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Past the ‘public hours’: a Photographic exploration of Public space and its shifting nature


An abstract is a synopsis of the whole dissertation and allows the reader to gain a flavour of the objective and outcome of the dissertation. You should keep this brief: something between 75 and 125 words is usually ideal.

Chapter 1: Introduction

As the ‘academic chapter’ of my life gets closer to an end, I am asked to present a so-called ‘final’ body of work. After last year’s exploration of the complex issues of ‘identity’ and ‘belonging’ in a given society, I have now set out to examine the space we live in, and the way it affects us.

This project started as an investigation of the function walls have in today’s social world. I have come a long way since then and a quick look into my logbook might help you to get a better understanding of where I am coming from. Over the next few pages, I will do my best to explain the full extent of my project and its development.

i. When an image is worth a thousand words, don’t talk too much.

Anyone would expect it to be easy for a photographer to talk about his work. It turns out to be much harder than expected. It is simple enough to discuss what brought me to begin, what the factors that have influenced me are, but to discuss what has resulted is a whole different matter. Ivan Turgenev wrote in Fathers and Sons (1862): “A picture shows me at a glance what it takes dozens of pages of a book to expound.”

I have come to realise that talking about my work reduces the impact the photographs have on the viewer. Robert Adams, in ‘Why People Photograph’ (1994), states: “The main reason that artists don’t willingly talk about their work or explain their produce is that the minute they do so, they’ve admitted failure. Words are proof that the vision they had is not”. This statement is especially true in this case as this body of work is a mere capture of what is available to the ‘public eye’; it is a reflection of emotions that are commonly experienced. The images should therefore be experienced fully without the help of a written narrative. Nonetheless, for purely academic reasons, I shall attempt to give some basic explanations about my images.

ii. What it is not

This essay is not a dissertation. It may be structured like one, but it definitely is not meant to be one. I chose this layout because it provides a clear and concise framework to address the complex ideas that emanate from this project. Any other structure would fail to address all of the issues that need to be explored in a clear manner.

iii. At the beginning there was nothing

As I am about to leave academia for good, I have come to realise that I am a very different person than the one I was during my first year of university. Nonetheless, it is during these two years of my MA that the most significant changes occurred. More than just a mere growing sense of responsibility, I have grown to understand who I am, who I want to be and most of all, I have developed a critical mind of my own.

During the first stage of my MA I focussed fully on myself, exploring the complexity of cultural identity, the feeling of exclusion and self-awareness. Throughout the process of production of this first project, my original ideas developed majorly, taking me to places I had barely imagined I could ever go to. I explored the concept of ‘imagined exclusion’, tying it in with the idea of identity. I analysed how my very complicated cultural background has influenced my identity, thus affecting the person I am, the way I behave and the way I fit in today’s society. I realised that I was a very fragmented person as far as all these notions were concerned, and rarely felt like I was belonging to my environment.

The next project I carried out was for the diploma stage of my MA. It was in fact a continuation of the previous one, which tried to separate my inner ‘self’ from my work. It proved to be impossible. This second body of work focused on the issue of isolation in today’s society. It depicted the way individuals experience isolation, conveying the two main (and very controversial) emotions that are arising from such state: both a reassuring and pleasant feeling as opposed to a negative and restrictive one.

These two projects enabled me over time to get a greater understanding of who I really am and how society reacts around me. This final project is an indirect result of these two projects: it is an exploration of the space we inhabit on a daily basis in which these feelings of exclusion and self-consciousness develop.

Indeed, most of us spend a major part of our lives in what is defined by today’s society as ‘public spaces’. Over time, we have developed a unique relationship with our surroundings in which we feel safe and at ease. But, come the time when the ‘public’ ceases to inhabit that space, the very nature of that same environment changes. This project is an exploration of the particular relationship between individuals and public space. It explores the various feelings of individuals when confronted to the shifting nature of that space after the ‘public hours’[1].

iv. Structure outline

The following pages are a mix and match of my thoughts and research, presented to you in the most structured way I was able to organise them in. I shall first provide you with the theoretical framework needed to understand the concepts that lie behind this body of work. Indeed, chapter 2 outlines some of the previous studies that have discussed the main aspects of the project. The essay carries on by explaining the way various photographers, philosophers and writers have influenced my work. It examines how my research fits within the contemporary study of space by other practitioners. Chapter 3 quickly analyses the experience of the viewer when looking at my photographs. Finally, the paper concludes with a quick statement regarding my personal experience of carrying out this project.

Chapter 2: Literature review

It is not uncommon for photographers to invent their own narrative. This is why it is important to clarify the way different terms are used from the beginning, in order to avoid confusion.

This chapter provides us with some key definitions and explores the various theoretical, philosophical and sociological concepts that emanate from my project. It aims to provide the viewer with a clearer understanding of the various ideas that are investigated in it. This, in turn should provide a good basis for the viewer to comprehend better both the project and the way it was produced. The literature review places particular attention on notions such as ‘public space’, its nature and the experience of an individual in it, as well as the ideas of ‘visibility’, ‘consciousness’ and other phenomenological concepts.

i. ‘Public space’ past ‘public hours’

It is not an easy task to provide a definition of public space because of the many factors that affect these places. It is mostly described as ‘a social space that is open and accessible to all, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic level’. An other definition of public space is the one Pacione provides us with. He refers to public spaces as ‘spaces of representation’[2], often referred to as ‘perceived space’ (Pacione, 2001, p.159). For the purpose of this essay, I will refer to public space as the physical space, rather than the emotional one.

Another important term that needs to be clarified is the one of ‘public hours’. It is usually used to define the hours a business or an organisation is opened to the public. In this case though, I use this term as ‘the hours the public usually inhabit their surroundings’. Public space is normally open to being inhabited. Nonetheless, individuals tend to use it in specific slots of time, mainly around the ‘working hours’. The late nights of the evening can also be considered as ‘public hours’ as they are often used as slots of time reserved for relaxation and entertainment.

This project therefore focuses on the public space that surrounds us in our daily lives at times when the public is no longer present.

ii. Shifting nature of public space

Public space and the way it is used has become a topic of growing interest among scholars. For many, such space represents something essential to the proper workings of cities: it is a space where individuals can gather, chat and engage socially with one another. Jacobs (1992) insisted that cities must provide plenty of public space where people can gather, children can play, and where a sense of community can emerge. Similarly, Lefebvre (1996), a famous French sociologist, uses the terms ‘the rights of an individual to the city’ to describe this fundamental need of individuals to interact.

On the other hand, observers of public space argue thatpublic spaces are no longer as free or open as they once were, but rather they now are spaces where surveillance by local authorities is continuous and invasive. Surveillance cameras and local authorities now police such spaces, and in doing so, they withdraw rights to socialize and mingle with one another freely (Davis, 1990; Mitchell, 2003; Zukin, 1995; Kohn, 2004). Similarly, Sorkin (1992) argues that public space is no longer a space of socialisation and exchange. Rather, it has become totally sterile and artificial, obsessed with security and safety. It replicates a world individuals believe they live in, yet represents a totally artificial ‘reality’.

By night though, the nature of public spaces is completely different. The public does not inhabit these places and the dynamics are altered. During the day, urban streets and grounds are heavily regulated and public disorder is not tolerated. This is much less evident during the night time, where ‘the familiar protocols and bonds of restraint which structure routine social life loosen’ (Hobbs et al., 2003: p. 43).

By night, the availability of light also plays a major role in the nature of public spaces: it is generally perceived that the more illuminated a certain place is the safer it will be. In essence, the dichotomy between day and night[3] is usually associated with the unknown, provoking fears, mystery, curiosity and contradiction (Gwiazdzinski, 2005).

As the nature of public spaces changes regarding what time of the day it is, so does the way individuals experience it.

iii. Experience of space

A phenomenological approach is used in this case to explore the individuals’ experience of space[4]. Perez de Vega (?) argues that certain spaces can be experienced beyond the subjective and beyond the meaningful; experiences which blend subject and object, which blend perception and sensation; experience which have affect as their main drive.

