advice. Blogging is a creative way to inspire people, (Lowney). Finally, social media sites have the ability to bring people with common interests together. Highlight, works by rummaging through your Facebook account to see whom you know and what topics you like, (McCracken). It uses your iPhone’s GPS to inform you when a fellow conference attendee who’s a former co-worker’s buddy is in your immediate vicinity or when a good-looking patron who loves the same bands you do sits down at the other end of the bar,” (McCracken). Social media sites like Facebook, give people the ability to click on pages you’re interested to see other people with the same interest.

Also, people who have a difficulty communicating in person could be more comfortable interacting over the sites, (McCracken). In conclusion, social media sites are able more good than bad. They allow people to reconnect and create relationships, show creative expression in a new medium, and also bring people together that share common interests. “The thing that we are trying to do at Facebook, is just help people connect and communicate more efficiently,” (Zuckerberg).

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Social Networking Sites

Social networking sites Online social networking site is a very common tool for communicating and socializing with each other. Nowadays, most of the adolescent like to use Facebook. There is a rapid growth of the number of user of social networking sites. According the recent research, Kreutz (2009) stated that “starting from 1997 to 2010 there are some 1. 5 billion users of social networking websites” (p. 222). This shows that how popular the social networking site is.

Although many parents think that there are many existing dangers in social networking sites, it is good for both education and interpersonal relationship for the teenagers. This essay will discuss the benefits and negative effects of using social networking sites for young people: enlarge and maintain the relationship, develop greater awareness of social issues and attract the online predators to conduct their criminal activities. One of the advantage is the teenagers can enlarge the friendship and maintain the existing relationship by using social networking sites.

Social networking sites provide a platform for connecting with the friends. For maintaining the old relationship, social networking site is very convenient for teenagers to have conversation with friends, share their photos, videos and view others’ status. Dunne, Lawlor and Rowley (2010) pointed out that the purpose of most of the users that using SNS is to see what is new in their friends’ status (p. 53). In Facebook, one of the social networking sites, friend will share their current situation and their recent activities by uploading the new photos, videos and new comments in their profile pages.

To the sum up, these sites provide an invaluable connection to our old life we had left. Although you go very far away, friends also know what you are doing by seeing your status. Apart from all this, these sites also have another important function. You can expand your social circle effectively. Before the appearance of the Internet, people just used some methods simple like sending letters, calling the others and even physically meeting each other to build the relationship. Nowadays these sites can help you to make new friends easily.

Kate (2010) remarked that “it’s a good way of talking to boys, you can post a comment on their site or ask them to be your friend without being embarrassed or feeling stupid” (p. 53). On the social networking sites, users can build relationship with anyone they want. It is very easy for them to find the people who have the similar or shared interests with them. You can talk about yourself, your identity and your interests and make friends that way. Furthermore, they can present a positive self-identity in social networking sites. This is one of their methods to attract people to make friends with them.

They will make themselves look good, such as pick the best photos, show off their coolest friends and just make fun. In conclusion, social networking sites is a form of connection to our old lift and also a good tool that making friends in online. The other advantage is more adolescents develop greater awareness of social issues because of social networking sites. Youth is the social pillars in the future; they largely contribute to the social development. They are playing the leading role in solving social problems, so it is important for increasing teenagers’ awareness of social issues.

In Social Networking sites, the adolescents like to communicate with people sharing the same thought and interest. Except making friends, social networking sites also used to discuss the social issues. Jain, Gupta and Anand (2012) commented that “this is a pool of social problems which requires attention of majority so that we can fight against them as a united country and make the society more peaceful” (p. 36). For instance, there are more than 150 pages about social issues such as human rights, corruption, girls education have uploaded in the last few months in social networking sites like Facebook, YouTube and Orkut.

According to the research of Jain, Gupta and Anand (2012), the main age group of participate in discussing these social issues is 20-40; they actively give their justification on these subjects (p. 42). This result shows that because of the social networking usages, youth were more active in discussing the social issues. In addition to discussion, the users also like to hold different political activities in Facebook for inviting others to join it, such as parade, hunger strike…… Various protests have been done by many social activists they gathered through social networking.

Furthermore, social networking sites also provide a place for the groups from different countries including minority groups and subcultures who never physically get the space to express their opinion and belief. All the people can use these websites to participate and voice themselves. As these social issues need regular meeting for discussing and expressing their views, teenagers can use them to meet periodically or regularly depending on their and others’ requirement. Therefore, these sites is acting as an office, they can hold the meetings and political activities regularly and inviting new members to join the discussion.

All in all, most of the information of social issues is obtained from social networking sites. Adolescents are getting more aware about social issues because of discussing the debatable topics and news articles on these sites. These sites are proving them chance to bring thoughts of people on these social issues. Therefore, social networking sites is good for educating the adolescants. Apart from advantages, there is also negative effect by using social networking sites for teenagers. The social networking sites attract the online predators to conduct their criminal activities.

These social networking sites suggest people to put all their personal information on their profile page when they are registering as their new members; it is easy for criminals to get this information. In Facebook, teenagers like to put all the information including personal image, name, date of birth, hometown and ZIP code in their profile page. The criminal can use this information to find out a person’s sensitive medical information and security number. They also can easily estimate physical location of a person by using the information provided on Facebook profile page.

People are least bothered about their profile privacy. Although there is an option of visibility on the user profile fields on these sites. This means user can decide which information can be seen by everyone on the network, but most of the teenagers tend to keep their profiles open to everyone. They are happy to share their personal information in online world. Fukuyama, Lewis and Weigert (2007) in their respected papers claimed that “trust is a critical determinant in personal or face to face relationships”(p. 48). This means trust is an important factor that determines the crime is success or not.

It will not be very difficult for an online predator to gain trust from an individual by employing interactions, especially most of the online predators prefer to meet and entice their victims online. If an online predator is being trusted by a teen and successfully become one of his friend in Facebook, this means this online predator can find their victims in this teen’s friend list. There is a lot of reports about criminal activities involving the social networking sites can be heard. For example, according to “Facebook-crime” (2010), Ashleigh Hall, a 17 years old girl, was murdered by a man who gets acquainted in Facebook.

Actually, that man is a 33 years old man and he created a Fake profile as a teenager. This shows that the major problem is that there is no method to verify the actual identity on online and it is too easy for online predator to gain access the personal information on these sites. In conclusion, these sites are a good way of maintaining relationship and building new relationship. However, there are many existing dangers of using these sites, so a user should be careful. Do not put too many personal data on these sites, it is risky that this data may being used in bad way.

The teenagers should keep this data properly, do not get tricked by older people who lie about their age and who are online. The advantages of using these social networking sites outweigh its disadvantage, so I agreed the teenagers to use these sites. The growth of social networking sites shows a significant change in social and personal behaviour of Internet user. These sites largely help teenagers’ interpersonal relationship become closer, but everything can be used for a bad purpose as well as good. We need to be more careful, prevent getting trapped by online predators.

Reference list Das, B. , & Sahoo, J. (2011). Social networking sites – a critical analysis of its impact on personal and social life. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(14), 222-226. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. libraryproxy. griffith. edu. au/docview/904521761/13AEEEA44CD5BA312BC/1? accountid=14543 Datar, T. , & Mislan, R. (2010). Social networking: A boon to criminals. Proceedings of the Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law, 48-50. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. libraryproxy. griffith. edu. u/docview/856125630/Record/13AEEC9AE784B9975E7/1? accountid=14543 Dunne, A. , Lawlor, A. , & Rowley, J. (2010). Young people. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 4(1), 53. doi: http://dx. doi. org. libraryproxy. griffith. edu. au/10. 1108/17505931011033551 Jain, R. , Gupta, P. , & Anand, N. (2012). Impact of social networking sites in the changing mindset of youth on social issues – a study of delhi-ncr youth. Researchers World, 3(2Part2), 37-42. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. libraryproxy. griffith. edu. au/docview/1017533989/Record/13AEECBE3A9750E4AAD/1? accountid=14543

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Social Network, Knowledge Management and Innovation at Unilever

SOCIAL NETWORKING AND EXPLOITATION OF INNOVATION THROUGH THE SOCIAL DYNAMICS MODEL Company in Focus: Unilever 1 . INTRODUCTION Unilever is an Anglo–Dutch multinational consumer goods company. Its products include foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. With over 400 brands sold in more than 190 countries, it is one of the world’s leading suppliers of fast-moving consumer goods (Unilever, 2013). Such a global organisation needs to remain innovative so as to maintain its competitive advantage.

The social dynamics model (which analyses four steps- capacity building, pilot mode, integration mode and leverage mode) would be used would be used in this report to show how social media can be developed and integrated into Unilever and ultimately how innovation can be utilised. 2 . USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN UNILEVER Social media is defined as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2. 0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content” (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010, p. 61).

Social media has been asserted to be a source of new profits though access to new markets, a more engaged workforce and improved customer relations (Mangold and Faulds, 2009; Waters et al. 2009). The implementation of social media within the organization is viewed as a way to leverage organizational knowledge and improve knowledge management initiatives (Barbagallo, 2011). Unilever utilises the social network platforms of Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn and YouTube. Their Facebook page is used to share recipes, run adverts, and get feedback on products and other relevant information from customers.

With their Twitter account, they are able to share news about programmes in different countries and engage on topics about business, marketing and sustainability. There are several LinkedIn profiles to suit the needs of their stakeholders such as alumni and management trainees. The YouTube account is for careers purposes only and there are no much subscribers. YouTube is a platform that Unilever still needs to exploit as they can post videos and use it for mass campaigns and adverts as well as receiving comments from customers which can be a source of useful information.

Havas EHS also connected Unilever brands with consumers using social media by developing a global consumer data strategy (Unilever, 2012). Social media enables companies to talk to their customers, it enables customers to talk to one another and it also enables customers to talk to companies (Mangold and Faulds, 2009). Social networks like Twitter and LinkedIn could help the company to maintain their awareness of current business trends and innovative ideas (Jarahi and Sawyer, 2013). There is the need for Unilever to integrate social media with other traditional media like television.

Furthermore, to effectively exploit social media, the company needs interactive technology and marketing skills (Penny Power, n. d. ). 3 . ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Organisational learning is “the process of change in individual and shared thought and action, which is affected by and embedded in the institutions of the organisation (Vera and Crossan, 2005, p. 123). Organisational learning system is rooted in human resources, structure, process, policy and culture. The process of organisation learning takes place through nine steps (Lytras et al, 2008).

The first and second are discovery and innovation which involves building up a system enabling it to make the right choices among innovative ideas. The third step is selecting process and activities so a better decision can be made. These three steps of learning involve changing one’s perception and thinking but learning also includes changing behaviour which leads to the fourth step which is executing ideas which were discovered. The fifth step is transferring the experience and ideas achieved by the team/departments to the rest of the organisation.

In reflecting, which is the sixth step, the organisation learns from past experience both good and bad. There is the need for the organisation to acquire knowledge from outside environment and build its knowledge base and also contribute by sharing knowledge with its business partners; these constitute the seventh and eight step. Finally, as the organisation continues in its learning process, there is the need to build an organisational memory so that learning can be constantly upgraded and to avoid loss.

This is also consistent with the seminal work by Huber (1991) who elaborates four constructs linked to organisational learning-knowledge acquisition (the process by which knowledge is obtained), information distribution (process by which information from different sources is shared and thereby leads to new information or understanding), information interpretation (process by which information that has been distributed is commonly understood) and organisation memory (means by which knowledge is stored for future use). Knowledge can be considered as information which has been acted upon; it adds understanding and retention to knowledge.

Our perceptions of knowledge are based on our ontological and epistemological beliefs about reality (Jashapara, 2010). There are two types of knowledge -descriptive knowledge which is the knowledge of things and productive knowledge which is the knowledge of changes in things. Knowledge is the application of expertise, it can be manipulated i. e. it can be stored and replenished and it can also influence action (Hemsley and Mason, 2013). It is therefore imperative to understand how this knowledge can be used in achieving the goals of the organisation. This therefore leads us to the concept of knowledge management.

Knowledge management is the process of generating, acquiring and using knowledge to improve the performance of organisations; thus it is to understood to be ‘managed learning’ (Vera and Crossan, 2005). Knowledge management is not a technology but a consolidation of strategy, technology and people (Mullins, 1999). The business strategy of an organisation must reflect the requirement to capture knowledge. Knowledge exists in people, not technology; technology helps to retain knowledge but it cannot create it. Transforming information into knowledge requires classification, analysis and synthesis of the information.

The knowledge which has been captured should then be effectively communicated. In reality, knowledge cannot actually be captured; it is the information which has been captured that is easily transformed into the knowledge (Mullins, 1999). Managing knowledge effectively involves the protection, leverage and accumulation of new knowledge. The resource based view of the firm attributes the competitive advantage of the firm to the unique knowledge it has over its competitors (Barney, 1991). According to Chakravarthy et al (2012), two broad types of knowledge often trigger a firm’s competitive advantage-resource conversion and market positioning.

Resource conversion knowledge refers to the capability of a firm to use common resources to create unique products through innovation. The patents, copyrights and trade secrets that a firm owns are the most conveyed aspects of its resource conversion knowledge (Friedman et al, 1991). Market positioning knowledge is the ability of a firm to see opportunities in its environment and avoid threats. An organisation like Unilever may not have access to any special information over its competitors but may be able to see patterns in information that others are unable to.

Social media can be of great value to Unilever as it would enable them capture new knowledge from internal and external sources such as employees and customers on the platform of social networks. This knowledge can then be applied to solving problems. Knowledge may be valued in groups based on its usefulness in achieving the group goals. Unique knowledge gained from social media is useful in the attainment of the groups or departments’ goals. This ultimately leads to a learning organisation which imitable knowledge which then becomes a source of competitive advantage (see figure 1). pic] Figure 1 Link between social media and knowledge management. (Source: Value tensions, 2012). Unilever has a knowledge management group which promotes it as a learning organisation in which activities are integrated. The company focuses on contributions towards its strategic goals and objectives through the creation, sharing, acquisition, capturing and transfer of knowledge (Unilever, 2013). Their knowledge management database is provided by Astute Solutions RealDialog. It has proved effective in their customer centre nsuring that end users receive current, high quality information; it also maintains and updates information for multiple touch points and end users (Astute Solutions, 2010). 4 . EXPLOITATION OF INNOVATION AT UNILEVER The social dynamics model can provide an understanding of how innovation can be utilised in Unilever. The first phase is the Capacity building which involves setting up extensive internal and external audit. In carrying out this audit, an environment scan would have to be conducted to know what is being said about the company and its brands, how employees use social media to promote the interests of the organisation.