When discussing the importance of experiencing space, it is important to look at the notions of perception and sensation. Erwin Straus, in The Primary World of Senses (1963), is particularly helpful when outlining the basic differences between the two. According to him, perception is a secondary rational organisation of a primary, non?rational dimension of sensation or sense experience (le sentir) (Bogue, 2003, p.116?117). The primary sense is unreflective and instinctive. Sensation deals with corporeality[5] and perception is the intellectualisation of that corporeality. He continues by contrasting two different types of space: the space of geography and the space of landscape.

A similar dichotomy can be observed when analysing the way an individual experiences fully the public space past ‘public hours’[6].

iv. Visibility

Visibility is an important aspect that contributes to the ordinary experience of space. In general, urban planning tends to objectify places by being removed from them (DeCerteau, 1984). In this case, we focus on the way vision promotes the interaction of individuals with their surroundings.

It is argued that the built environment acts as an organizer of the different viewpoints of the member of the public. Indeed, Deleuze states (1986) that “If architectural structures, (…), are visible, places of visibility, it is because they are not only figures of stone, orderings of things and combinations of qualities, but first and foremost, forms of light which organize the clear and the obscure, the opaque and the transparent, the seen and the unseen, etc”.

But it is not only sufficient for the public space to be visible. Goffman (1963) asserts that “interactions within public space require the possibility of seeing and being seen by other people”. Exposure is one of the main aspects of people’s experience with public space. It involves being visible and observable by others, and behaving accordingly.

Some modern sociologists suggest that there is an increase in what they call the “fear of exposure”. According to them, city dwellers have lost the ability to expose themselves and interact with the space around them (Sennet, 1990).

A major factor affecting visibility after public hours (both of self and of the built environment) is, as discussed previously, light. The urban light is no longer restricted to the interior of monuments or confined to built heritage areas (city centre for example). It now includes new spaces, large landscapes. This questions the role light plays, suggesting that light can give sense to a place, giving new uses and new values (Alves & Almeida, ?).

v. The look

The look of the ‘Other’ plays a central role in this project, even when only imagined. The mere possible presence of another person causes one to look at him/herself as an object, and see his/her world as it appears to the other. This is not done from a specific location outside oneself, it is non-positional. This is a recognition of the subjectivity in others (Spade, 2006).

Jean Paul Sartre describes how the look of the other person can make one feel objectified, judged, embarrassed, or ashamed of whom one is. For example, if one were doing something inappropriate, such actions are not improper until another person observes them, but become improper and awkward when they are performed before the eyes of the ‘other’; somehow my self-conscious evaluation of my “self” becomes activated through the look of the other. I see and judge my ‘self’ as I appear to the other person: “By the mere appearance of the Other, I am put in the position of passing judgment on myself as on an object, for it is as an object that I appear to the Other” (Sartre, 1956, p.189).

This object, which is my “self” as I now see my “self” with the eyes of the Other, has all of a sudden become recognisable to me. I see my “self” not from the inside, as I did before, but from the outside as the other person see me. I have somehow become aware of where “I find myself” by the glance of the Other. The glance has an effect that seems to be experienced even more powerfully by the person being seen, than by the person seeing.

vi. Consciousness

Consciousness is a difficult concept to define. It means different things to different people[7], and because of that, it is important to be clear on the meaning we are using. In this case we use the philosophical definition of the term.

Philosophical consciousness refers to a state of reality characterised by interiority, subjectivity, sentience, feeling, experience, self-agency, meaning, and purpose. Anything that has any of these has consciousness. Anything that does not would be non-conscious–blank, void, vacuous, wholly objective. This meaning refers to consciousness as context; it is about the mode of being that makes possible any and all contents and forms of consciousness. Philosophically, then, consciousness is a state or quality of being.

vii. Cartesian theatre

In ‘Consciousness Explained’, Daniel Dennett famously criticises what he calls the “Cartesian Theatre” view of the mind. The central “Cartesian” claim he targets is that there is a specific location in the brain “arrival at which is the necessary and sufficient condition for conscious experience” (Dennett, 1991: p. 106).

In other words, the Cartesian Theatre is the idea that somewhere within the mind, every piece of sensory information is processed and then somehow judged by an observing apparatus (the audience of the theatre). This judgement then defines the conscious action of the person involved.

viii. Why photography?

“Of course, there will always be those who look only at technique, who ask ‘how’, while others of a more curious nature will ask ‘why’. Personally I prefer inspiration to information“. (Man Ray)

Photography is a unique medium. A camera, by its mechanical nature, is a simple light recording tool which, when used correctly, can produce very powerful images[8]. An artist may merely use photography to record work in other media, in which case the photograph is the final product of the art, but the concept conveyed is more important than technical issues. At the opposite extreme, photography can be merely a technical exercise, a way of reproducing and drawing attention to beauty (or ugliness) in the world. In this case, I used photography in order to question the nature of ‘public space’ and to document the world that surrounds us.

This particular medium has allowed me to present public space in a different way than the one we usually perceive it. The images communicate an alternate message (in this case about our relationship with space). In Boorstin’s words (1992, p. 91), ‘photography gives a narrative symbolism, and as a sign or, more precisely, an allegory’. We perceive photography as message[9].

Walker Evans once said: “Stare. It is the way to educate your eye, and more. Stare, pry, listen, eavesdrop. Die knowing something. You are not here long.” And this is exactly what the viewers do when looking at my images. The more they stare, the more they feel. There are so many different ways you can affect the way an individual feels by what the picture shows or doesn’t show.

When photographing the public space, I capture an instant of its ‘being’. That instant is made available to the viewer under the form of a photograph, for further exploration. “As the moments flow in the world, they flow in me as well. By freezing those moments in still pictures, I am presenting my view of the world in that constant flow. And photography becomes a way for me to explore the outside world as well as my inner self.” (Bin, ?) Through that exploration the viewer captures a glimpse of my own thoughts. As Ishiuchi puts in words so well: “A photograph is a reproduction of the surface of what you see, but the image of the photograph continues beyond the frame, and reflects the artist’s self, with many layers of concern and intention, widely, deeply, and beautifully.” (Ishiuchi, ?)

Finally, in a few simple words, it is safe to say that photography has allowed me to bring to the viewer an awareness of self, others, and their environment.

Chapter 3: Methodology

This chapter aims to provide the viewer with a greater understanding of the evolution of my project. It presents the various methods of research I used whilst exploring public space through a selection of influential photographers and authors. In addition, it helps situating this body of work within contemporary practice.

i. Influential photographers

There is a wide selection of photographers that have influenced me and have lead to the production of this project. In this paragraph, I outline only a few of them, who, I believe are most relevant to the final body of work produced.

The project titled ‘We Are No Longer Ourselves’ (see Appendix 1), produced in 2001 by Rut Blees Luxemburg, Effie Paleologou and Sophy Rickett was probably the body of work which influenced me the most. ‘We Are No Longer Ourselves’ examines the enigmatic subject of the nocturnal city. These three photographers inhabit the streets, exploring how urban life transforms after dark. The city by day is a crowded and lively place. By night, empty corners and dark shadows can suggest sinister possibilities and create a highly charged atmosphere. Through this body of work, these photographers explore how the cityscape reflects and affects the human condition. The photographs produced are a direct investigation of the urban landscape. They are images taken at night on the edge of the centre of the city, long exposures which allow them to use the light emanating from the street only.

The resulting images are strange and beautiful, sometimes immediately recognisable whilst others are almost abstract, flooded with green and golden light. Urban landscapes often seem threatening and dehumanising, but these poetic and seductive draws us in, making us look again, hinting at new ways of seeing and interacting with the cities we inhabit.

Corriette Schoenaerts is a Dutch photographer mostly known for her editorial work. She takes on commissions from various magazines, mostly working on fashion shoots as well as other promotional photographs that are both refreshingly colourful and visually challenging. In her project ‘Nightscapes’ however, her photography takes a turn as she explores familiar spaces during night-time (see Appendix 2). She states: ‘I know all these places very well, because I (used to) pass them daily. By day, they are very familiar, by night they turn into mysterious fairytale worlds’.

Her photographs are a direct representation of the physical elements of urban landscape at night. They convey a feeling of tranquillity, temporality and abandonment. It is as if everything is ready to pick up from where it was left when morning comes. The spaces represented in ‘Nightscapes’ are inviting, despite the overwhelming darkness that surrounds them.

Holger Schilling and his project ‘Wahrend Ihr Schlieft’ (While You Slept) (Appendix 3) proved to be of significant influence for my project. The photos are taken entirely at night in residential areas, discovering the artist’s surrounding environment.

The last project outlined in this chapter is called ‘Ambient Light’ by Joao Lanca Morais (see Appendix 4). Morais is professional photographer based in Lisbon, who works as a cinematographer for commercials and features. This particular project, produced in December 2010, is an explicit exploration of the architectural structure of the urban landscape. Nonetheless, as opposed to the previous photographers mentioned, this body of work focuses more on private spaces left in decay.

There are many other photographers who have contributed, whether consciously or unconsciously, to the production of my project. For obvious reasons, it is impossible to mention them all in this essay.

ii. Influential texts

Adding to the philosophical literature covered in order to get a better understanding of the phenomenological concepts underlined in my project, I examined several books that proved to be capital for the development of my work. This chapter covers a quick selection of them.

‘Between City and Desert’ by Eyal Weizman and Manuel Herz, featured in ‘City Levels’ by Nick Barley laid the theoretical base for the project. ‘City Levels’ examines the urban environment at different levels to discover the mechanics of a city. It looks at what is happening, both culturally and architecturally, deep underground, at street level, and high overhead.

In ‘Between City and Desert’, Weizman and Hertz discuss the issue of privatisation of a public space through the case study of a north London Suburb. The project’s aim was to merge all public space for a limited amount of time in order to create a symbolic, private space the size of a town. This would be done to allow orthodox Jews to carryon with their daily activities during their religious festivities. Ideas of ‘space’, ‘place’, ‘settlements’, ‘public’, ‘private domain’, ‘desert and temple’, ‘fixed geographical definition’, ‘the meaning and use of public space and the objects within it’ are widely explored.

Overall, this text allowed me to grasp a better understanding of space and territory, ownership and meaning of the terms public and private and provided me with the ability to perform a more accurate reading of space.

Vintage Calvino in ‘Invisible Cities’ provides a vast panel of vocabulary and terminology to describe cities and space. He exceeds in talent when portraying the various cities of Marco Polo’s travels, making the reader travel along with the hero. This book amazed me with extraordinary sceneries and ideas fabricated with words. In addition to the multiple descriptions of cities and spaces, Calvino includes light touches of philosophical explorations that also allowed my mind to wonder on the purposes of cities.

This book has provided me with the ability to visualise a space as if it was being described to me. A mental representation of a space is very different from the reality of that same space being observed. There is a feeling of majesty and mysteriousness about it and this is the same impression I am putting across to my viewer.

In ‘Poetics of Space’, Gaston Bachelard applies phenomenology to architecture. He bases his analysis on lived experience of architecture, considering spaces such as the attic, the cellar, drawers and the like. ‘The Poetics of Space’ does not look at the origins or technicalities of architecture, but how the lived-in and human experience of architecture affects and shapes it’s development. Through the extensive use of phenomenological thinking, Bachelard allowed me to become more conscious about my surroundings and provoked some deep reflections about dwelling in spaces.

iii. Part of something bigger

‘Darkness, Light and the Space Between’ is not just a random, stand-alone photography project. Indeed, photographers have been exploring urban landscapes for years. Some people might be a little depressed by the greyness of concrete, towering skyscrapers and graffiti covered walls. Urban landscape photography looks for the photographic possibilities that these elements withhold in the cities and urban areas where we live and work. There are a number of other genres of urban photography such as cityscape photography[10], architectural photography[11], street photography[12], etc.

Eugene Atget for example was one of the early urban photographers who captured the city in its most simple form. His work included photographing old buildings, street vendors, architectural details and buildings that were about to be demolished. Much of his work was aimed at artists and stage designers who would use his photographs as visual aids for their own work.

Henri Cartier Bresson is probably the best-known photographer of all time and one that has inspired many over the years. His candid photography, covering many of the peoples of the world, provides a valuable source of information about the lives of everyday individuals during the middle of the 20th century.

Similarly, Robert Frank was famous for depicting cultural issues in society through the use of candid street photography. His work The Americans placed him firmly as a photographer willing to show life as it really was. His ability to see the mundane aspects of everyday life as a fascinating insight into the lives of normal people helped to highlight cultural issues of the time.

The list of urban photographers is long, and probably endless. Other famous photographers whose work captured the true form of the city include Paul Strand[13], Alvin Langdon Coburn[14], Karl Hugo Sclmotz[15], Alfred Stieglitz[16] and Andre Kertesz[17].

A more modern form of urban photography is the so-called ‘urban exploration’. Often shortened as ‘urbex’, it is the examination of the normally unseen or off-limits parts of urban areas or industrial facilities (Nestor, 2007). Urban explorers shun the natural world in pursuit of more closely examining and understanding the inner workings of our constructed world, of seeing civic society in its real, raw, unpainted, un-plastered and un-prettied state. It is internal city touring, but without guides, double-decker buses, maps or directions. It’s about going where people aren’t supposed to go.

The constant need of people to understand their surroundings often leads to photographers associating modern social issues to the space around us. My project follows this modern trend whilst associating its aesthetics to the more classical trend of urban photography. I associate philosophical and sociological concepts of human behaviour with the space’s shifting nature in order to produce a rigorous exploration of this specific subject.

In addition, urban photographers could be seen as a kind of modern mapmakers, exploring every inch of a city, corner after corner. In that sense, this project is part of that ongoing mapping process, with a particular focus on the historic city of Carlisle.

Chapter 4: The personal experiences

This chapter examines the various experiences of individuals directly involved with the images. I first investigate the various stages of producing this project and the way this process affected me. I then look at the way the viewer experiences the photographs when looking at them.

Producing this project

Producing this project was not an easy task. Similarly to the last two projects produced for this MA, I have invested a lot of time and effort into researching and bringing it to being. It is almost as if a piece of me has gone into it, as both of us were evolving. The process of making has provided me with a clearer understanding of the importance of the physical structures of our surroundings, and a clearer understanding of people’s psychology of being into urban space.

This project did not involve any third parties, which made it easier to carry out. Once fully immerged in the public space after hours, all that needed to be done was to let my feelings guide me (whilst staying within the theoretical framework of the project). The actual creation of the images did feel at times somehow voyeuristic, almost illegal. My presence in these public spaces often triggered an adrenalin rush, very often making me work under pressure. Whilst I still took my time to take the images (30 seconds exposures take time) I often found myself wondering how fast I could get back to the safety of my car.

There were no major problems whilst carrying out this project. Other than the occasional scare from some late dog walkers and the low availability of light, everything ran as smoothely as it could have.

The project did present me with the opportunity to explore various areas of Carlisle, furthering my knowledge and appreciation of this city. I also noticed a substantial amelioration in my night photography skills. This was truly a pleasant project to carry out and the resulting set of images is quite satisfactory.

Viewer’s experience

When looking at the photograph, the viewer is instantly immerged in it. The darkness overtakes the visual field, forcing the gaze upon the ‘lit areas’ of the image. It is only when he/she is comfortable enough with the light that the spectator starts exploring the surroundings. The gaze never goes too far from the lit areas, navigating timidly through the image in the exact same way an individual would navigate though an unknown, badly lit space.

As the nature of the space that surrounds the viewer changes, so does his/her experience of it. He/she becomes conscious of his/her own visibility and starts experiencing the look in the full Sartrian way. The presence of the ’Other’ starts affecting the viewer and seeks comfort in full view, in the light.