Organising training programs to enlighten staff on social media, also creating a platform where employees can share knowledge. Employees should be provided with access to social networks so they can communicate effectively with customers. As part of adapting the overall HR strategy, there is the need to hire people based on the social capital they possess as a result of their influence level and network. It is important to recruit people who are open to change and are customer-friendly. Unilever can do utilise LinkedIn as it supports expert locating practices though its communities and profile search (Jarahi and Sawyer, 2013).

Pilot mode-The purpose of this phase is to have projects that can implement social media in a structural way. This would involve setting up a centre of excellence which would gather knowledge, guide pilot projects and provide internal consultancy and support local and regional teams. They have to determine the strategy for incorporating social media within the organisation. For a global company like Unilever, this centre would be implemented on three levels. The first is on a global level where the centre supports the regional and local teams as well as reports to the board.

On a regional level, each region would have a mediator between the global strategy and local implementations. On a local level, the teams would be responsible for the translation of the approach to the languages. They would in turn report to the regional representatives. Integration mode- In this phase the knowledge acquired and any new beliefs are integrated into the heart of the organisation. In order to make use of all the opportunities that social media brings, there is the need to ensure the employees and customers are happy.

There is the need to co-create using social media and online communities as it is crucial to the development of new products and services. Unilever currently does this particularly in their use of open innovation. However, it is advisable that they opt for an incremental co-creation which implies that they have to start in closed community to enable the organisation to see how things work, sharing insights about certain products or experiences and ask collaborators to search for solutions and ideas based on that and co-create with their biggest fans.

Unilever did this by publishing a list of ‘wants’-areas in which they need solutions. These are opened up to the global audience through social media (Unilever, 2013). To excel in social media, there is the need for the right content strategy to be developed. This should be done on four levels –content around the different products and brands, content about the different categories the company is in, content about the company in the form of compelling stories worth sharing and content about the advancements and future of the industry.

Unilever has the right content strategy on their website but there is the need to have the right content particularly as it relates to content about the company and their future outlook. Leverage Mode- In this phase, the company is ready to take full advantage of the new philosophy. It is vital to leverage on marketing as information is spread quickly and new target groups can be reached. It is useful for Unilever to assign someone to be an internal trend watcher who is able to spot changes in the field of social media. This ensures that the company moves faster than its competitors.

Substantial gains could arise from additional applications, particularly in marketing and sales, where a company like Unilever spends an average of 15 to 20 per cent of their revenues. They can do this by substituting insights from extensive online communities for more traditional marketing panels and focus groups. Interactive product campaigns that deploy social technologies can increase the productivity of advertising expenditures by as much as 30 to 60 per cent. New, collaborative forms of engagement with customers too can improve product development, both in speed and level of understanding (Bughin, Chui and Manyika, 2012).

Unilever partnered with an agency called ‘We are social’ to create a society for lovers of their products, enabling the company to organise product launch mainly through effective social media marketing and communications. Through a campaign program, bloggers were able to vote on the design of a Unilever brand-‘Marmite’ (Moseley, 2012). Unilever Vietnam also partnered with Jana to create social media focus groups to generate brand awareness of its Clear shampoo line. They were thus able to leverage on the knowledge gained from social media (Jana, 2012).

Unilever’s innovation is becoming a competitive strength and is critical to their growth. They try to understand what their customers want, relating with them to understand their diverse tastes, needs and market trends and ultimately developing new products and improving tried and tested brand, enabling customer-led innovation. They also have partnerships with suppliers and investors, thus encouraging open innovation which is a system where people can come up with ways to improve existing products and create new ones through designs and technologies.

Social media hastens the open innovation process and offers the foundation for engagement, enabling effective co-creation with the partners (Unilever, 2013). Unilever also has a new business unit (NBU) which exploits innovation around its core competencies. There is also a Unilever Corporate Ventures (UCV) group which explores opportunities outside the core categories. It identifies technology assets inside and outside the company that inspires new businesses (Decter, Mathe and Garner, n. d. ). Unilever invests around 2. 5% of its annual turnover in R &D, continuous product innovations and filing of patents each year.

It takes learning and knowledge seriously and believes that transferring this knowledge into its products and services is a key source of competitive advantage (Unilever, 2013). Unilever partnered with Siemens to create a global specification management system that serves as the first major component of its Product Life Cycle Management (PLM) technology. Innovation is therefore not limited to its products, they extend to design processes and package design (Siemens, 2011). 5 . CONCLUSION Innovations require a communication/learning channel that facilitates easy sharing of knowledge which can be transferred using social media.

Applying the social dynamics model to Unilever should have a positive impact on their customer, suppliers, employees and eventually the shareholders. As long as organisations continue to tap into the information which is continuously diffused though the social media, they would become learning organisations and can leverage on the acquired knowledge to be innovative. References: Astute Solutions (2010) Unilever provides agents through rapid access to the exact information. May [Online]. Available at: http://blog. astutesolutions. com/leverage/leverage–may-2010/unilevers-knowledge-management-system/ [Accessed: 13 March 2013].

Barbagallo, M. (2011) Is social media changing knowledge management? International Customer Management Institute. Available at http://www. icmi. com/Resources/Articles/2011/October/Is-Social-Media-Changing-Knowledge-Management [Accessed: 21 March 2013]. Barney, J. (1991) “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage”, Journal of Management, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 99. Bughin, J. , Chui, M. and Manyika, J. (2012) “Capturing business value with social technologies”, McKinsey Quarterly, , no. 4, pp. 72-80. Chakravarthy, B. , McEvily, S. , Doz, Y. and Ran, D. (2005) Knowledge Management and Competitive Advantage.

In: Easterby-Smith, M. and Lyles, M. A. eds Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management. Victoria: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 305-323. Decter, M. , Mathe, A. and Garner, C. (n. d. ) Access is the new ownership: a case study of Unilever’s approach to open innovation. Institute of Entrepreneurship and enterprise development, Lancaster University. Ford, D. P. and Mason, R. M. (2013) “A Multilevel Perspective of Tensions Between Knowledge Management and Social Media” :Value Tensions, Journal of Organizational Computing & Electronic Commerce, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. -33. Friedman, D. A. and Landes, W. M. (1991) “Some Economics of Trade Secret Law”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 61-72. Hemsley, J. and Mason, R. M. (2013) “Knowledge and Knowledge Management in the Social Media Age”, Journal of Organizational Computing & Electronic Commerce, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 138-167. Huber, G. P. (1991) “Organizational Learning: the Contributing Processes and the Literatures”, Organization Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 88-115. Jana (2012) Unilever and Jana use Facebook in Vietnam to drive consumer engagement. Available at: http://www. ana. com/blog/unilever-and-jana-use-facebook-in-vietnam-to-drive-consumer-engagement/ [Accessed: 14 March 2013]. Jarrahi, M. H. and Sawyer, S. (2013) “Social Technologies, Informal Knowledge Practices, and the Enterprise”, Journal of Organizational Computing & Electronic Commerce, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 110-137. Jashapara, A. (2010) Knowledge Management e-book, Pearson Education UK. Kaplan, A. M. and Haenlein, M. (2010) “Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media”, Business horizons, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 59-68. Lytras, M. , Russ, M. Maier, R. , and Naeve, A. (2008) Knowledge Management Strategies: A Handbook of Applied Technologies. New York: IGI Publishing. Mangold, W. G. and Faulds, D. J. (2009) “Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix”, Business horizons, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 357-365. Moseley, D. (2012) The return of the Marmarati. 28 June [Online]. Available at: wearesocial. net/blog/2012/06/return-marmarati/ [Accessed: 15 March 2013]. Mullins, C. (1999) ‘What is knowledge and how can it be managed’, The Data Administration Newsletter (1 March) [Online]. Available at: www. tdan. om/view-articles/S108/ [Accessed: 21 March 2013]. Penny Power (n. d. ) Exploiting Future Potential of Social Media within UK Small to Medium Enterprises. Available at: www. digitalyouthacademy. com/sites/dya/files/Penny Power-White Paper-SME Sector Social Media and Youths. pdf Siemens (2011) Customer Case Studies and Videos –Inside Siemens PLM Software. 8 August [Online]. Available at: http://www. plm. automation. siemens. com/en_gb/about_us/success/case_study. cfm? Component=649080&ComponentTemplate=1481 Unilever (2012) Unilever Appoints Havas EHS to develop global consumer data strategy.

Press Releases, 9 Nov [Online]. Available at: unilever-rss. com/mediacentre/pressreleases/2012/UnileverappointsHavasEhstodevelopglobalconsumerdatastrategy. aspx [Accessed: 14 March 2013]. Unilever (2013) About Us. Available at: http://www. unilever. com/aboutus/ [Accessed: 14 March 2013]. Unilever (2013) Innovation. Available at: http://www. unilever. com/innovation/ [Accessed: 14 March 2013]. Vera, D. and Crossan, B. (2005). Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management: Toward an Integrative Framework. In: Easterby-Smith, M. and

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Social Networks and the Arab Spring

“An Examination of the Role of Online Social Networks in the Uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt in 2010-11” In the academic research and journalism about the Arab Spring, there are contrasting views surrounding the importance of the Internet and online social networks in the success of the uprisings. Did the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt give validity to Egyptian Google executive Wael Ghonim’s claim that “if you want to liberate a society, just give them Internet” (Ghonim CNN), or was the function of online social networks greatly exaggerated by international media to highlight Western ideals of democracy?

This research paper will closely analyze the extent to which these online social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, mobile phone networks, and YouTube were used as tools for the organization and mobilization of civil disobedience in Tunisia and Egypt in 2010-11. It will examine the role and impact of online social networks and will assess whether they were merely extensions of offline communities or if they played an integral and mandatory role in these uprisings.

Though this paper will investigate the range of opinion on the impact of digital media in the Arab Spring, it will argue that online social networks played an integral role for Tunisian and Egyptian citizens in their rapid and successful uprisings. Online social networks blur geographical boundaries, which create opportunities for widespread communication, effective organization, mobilization of citizens, and the sharing of videos locally and internationally.

Before the proliferation of digital media in the Middle East, these opportunities were not available to citizens and communication was limited to individual communities or offline networks. The combination and collaboration of already established offline networks, various digital technologies, and online social networks lead to the success of the civilians in overthrowing their governments.

Despite the years of civil discontent and corruption in both the Ben Ali and Hosni Mubarak governments, revolution did not occur until digital media provided the opportunity for different communities and individuals to unite around their shared upsets and create mobilization strategies online. In Tunisia and Egypt, “social media have become the scaffolding upon which civil society can build, and new information technologies give activists things that they did not have before: information networks not easily controlled by the state and coordination tools that are already embedded in trusted networks of family and friends” (Howard 2011).

It will be shown that although online social networks act as an extension of the offline public sphere, their role in these uprisings was integral in creating an organizational infrastructure and to generate international awareness and aid against the corrupt governments. Discontent had been brewing in Tunisia for years during President Zine El Ben Ali’s rule. In 2009 he was reelected for a fifth term with an overwhelmingly fraudulent 89% of voters (Chrisafis, 2011).

Despite years of suffering from an oppressive regime, rising unemployment rates, and censorship, it was not until the self-immolation of a vendor, Mohamed Bouazizi, was documented and transmitted online that the revolution gained the awareness and support it needed to make a difference. There had been previous acts of protest, but “what made a difference this time is that the images of Bouazizi were put on Facebook” (Beaumont, 2011).

A relative of Bouazizi, Rochdi Horchani, went so far as to state, “we could protest for years here, but without videos no one would take any notice of us” (Chrisafis, 2011). The revolutions in Tunisia inspired Egyptian activists to use similar tactics to evoke change in their own corrupt government. Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak ruled over Egypt from 1981 to 2011, when he was overthrown by the organized and effective protests of Egyptian citizens.

Although social media and digital technologies had little to do with the underlying sociopolitical and socioeconomic factors behind the civil discontent, they played a rapid role in the disintegration of these two regimes. In addition, even though corruption had been occuring for many years in the governments, “all inciting incidents of the Arab Spring were digitally mediated in some way” (Hussain, 2012) whether it was documented and disseminated online or discussed on an online social network.

The corruption and discontent of the citizens may have inevitably lead to protests in both countries, but “social media was crucial” (Khondker, 2011) due to it’s communication and organizational abilities. The cruciality of online social networks and digital technologies is contested by theorists who argue that “other sociological factors such as widespread poverty and governmental ineptitude had created the conditions for extensive public anger” (Hussain, 2011) and that these preexisting conditions caused the revolutions.

Several pundits including Gladwell and Friedman argue, “that while Facebook and Twitter may have had their place in social change, the real revolutions take place in the street” (Hussain, 2011). Though these theorists are correct in their attribution to the already existing political discontent for the preconditions to the revolution, online social networks acted as a necessary extension of offline social networks and action. It is likely the successes of the protests in the streets would not have been as large without the communication potential of digital media.

One pundit attributed the lack of violence in the revolutions to the digital media stating that the use of online social networks “may have less to do with fostering Western-style democracy than in encouraging relatively less violent forms of mass protest” (Stepanova, 2011). Now that citizens had other vessels to communicate internationally and were no longer censored and controlled by their state regulated media, the governments could not be so open about their brutality.

Pundits such as Gladwell and Friedman overlook the fact that “digital media allowed local citizens access to international broadcast networks, networks which were then used by online civil society organizations to lobby advocacy campaigns” (Hussain, 2012). It was these social networks that aided Tunisian and Egyptian citizens with their success in the streets. The Arab Spring has also been attributed the nickname of “The Twitter Revolution” (Stepanova, 2011) due to the large role Twitter and Facebook played in the uprisings.

This nickname gives light to another contrasting perspective about the importance of online social networks being highlighted by international media to emphasize the role of Western ideals of democracy. Due to the fact that digital technologies and online social networks proliferated the West before the Middle East, the U. S claims credit for the democratizing effects they had on the Middle East during the Arab Spring (Stepanova, 2011). By emphasizing the power of new technologies in spreading

Western democratic values, this approach ignores the socioeconomic and social equality dimensions of the massive protests in the Arab world. Ekaterina Stepanova states that “the automatic connection [The United States] makes between social media and a Western-style democracy agenda” (Stepanova, 2011) is a weak link in U. S policy. Social media tools with identical functions can operate differently in developed versus developing countries.