The sense of possible danger hiding in the darkness triggers emotions of discomfort and fear, leaving the viewer restless. It is when this feeling reaches its summum the viewer then moves away from the image, confronting a new, completely undiscovered scenery. The same emotional journey begins again.


The publicness of space is a fairly hard concept to define. It is a complicated notion that is subject to a vast amount of controversy. This project explores the relation of individuals in such spaces after the public hours, focusing on the ideas of self-consciousness and visibility. It has been shown that spaces’ nature shifts with daylight and that the simple act of being in such spaces triggers emotions of unease and unrest.

Photography as a medium has allowed me to document this phenomenon in the most simplistic way. The experience of the viewer discovering the images is very similar to the emotional experience of actually walking through the dark streets of a city.

I have evolved tremendously whilst producing this project and have come to get a better understanding of the space that surrounds us. In addition, I have discovered in more depth Carlisle, often finding myself in areas I would never have explored had it not been for this project.

In terms of personal growth, I am now confident in my photographic judgement. I find myself much more comfortable in presenting my work, and have figured out an insatiable truth: It matters very little what people think of the final product. It is the journey that lead to it that is worth taking into consideration.

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Free Essays

Space meets knowledge The impact of workplace design On knowledge sharing ?


An examination of the role the physical workplace plays in creating opportunities and barriers that influence knowledge management has become a matter of substantial debate. Design of good workplaces for knowledge sharing is considered a major challenge for any organisation. This study provides an insight into the impact of the design and use of the physical workplace on knowledge sharing. Evidence presented in this study substantiates the position that the physical presence of an employee has the potential to impact performance and knowledge management. This assessment will be of use to researchers seeking to further examine the area of knowledge management.


Knowledge management, described as the intentional management of information has become increasingly important to organisations (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Alavi, 1997; Garvin, 1997; Wiig, 1997; Davenport and Prusak, 1998; Ruggles, 1998; Hansen, 1999; Zack, 1999a). In large part this has been fuelled by the exponential growth of the knowledge economy and the increasing number of knowledge workers who have become as essential for many firms competitiveness and survival (Tallman and Chacar 2010). For many emerging organisations face to face contact is essential in the dissemination of knowledge within that infrastructure (Ibid). The process of internal knowledge management is a dynamic element that must be maintained in order to produce results.

Literature Review

Knowledge is defined as a dynamic human or social process that allows a justification of personal belief as regards the truth (Nonaka 2011). Interaction between people, employees and consumers is one of the primary methods of communicating innovative and inspirational progress. Modern studies in the field of knowledge management have begun to shift focus from the importance of the physical workplace to those engaged in knowledge work (Becker 2004). The recognition of inherent value in the employee base adds incentive to capitalize on the low cost innovative opportunities that knowledge sharing creates (Tallman et al 2010). With critical insight established through the direct contact of the employees, the means of communication becomes a critical concern (Dakir 2012). International companies are recognizing this same value of face to face interaction as the social interaction between management sections, benefits production and development levels world-wide (Noorderhaven and Harzing 2009).

In their discussion of social capital, Cohen and Prusak (2001) emphasise the importance of the physical workplace for the exchanging of knowledge, specifically the distribution of ideas amongst individuals in a situation where they could not assume that others knew what they were required to know. Becker (2004) hypothesises that the choices an organisation makes about how space is allocated and designed directly and indirectly shapes the infrastructure of knowledge networks – the dense and richly veined social systems that help people learn faster and engage more deeply in the work of the organisation. This corresponds with the Dakir (2012) argument that technology is no substitute for live interaction among the members of the organization. Davenport et al (2002) undertook a study among 41 firms that were implementing initiatives to advance the performance of high-end knowledge workers who were regarded as critical to the company’s aims. They focused upon determining the elements that affected the knowledge work performance. Surprisingly, the issue that was most frequently dealt with by these firms involved the physical workplace – “the other common ones were information technology and management” (Davenport 2005, p. 166).

Davenport (2005) emphasises that the recognition of the importance of knowledge work has grown in recent years, but that our understanding of the physical conditions in which knowledge can flourish has failed to keep pace. The inclusion of emerging communication technology has been argued to provide a better opportunity for employee interaction (Rhoads 2010). This same element of improved long distance communication is credited with diminishing the valued impromptu inspiration that many firms rely on during day to day operations (Denstadli, Gripsrud, Hjortahol and Julsrud 2013). According to Davenport et al (2002) workplace design should be seen as a key determinant of knowledge-worker performance, while we largely remain in the dark about how to align ‘space’ to the demands of knowledge work. Davenport (2005) emphasises the point that “there is a good deal said about the topic, but not much known about it” (p. 165). Most of the decisions concerning the climate in which work takes place have been created without consideration for performance factors. This fact continues to diminish opportunities for in-house knowledge sharing and effective dissemination of intelligence (Denstadli et al 2013).

Becker (2004) points out that the cultivation of knowledge networks underpins the continuing debate about office design, and the relative virtue of open versus closed space. Duffy (2000) confirms these views when he admits that early twenty-first-century architects “currently know as little about how workplaces shapes business performance as early nineteenth-century physicians knew how diseases were transmitted before the science of epidemiology was established” (p. 371). This makes every emerging decision regarding effective knowledge sharing critical to the development of any organisation.

Deprez and Tissen (2009) illustrate the strength of the knowledge sharing process using Google’s approach: “one company that is fully aware of its ‘spatial’ capabilities”. The spatial arrangements at Google’s offices can serve as a useful example of how design can have a bearing on improving the exchange of knowledge in ways that also add value to the company. The Zurich ‘Google engineering’ office is the company’s newest and largest research and development facility besides Mountain View, California. In this facility, Deprez and Tissen (2009) report: “Google has created workspaces where people literally ‘slide into space’ (i.e. the restaurant). It’s really true: Google Is different. It’s in the design; it’s in the air and in the spirit of the ‘place’. It’s almost organizing without management. A workplace becomes a ‘workspace’, mobilizing the collective Google minds and link them to their fellow ‘Zooglers’ inside the Zurich office and to access all the outside/external knowledge to be captured by the All Mighty Google organisation” (2009, p. 37).

What works for one organisation may not work for another and this appears to be the case in particular when it comes to Google (Deprez et al 2009). Yet, some valuable lessons in how the workplace can be used to good effect can be gained from Google’s operations. For this precise reason, research was carried out at Google Zurich to provide both theoretical and managerial insights into the impact of the design and use of the physical workplace on knowledge sharing (Ibid).

Studies comparing the performance of virtual and co-located teams found that virtual teams tend to be more task oriented and exchange less social information than co located ones (Walther & Burgoon 1992; Chidambaram 1996). The researchers suggest this would slow the development of relationships and strong relational links have been shown to enhance creativity and motivation. Other studies conclude that face-to-face team meetings are usually more effective and satisfying than virtual ones, but nevertheless virtual teams can be as effective if given sufficient time to develop strong group relationships (Chidambaram 1996). This research implies the importance of facilitating social interaction in the workplace, and between team members (virtual and co-located) when the team is initially forming. Hua (2010) proposes that repeated encounters, even without conversation, help to promote the awareness of co-workers and to foster office relationships. McGrath (1990) recommends that in the absence of the ability to have an initial face-to-face meeting other avenues for building strong relationships are advised to ensure the cohesiveness and effectiveness of the team’s interaction. So although interaction alone is not a sufficient condition for successful collaboration, it does indirectly support collaboration. Nova (2005) points out that physical proximity allow the use of non verbal communication including: different paralinguistic and non-verbal signs, precise timing of cues, coordination of turn-taking or the repair of misunderstandings. Psychologists note that deictic references are used in face-to-face meetings on a regular basis, which refers to pointing, looking, touching or gesturing to indicate a nearby object mentioned in conversation (Ibid).

Newlands et al (2002) analysed interactions of two groups performing a joint task in either face-to-face or a video conference system. They found that deictic hand gesture occurred five times more frequently in the face-to-face condition the virtual interaction. More recent research has found that extroverts gesticulate for longer and more often in meetings than introverts (Jonnson 2006). Barbour and Koneya (1976) famously claimed that 55 per cent of communication is non-verbal communication, 38 per cent is done by tone of voice, and only 7 per cent is related to the words and content. Clearly non-verbal communication is a key component of interaction and virtual interaction systems need to replicate this basic need, especially in the early stages of team forming or when the team consists of a high proportion of extroverts. The physical co-location of teams also facilitates collaboration (Ibid). A seminal piece of research carried out by Allen (1977) demonstrated that the probability of two people communicating in an organisation is inversely proportional to the distance separating them, and it is close to zero after 30 metres of physical separation. Furthermore, proximity helps maintain task and group awareness, because when co-located it is easier to gather and update information about the task performed by team members (Dakir 2012).

A recent survey of workers at highly collaborative companies found that most “collaborative events” are short (with 34% lasting fewer than 15 minutes) and the majority take place at the desk (Green 2012). It is likely that these impromptu interactions relate to sharing information (perhaps on the PC) or answering queries rather than lengthy intense discussion and development of joint ideas. Interactions at desks may facilitate tacit knowledge sharing by overhearing relevant conversations between team members, but such interactions can also be considered a distraction if not relevant (Denstadli et al 2013).


There are two acknowledged methodological approaches: quantitative and qualitative (Creswell 2005). The quantitative method involves identifying variables in a research question which are then utilized in order to collate numerical data (Ibid). The qualitative research is open to interpretation allowing personal answers to be incorporated into the study (Creswell 2005). The researcher considered both options in order to complete the necessary goals.

Types of Data

There are two forms of data: primary, or newly generated data, or secondary, previous data generated within existing studies (Creswell 2005). This study required the acquisition of primary data creating the need for relevant instruments. A survey with 5 open-ended questions has been created and subsequently conducted with centred on 548 employees working at Google Zurich. This was done in order to explore the perceptions of Google employees with regard to the environment in which they work with a focus on factors that affect knowledge sharing in the work environment.

Methods of Data Collection

The qualitative data analysis employed a Content Analysis technique to reveal participant perceptions of their work environment. The survey questions were designed to explore employee perceptions regarding the following dimensions:

1) Activities that allow for increased exchange of knowledge;

2) Advantages of frequent interaction with colleagues;

3) Individuals or groups dependent on the frequent interaction with co-workers orgroup members;

4) Factors that facilitate interaction within the workplace

5) Factors that inhibit interaction with others in the workplace.

Survey participants responded to five open-ended questions and rated their answers using a five-point Likert scale where 5 was ‘most important’. Using a Content Analysis approach (Creswell 2005; Leedy and Ormrod 2005; Neuendorf 2002), the interview responses were analysed. Content Analysis is a qualitative data reduction method that generates categories from key words and phrases in the interview text; it is an evidence-based process in which data gathered through an exploratory approach is systematically analysed to produce predictive or inferential intent (Creswell 2005). Content Analysis was used to identify themes or common concepts in participants’ perceptions regarding the culturally and environmentally distinctive factors that affect interaction in the workplace (Neuendorf, 2002). This process permitted the investigator to quantify and analyse data so that inferences could be drawn.

The Content Analysis of survey interview text was categorically coded to reflect various levels of analysis, including key components, words, sentences, or themes (Neuendorf 2002). These themes or key components were then examined using relational analysis to determine whether there were any relationships between the responses of the subjects. The analysis was conducted with Nvivo8® software which enables sorting, categorising, and frequency counts of invariant constituents (relevant responses). Content Analysis was used to critically evaluate the survey responses of the study participants, providing in-depth information regarding the factors related to workplace interaction.

Sample Respondent Characteristics

The invited population consisted of 675 individuals and a total of 548 individuals participated in the survey resulting in a response rate of 81 per cent. Of these 548 completed surveys, 35 responses were discarded because the respondents only partially completed the survey. The final sample consisted of 513 respondents. The key characteristics of these respondents are summarized in Table 4-1.

Table 4-1 Sample Respondent Characteristics

EducationHigh School

Bachelor Degree

Certificate Degree

Master Degree

PhD Degree






Tenure< 2 years

2-5 years

> 5 years153


Time Building Use< 1 year

1 year

2 years

> 2 years140



Time Desk Use< 3 months

3-6 months

7-12 months

> 12 months143



Age< 20 years

21-30 years

31-40 years

41-50 years

> 50 years0






MobiltyZurich Office

Other Google Office

Home Office








Sales and Marketing







United States



United Kingdom







Russian Federation

< 10 respondents73














Survey Findings

In order to provide an audit trail of participant responses to the thematic categories that emerged from the data analysis, discussion of the findings precedes the tables of data, within a framework consisting of the five survey questions. An overall summary is provided at the conclusion of the discussion of findings. During the analysis of data, common invariant constituents (relevant responses) were categorically coded and associated frequencies were documented. Frequency data included overall frequency of occurrence as well as frequencies based on rating level (5 = most important to 1 = least important). Invariant constituents with a frequency of less than 10 were not included in the tables. Study conclusions were developed through an examination of the high frequency and highly rated invariant constituents in conjunction with the revealed thematic categories.

Question 1: Main Activities that Allow Exchange of Knowledge

Table 4-2 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 1. Thematically, the analysis revealed the following primary perceptions of participants in terms of main activities that allow knowledge exchange: (a) meetings of all types; (b) whiteboard area discussions; (c) video conferencing; (d) email, and (e) code reviews. These elements demonstrated a high frequency of importance ratings, and a moderate percentage of respondents rated these elements as ‘most important’ (rating 5). Other themes revealed through the analysis included the importance of writing and reading documentation, Instant Messaging (IM) text chat, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), and extracurricular/social activities. All other invariant constituents with a frequency of greater than 10 are shown in Table 4-2.

Table 4-2 Data Analysis Results for Question 1: Main Activities Allowing for Exchange of Knowledge

Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating

5=Most important
Informal discussion/face to face mtgs/stand ups35114977603332
Formal planned meetings/conference room mtgs2184061563823
Whiteboard area discussions/brainstorming5822131094
Video Conferencing (VC)5841620144
Code Reviews515162046
Writing/Reading Documentation476813164
IM/Text Chat/IRC4610161073
“Extracurricular Activities” (e.g., pool, socializing, Friday office drinks, etc.)4522151016
Writing/Reading docs specifically wiki pages/sites34210697
Chat (unspecified in person vs. text)3387873
Mailing lists21102522
Shared docs/doc collaboration1703554
Read/write design docs specifically1202505
Telephone/phone conversations1203243

Question 2: Main Advantages of Frequent Interaction with Colleagues

Table 4-3 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 2. Thematically, the analysis revealed the following elements representing the primary perceptions of participants in terms of the main advantages to frequent interaction with colleagues: (a) knowledge and information exchange and transfer; (b) staying current on projects and processes; (c) social interaction; (d) learning from others; (e) faster problem resolution; (f) efficient collaboration; and (g) continuous and early feedback. The following themes received a high frequency of importance ratings and a large percentage of ‘most important’ and ‘important’ ratings (rating 5 and 4, respectively) included: knowledge sharing, staying in touch and up to date, learning from others, faster resolution/problem solving, better collaboration, and feedback. Although socialising was revealed to be a strong overall theme, it also demonstrated lower importance ratings. Other themes revealed through the analysis are provided in Table 4-3.