It was not just the Western media which stressed the role of online social networks in the Arab Spring, but also local media and the civilians themselves. The role of Twitter and Facebook may have been emphasized in Western media due to their nationalistic attitude, but this should not downplay the actual importance that these technologies held in the uprising. During the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt, social networks were the key factor in the communication, mobilization, and organization of civilians.

Civilians used their mobile phones or computers to access online social networks where they could discuss and plan tactics for the revolution, and disseminate messages and photos of what was occurring. During the anti-Mubarak protests, an Egyptian activist put it succinctly in a tweet: “we use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world” (Hussain, 2012). In the ‘Jasmine Revolution’, the role of mobile phones was integral in both sharing and receiving information. The phone acted as a tool which aided in the extension of offline networks into online.

Now, civilians did not need to be face to face to communicate messages of discontent or plans for rebellion as they had mobile networks. The ability to message many people at one time of access their Facebook or Twitter from their phone was invaluable to the rebels. Reporters without Borders stated that “the role of cell phones also proved crucial [in Tunisia]. Citizen journalists kept file-sharing websites supplied with photos and videos, and fed images to streaming websites” (Reporters without Borders, 2011).

It was not just the vast communication abilities that aided citizens in the revolt, but by putting cameras in the hands of a plethora of Tunisians they became citizen journalists with the ability to show what was happening to them to the world. The ability for citizens to take part in news is very valuable as this was a time where all media broadcast institutions were state run. The great difference between what was being reported about through the citizens versus the state allowed those uprisings to share their side of the story.

Government censorship was a huge problem in both Tunisia and Egypt, but censorship “made the new media more relevant” (Khondker, 2011). Social media was very useful for the citizens as it “brought the narrative of successful social protest across multiple, previously closed, media regimes” (Hussain, 2012). It was due to the mobile phone and heavy proliferation of online social networks that citizens could show proof of the injustices that were occurring through photo and video documentation on an international scale.

In addition, communicating online was very effective for civilians since they could plan out offline protests with a mass audience. As stated, the internet blurs geographical boundaries, which allows revolutionary leaders and advocates to find each other and communicate online. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter provided citizens with a platform to discuss plans of action and reach mass audiences. The ability to reach so many people online was essential since “information and communication networks can serve as powerful accelerators of social transformation” (Stepanova, 2011).

Facebook groups such as “We Are All Khaled Said” enlisted 350,000 members before the 14th of January (Khondker, 2011). This group provided the members with an incomparable medium of communication to anything offline social networks could provide. In addition, other than attempted media blackouts by the governments, communication was rather unlimited online. Activists posted relatively freely, which indicated that “new information technology has clearly the transformative potential to open up spaces of freedom” (Khondker, 2011).

The idea of online spaces as democratic and free draw upon Jurgen Habermas‘ concept of the public sphere. There are integral benefits of the internet in relation to Habermas’ public sphere, such as the vast library of easily accessible information, a new platform for critical political discussion, the blurring of spacial boundaries, and the embracing of new technology. In the Arab Spring, the usage of the internet empowered Habermas’ concept of deliberative democracy, which highlights “the role of open discussion, the importance of citizen participation, and the existence of a well-functioning public sphere” (Gimmler, 23).

Habermas holds that deliberative democracy is based “on a foundation that enables the legitimacy of the constitutional state and civil society to be justified” (Gimmler, 23). He separates the “constitutional democratic state and its parliamentary and legal institutions, on one side, and the public sphere of civil society and its more direct communication and discursive foundations, on the other” (Gimmler 24). The opposition between the corrupt governments and civilians was represented on online social networks.

Civilians used social networks as spaces of deliberative democracy, which acted as an online public sphere. Henry Brady states that “meaningful democratic participation requires that the voices of citizens in politics be clear, loud, and equal” (Hindeman, 6), online social networks give power to those voices that are silenced by state regulations. The fact that “information technologies have opened up new paths to democratization and the entrenchment of civil society in many Arab countries” (Hussain, 2012) attests to their function as a public sphere.

Though there were effective offline social networks such as the Church, family, and friends, “the networks of people who did mobilize, did so with the direct application, initiation, and coordination, of digital media tools” (Hussain, 2012). Online social networks acted as extensions of offline networks that were already present, but also provided the opportunity to reach a much larger amount of people. The plans and decisions made on the online networks made the offline protests so successful. Virtual networks materialized before street protest networks” (Hussain, 2012), which shows the importance of online social networks. In the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt, there was no single social network that was completely responsible for the success of the revolution. Instead, it was the combination of mobile phones, the internet, and traditional broadcast media which aided citizens in forming powerful networks which strengthened their cause. Castells defines a network society as “a society whose social structure is made of networks powered by microelectronics-based information and communication technologies.

By social structure, [he] understands the organizational arrangements of humans in relations of experience and power expressed in meaningful communication coded by culture” (Castells, 2004). This definition accurately describes the atmosphere in both Tunisia and Egypt during their revolutions due to the reliance on online social networks. In both Tunisia and Egypt, there was a manifestation of technology which aided citizens in communicating. Social networking sites, instantaneous internet, and always-available mobile phones created a powerful network which allowed citizens to always be connected to each other.

Some degree of formal organizational and informal networks is necessary for revolution in order to communicate and plan. Egyptians utilized heavy social media connectivity through the use of the mobile device via texting of internet through their phone rather than personal computer. One Egyptian citizen tweeted on January 26th, 2011 “You who have Twitter and Facebook working on your phone, use them to spread words of hope. We won’t let this end here #jan25 was just the start” (Boyd, 2011).

Citizens were encouraging each other to avoid traditional forms of communications via the internet to avoid government censorship and interference. Castells stated that “thus was born a new system of mass communication built like a mix between an interactive television, internet, radio and mobile communication systems. The communication of the future is already used by the revolutions of the present” (Castells, 2011, emphasis on the original) when describing the use of technologies in the Arab Spring. The issue of censorship posed a large barricade on the protesters due to their reliance on social networks and the internet.

The Ben Ali regime realized the importance of Facebook in early January 2011 and stepped up their censorship with attempts to curb the heavy distribution of photos of protests and repression. There was increasing interest from the foreign media due to the power of ICT’s in spreading the story worldwide, which also influenced the state to up online censorship. The head of the Agencie Tunisienne d’Internet (ATI) said “the number of websites blocked by the authorities doubled in just a few weeks. More than 100 Facebook pages about the Sidi Bouzid events were blocked, along with online articles about the unrest in foreign media… olice also hacked into Facebook accounts to steal activists passwords and infiltrate networks of citizen-journalists” (Reporters Without Borders, 2011) . It was the power of networks which allowed the citizens to overcome the censorship of the government. Due to the many options of communications devices, when one was blocked citizens would resort to another. In addition, citizens found ways around the internet blockage and activist hacker groups rebutted with hacks on government websites and found technical ways to pass on news and demands from inside Tunisia.

The positive role of technology within the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt cannot be disputed. Although, such heavy use of technology caused the corrupt governments to attempt to intervene, the positives far outweigh the negatives. Information and communications technologies allowed oppressed citizens to rise above the government through the power of mobility, networks, and information. The portability of the cell phones partnered with the creation of networks through the multiple technologies utilized allowed the voice of the citizens to be heard worldwide.

The positive effect these technologies had in empowering the both the Tunisians and the Egyptians is clear in the mere rapidity that they overthrew their corrupt governments once they started revolting. In addition, it is clear that these ICT’s had a large effect since the government responded so harshly towards them, clearly feeling threatened. Overall, it is evident that ICT’s played a large role in the effective and swift revolutions which started the domino effect of the Arab Spring. *Copy Right- Nobody has permission to use my work in their own academic research*

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Impact of Social Networking Sites

Business Research Methodology A Study On Impact Of Social Networking Sites On Our Life Impact Of Social Networking Sites On Our Life ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL This Report Has Been submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirements of PGPM program of IBS Gurgaon Submitted To, Prof. Vipin Khurana Submitted By, Avinash Kumar Singh 12BSP1658 Pankaj Sharma 12BSP0825 Atul Kesharwani 12BSP2341 Lav Sood 12BSP Acknowledgement First & foremost I humbly bow my head before the Almighty for the unmerited blessings though various hands.

I submit this small venture before God with full satisfaction& pleasure from my heart. It is with great respect and devotion we place on record my deep sense of gartidue and indebtedness to Prof. Vipin Khurana, Faculty Of Business Research Methodology, ICFAI Business School, Gurgaon for his sustained & variable guidance, constructive & valuable suggestions, unfailing patience, friendly approach, constant support and encouragement withoust which this study would have been a distant dream. We also place a eep sense of gratitude to all those who participated in our study, you all really being very help full and patience. We also like to thank all of our classmates and friends who supported and guided us whenever we needed them, thank you friends. This Report simply shows the entire dedication of our group who have coordinated for successful accomplishment of this study report. Group Number 3 Avinash Kumar Singh 12BSP1658 Pankaj Sharma 12BSP0825 Atul Kesharwani 12BSP2341 Lav Sood 12BSP Abstract In today’s fast moving world, everyone tries to be ahead of their competitors, friends and social circle.

Considering the fact, there are so many burning issues around us which we need to think upon and act, it’s an alarm for us to be aware about the society and its issues. Through social networking, people can use networks of online friends and group memberships to keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends or create real-life friendships through similar interests or groups. Besides establishing important social relationships, social networking members can share their interests with other likeminded members by joining groups and forums.

Some networking can also help members find a job or establish business contacts. Most social networking websites also offer additional features. In addition to blogs and forums, members can express themselves by designing their profile page to reflect their personality. The most popular extra features include music and video sections. The video section can include everything from member generated videos from hundreds of subjects to TV clips and movie trailers (YouTube). Social networking sites have facilitated communication.

Members of such sites can easily form groups (called the communities) and share their opinions among themselves through discussion threads, forums and polls. Though these sites serves good in many ways, it has its negative effects too such as cyber-crimes which has become a privacy threat to the people worldwide. Although advantageous in many ways by building new relationship and reconnecting with lost or old contacts, it also brought up some behavioural changes among the youth, not only the behavioural changes but also their social behaviour and approaches. It has also ended up as a nightmare for a few people.

Social Networking sites provide a platform for discussion on such issues as it is this media which majority mass rely on and extend warm support. One such burning issue that has been overlooked in today’s scenario is the impact of social networking sites in the changing mind-set of the youth. Our research is conducted on youths between age group of 10-30 years with a view to know the level of awareness on the social issues, the penetration of SNC in their Life. Study was conducted on 100 people mostly through email or sending link of questionnaire on various social sites. 1. Introduction:-

Social network sites are web-based services allowing individuals to construct a semi-public or public profile in a bounded system as well as to articulate a list of others so as to share connections, views and thoughts. However the type, classification and nature of these connections may differ from site to site. Uniqueness of social networking sites not only allows individuals to meet strangers but enables users to discuss and make visible their social networks. This results into connections between individuals which otherwise is not possible through any other media already existing.

Maximum of the time social networking sites are used to communicate with people who are already their friends or acquaintances in the social network sharing same mindset or same interests and views. Discussions on debatable topics, news articles are most common topics on these SNNs. There are a number of SNS’s available now-a-days wherein users are increasing leaps and bounds as shown in the table below- TOP 7 SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES IN THE WORLD Rank Sites Estimated unique monthly users 1. Facebook 55,0000000 2. Twitter 95800000 3.

Myspace 80500000 4. Linkedin 50000000 5. Ning 42000000 6. Tagged 30000000 7. Classmates 29000000 Social networking sites are not only popular for providing a platform for chatting, sharing scraps, videos, pictures etc. but also for discussing social issues. However, certain issues yet require study and research like impact of SNS on youth’s minds and loss of privacy as earlier people believed in keeping their data private but now they enjoy going public and showing wall posts, status updates, tweets and infact every thrill of their lives.

In this way, we are ourselves breaching our privacy and personal space at the compromise of publicizing intimate details so as to attract hundreds of online readers and even strangers. Online Social networking is a type of virtual communication that allows people to connect with each other. This concept arises from basic need of human beings to stay together in groups forming a community. Wikipedia defines social network service as online platform that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities.

According to ComScore, a leader in measuring the digital world, 84 per cent of India’s total internet visitors are users of SNS. India is the seventh largest market worldwide for social networking after the U. S. , China, Germany, Russian Federation, Brazil and the U. K. Facebook captures the top slot among SNS in India with 20. 9 million visitors. People spend over 700 billion minutes per month on Facebook and 70 per cent of users are from outside United States. Interestingly, an average user has 130 friends on Facebook (“Facebook statistics,” ). a.

But is this the true picture of social networking sites? b. Is everything going fine in the world of social networking? c. What about the futures of its users? d. Are they happy with the virtual life or it is making their life hell? e. HOW MUCH TIME WE WASTE ON SNS? f. what will be it’s impact on the society…. etc.? These Questions remains a unanswered for a very long time, we in this study are trying to cover these questions also we trying to give impact of following:- a. Social & Personal Issues b. Personal Privacy c. Biological Impact d. Its effect on Productivity e. SNS addiction Disorder . 2. Review of related literature:- Lot of literature is available now days on the social networking sites and their impact on the youth of any nation, children, adolescence and families as during the last 5 years, usage of such sites has increased among preadolescents and adolescents. According to a latest poll, 22% of teenagers log in more than 10 times a day on to their favorite social media site, and more than half percentage of adolescents log more than once a day (Steyer James, 2009). In the report Social networking sites a critical analysis of its impact on personal and social life, By Dr.

Biswajit Das & Jyoti Shankar Sahoo, published in international Journal of business and social science vol. 2 No. 14 states that:- The growth of social networking sites shows a significant change in the social and personal behaviour of Internet users. SNS has become an essential medium of communication and entertainment among the young adults. Everything in this world can be used for a bad purpose as well as for good. Its us who can make the difference and utilize social networking sites wisely for the benefit of developing social bonds across the geographical borders.

In the report impact of social networking sites in the changing mindset of youth on social issues-A syudy of delhi Ncr youth, By, Mr. Madhur Raj Jain, Ms. Palak Gupta & Ms. Nitika Anand. They took total sample size of 100 respondents, and done a exploratory study and tools used were tables, pie charts, annova, cross table using SPSS 19. 0. The report concludes that:- It was found that these social networking sites are acting as great medium for view mobilization. People are feeling free in sharing their thoughts on any issue nd even youth is raising their voice against social acts like violation of Human Rights, corruption etc. It is also being generated from the information so obtained that people are getting more aware about the social issues mainly from Facebook. On the study of a Study on the impact of social networking sites on Indian youth, By, Dr. M. Neelamalar & Ms. P. Chitra, Methdology used was:-employs the method of Qualitative research through quantitative analysis to gather an in-depth understanding of the behavioral changes cause by the social networking sites like Orkut on youth and the reasons that govern such behavior.