Table 4-3 Data Analysis Results for Question 2: Main Advantages of Frequent Interaction

Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating

5=Most important

Knowledge sharing/exchange of information/Knowledge transfer149753919124
Staying in touch/up to date/ more info on projects and processes11358281782
Socializing/social interaction7451035186
Learning/learning from others/learning new things/increased knowledge base7217281485
Understand problems/needs – faster resolution and quicker problem solving7025241146
Better/more efficient collaboration67428953
Feedback/continuous feedback/early feedback661729893
New and better ideas/flow of ideas/creativity/ brainstorming6525151474
Teamwork/being part of a team/teambuilding5110121892
Get work done/efficiency/speed462613241
Better understanding of what others are doing and how/workloads4415171002
Everyone on same page/shared vision/focus on goals of team32109652
Better personal contact and easy interaction27561123
Avoid misunderstanding/work duplication27810441
Helping others/getting help (when stuck)26391031
Good/happy atmosphere/work environment2412858
Motivate each other/inspiration2151582
Other/new perspectives/viewpoints18210312
Improving quality of work/performance1615910
Work synchronization1628141
Knowing latest news/innovations1203216
Better communication1011521

Question 3: Individuals or Groups that are Dependent on Frequent Interaction

Table 4-4 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) given by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 3. Thematically, the analysis revealed the following elements representing the primary perceptions of participants in terms of individuals or groups that are dependent on frequent interaction of the participant: (a) my team/project teammates/peers; and (b) managers. The first theme demonstrated a high frequency of importance ratings with a moderate percentage of ‘most important’ and ‘important’ ratings (rating 5 and 4, respectively). Although the theme of managers was revealed to be a relatively strong overall theme, it also demonstrated lower importance ratings. Other themes revealed through the analysis are shown in Table 4-4.

Table 4-4 Data Analysis Results for Question 3: Individual/groups dependent on frequent interaction of participant

Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating

5=Most important
My team/project teammates/peers12887191435
All reports/related teams34717442
Engineering teams (various)28188200
Recruiting team/staffing1753630
Geo Teams1576200
Operations teams1423522
All of them1191010
Other engineers using my project/peer developers of my tool1015310

Question 4: Factors Facilitating Easy Interaction

Table 4-5 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 4. Thematically, the analysis revealed the following elements representing the primary perceptions of participants about factors that facilitate easy interaction: (a) common, proximal, and open workspace areas; (b) common functional areas; (c) sufficient and available meeting facilities; (d) excellent communication tools; and (e) video conference facilities. The theme of open and common workspace areas/shared office space demonstrated a high frequency of importance ratings with a very large percentage of ‘most important’ ratings (rating 5). Other revealed themes, particularly the second listed theme, demonstrated relatively high overall frequency, but these themes did not demonstrate the strength of importance that the first theme did. Other themes and invariant constituents revealed through the analysis are shown in Table 4-5.

Table 4-5 Data Analysis Results for Question 4: Factors Facilitating Easy Interaction

Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating

5=Most important
Open and Common workspace areas/shared office space/desk locations/sitting together175103342594
Common shared Areas (e.g., Kitchen, play/game rooms, lounges, library, etc.)173406642178
Enough facilities for meetings/availability of meeting and conference areas90192730122
Great communication tools (email, VC, chats, dist. Lists, online docs, wireless, VPN, mobile…)80113014187
Video Conference meeting rooms/facilities78192518124
Onsite lunch/dinner/common dining area (free food and eating together)5071511134
Whiteboard areas for informal meetings431018771
Corporate culture/open culture/ open communication culture431811932
Casual and social environment/open atmosphere36195921
People: easy going, friendly, smart, knowledgeable, willing to help35149336
Social Events2836577
Company calendar/planned ops for meeting/ scheduled meetings1937621
Geographic co-location/same time zone1374200
Travel/trips to other offices1212135
Chat (non-specific text or in person)1124302
IM/internet chat1051112
MOMA/social networking/wiki pages/company docs1010342

Question 5: Factors Inhibiting Interaction with Others

Table 4-6 provides high frequency invariant constituents (relevant responses) by survey participants demonstrating themes within the data for Question 5. Thematically, the analysis revealed a single strong element and several elements with less relevance as inhibiting factors. The physical geographic differences – specifically the time zone differences – were noted by a majority of participants as the most important element that inhibited interaction with others. Study participants perceived their overscheduled and busy work lives, noise levels in their workspaces, and shared work environments to be contributing inhibitory factors with regard to interaction with others. These elements also demonstrated high frequencies of importance ratings with a moderate percentage of ‘most important’ ratings (rating 5). Other themes revealed through the analysis are shown in Table 4-6.

Table 4-6 Data Analysis Results for Question 5: Factors Inhibiting Interaction with Others

Invariant ConstituentOverall number (Frequency)By Rating

5=Most important
Physical Geographic distance/ timezone differences16411536931
Very busy/Overscheduled people/ overbooked calendars/ too many meetings4517161020
Crowded/noisy environment/ noise in shared space33196440
Defective VCs/ VC suboptimal/ VC equipment not working2597720
No meeting rooms available2286620
Too few VC rooms in some locations / lack of available VC rooms1949501
Open Space: no privacy, interruptions/ disruptions1958321
Information overload/ too much email1562610
Large office building/building size and layout/ too many people, difficult to find people15114000
Team split between multiple sites or large distance between team members in same bldg1545420
Need more whiteboards/lack of informal areas with whiteboards1135210
Language barrier: lack of correct English/not knowing colloquial lang. or nuances1151311
Lack of time/deadlines1152121
Different working hours within same time zone1053200


Both the literature and the survey have illuminated interesting facets of the work environment and the need for personal communication. The analysis of the 513 participants’ responses to five open-ended questions from the employee perception survey revealed patterns of facilitating and inhibiting factors in their work environment. Nonaka (2011) clearly illustrates this point with the argument that the communal environment promotes a standard of communication not found in the technological alternatives. Further, the shift away from the organization to the person orientation provides a fundamental benefit to every employee (Becker 2004). With a rising recognition of individual value, the organisation is building employee trust. Participants in this study preferred frequent, informal opportunities for the exchange of knowledge. The opportunity for growth was centred on the capacity to exchange concepts in a free and easy manner (Nonaka 2011). The evidence presented in this study demonstrates that these opportunities were more valued by team members with high knowledge exchange needs. This is line with the increased depth of knowledge and ability to meet technical needs through employee communication (Tallman et al 2010). A combination of professional advice can benefit the entire production and development process. In this study, transactions among participants were often brief, and were perceived to require limited space – often just stand-up space – with noise-regulating options not found in open-office environments. Dakir (2012) demonstrates the environment has the potential to add to or detract from employee communication, making this factor a critical consideration. Spontaneous and opportunistic knowledge-sharing transactions were valued, and technology provided a platform for this type of knowledge exchange to occur. This evidence from the survey corresponds with the literature illustrating that increased communication and sharing in the workplace enhances the entire operation, as well as providing new and fresh opportunities and innovations (Tallman et al 2010).

The research at Google provides further support for the view of some leading companies who strongly believe that having workers in the same place is crucial to their success (Noorderhaven et al 2009). Yahoo’s CEO Marissa Mayer communicated via a memo to employees that June 2013, any existing work-from-home arrangements will no longer apply. Initial studies theorized that the work at home system would provide a better platform for workers, even on a local level (Dakir 2012). Many points of the memo cited in this Yahoo example, parallel the literature presented in this study. Her memo stated (Moyer 2013): “To become the absolute best place to work, communication and collaboration will be important, so we need to be working side-by-side.” This is clearly in line with the Coehen and Prusak (2001) assertion that the physical workplace is a critical element of the dynamic business. “That is why it is critical that we are all present in our offices. Some of the best decisions and insights come from hallway and cafeteria discussions, meeting new people, and impromptu team meetings.” This element of the her reasoning is nearly identical to the argument presented by Dakir (2012), that a successful company do so, in part, by promoting communication and teamwork in the office, the technical alternatives are not enough.

“Speed and quality are often sacrificed when we work from home. We need to be one Yahoo!, and that starts with physically being together….Being a Yahoo isn’t just about your day-to-day job, it is about the interactions and experiences that are only possible in our offices” (Moyer 2013). This section is directly in line with emerging studies citing the vital nature of the interaction and face to face employee contact (Heerwagen et al. 2004).

This study has clearly demonstrated that Mayer is not alone in her thinking; Steve Jobs operated in a similar fashion as well (Davenport et al 2002). Despite being a denizen of the digital world, or maybe because he knew all too well its isolating potential, Jobs was a strong believer in face-to-face meetings. “There’s a temptation in our networked age to think that ideas can be developed by email and iChat,” he said. “That’s crazy. Creativity comes from spontaneous meetings, from random discussions. You run into someone, you ask what they’re doing, you say ‘Wow,’ and soon you’re cooking up all sorts of ideas” (Isaacson, 2011, p. 431). This assertion by Jobs closely resembles the argument presented in the Rhoads (2010) study that found a clear correlation between the communication capacity and opportunity for successful innovation and progress. Following this philosophy led Jobs to have the Pixar building designed to promote encounters and unplanned collaborations.Mayer’s former colleague at Google agrees (Ibid). Speaking at an event in Sydney February 2013, Google CFO Patrick Pichette said that teleworking is not encouraged at Google. This reflects the consensus that is emerging that time in the office is not only valuable but necessary to sustained competition in the industry (Denstadli et al 2013). Pichette believes that working from home could isolate employees from other staff.

Companies like Apple, Yahoo! and Google are holding on to (or have started embracing) the belief that having workers in the same place is crucial to their success (Dakir 2012). This appears to be based on the view that physical proximity can lead to casual exchanges, which in turn can lead to breakthroughs for products. Heerwagen et al (2004) illustrates that it is evident that “knowledge work is a highly cognitive and social activity”. Non-verbal communication is complex and involves many unconscious mechanisms e.g. gesture, body language, posture, facial expression, eye contact, pheromones, proxemics, chronemics, haptics, and paralanguage (Denstadli et al 2013). So, although virtual interaction can be valuable it is not a replacement for face-to-face interaction, particularly for initial meetings of individuals or teams. Furthermore, the increase in remote working has indicated that face-to-face interaction is important for motivation, team-building, mentoring, a sense of belonging and loyalty, arguably more so than in place-centred workgroups (Deprez and Tissen 2009).


The role of knowledge management in the workplace has become an increasingly valuable segment of a company’s resources. This study examined the practice of working remotely versus employee interaction in the work place providing many illuminating developments. Despite the early optimism that emerging technology was going to provide the end all to employee work habits have proven less than fully realized. The evidence in this study has continuously illustrated an environment that requires the innovative, face to face interaction in order to maintain a competitive edge in the industry. Further, the very environment that promotes this free exchange of ideals is not adequately substituted by technology. In short, the evidence provided in this study has clearly demonstrated the advantage that the in house employee has over the remote worker.

The impromptu encounters between employees are very often the elements needed for progress. What is clear is that in order for a business to capitalize on their full range of available resources virtually requires, face to face personal interaction in order to fully realize the firms full potential. In the end, it will be the combination of leadership, teamwork and innovation that provides business with the best environment, not necessarily how much technology is available.


Dalkir, K. 2005. Knowledge management in theory and practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth Heinemann.

Denstadli, J., Gripsrud, M., Hjorthol, R. and Julsrud, T. 2013. Videoconferencing and business air travel: Do new technologies produce new interaction patterns?. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 29 pp. 1–13.

Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. 2011. The wise leader. Harvard Business Review, 89 (5), pp. 58–67.

Noorderhaven, N. and Harzing, A. 2009. Knowledge-sharing and social interaction within MNEs.Journal of International Business Studies, 40 (5), pp. 719–741.

Rhoads, M. 2010. Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication: What Does Theory Tell Us and What Have We Learned so Far?. Journal of Planning Literature, 25 (2), pp. 111–122.

Tallman, S. and Chacar, A. 2011. Knowledge Accumulation and Dissemination in MNEs: A Practice-Based Framework. Journal of Management Studies, 48 (2), pp. 278–304.

Free Essays

Problems with Space Travel

There are a couple of problems arising from making interstellar space voyages. Two main problems are time and fuel energy required. Scientists still do not consider that space travel beyond Solar System is a physical possibility even by using powerful propulsion systems like fission rockets. In addition there is Einstein’s theory of relativity and concept of relative time.

The former says that to attain the speed of light, the highest speed limit in nature, the mass has to increase to infinity – thus making the energy needed for this acceleration also to be infinite. While the concept of relative time states that if one travels faster, time travels slower, and theoretically when an object attains the speed of light the time stops completely. With the existence of these problems, the space travel to far away galaxies still seems a sci-fi concept (Ratliff, Kimball & Heraty n.d.)

Propulsion Theories –Antimatter propulsion

While the relative-time issue still remains a problem, scientists have proposed many solutions to overcome the problem of speed by suggesting alternative propulsion ideas. While some of the scientists focus on bettering the present chemical propulsion systems by introducing new techniques, some others have proposed an alternative to replace chemical propellant by antimatter (Ratliff, Kimball & Heraty n.d.)

Theoretically every particle has its corresponding antiparticle, identical in nature but opposed in charge. When these oppositely charged particles combine they are converted into combination energy and other particle, the process is known as annihilation. Scientists are currently doing experiments to use this energy as a power source for spacecrafts.

There are several methods to do this. One of them follows the principles of fission reactor and a steam engine. This method would provide twice of the present impulse to spacecrafts. A more complicated method used magnetic coils to direct the by-products of annihilation to provide the thrust, which would give an impulse of 10,000,000 million seconds but the thrust would be lower (Ratliff, Kimball & Heraty n.d.)

While the method is very efficient, the main limitation of using the antimatter in the propulsion system is its price – one mg of antimatter may cost nearly one hundred billion dollars to produce.  This is the major difficulty in the implementation of antimatter propulsion technology. (Ratliff, Kimball & Heraty n.d.)

Research and Experiments

Many experiments have been going on for making the propulsion scheme using Antimatter, to be more specific antiprotons, feasible in near future.

Antimatter is generated in a handful of laboratories around the world. The laboratories in America include facilities such as Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois. These laboratories produce antimatter by accelerating subatomic particles like protons near the speed of lights and then hit them against other target particles. The most famous of these laboratories is at CERN in Geneva. In fact the first antimatter particle was produced by a scientist names Carl Anderson in the year 1932 (Forward Blase 1997)

The Antimatter particles are difficult to produce because of their inherent nature. The process of annihilation consists of making a contact between particles of antimatter with particles of matter. When this happens both are annihilated and energy is created. However, the synthesized antiatoms have lasted only 40 billionths of a second before their annihilation.

The simplest antimatter atom to produce was Antihydrogen. This too took billion of dollars and decades of research. Even CERN, considered to be the most advanced laboratory, where this experiment was performed, agrees that the present method is far too expensive and that newer, faster and  cheaper methods need to be researched or increasing the production of antimatter (Book Rags)

The current worldwide, annual production of antimatter is only two billionths of a gram. Unless this number is increased multifold to the order of milligrams; the use of antimatter in space propulsion is not a viable option. This is because “at least several milligrams of antimatter is needed to fuel a beam core antimatter engine in local operations and several kilograms for interstellar travel to Alpha Centuri” (Persson 2007).


NASA has made an approximation that “the requirements for antimatter are on the scale of 1 to 100 micrograms per mission, which with the current infrastructure equates to an antiproton cost of $60 million to $6 billion.” (Schmidt Gerrish Martin n.d). However they also speculate that with the many research projects focused on the reduction of costs, the cost per mission could drop to $60 million per mission, or even lesser possibly less. At this rate the antimatter propulsion might become a feasible option for the future space voyages.