The sample size is 100 and they are divided into two categories each of 50,the categories are teens (17-19) and youth in the age group of 20-22. Concluded that a majority of the Indian youth are members in one or more social networking sites but also are low users of such sites and used Internet more for mailing and sur? ng the net (downloads). 3. Research Gap:- * The previous researches where done when social networking in our country was in nascent stage * They have Used Email, Phone And Face to Face Method Of Survey, But we are Instead using SNS. They Only used age Between 18 to 30 years we are using a wider Age Range * We instead of wider social affects, dealing At Personal level * We used SPSS 20. 0 for analysis. 4. Scope & Objective Of Study:- * To study the awareness of usages of different SNS * The affect of SNS on personal Life * To know the spread of Spy wares on SNS * To know the time Spent on SNS * To analyze the penetration level of SNS in Life * To check for what SNS are used These days 5. Hypothesis:- I. Testing the significance difference b/w Male and Female User * H0 (Null Hypothesis) There is no significance difference between Male And

Female User * H1 (Alternative Hypothesis)There is significance difference between Male And Female User II. Testing the significant spread of malwares and cyber criminals over SNS * H0 (Null Hypothesis) There is no significant spread of malwares and cyber criminals over SNS * H1 (Alternative Hypothesis)There is significant spread of malwares and cyber criminals over SNS III. Testing the Significance of SNS in Ones Life. * H0 (Null Hypothesis) There is no significance of SNS in Ones Life * H1 (Alternative Hypothesis)There is significance of SNS in ones life 6.

Assumptions:- While conducting the research we assumed that all the participants are filling the survey seriously and we made sure through cookies lock that no duplication happens. 7. Limitations:- The research has been done through online questionnaire and thus the level of seriousness in the user are not upto the mark, and also since we are not present their physically so the interpretation of questions wasn’t even. Because of limitation of monitory resources as well as busy time schedule of classes we weren’t able to host and spread the survey to as much as people we wanted to.

The hosting sites we used because of being free gave us limitation of collecting 50 responses at once we have to collect and delete the responses after creating a backup 8. Methodology:- Exploratory research method is being used, the research will give an insight of the users of SNS. Exploratory research is a form of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution.

Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research methods: The quickest and the cheapest way to formulate a hypothesis in exploratory research is by using any of the four methods: I. Literature search II. Experience survey III. Focus group IV. Analysis of selected cases In this research we had done Experience survey, with a assumption that the users of social networking site have a good knowledge of what’s going on these sites. For doing that we prepared set of questions which reveals how, what and why they are connected to social networking sites. 9.

Population of interest:- We have selected the educated youth who are either, school, or are collage going. They are the one who spent most of their spare time on SNS and some of them are attached so close to it that they don’t even imagine life with SNS. Moreover the youth of the age group 10-30, view world idealistically and are more involved in the world outside their work place and home. This population is choose because of the simple fact that they are more tech friendly and Internet and more importantly SNS are an important part of their life and they see it as a medium of increasing network and even see opportunities hidden behind it. 0. Sampling Procedure and source of Data:- We conducted surveys through online questionnaire. The questions have been made on ‘Adobe form Central’, an online survey hosting site by ADOBE Inc. The hosted questions were them in the form of a web link is being posted on various SNS, specially the most common one i. e. Facebook. The questionnaire has been made through a discussion among group members and using our own experience of social networking sites. The response then were backed up both online and offline in Ms Excel. The data has been then coded accordingly after collecting 100 responses. 11. Questionnaire For Data Collection:-

The questionnaire was made by brain- storming in the group and accessing our own SNS experience. The questionnaire contents text field, text field –multiline, single choice field, multiple choice field, Drop down menu, single check box and Likert rating scale. Direct and indirect questions which were placed are as follows:- 12. Data Coding:- Gender| Codes| MALE| 1| FEMALE| 2| Age| Codes| 10 TO 15| 1| 16 TO 20| 2| 21 TO 25| 3| 26 TO 30| 4| 30+| 5| Qualification| Codes| Graduate| 1| Post graduate| 2| INTERMEDIATE/10+2| 3| DOCTORATE| 4| MATRIC| 5| Occupation| Codes| Student| 1| Employed| 2| Self-Employed| 3| Fresher| 4|

Time spent On Sns| Codes| 1 HOUR| 1| 2 HOUR| 2| 3 HOUR| 3| MORE THAN 3 HOURS| 4| Friends on Facebook| Codes| Less Than 100| 1| 100 To 200| 2| 201 to 300| 3| 301 to 500| 4| 501 to 1000| 5| 1000+| 6| Connections On LinkedIn| Codes| Less Than 50| 1| 50 to 100| 2| 101 to 200| 3| 201 to 300| 4| 301 to 500| 5| 500+| 6| HOW IMPORTANT DO YOU THINK SCOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE FOR MAINTAINING FOLLOWING:-| STRONGLY NOT IMPORTANT| 1| NOT IMPORTANT| 2| MAY BE| 3| IMPORTANT| 4| STRONGLY IMPORTANT| 5| IF ALL THE SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE GONE, HOW DO YOU THINK YOU WOULD SPENT TIME, WHICH OTHERWISE YOU WOULD HAD SPENT ON SNS? HOBBIES| 1| WITH FAMILY| 2| WITH FRIENDS| 3| STUDY| 4| PHYSICAL FITNESS| 5| Teaching| 6| Reading novels and watching Hollywood movies| 7| DO YOU ACCEPT INVITATION OF UNKNOWN PERSON ON SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? | Yes I Always Do| 1| Yes But Only On LinkedIn| 2| Never| 3| Maybe, It Depends| 4| Yes, Only If It Is From Opposite Gender| 5| DO YOU PLACED YOUR ORIGINAL PICTURE AS YOUR PROFILE PICTURE? | Yes| 1| No| 2| WHAT DO YOU THINK ARE THE ILL- EFFECTS OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? | Lot Of Time Wastage| 1| Hamper Studies| 2| Reduce Physical Mobility and Fitness| 3| Cut Away From Family| 4| No| 5| Others| 6|

HAVE YOU OBSERVED OR BEING A VICTIM OF FOLLOWING ON ANY SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES:-| OFTENLY| 1| SOMETIMES| 2| RARELY| 3| NEVER| 4| DO YOU THINK THE LAW SHOULD BE MADE STRICTER FOR SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES? | Yes| 1| No| 2| 13. Statistical Analysis:- 13. i Statistical Techniques:- We have used Factor and Bivariate analysis. Also we have used frequency technique of descriptive statistics to explain the different variables. Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.

In other words, it is possible, for example, that variations in three or four observed variables mainly reflect the variations in fewer unobserved variables. Factor analysis searches for such joint variations in response to unobserved latent variables. The observed variables are modelled as linear combinations of the potential factors, plus “error” terms. The information gained about the interdependencies between observed variables can be used later to reduce the set of variables in a dataset. Computationally this technique is equivalent to low rank approximation of the matrix of observed variables.

Factor analysis originated in psychometrics, and is used in behavioural sciences, social sciences, marketing, product management, operations research, and other applied sciences that deal with large quantities of data. Bivariate analysis is one of the simplest forms of the quantitative (statistical) analysis. [1] It involves the analysis of two variables (often denoted as X, Y), for the purpose of determining the empirical relationship between them. [1] In order to see if the variables are related to one another, it is common to measure how those two variables simultaneously change together. Frequency analysis:- AGE| Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| 16 TO 20| 16| 16. 2| 16. 3| 16. 3| | 21 TO 25| 78| 78. 8| 79. 6| 95. 9| | 26 TO 30| 4| 4. 0| 4. 1| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | GENDER| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| MALE| 65| 65. 7| 66. 3| 66. 3| | FEMALE| 33| 33. 3| 33. 7| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | QUALIFICATION| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| GRADUATE| 45| 45. 5| 45. 9| 45. 9| | POST GRADUATE| 42| 42. 4| 42. 9| 88. 8| INTERMEDIATE/10+2| 8| 8. 1| 8. 2| 96. 9| | DOCTORATE| 1| 1. 0| 1. 0| 98. 0| | MATRIC| 2| 2. 0| 2. 0| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | OCCUPATION| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| STUDENT| 77| 77. 8| 78. 6| 78. 6| | EMPLOYED| 15| 15. 2| 15. 3| 93. 9| | SELF-EMPLOYED| 5| 5. 1| 5. 1| 99. 0| | FRESHER| 1| 1. 0| 1. 0| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| 1 HOUR| 52| 52. | 53. 1| 53. 1| | 2 HOUR| 20| 20. 2| 20. 4| 73. 5| | 3 HOUR| 10| 10. 1| 10. 2| 83. 7| | MORE THAN 3 HOUR| 16| 16. 2| 16. 3| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Less Than 100| 12| 12. 1| 12. 2| 12. 2| | 100 To 200| 14| 14. 1| 14. 3| 26. 5| | 201 to 300| 26| 26. 3| 26. 5| 53. 1| | 301 to 500| 33| 33. 3| 33. 7| 86. 7| | 501 to 1000| 11| 11. 1| 11. 2| 98. 0| | 1000+| 2| 2. 0| 2. 0| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | |

ARE YOU ON LINKEDIN, IF YES, THEN HOW MANY CONNECTIONS DO YOU HAVE? | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Less Than 50| 58| 58. 6| 59. 2| 59. 2| | 50 to 100| 27| 27. 3| 27. 6| 86. 7| | 101 to 200| 7| 7. 1| 7. 1| 93. 9| | 201 to 300| 3| 3. 0| 3. 1| 96. 9| | 301 to 500| 1| 1. 0| 1. 0| 98. 0| | 500+| 2| 2. 0| 2. 0| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| NOT AT ALL IMPORTANT| 2| 2. 0| 2. 0| 2. 0| | IMPORTANT BUT NOT MUCH| 29| 29. | 29. 6| 31. 6| | SO-SO| 30| 30. 3| 30. 6| 62. 2| | VERY IMPORTANT| 32| 32. 3| 32. 7| 94. 9| | I CAN’T LIVE WITHOUT THEM| 5| 5. 1| 5. 1| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | DO YOU PLACED YOUR ORIGINAL PICTURE AS YOUR PROFILE PICTURE? | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| YES| 84| 84. 8| 85. 7| 85. 7| | NO| 14| 14. 1| 14. 3| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | SPAMS| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| OFTENLY| 16| 16. 2| 16. 3| 16. 3| | SOMETIMES| 31| 31. 3| 31. | 48. 0| | RARELY| 30| 30. 3| 30. 6| 78. 6| | NEVER| 21| 21. 2| 21. 4| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | HACKERS| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| OFTENLY| 5| 5. 1| 5. 1| 5. 1| | SOMETIMES| 29| 29. 3| 29. 6| 34. 7| | RARELY| 25| 25. 3| 25. 5| 60. 2| | NEVER| 39| 39. 4| 39. 8| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | FAKEPROFILE| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| OFTENLY| 18| 18. 2| 18. 4| 18. 4| | SOMETIMES| 33| 33. 3| 33. 7| 52. 0| | RARELY| 24| 24. 2| 24. 5| 76. | | NEVER| 23| 23. 2| 23. 5| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | HARSSSMENT| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| OFTENLY| 3| 3. 0| 3. 1| 3. 1| | SOMETIMES| 15| 15. 2| 15. 3| 18. 4| | RARELY| 19| 19. 2| 19. 4| 37. 8| | NEVER| 61| 61. 6| 62. 2| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | PORNOGRAPHY| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| OFTENLY| 3| 3. 0| 3. 1| 3. 1| | SOMETIMES| 19| 19. 2| 19. 4| 22. 4| | RARELY| 21| 21. 2| 21. 4| 43. 9| | NEVER| 55| 55. 6| 56. 1| 100. 0| Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | RACISM| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| OFTENLY| 4| 4. 0| 4. 1| 4. 1| | SOMETIMES| 16| 16. 2| 16. 3| 20. 4| | RARELY| 15| 15. 2| 15. 3| 35. 7| | NEVER| 63| 63. 6| 64. 3| 100. 0| | Total| 98| 99. 0| 100. 0| | Missing| System| 1| 1. 0| | | Total| 99| 100. 0| | | FACTOR ANALYSIS Total Variance Explained| Component| Initial Eigenvalues| Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings| Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings| | Total| % of Variance| Cumulative %| Total| % of Variance| Cumulative %| Total| % of Variance| Cumulative %| 1| 3. 99| 51. 658| 51. 658| 3. 099| 51. 658| 51. 658| 2. 200| 36. 663| 36. 663| 2| 1. 025| 17. 083| 68. 741| 1. 025| 17. 083| 68. 741| 1. 925| 32. 078| 68. 741| 3| . 602| 10. 035| 78. 776| | | | | | | 4| . 504| 8. 393| 87. 169| | | | | | | 5| . 485| 8. 091| 95. 260| | | | | | | 6| . 284| 4. 740| 100. 000| | | | | | | Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. | KMO and Bartlett’s Test| Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. | . 780| Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity| Approx. Chi-Square| 189. 982| | df| 15| | Sig. | . 000| Descriptive Statistics| | Mean| Std. Deviation| N| REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1| 0E-7| 1. 0000000| 98| REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1| 0E-7| 1. 00000000| 98| REGR factor score 1 for analysis 2| 0E-7| 1. 00000000| 98| REGR factor score 2 for analysis 2| 0E-7| 1. 00000000| 98| Multiple regressions:- Tests of Between-Subjects Effects| Source| Dependent Variable| Type III Sum of Squares| df| Mean Square| F| Sig. | Corrected Model| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | . 018a| 1| . 018| . 014| . 906| | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | 6. 302b| 1| 6. 302| 4. 164| . 044| | ARE YOU ON LINKEDIN, IF YES, THEN HOW MANY CONNECTIONS DO YOU HAVE? | . 946c| 1| . 46| . 863| . 355| | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | . 043d| 1| . 043| . 047| . 829| Intercept| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | 313. 814| 1| 313. 814| 241. 084| . 000| | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | 867. 119| 1| 867. 119| 572. 908| . 000| | ARE YOU ON LINKEDIN, IF YES, THEN HOW MANY CONNECTIONS DO YOU HAVE? | 229. 518| 1| 229. 518| 209. 331| . 000| | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | 840. 859| 1| 840. 859| 915. 942| . 000| GENDER| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | . 018| 1| . 018| . 14| . 906| | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | 6. 302| 1| 6. 302| 4. 164| . 044| | ARE YOU ON LINKEDIN, IF YES, THEN HOW MANY CONNECTIONS DO YOU HAVE? | . 946| 1| . 946| . 863| . 355| | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | . 043| 1| . 043| . 047| . 829| Error| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | 124. 961| 96| 1. 302| | | | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | 145. 300| 96| 1. 514| | | | ARE YOU ON LINKEDIN, IF YES, THEN HOW MANY CONNECTIONS DO YOU HAVE? | 105. 258| 96| 1. 096| | | | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? 88. 131| 96| . 918| | | Total| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | 478. 000| 98| | | | | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | 1177. 000| 98| | | | | ARE YOU ON LINKEDIN, IF YES, THEN HOW MANY CONNECTIONS DO YOU HAVE? | 374. 000| 98| | | | | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | 1025. 000| 98| | | | Corrected Total| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | 124. 980| 97| | | | | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | 151. 602| 97| | | | | ARE YOU ON LINKEDIN, IF YES, THEN HOW MANY CONNECTIONS DO YOU HAVE? | 106. 04| 97| | | | | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | 88. 173| 97| | | | a. R Squared = . 000 (Adjusted R Squared = -. 010)| b. R Squared = . 042 (Adjusted R Squared = . 032)| c. R Squared = . 009 (Adjusted R Squared = -. 001)| d. R Squared = . 000 (Adjusted R Squared = -. 010)| Correlations| | AGE| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | HOW MANY TIME YOU SPENT WITH YOUR HOBBY(S) PER DAY? | HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | AGE| Pearson Correlation| 1| . 162| . 016| . 185| . 225*| | Sig. 2-tailed)| | . 112| . 879| . 068| . 026| | N| 98| 98| 98| 98| 98| HOW MUCH TIME DAILY ON AN AVERAGE BASIS YOU SPENT ON SNS? | Pearson Correlation| . 162| 1| . 023| . 191| . 352**| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 112| | . 821| . 059| . 000| | N| 98| 98| 98| 98| 98| HOW MANY TIME YOU SPENT WITH YOUR HOBBY(S) PER DAY? | Pearson Correlation| . 016| . 023| 1| . 052| -. 112| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 879| . 821| | . 613| . 274| | N| 98| 98| 98| 98| 98| HOW MANY FRIENDS YOU HAVE ON FACEBOOK? | Pearson Correlation| . 185| . 191| . 052| 1| . 310**| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 068| . 059| . 613| | . 002| | N| 98| 98| 98| 98| 98|

HOW IMPORTANT SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE IN YOUR LIFE? | Pearson Correlation| . 225*| . 352**| -. 112| . 310**| 1| | Sig. (2-tailed)| . 026| . 000| . 274| . 002| | | N| 98| 98| 98| 98| 98| *. Correlation is significant at the 0. 05 level (2-tailed). | **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). | 14. Summary And Major Findings:- 1. Since Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy is greater than 0. 6 and 68. 745 % of the variance in our items was explained by the 5 extracted components, which thereby explains that there is significant spread of malwares over internet and thus our alternate hypothesis i. . there is significant spread of malwares and cyber criminals over internet is accepted. 2. As explained by the bivariate correlation , the correlation are significant at 0. 05 level and 0. 01 level of significance, the null hypothesis i. e. there is no significant difference between male and female user is rejected. 3. As explained by multiple regressions the null hypothesis i. e there is no significance of SNS on one’s life is rejected. 15. References:- 1. 55. 032% of the variance in our items was explained by the 5 extracted components by, Dr.

Biswajit Das and Jyoti Shankar Sahoo, International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 14 www. ijbssnet. com. 2. IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES IN THE CHANGING MINDSET OF YOUTH ON SOCIAL ISSUES – A STUDY OF DELHI-NCR YOUTH by, Mr. Madhur Raj Jain, Ms. Palak Gupta ; Ms. Nitika Anand. 3. A Study on the impact of social networking sites on indian youth,By, Dr. M. Neelamalar ; Ms. P. Chitra. 4. SLIDES OF Prof. Vipin Khurana 5. www. wikipedia. org 6. http://core. ecu. edu/psyc/wuenschk/spss/SPSS-MV. htm 7. http://www. unt. edu/rss/class/Jon/SPSS_SC/Module9/M9_PCA/SPSS_M9_PCA1. htm

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Consumer Behaviour on Social Networking Website

content 1 Background1 2 Motivation and Value2 2. 1 Attributes2 2. 2 Outcomes2 2. 3 Values3 3 Reference group3 3. 1 Aspiration reference group3 3. 2 Informal group4 4 Culture and consumption5 4. 1 Supranational culture5 4. 2 National culture5 4. 3 Subculture5 4. 3. 1 Family6 4. 3. 2 Language6 5 Conclusion6 1 Background Social networking has brought a great change in to the way people build relations with others. These sites are online platforms where users can create profiles to provide personal information, exchange individual ideas and share their interests with the others.

Through social networking sites, people can keep in touch with friends despite the long distance and daily bustle. In this way, networking sites change the old communication pattern that people used to communicate face to face. In addition, more internet users accept this new way to build their social ties. According to the Pew Internet’s report on social networking(2011), the number of people using social networking sites raised from 34 of internet users in 2008 to 59% in 2010. Weibo, the second-largest social networking site in China, can be used as a good example to clearly demonstrate this huge success.

It operated by SINA corporation and launched in August 2009. As a microblogging platform, Weibo enables customers publishing, broadcasting and achieving instant information based on their relationship. It does not take too much time for Weibo to get a large number of users. On the second quarter financial report released by SINA Weibo 2012 (cited in LU, 2012), there are 368 millions registered users and 36. 5m daily active users on Weibo by the end of June this year. The first driving force of Weibo to attract massive users is its ideally integrating the functions of Twitter and Facebook.

Weibo require people to publish posts within 140 Chinese characters and enables people to view embedded pictures and media without leaving the original page. The second appealing feature of Weibo is its Micro topics page that groups up all tweets on a certain topic. Similarly, the hottest trends categorization page and the famous people collection page, named Board of Fame and Hall of Celebrity respectively, are third attributor to the success of this site. In following, the means-end chain theory, perceptual model and the self will be applied to explain the achievement of Weibo: Motivation and Value Gutman (1982) presents the Means-end chain that consumer buying behavior determines by fulfilling desired values which could be obtained from the consequence of enjoying the product or service attributes. Desire values could be obtained due to satisfaction of customers in product or services attributes. More specifically, the reason why people consume a certain product/ service is that the nature of the product/ service can generate some outcomes that can achieve individuals’ values. This theory can be used to illustrate the success of Weibo. 2. 1 Attributes

Each product has its own attributes. However, as a microblogging service, the attributes of Weibo is different from that of physical products. What has been provided by the service, rather that what it looks like, is the features for Weibo. According to Sohn and kim (2012), seven features can be used to identify social networking sites: information, share, communication, interaction, entertainment, intimacy and connection. However, in this case, interaction with other users can be regarded as a two way communication and connection to their friends can be described as the result of communication.

Therefore, main attributes for Weibo are information, communication and entertainment. Regards to information, each profile contains personal information like hometown, interests and schools, etc. And individuals can publish feeds about what they think and what they have seen. Users can possibly follow everyone who they are interested in, like super star, corporation CEO, organization. Then, all the new feeds will be shown once customers log on their account. Meanwhile, people can Retweet the message they like, providing such information to their friends who may not know it. By this way, Weibo provides much information for its users.

The second function is communication: users can send immediate message to have chat with friends. Besides this, the opinions of customers are clearly expressed via commenting and replying upon a specific feed. With providing a two way communication among users, people can also enhance their offline social network. Lastly, Weibo provides entertainment functions for users. For instance, there is a medal reward system, where medals can be earned by some simple actions like tweet containing a certain word. Similarly, a gaming portal consisting of various mini web games is provided by this site. 2. 2 Outcomes

After experiencing all functions of Weibo, customers can enjoy serval results. Firstly, people can widen their horizon of knowledge and expand their social network through information attribute. As numerous consumers from all fields of life have opened accounts in Weibo, people can get huge amount of information like business news, social issues and fashion trends. And through sharing personal information and emotions in profiles, Weibo makes it easy to find friends with the same interest. Secondly, with various ways to communicate with others, it is convenient for customers to sustain offline relationships and strength online friendships.

Finally, with a variety of entertainment activities, hanging around Weibo have become a good way for recreation among netizens. 2. 3 Values As above-mentioned attributes and outcomes offer a clue, people consume this microblogging service with the hope to achieve these values: belonging, fun and entertainment, warm relations with others, being well respected, self-respect and security, based on the nine consumer values by Kahle(1989). Firstly, Maslow (1943) defines belonging as a feeling of accepted by other members in a community. As in Weibo, individual can be recognized as a unique person by other users through personal page.

Then, all new friends and old friends form a special community for that user. What the user post will receive friends’ comments, serving as a indicator of acceptance. Next, people can obtain pleasure and recreation in their lives on Weibo. Having a chat with friends, sharing and viewing opinions on current affairs, playing mini online games, and seeing what their friends are doing can make consumers have a rest from their works or studies. Thirdly, people can enhance friendships by using Weibo. Viewing others’ feeds can provide users information about friends’ interests, happiness and sorrows.

People can know clearly what to talk about with each friend. Furthermore, customers can feel respectable from friends. In Weibo, people show their concerns about what you post by viewing and commenting, even retweeting when they like it. 3 Reference group Reference group means groups that have influence on an individual’s attitudes, behavior, beliefs, opinions and values (Thompson & Hickey, 2005). If people in reference group have a positive attitude towards a certain brand, they can use their power to attract more users for that brand.

Therefore, it is essential for one brand to figure out reference groups that exert effects on its target customers and to give a good impression on those groups. In the case of Weibo, the company has successfully used two reference groups, which are aspiration group and informal group, to increase user number. 3. 1 Aspiration reference group Those people who are admired by the public, like actors, athletes, business people, make up the aspiration group (Solomon et. Al 2010). Many companies have used these celebrities in their advertisements or endorsements to promote its brand.

Not surprisingly, Weibo have adopted this tactic along its development to appeal more users. At the initial testing stage, Weibo enhanced its brand awareness by sending out exclusive registration codes to celebrities. The SINA company firstly invited notables, opinion leaders and industry leaders, who are existing customers of SINA blog, to open account in Weibo. Then, each invited celebrity would be asked to send out 20 special invitation codes to his/her friends, encouraging them to log in Weibo. Then, Weibo used those available notable accounts to attract massive fans to open accounts on Weibo.

Consumers hope to get up-to-date information about their idols from following idols’ Weibo profile. “I was a early adopter of Weibo. ” said Iris, a Chinese girl from Management major in Leeds University, “I opened my Weibo account in November 2009. Wanting to know more about my idol–Ashin, a Taiwanese singer, is the main stimulation for me to register in Weibo. With just two or three sentences in a feed, Weibo keep me informed about the daily routines of my idol and let me feel more closer to his life. ” As another attraction to customers, Weibo guarantees authenticity of idol accounts to customers.

All those celebrity accounts would be verified through real-name system before opening, and be added “V” after their user names to distinguish with ordinary users. Furthermore, owing to facilitate users to find their idols easily, Weibo gathered all these approved accounts into one page, named Hall of Celebrity. Until March 2012, there are 165,000 celebrity accounts in Weibo. On 2nd December 2012, the number of fans for the top one celebrity is over 27 million. As can been seen from these features and data, Weibo has paid huge attention on reference groups and gained plenty of users from these groups. . 2 Informal group Besides using aspiration group, Weibo took advantage of informal group to acquire more users. Thanks to more involvement in others’ everyday lives, informal group poses tremendous effects on their consumer behavior, such as whether or not using social networking sites, which specific site to be used. Weibo, just as other social networking sites, want to enable consumers to get connected with their offline friends and meet new friends with same interests. So as to be successful, large customer database should be provided for new users to find friends.

Most of Weibo users firstly know this networking sites from their friends. Another three users’ experiences are used to support this statement. Juliet, a Chinese girl in Advertising and Marketing in Leeds University, said, “I knew Weibo from several friends’ recommendations. They had already opened accounts. With sharing feelings and interesting news no more than 140 characters, my friends found it user-friendly and amusing. So they hoped I could join with them. After one trial, I fell in love with this site. And I have recommended this site to my friends who have not had Weibo account yet. The same with Juliet, other two users opened their accounts because of their friends’ influence. They said, “It is just a habit to keep logging into Weibo to see new feeds from friends. And, if I have not used Weibo while others have, I would feel very outdated. And I also persuaded some of my friends to use Weibo. ” As stated above, individual can be influenced by his/her reference group to register in Weibo, and then become one member of reference group to alter other’s attitude. With this process goes on, Weibo gets an increasing number of users, which leads to its success. Culture and consumption Culture is the learned and shared beliefs and values that influence the formation of attitudes and behaviors among members of a society(). There are three different level of culture: supranational culture, national culture and subculture. The success of Weibo can be explained by these levels. (Baldwin, 2006) 4. 1 Supranational culture Supranational culture aspect can indicate that the success of Weibo is not a exception. Before the launch of Weibo, Twitter, an American microblogging service, has be prevalent in a global scale, with over 18 million users in 009 (Wolfe, 2011). With global growth of internet usage, people have shared a cosmopolitan culture with same beliefs: time-conscious(Hongladarom, 2005). Caring more about time has a strong impact on the habit of writing and reading. People are more willing to write and read posts of daily lives within few sentences. That is a big driving force to the invention of microblogging sites, which provide people to publish feeds in just 140 characters. 4. 2 National culture In this level, because of its Chinese interface, Weibo is exclusively popular in China.

The alteration of national values has led to the success of Weibo. With the affection by western culture, Chinese are becoming increasingly emphasis on liberalism. Freedom has been highly valued in every aspects of life, especially freedom of speech. In the past, only the people with strong power can make their voices heard and it is unable for the public to talk about the government. But Weibo changed this situation by giving the discourse power to common people. In this site, everyone can speak out his/her opinions on trending news and more people can read those ideas with the function of forward.

Also, people can become ‘we media’ to spread out the news around them, which is known by few people but of importance on the society. 4. 3 Subculture Subculture is the same culture shared barely by a small group in a nation/society. It is largely influenced by the personalities of members in that group. In this level, the characteristics of new netizen generation could explain the widespread usage of Weibo. Weibo has designed its website tailoring to characteristics in this subculture. According to the Enfodesk report, customers aged from 20~34 accounted for 76. 52 percent for the Weibo users.

It means that major customers of Weibo are born in 1980s and 1990s, which is a new generation in China after the “only one child” policy. There are there typical elements affecting this culture group. 4. 3. 1 Family In oriental culture, like in China, people put more emphasis on relationships with other. And family is the most important relation that plays a vital role in the formation of personalities. And Child tend to be more self conscious in small families than large families. In China, the structure of family experienced huge changes after the ‘one child’ policy.

The ‘China Population Statistics Yearbook 2000’stated that the family size gradually reduced in scale since the policy and the average number of each family dropped from 4. 51 in 1982 to 3. 58 in 1999. Having only child in their family among the generation of 80s and 90s, parents putted all attention and family resources on their child, which lead to a certain degree of doting on that child. As a result, the new generation is more self-centered, revealing a era of self. And, people in this group wanted to be different from their parents’ generation and tend to more emphasis on the self expression.

The customization feature of Weibo satisfies this value by provide a stage for people to show themselves. Individual can differentiate with others by showing own ideas towards fashion and current affairs, display his/her interests and create personalize profile. 4. 3. 2 Language Special language is other component to form the subculture. In culture among the generation of 80s and 90s, people usually use the internet catchword in their daily conversation. This words can be defined as a peculiar way of saying something which has become established after long use in netizens.

Because of their simplification and humorous, many youth use these special phrases in their feeds in social networking sites. As a result, more users know these catchphrases and spread them out to create even larger influence. Moreover, people need to frequently surf the internet to keep up with the newest famous words because of its time-sensitive. For Weibo, it provide a free place to enhance the popularity of pop words online and vice verse the pop words would attract more users for Weibo. According to Baidao website, Weibo fueled the prevalence of Internet catchwords in 2011. 5 Conclusion

In brief, this essay has discussed three consumer behavior theories, that are the means-end chain, the power of reference group and the three levels of subjective cultures, to explain the success of Weibo. Firstly, Weibo clearly created its major features catering to the desired values of its target customers. With functions of information, communication and entertainment,this site enables people to build self image, get friends’ up-to-date information, enhance social network and have a recreation. Consequently, consumers can fulfill their values of self expression, sense of belonging, entertainment life and self-esteem.

Then, this site have used the reference power of celebrities and friends to attract more users along its development. By firstly encouraging important people to open accounts, Weibo induced thousands of their fans. Similarly, these early users influence their friends to use this service. Finally, supranational culture, national culture and subculture lays a foundation to the achievement of Weibo. The widespread presence of social networking sites could be used to indicate the success of Weibo. And the Chinese national culture and youth culture have speeded up the popularity of Weibo.

Though Weibo is successful in certain degree, there are still some measures which could be taken to enhance its publicity. On one hand, Weibo should provide a internal version for foreigners. Only using Chinese as the instructional language is big problem that leads to the limitation of global users. The fact is that there are increasing number of foreign users who access the website in recent time, such as Boris Johnson–the mayor of London, David Mitchell–the author of Cloud Atlas. However, they can not use the website efficiently because they are not familiar with Chinese language.

So it would be beneficial for Weibo to have another vision using global language. On the other hand, Weibo should try to create some culture based features to allure and keep customers. As can be seen from many famous products, people ReferenceBOYD, D. M. , N. B. ELLISON. 2007. Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication [online]. 13(1), [Accessed 1 December 2012], pp. 210-230. Available from : http://jcmc. indiana. edu/vol13/issue1/boyd. ellison. html. BBLOOK website. 2009. Why Weibo is so popular [online]. [Assessed 8 December 2009].

Available from: http://www. bblook. com/News/touxi/200912/11052. html. DOUBAN WEBSITE. 2011. Top 10 internet catchwords in China 2011 [online]. [Accessed 20 December 2011]. Available from: http://www. douban. com/group/topic/26003562/. GANG,L. 2012. SINA Weibo Reached 368millions Users And $10m Ads Revenue in Q2[online]. [Accessed 17 August 2012]. Available from: http://technode. com/2012/08/17/sina-weibo-reached-368millions-users-and-10m-ads-revenue/. GUTMAN, J. 1982. A means-end chain model based on consumer categorization process. Journal of Marketing[online]. 46(2), [Accessed 26 November 2012], pp. 60-72.

Available from: http://www. jstor. org/discover/10. 2307/3203341? uid=3738032&uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101403686123. HALEY, R. I. 1968. Benefit segmentation: A decision oriented research tool. Journal of Marketing[online]. 32(3), [Accessed 24 November 2012], pp. 30-35. Available from: http://www. jstor. org/discover/10. 2307/1249759? uid=3738032&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101403686123. KEITH,H. , S. G. Lauren. , R. Lee. , P. Kristen. 2011. Social networking sites and our lives[online]. [Accessed 16 June 2011]. Available from: http://pewinternet. org/Reports/2011/Technology-and-social-networks. aspx. KOTLER,P. 997. Marketing Management-Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control. 9th ed. , NJ: Prentice-Hall International, pp. 313-314. LAHLE,W. 2011. Twitter Statistics – 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 How Many People Use Twitter? [online]. [Accessed 09 September 2011]. Available from: http://womeninbusiness. about. com/od/twittertips/a/twitter-statistics. htm. ROKEACH, M. J. 1973. The Nature of Human Values. New York: The Free Press[online]. [Accessed 1 December 2012] Available from:GAO, X. F. 2011. microblogging focus on expanding the user base [online]. [Accessed 27 April 2011]. Available from: http://www. enet. om. cn/article/2011/0427/A20110427852798. shtml. THOMPSON,W. ,H,Joseph. 2005. Society in focus. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn &Bacon. Web journal of Chinese management review. 1999. Applying Means-end chains analysis to establishing marketing research variables and marketing strategies. Journal of Chinese management forum [online]. 2(6), [Accessed 5 September 1999], pp. 107-108 . Available from: http://cmr. ba. ouhk. edu. hk/cmr/oldweb/n8/981085. html. ENDODESK WEBSITE. 2011. Industry data: the distribution of users in major Weibo websites in September 2011[online]. [accessed 11 November 2011]. Available from:

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Effects of Social Networking Sites on Academic Performanc

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Background to the study Social networking is a growing field in this contemporary world. Social networking sites make it possible for people to interact with absent others in the society. Social networking sites also allow people or users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual network. In fact, different social networking sites are used today and these, to a large extent, have increased social relationships among people as we can now interact with absent others without their physical presence.

Social networking sites such as Facebook, 2go, Twitter, MySpace, Whatsapp and other instant messaging applications have helped people to share interests and also, dating online has become a growing issue in this contemporary world. The importance of social network cannot be over-emphasized in people’s life as many people are now able to maintain long-distance relationships without physical contact and this, to a large extent, has increased the social bond among people. For instance, one can decide to chat online, through social networking site, with one’s relative abroad.

Also, the presence of social networking site has helped many students to acquire knowledge from one another over internet without necessarily have to meet physically. In fact, one wonders how it would be possible if there is no instant messaging and other social networking sites to perform this operation. On the other hand, social networking sites have caused many problems. For instance many students have lost their lives and property to thieves and got exposed to incurable diseases directly or indirectly through social networking sites.

Likewise, many people are using these sites to commit atrocities such as defrauding or swindling people of their money and other properties. Therefore, social networking sites have brought both good and bad to the present generation and it is also meaningful to say that the good and bad consequences of using social networking sites depend on the usage by the people and what they want to achieve with it. 2. Statement of the problem In this contemporary world, there are growing uses of different social networking sites which have contributed to people’s life positively and negatively.

What people, especially students use social networking sites for make it seem that social networking is detrimental to students life. Many have assumed that social networking sites are socially injurious as it has affected the social life of people in terms of its contribution to moral decadence manifesting in indecent dressing, crimes and prostitution. Therefore, it will be meaningful to look at the effects of social networking sites on students’ social life so as to know the social impact of social networking sites.

A similar study about the effects of social networking sites on students’ academic performance was carried out in Malaysia, United States of America, and United Kingdom where it was found out that students’ academic performance was not affected by social networking sites. A study carried out on the students of the University of Hampshire also showed that social networking is being integrated with rather than interfering with students’ academic performance (Martin. C. 2009).

This is the first time an evaluation of the effects of social networking sites on the academic performance of Obafemi Awolowo University students. Most research that had been done on the effects of social networking sites on academic performance of students is not on Nigerian students so making a generalization to this effect could be erroneous. Therefore, due to little or lack of cogent literature on the effects of social networking sites on the academic performance of Nigerian student, hence, this study.

This study, when concluded will contribute immensely to literature on effects of social networking sites on academic performance of Obafemi Awolowo University students and Nigerian students at large. However, the assumptions by many people that social networking sites have made students lose focus because of the temptation to abandon their homework, reading times in preference for chatting online with their friends on their preferred social networking sites and thus reduce academic performance of student using it as a vague one because social networking sites have helped in a number of ways.

In other word, this is a vague or an incorrect assumption as there is no practical evidence to underpin or support this beyond a reasonable doubt. In fact, social networking sites have made many students to be socially informed as against the times when social networking sites were not operational. Moreover, many students indulged in using social networking sites and yet, performing well in school or organization. So, it would be wrong to assume that social networking sites would affect the performance of students in school because social networking site has its own importance.

On this note, it will be reasonable to look at the social networking sites and students’ academic performance so as to reach a conclusion whether social networking sites have affected the performance of students in school or not. Also, students are different in terms of the social networking sites and preference for each social networking site because of the purpose that each of these networking sites serves them.

This is the reason why it would be necessary to look at the preference students have for each social networking site in order to understand the mostly preferred social networking site among OAU students. 3. Research questions In line with the aforementioned problems, the following research questions are raised: What is the extent of use of social networking sites among OAU students? How does sex of the students determine the preferred site? III. What are the impacts of social networking sites on OAU students’ social life?

IV. What is the relationship between social networking and students’ academic performance in OAU? V. Which social networking site is the most preferred among OAU students? 4. Research objectives This study is designed to investigate the impact of social networking sites on the social life and academic performance among OAU students. Specifically, the objectives of this study are to i. determine the extent of use of networking sites by OAU students; ii. examine the influence of sex differences on preferred sites; iii. nvestigate the impacts of social networking sites on students’ social life in OAU; iv. discover the relationship between social networking sites and students’ academic performance and; v. investigate the mostly preferred social networking sites among OAU students. 1. 5. Significance of the study The study is significant in that it attempts to investigate the impacts of social networking sites on academic performance of Obafemi Awolowo University students. In this, the study will examine some salient issues such as the relationship between sex of students and preference of social etworking sites, the relationship between social networking sites and student academic performance, and the investigation of the mostly preferred social networking site among Obafemi Awolowo University students. Firstly, by examining these previously stated objectives, those in active service or workers in various organizations stand a greater chance of benefiting from this study because they will be sensitized on the impacts of social networking sites on students’ social life and subsequently sensitize students on how to make a rightful use of social networking sites.

Secondly, the study will increase the body of knowledge in the literature in the sense that all areas that are not fully touched or explored in the literature will be extensively explored and this process will subsequently help to increase the body of knowledge in the literature so that users of the literature on social networking will be able to use the results of this study and set a ground for new research in this area. Finally, all upcoming researchers will benefit immensely from the results of this study in the sense that the results of this study will further help to set or a foothold to conduct their own study in this area. . 6. Scope of the study This study is a case study of Obafemi Awolowo University students on the use of social networking sites. This study will examine the effects of social networking sites on student social life, the relationship between social networking sites and student’s academic performance, and the investigation of mostly preferred social networking site among Obafemi Awolowo University students. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter presents the review of literature of the research that has been conducted in this field of study.

Therefore, the review is woven around social networking sites and social life, social networking sites and students’ academic performance, and the most preferred social networking site. 2. 1. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Social networking site is a type of virtual communication that allows people to connect with each other. This concept arises from basic need of human beings to stay together in groups forming a community. Michael Wesch, cultural anthropologist at Kansas State University, compared the tribal societies to online social networking.

Like the tribal culture, in Facebook people project their identity by demonstrating their relationships to each other. You define yourself in terms of who your friends are (Wright, 2007). Wikipedia defines social network service as online platform that focus on building and reflecting social networks or social relations among people who share interests and activities. Social networking sites, email, instant messaging, video- and photo- sharing sites and comment posting are all tools that help people to communicate and socialize with each other (Mooney, 2009). The first social networking site SixDegrees. om was launched in 1997. It allowed users to create profiles, list their friends and surf the friends list (Boyd D. M, & Ellison N. B, 2007). Starting from 1997 to 2010 there are some 1. 5 billion users of social networking websites (Kreutz, 2009). People join social networking sites because it gives them an opportunity to express their views, a feel of independency and self esteem. It takes a few seconds to create a virtual profile and connect with millions of users across the world, becomes more interesting because you can stay connected with old friends and family members.

But now, using social media or networking sites like Facebook and Twitter have become part and parcel of modern adolescence or students in many schools or homes. In fact, this generation is the first to have gone through their entire teen years with Facebook and other social networking sites at their fingertips. However, communications media whether pen and paper, phone calls, Facebook, or Twitter can worsen or alleviate the students’ social life or even do both at the same time.

According to a survey, 90% of all American teens have used social media, three-quarters of them have a social networking profile, and nearly one in three teens visits their social networking profile several times a day or more. Given how pervasive social media are today, many parents, educators, and other adults are deeply interested in the role of these media in students’ or teens’ lives. Some are optimistic about the potential benefits of social media for learning, development, and creativity; others are concerned about the negative impact these media may have, especially when it comes to teens’ social and emotional well-being.

An emerging set of survey research helps document and quantify young people’s use of social network sites and looks at the tone of their online communications (Lenhardt A, 2011). And a growing body of in-depth qualitative research helps capture the complexities and nuances of the way social media use plays out in teens’ lives (Boyd D. M, 2009; Turkle S, 2011; Ito, 2010). These in-depth ethnographies of young people paint a detailed portrait of how social media can affect an individual teen’s life, offering the nuances that a large-scale survey cannot.

Some of these researches have focused on young people whose social media use had led to anxiety or estrangement from family and friends (Turkle S, 2011), while other researches have highlighted those teens for whom social media use has facilitated important connections and amazing accomplishments (Ito M, 2010). Allen, J. P, Evans, M. A, Hare, A. L, & Mikami, A. Y. (2010) hypothesized that the young people who participated in online social networking would be more socially adjusted. They also examined how adult communication was affected, which will be discussed later in this review.

The researchers conducted a longitudinal study on 172 participants. First, they surveyed and interviewed preteens on their peer sociometric status, positive and negative peer interaction, and symptoms of depression. The mothers of these preteens were surveyed about their children’s deviant behaviors. When participants reached young adulthood, the researchers asked for access to their facebook pages if they possessed one. Allen et al. coded 92 Facebook pages for number of friends, connection with friends, friend displays of support, hostile profile biographies, and inappropriate pictures.

They also surveyed these 92 young adults on the quality of their friendships and symptoms of depression. Finally, they asked friends of the participants to complete the Young Adult Behavior Checklist. After performing an ordinary least squares hierarchical multiple regressions on each variable, these Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development researchers found preteens who had displayed negativity in friendships and reported symptoms of depression were less likely to possess a social networking profile.

In contrast, early adolescents who reported more positive intimate friendships were more liable to possess a webpage. This article also supports the rich get richer theory. Kramer N. C and Winter S (2008) did a study on how self? esteem, extraversion, self? efficacy, and self? presentation are affected by online social networking. Their first hypothesis explored the relationship between presenting oneself on social networking sites and extraversion. They conducted their study on 58 young people who were members of studiVZ, which is a German social networking website much like Facebook.

These youths completed a survey on their level of extraversion, self? esteem, and ability to effectively present themselves. Then the participant’s profiles were assessed based on numbers of friends, groups, photos, biographical fields completed, and words. They also checked profiles for real names, political leanings, and relationship status. The researchers conducted a multivariate analysis of variance using extroversion as the stable factor. They discovered a positive correlation existed between extraverted individuals and a more creative profile picture.

However, no other significant relationships showed up in their analysis. These research findings were inconclusive and support neither the rich get richer nor the social compensation hypothesizes. DeGroot, J. M. , Ledbetter, A. M. , Mao, Y. , Meyer, K. R. , & Swafford, B. (2011) conducted an extensive study on young people’s feelings towards socially connecting online and self? disclosure as predictors of communication on facebook as well as the level of intimacy in relationships. Their study included nine hypotheses, two of which are relevant to this examination of findings on the two motive hypotheses.

The researchers ask if online social connection (OSC) has a positive relationship Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development with the frequency of face? to? face communication with Facebook friends and if communicating on Facebook is positively correlated with personal interactions with Facebook friends. There were 325 Facebook users who participated in this study. They were surveyed on their attitude towards online communication and then asked questions about a randomly selected facebook friend.

These questions included where the friend lived, amount of facebook communication with this friend, non? Internet communication with this friend, and how close they were to this friend. After analysis, the results showed that OSC has a positive relationship with communication via Facebook when online self-disclosure is low. They also found that personal interaction with a friend made it very probable for Facebook communication to occur. Evidence for the rich get richer hypothesis is shown in this study.

Regan P and Seeves V (2010) analyzed research and discussed the way online social networking could empower young people. The authors explained that adolescents have been the first to use social networking sites because their age group is predisposed to focus on peer interactions and social relations. They also discussed the social capital model and describe the way in which social networking websites allow young people to maintain existing friendships, make new friends, and search for past friends in order to renew old relationships.

Thus online social networks are able to both bridge and bond social capital by Online Social Networking’s Effect on Adolescent Social Development 10connecting large groups of people in loose networks and allowing for communication that fosters relationship closeness. In their final comments on relationships the authors suggest that self? esteem may be boosted by the relationships and feelings of connection and integration these social networks provide. These relationships in networks might even help socially isolated youths feel more included.

People spent hours chatting with their friends and browsing profiles on social networking sites. It becomes a compulsive habit to visit own profile several times in a day for checking friends’ updates, changing status, and commenting on others photos and videos. Finally it diverts employee’ attention from the office work. A study conducted by Nucleus Research with 237 corporate employees shows 77 percent of them use Facebook during work hours. And it results in 1. 5% drop in employee productivity for those companies allowing full access to Facebook (Gaudin, S 2009). Another study y Robert Half Technology, an IT staffing firm, says “54% of U. S. companies have banned workers from using social networking sites while on the job” (Gaudin, 2009). This was further affirmed by a survey of 3500 UK companies, it says 233 million hours are lost every month as a result of employees wasting time on social networking sites (“Facebook costs business,” 2007). Mike Huss, director of employment law at Peninsula says “All firms should block access to sites such as Facebook. Why should employers allow their workers to waste two hours a day on Facebook when they are being paid to do a job”.

Portsmouth City Council blocked access to Facebook after it found its 4,500 staff logged on for 270,000 times a month, and they collectively waste 572 hours (71 working days) in just one month (Kisiel, 2009). This problem is much intense in developed countries and, in extreme cases, the employees are sacked because of this. After all it is a waste of public money because of social networking sites. According to a report from a Common Sense Media Research Study, many more teens reported a positive impact of social media use on their emotional well-being than a negative one.

Most teens don’t think their use of social media affects their social and emotional well-being one way or the other. But there are some teens who think that using social media does affect how they feel about themselves and their social situation. More than one in four teens say that using their social networking site makes them feel less shy (29%) and more outgoing (28%); one in five says it makes them feel more confident (20%), more popular (19%), and more sympathetic to others (19%); and 15% say it makes them feel better about themselves.

By comparison, only 5% say social networking makes them feel less outgoing; 4% feel worse about themselves, less confident, and less popular after using their social networking site; and 3% feel shyer. Very few teens think that using their social network site makes them more depressed. Among all teen social network users, only 5% say using their social networking site makes them feel more depressed, compared to 10% who say it makes them feel less depressed.

Even among the least happy teens in this study (the 10% of all teens who say they are often sad or depressed and aren’t very happy with their lives), 18% say using their social networking site makes them feel more depressed, while 13% say it lessens their depression. In particular, teens think that using social media has helped their relationships. Half (52%) of all teen social media users say using such media has mainly helped their relationships with friends, compared to just 4% who say social media use has mainly hurt their relationships.

Similarly, more than a third (37%) says social media use has mainly helped their relationships with family members, compared to 2% who say it has mainly hurt them. In addition, a majority of teens say social media help them keep in touch with friends they cannot see regularly (88%), get to know other students at their school better (69%), and connect with new people who share a common interest (57%). Finally, social networking site that was once thought to be helping people across the world to unite and making new relationship can also damage the relationship and make life miserable.

Imagine one day you find, your spouse updated his marital status to single on Facebook. And people posting comments about your sad break up. How cheap has our relationships in the age of social networking become? A survey by the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (AAML) reveals Facebook is the main reason behind one out of five divorces in the US. It also says 80 percent of divorce lawyers use social networking site to gather evidence. Flirty messages, photographs and other personal information that you share on Facebook can be used as proof of infidelity.

Mark Keenan, managing director of Divorce Online says: “The most common reason is people having inappropriate sexual chats with people they were not supposed to” (“Facebook causes one,” 2010). Facebook is fuelling divorce rate because it easily reunites old lovers and acts as a secret platform for dating. A research conducted on 308 Facebook users found majority of participants (74. 6%) are likely to add previous romantic or sexual partner as friends on Facebook. John, M (2009). It also shows time spent on Facebook increasing jealousy related feelings. Some people’s lirting comment on your profile can make your partner feeling aggressive and jealousy. And this starts the beginning of a break up. Dr. Marlene Maheu, author of the book “Infidelity on the Internet and a Psychologist”, says “Cyber Infidelity occurs when a partner in a committed relationship uses the computer or the internet to violate promises concerning sexual exclusiveness (Maheu, 2002)”. Today social networking sites make it easier, with situations whereby your spouse does not feel good to have sex with you but seeks sexual solicitation from a facebook friend.

In fact, there are sites dedicated to facebook cheating; ‘facebookcheating. com’ providing tips on how to catch a cheating spouse in the social networking sites. 2. 2. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE The impact of the social networking site on education is an important issue that has caught both educators’ and practitioners’ attention in recent years. There is a growing body of studies emphasizing that individuals are embedded in their societies.

Thus, the related social structure, though sometimes invisible, is often associated with instrumental outcomes, including power, innovation, learning outcomes, and job performance. Haythornthwaite examined the distance learners’ interactions in class and profiled students’ roles and information exchange among distance learners’ social networks. In a university course, Guldner and Stone-Winestock empirically demonstrated that appropriate arrangement of groups according to each student’s position in a social network might increase the student’s learning satisfaction and academic performance.

Students are paying more attention towards these social networking activities rather than utilizing this time for their studies and this surely affects their academic performance as Thomas (1987) stated that activities of students are associated with grade-related differences among them. Several studies have been done regarding social networking and grades. Whittemore School of Business and Economics recently conducted a survey of over 1,000 students. They asked questions regarding which social network sites were used, how much time they spent on a site, what their grade point average (GPA) was, and what they were going to school for.

It was concluded that there is no correlation between how much time is spent on a social networking site and grades (Martin, 2009). The University of New Hampshire agrees, and believes that current college students grew up in the technology era and social networking is now just a part of a student’s daily routine. Their research show that “63% of heavy users received high grades, compared to 65% of light users” (U of NH, 2009). The University of New Hampshire said that a majority of students use social networking for social connections and entertainment, but are also using it for education and professional reasons.

Northwestern University recently published research stating that social networking sites are not affecting students’ GPAs. In fact, ethnic background, and parental education appears to have more of an influence than the amount of time used on social networking sites. Northwestern researchers believe that “social networking use didn’t affect the difference in GPAs between male and female or white and African American students. However, social network use did eliminate the difference in GPAs between students whose parents had differing levels of higher education” Cheng, J. 2010). When researchers controlled the demographic of parental education, there seemed to be a positive relationship between internet use and GPA. However, there are always two sides to every story. Karpinski focused on the relationship between time spent on Facebook and the academic performance of students (San Miguel, 2009). The overall finding indicated “more time on Facebook equals slightly lower grades” San Miguel, (2009). In Karpinski’s study the average Facebook user had a GPA of 3. 0 to 3. 5, while the non-Facebook user had a GPA of 3. 5-4. 0.

Also, the average Facebook user studied for 1-5 hours per week, while the non-Facebook user would student 11-15 hours per week. Many researchers are aware that Facebook is not the only thing that could possibly be taking away study time. However, 55% of those surveyed “access their pages several times a day or at least once a day for a long period of time” (San Miguel, 2009). Kirschnera revealed that students who multi-task between social networking sites and homework are likely to have 20% lower grades than a student who does not have a social networking site in visual range.

Kirschnera believes that even running a social networking site on the background on a student’s PC while studying or doing homework could lower a student’s grade. He believes that “the problem is that most people have Facebook or other social networking sites, their e-mails and maybe instant messaging constantly running in the background while they are carrying out their tasks” (Enriquez, J. G. 2010). Users of Facebook have an average “GPA of 3. 06, while non-users have an average GAP of 3. 82” (Choney, 2010). Facebook, and other social media websites, are beginning to take up more time due to our society’s increasing reliance on computers.

At the American Educational Research Association 2009 annual conference a presentation stated that United States college students who use social networking sites tend to have lower grades. Again, researchers found the same findings as Karpinski. Students who work tends to use social networking sites less than those students who are more activities based within campus. However, researchers indicated that they could not be certain that Facebook use was the direct link to lower grades because of less studying” but they felt that it was an obvious connection to make (Schneider, 2009).

Englander (2010) proclaimed that internet usage is negatively associated with academic performance of student users and destructive impact of internet usage is far more momentous than its advantages. Internet addiction has come forth as a result of striking boost in internet usage over the past few decades. Nalwa. K. , Anand. A. P (2003) proposed that addicted users prefer using internet setting back their personal and professional responsibilities and this ultimately leads to poor academic performance. Kubey, R. W. , Lavin, M. J. , and Barrows, J. R. 2001) proposed that impairment of academic performance and internet dependency are correlated with the use of synchronous communication applications including social networking sites and chat rooms. Similarly, Banquil and Burce (2009) found a continuing drop of grades among student users of social networking sites. Also, Boogart and Robert (2006) declared that use of social networking sites and Facebook detrimental impacts on academic performance of student users. Then, Grabmeier (2009) observed lower GPAs among students who log in any social networking sites.

Internet abuses are increasing at an alarming rate and putting forward a serious need to promote usage regulations among student users. While using social networking sites, issues of privacy, identity protection, and e-professionalism must be paid attention. Students, using internet more, scored higher on reading skills test and had higher grades as well (Linda 2006). Also it has been found that Facebook usage is helpful for cure in case of some psychological problems including low life-satisfaction and low self-esteem (Ellison et al. , 2007).

Social networking sites also provide a rich mean of interaction between teachers and students as stated by Roblyer (2010). Shah (2001) proposed that informational use of internet is positively correlated with civic indicators of social capital such as civic engagement, interpersonal trust, and life contentment. Pasek, J. , Kenski K. , Romer D. , Jamieson K. H. (2006) stated that a site-specific culture can both positive and negatively affect the building of social capital and found that Facebook usage is not positively associated with lower grades of the students rather found Facebook users scoring higher grades.

No association was found between GPAs of student users and Facebook usage in a study conducted by Kolek, E. A and Saunders, D (2008). Social networking sites promote interactivity among students and teachers. In a research Lovitts, B. E and Nelson, C. (2000) found that strong integration of students into their professional and social life is sturdily correlated to the successful completion of their degree. In view of the contrasting findings mentioned above, Current study specifically aims at exploring the relationship between social networking sites usage and educational performance of the student users.

CHAPTER THREE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In this study, two theoretical orientations in sociology shall be employed to explain the impact of social networking sites on the academic performance of students. These sociological approaches are Uses and Gratification Theory, a perspective that places more focus on the consumer or audience instead of the actual message itself and Media Dependency Theory which posits that media influence is determined by the interrelations between the media, its audience, and society.

The study is anchored on both theories. 3. 1Uses and Gratification Theory According to Katz (1959), gratification theory is concerned with what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Sociologists such as Louis Wirth (1897-1952) and Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) have emphasized the importance of mass media as instruments of social control. What mass communication scholars today refer to as the uses and gratifications approach is generally recognized to be a sub-tradition of media effects research (McQuail, 1994).

Early in the history of communications research, an approach was developed to study the gratifications that attract and hold audiences to the kinds of media and the types of content that satisfy their social and psychological needs (Cantril, 1942). Much early effects research adopted the experimental or quasi-experimental approach, in which communication conditions were manipulated in search of general lessons about how better to communicate, or about the unintended consequences of messages (Klapper, 1960). Assumption of Uses and Gratifications Theory The assumptions of uses and gratifications theory are as follow: . There is not merely one way that people use media but there are many ways and reasons for using it (Blumer, 1979). 2. People have freewill to decide how they will use media and how it will affect them. 3. People using media can choose the influence media has on them as well as the idea that users choose media alternatives merely as a means to an end (Katz, 1959). Uses and gratifications researchers produced multiple responses. Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas (1973) assembled a comprehensive list of social and psychological needs said to be satisfied by exposure to mass media.

Rosengren (1974), attempting to theoretically refine uses and gratifications, suggested that certain basic needs interact with personal characteristics and the social environment of the individual to produce perceived problems and perceived solutions. Those problems and solutions constitute different motives for gratification behavior that can come from using the media or other activities. Together media use or other behaviors produce gratification (or non-gratification) that has an impact on the individual or society, thereby starting the process anew. Application of Uses and Gratifications Theory to this study

Social networking sites are numerous and effective in disseminating information quickly. The rate at which information is moving around the world is very high that in a twinkling of an eye a piece of information can travel from one end of the world to another. Social networking sites available in Nigeria include Facebook, Twitter and Yahoo chat among others. There are many ways and reasons for using these social networking sites. The most common reason for using them by students is to meet and relate with friends both within country and around the world.

In reality, there is no law as to which of the sites people and especially students can visit and when and how they can visit them. In Nigeria both young and old are free to join any of these social networks at will and in essence many young people have been engrossed in using them. The proliferation of Global System Mobile (GSM) in the country has really put the utility of these social networks on the hands of people most especially students. As a result of this, students’ environment is charged with nothing but shouting of pinging and chatting both day and night. Negative effect of social networking sites cannot be underemphasized.

The focus of this study is the effect of these social networking sites among Obafemi Awolowo University students. The effect can be seen mostly on the academic performance of the students and their social life. This can be linked to the number of hours pinging and chatting is taking out of their time. Many students prefer securing phones that can browse to buying textbooks and lecture materials needed for their academics. It has been the habit of many students to be chatting while lectures are on and some even take it into examination hall to perpetrate examination malpractice.

The failure of uses and gratifications theory to underscore the relationship between social network, its audience and society necessitated the use of a complimentary theory. Media Dependency Theory Media dependency theory is a theoretical approach which establishes that media influence is determined by the interrelations among the media, the audience, and society (DeFleurand Ball-Rokeach, 1982). The individual’s desire for information from the media is the primary variable in explaining why media messages have cognitive, affective, or variable effects.

Media dependency is high when an individual’s goal satisfaction relies on information from the media system (Ball-Rokeach, 1985). Rubin and Windahl (1986) augmented the dependency model to include the gratifications sought by the audiences an interactive component with media dependency. For Rubin and Windahl, the combination of gratifications sought and socially determined dependency produced media effects. They argued that dependency on a medium or a message results when individuals either intentionally seek out information or ritualistically use specific communication media channels or messages.

For example, McIlwraith (1998) found that self-labeled “TV addicts” often used television to distract themselves from unpleasant thoughts, to regulate moods, and to fill time. Application of Media dependency Theory to this study The failure of uses and gratifications theory to consider the relationship among the social network, the users and the society necessitates the use of media dependency theory. The characteristics of the users will determine the level and volume of interaction between the users and the social network.

The type of information sought will also have effect on the dependency of the users on the network. Population under study is students who are mostly unmarried youths. The large population of interest has increased the intensity of use of social network among the students. The satisfaction derived from using the social network has turned thousands of students “social network addicts. ” Society at large seems not to be helping the trend. Family and parents’ contribution is overwhelming in the sense that they are the ones procuring the handsets to their wards.

Government, schools and religious organizations are yet to have influence over how people, especially students, are using these social networking sites. Conceptual framework Variables are set out in this part. These variables include independent variable, dependent variable(s) and intervening variable(s). Independent variable is the variable that is systematically manipulated so that the effect on the dependent variable can be observed. Dependent variable is the outcome variable which is hypothesized to vary under an influence. Figure 3. : Conceptual framework of the effect of social networking sites on the academic performance. Independent Variable Dependent Variable Intervening Variables | | |Good academic performance | It is my assumption that students who use social networking sites get addicted to it, they use the sites during classes and experience reduction in their study time. These would lead to poor academic performance. However, a reduction in time spent on social networking sites would result in good academic performance. Hypotheses

Based on the assumptions, the following hypotheses can be derived; Hypothesis 1; there is no relationship between social networking sites and student’s academic performance. Hypothesis 2; there is no relationship between the sex of a students and preference of social networking sites. CHAPTER FOUR METHODOLOGY The aim of this section is to present in detail the method that was used in carrying out this study. It deals with the process taken in carrying out the study under investigation. Quantitative technique was and involving the administration of questionnaire.

This chapter thus discusses research design, the area of the study or population of interest, sample size and sampling procedures, data collection method, validation of research instrument and testing, and method of data analysis. 4. 1 RESEARCH DESIGN This study is a survey design research as it gears towards understanding the effect of social networking sites on academic performance. However, for the purpose of this study, cross-sectional design was used since the idea was to measure some variables at a single time and besides, most surveys are cross-sectional. . 2AREA OF THE STUDY AND POPULATION OF INTEREST This study was conducted among students of Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife. Ile-Ife is a town in Osun State, South-Western Nigeria. Osun State was carved out of Oyo Sate on August 27, 1991 during the regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. Its capital is Osogbo. Osun State is landlocked and occupies 9251 kilometers. The university was founded in 1962. the university was formerly called university of Ife and was later changed to Obafemi Awolowo University in 1987 following the death of one of its co-founder.

The university is situated on a large expanse of land totaling 11,861 hectares in Ile-Ife. The university has many structures and human resources. The university comprises of over 25,000 students, central campus, residential area for students, staff quarters, teaching and non-teaching staff as well as teaching hospital and a research farm. 3. SAMPLING SIZE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE The population of interest for this study is Obafemi Awolowo University students. The sampling method that will be used for this study is accidental sampling which falls under non-probability sampling.

Therefore, people will be selected based on their availability. Overall, the sample of hundred people will be investigated with the instrument, questionnaire. From the sample selected, the data as regards the previously stated objectives will be collected from the selected respondents and the data will be used to prove the hypothesis right or wrong. 4. 4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The research methodology used for this study was quantitative research methodology and it commanded the use of questionnaire as an instrument for collecting data in this study.

This questionnaire was self administered to the respondents in other to gather data relevant to the issues under discussion. However, for good understanding of the impact of social networking sites on student’s academic performance, primary data was used because data from the source is preferably to data that has been collected previously in which little is known whether it is correct or not and based on the fact that change is constant as things can change at anytime and it will be bad to rely on false information.

Therefore, the primary source of data was used for this study as it provided basic reliable and concrete information from the respondents. Primary data refers to data obtained from the originator of the data (Fagboungbe 1993). The questionnaire was the major source of my data collection. For the purpose of this study, interview cannot be used because not many students have much time to spend with the interviewer because of other activities they may want to attend to and for this reason, interview method would be time consuming because moving from ne person to another with interview guide with a view of collecting data from them would be difficult. Hence, the questionnaire in this case was divided into four sections: Section A solicited for information on the socio-economic data of the students, Section B was concerned with the questions on the impacts of socio-networking sites on student’s social life. Section C inquired more information on the effects of social networking sites on student’s academic performance. Finally, section D asked information on the commonly used social networking site and the reason for the preference. 4. VALIDATION OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT The instrument was validated using face validity. The questions asked in this questionnaire totally reflected what was needed to understand the view of respondents on the impact of social networking sites on student’s academic performance. In short, the questions asked in this questionnaire are germane to the issue of social networking sites and student’s academic performance. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS The data was collected from the participants and was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software for windows.

The responses of the participants were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. The analysis of the data was done in stages. Firstly, the data was pre-coded for easy entry of the data into spreadsheet. Secondly, the coded data was carefully entered into a spreadsheet and therefore, proper verification of the data entered into the spreadsheet was made. Thirdly, the analysis of the data was done and tables showing the frequencies and percentages of the results of analysis were derived.

The fourth and last stage showed the interpretation of the results of the analysis. Lastly, the basis of decision is making inferences on result of analysis of the responses that were given by the respondents and consequently, the result of analysis of the responses supplied by the respondents was compared with the literature review and the theories used. After these, decisions were drawn from the students’ responses. CHAPTER FIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS Frequency distribution of respondents by socio demographic characteristics

The table shows the distribution of respondents by their socio demographic characteristics: the distribution by sex shows that 68% of the respondents were males while 32% of them were female. As regards the age of the respondents 26% of the respondents were in the age range 15-20, 55% were in the age group 21-25, 17% of them were in the age group 26-30 while 2% were in the age group 30 and above. Also, the religious affiliation also shows that 79% were of the Christian faith while 21% of the respondents were Muslims.

More so, the distribution by ethnicity also shows that 70% were Yoruba, 8% of them were Hausa, and 16% were Igbo while the remaining 6% were from other tribes. The distribution by marital status also shows that 87% of them were singles while 13% of the respondents were also married. |Socio demographic characteristic |Frequency |% | |Sex: | | | |Male |68 |68. 0 | |Female |32 |32. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |Age: | | | |15-20 |26 |26. 0 | |21-25 |55 |55. 00 | |26-30 |17 |17. 00 | |30 and above |2 |2. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Religious affiliation: | | | |Christianity |79 |79. 00 | |Islam |21 |21. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Ethnicity: | | | |Yoruba |70 |70. 00 | |Hausa |8 |8. 00 | |Igbo |16 |16. 00 | |Others |6 |6. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |Marital status: | | | |Single |87 |87. 00 | |Married |13 |13. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 Frequency distribution of respondents by the social networking sites and social life. The table shows the illustration of respondents by their social networking sites and social life: as regards using my social networking site has helped connect me with new people who share a common interest, hobby or active of mine shows that 83% strongly agree,12% strongly disagree while 5% said there is no comment.

Also, regarding using my social networking site often distract me when I should be paying attention to the people I’m with showed that 37% of them strongly agree, 46% strongly disagree while 17% had no comment. More so, the distribution by using my social networking site has helped me stay in touch with friends I can’t see on a regular basis indicated that 90% strongly agree, 9% strongly disagree while 1% had no comment. Social networking sites and social life |Frequency |% | |Using my social networking site has helped me stay in touch with | | | |friends I can’t see on a regular basis: | | | |Strongly agree | | | |Strongly disagree |90 |90. 0 | |No comment |9 |9. 00 | |Total |1 |1. 00 | | |100 |100. 0 | |Using my social networking site has helped connect me with new people| | | |who share a common interest, hobby, or activity of mine: | | | |Strongly agree | | | |Strongly disagree |83 |83. 00 | |No comment |12 |12. 0 | |Total |5 |5. 00 | | |100 |100. 00 | |Using my social networking site often distract me when I should be | | | |paying attention to the people I’m with: | | | |Strongly agree |37 |37. 0 | |Strongly disagree |46 |46. 00 | |No comment |17 |17. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Using my social networking site has helped me be more aware of | | | |current events: | | | |Strongly agree |90 |90. 00 | |Strongly disagree |8 |8. 00 | |No comment |2 |2. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 Frequency distribution of respondents by social networking sites and academic performance The table shows the distribution of respondents by social networking sites and academic performance; those who said they currently have a profile on a social networking site 95% of them has while 5% does not have. Also, with those who often visit the site 76% of them visit there very often, 9% rarely visits there while 15% visits the site sometimes.

Regarding those who visit the site to text or message people while in class 73% of the respondents sometimes use the site while 43% said no. regarding changes in your grade in class 35% said they noticed it while 65% said they did not notice any change in their grade. |Social networking sites and academic performance |Frequency |% | |Do you currently have a profile on a social networking site such as | | | |Facebook, Myspace, or some other site? | | |Yes | | | |No |95 |95. 00 | |Total |5 |5. 00 | | |100 |100. 00 | |How often do you visit this site? | | |Very often |76 |76. 00 | |Rarely |9 |9. 00 | |Sometimes |15 |15. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Do you sometimes use this site to text or messaging people while in | | | |class? | | | |Yes |57 |57. 00 | |No |43 |43. 00 | |Total |100 |100. 0 | |Have you noticed any change in your grade in class? | | | |Yes | | | |No |35 |35. 00 | |Total |65 |65. 00 | | |100 |100. 0 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 Frequency distribution of respondents by commonly used social networking site The table shows the distribution of respondents by commonly used social networking site; those who said they were using the social networking 54% shows that they were using Facebook, 3% of them were using 2go, 27% of them were using Twitter, 4% were using Myspace while 12% of them were using other social networking sites. With those who said they cannot do in a day without visiting the site shows that 61% said yes while 39% said no. ith the main way you check your social networking site 61% shows that from my cell phone or other mobile device, 17% were checking from a laptop or desktop computer while 22% were using both equally. |Commonly used social networking site |Frequency |% | |Which social networking do you mainly use? | | | |Facebook |54 |54. 0 | |2go |3 |3. 00 | |Twitter |27 |27. 00 | |Myspace |4 |4. 00 | |Others |12 |12. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |Can you do in a day without visiting this site? | | | |Yes |61 |61. 00 | |No |39 |39. 0 | |Total |100 |100. 00 | |What is the main way you check your social networking site? | | | |From my cell phone or other mobile device | | | |From a laptop or desktop computer |61 |61. 0 | |Both equally |17 |17. 00 | |Total |22 |22. 00 | | |100 |100. 00 | SOURCE: FIELD SURVEY 2013 5. 5Test of hypotheses 1. There is no relationship between the sex of student and preference of social networking sites. 2.

There is no relationship between social networking sites and student’s academic performance. Hypothesis 1 Ho: there exist no relationships between the sex of students and preference of social networking sites H1: there exists a relationship between the sex of students and preference of social networking sites. | |Value |Degree of freedom |p-value | |Pearson chi-square |0. 4417 |2 |0. 802 | Critical region: reject Ho if p-value