Book Rags, “Antimatter Propulsion”,

Forward R L, Blasé WP, “Advanced Space Propulsion Study – Antiproton and Beamed

Power Propulsion”, 1997,

Leonard D, “Looking to Lasers, Microwaves and Antimatter for Space travel”, 26th

November 2003, Tech Wednesday,

Persson J, “Antimatter Propulsion-Future Space Propulsion Systems”, 2007,

Ratliff S, Kimball K, Heraty G, “The Speed of light: How faster can we go”,

Schmidt G R, Gerrish HP, Martin  JJ, Smith GA, Meyer K J,  “Antimatter Production for

Near-term Propulsion Applications”, NASA


Free Essays

Aero-Space Engineering – The New Field of Engineering

Aero-space engineering is a new field of engineering that has tight links with the fields of astro-physics, theoretical physics, chemistry, structural engineering, and space dynamics. It is definitely an old form of engineering if we refer to the space launch in the 1960’s, but this field is considered new because the new theoretical propositions in both space chemistry and astro-physics were put to test. New methods deserved new application.

First, aero space engineers takes part in the designing of launch pads stationed in a body of water, say in the Atlantic or Pacific oceans. Engineers in the 1960’s to 70’s faced the difficulty of achieving bouyancy of launch pads due to some miscalculations or rudimentary tools. Because of advances in theoretical physics, these calculations were corrected. Aero-space engineers were able to develop launch pads that can be released from bodies of water. They were also able to develop spacecraft parts that can withstand the temperature in space. They were also the once who developed highly efficient landing tools for rovers and the Viking satellites.

Because of the difficulty of their work, an aero-space engineer has to study the environment of a place (a planet or satellite) before the major design for a landing probe start. They would have to consult with other scientists trained in other fields to get data and advice. They would have to coalesce these pieces of data to dvelop or modify space equipments.

The more complicated the data, the more complicated is the resulting technology. It is then of no doubt that an aero-space engineer would have to take a wide range of courses from ecology to physics to astro-physics. This would ensure that the would-be aero-space engineer has a wide-range of knowledge when it comes to design and modification. Although aero-space engineering is offered only in some American universities, its prospect for the future is great. There is a wide array of possibilities waiting for any graduate of the new field. NASA is offering wide range of job (highly paid) for these graduates.


The Princeton Review. Career Profiles: Aero-Space Engineer. Princeton Review Publishing, 1997.

Related links:


Free Essays

My Space To Breathe

I have several Indian friends in the Los Angeles area, with whom I have shared good times and bad.  I have slept in their homes, and even been considered by their parents a genuine part of their families.  Yet I disliked the fact that Indian families can often act only the basis of emotions.  I blamed their emotionally charged natures on the Indian soap operas they watched day after day.  I disliked those Indian shows even though I had watched only two of them in my entire life.  Still, I knew that it was best not to feel negative emotions in myself.

The Indian dramas that my friends’ families loved to watch daily were just slow motion pictures in my opinion.  Each moment of each drama focused on lethargic and unreal adventures in emotions.  Nothing went very far.  Crying; getting offensive about everything under the bright blue sky; and blaming one another were the themes of these shows.  I disliked them with all my heart.  And, whenever it was time for my friends’ families to watch those Indian shows, I found myself leaving their homes.  I was even uncomfortable leaving in those moments, given that my own negative emotions were obnoxious enough to seem to strangle me because I did not understand them at all.

In order to understand these emotions, despite the fact that I loved my Indian “families,” I made an effort to watch “Kyunke Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thee” (2006) with my friends another time.  While watching the show this time, I was observant of my own reactions and feelings.  At the same time, I observed the others in the TV lounge watching the show with me.  Two of the aunts of my friend, Vijay, sobbed during the show.  I tried to suppress my own strange emotions at this point.  As luck would have it, Vijay, his mom, and his dad started to laugh during the show soon after I had witnessed his sobbing aunts!  I relaxed there and then, and from that point on, the show was a breeze.

Even though “Kyunke Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thee” lasts only thirty minutes each time, five days a week, I disliked it the first two times I watched it.  I had witnessed real sad emotional dramas in my Indian friends’ homes before I had watched the show, which was perhaps the main reason why I detested the emotion packed drama on television.  I believed that it was the TV drama that had taught my Indian friends to overreact to issues.  I also believed that this drama was a bad influence on me!  Obviously, I was being oversensitive at the same time as I blamed the drama for teaching oversensitivity to its viewers.  Besides, I was not thinking that it is the individual himself with the prerogative to allow conditioning of any sort.  Nobody can force us to be influenced by anything.

Now I have stopped detesting the Indian shows that I previously could not digest.  I can stay in my friends’ homes as long as I please.  Apart from this, I have understood that my Indian “families” have a right to feel and believe whatever they do.  Choosing emotions over the intellect many a times is their choice and responsibility.  And if I love them, I must do so regardless of the different perspectives we have about dealing with ourselves and others.  While I imagine that I am granting my Indian friends this “space to breathe,” in actuality this space is mine to occupy.  I give up my negative emotions today – and for ever.  For sure, it was difficult to breathe in negativity.


Star Plus. (30 December 2006). “Kyunke Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thee.” TV Series.


Free Essays

My place: My space

This world is definitely made up of mild illusions that we are still living harmoniously with each other and with our environment. We have come to this age where society is not reaching to people in human forms anymore. Human interaction emerges over the net’s immense capacity. We are in dire need of a fulfilling social interaction. What we have are lots of electronic chat and message board’s trash with no honest emotional interconnections to serve feelings and sharing real experiences itself be it pain or joy. We all have the compassion to share what we feel and radiate inner happiness to other people who are in search for even one friend to understand their world, this world and them.

Living in a fast paced society, in a fast paced world, makes adults and youth evolve to unlimitedly cope up the pressures of work, environment, social interaction stratification, family, and technology. Sadly, adult’s priority listing serves to cope up on everything where they can gain advantage especially monetary ones living family relationships concept behind. The idea might be challenging but simply exhilarating! I feel the need to do my thing amidst the complexities of my environment and human nature. There is something I have to catch on in this world – a need to catch me.

Dare ask the question of meaning: Are people losing themselves to the black hole of their own creativity? We perform what we seek and in the process of achieving lose a part of ourselves and buried a lot of relationships therein, but to whose gain? My bedroom is the only place in this world where I can express myself be it art, poetry, speech writing, and reading. My computer is in my bedroom and it does a lot of things for me to serve my personal interest of relaxation, my music, my DVD’s, and my passion work at home academic writing and research. My bedroom is my place giving me my space from an infinite battle of articulating progress and pace.

The place to spend one’s time to regenerate youth and vigor does not only mean costly trips to beauty spas and saloons. It also mandates comfort and convenience in experiencing freedom of doing the things you love thus making it your very own passion and inspiration to be the person you really wanted to be without catering illusions. Just plain me and my unique characteristic of enjoying the art of being alone without the presence of friends and other people engaging me into general discussions and afterwards ends up telling me what to do.

This is rather a contrary to the kind of empathy and intellectual responses I expect out of human interactions. Replenishing my energy and recovering my perspective in life through music and meditations makes me feel whole and refresh upon completion of the task.

My bedroom is the only place in the world that respects my privacy and guess I can say I am in-charge here without unwanted interference. Reflections of the day’s events will start to show dramatically in a series of replays in my mind. This is a kind of a rain check that serves to gauge how well we perform as a person. We do not need to check work performance in our quiet moments, we have our company’s performance appraisal forms for that. We practically needed moral updates to determine if the world has not influence us as it pushes to affect our views and inner perspectives.

Sometimes when we need to cry and reach out to our inner self out of sorrow and deep frustrations, we can easily bump our head on our soft pillows without letting others see off poised drama performance. People could be so disappointing when no matter how hard you try to explain things and discuss the subject eye-to-eye still their heads are in parallel run on to something that is clamoring to their own thoughts and conclusion. It is an amazing art of listening that’s not really hearing what they listened since they weren’t able to get the meaning of what you have been telling them. It is a kind of a frustratingly off course discussion. They convincingly believed themselves to be authorities on any topic which make them tend to talk more and give advices that form as a pressing order rather than consoling.

My frustrations would make me want to let that voice in me get out and be heard, but on what form? I write and reach out to myself in my bedroom. When everything else is still and quiet, it is easier to reach to the supernatural in us and feel the beating of our hearts while meditating. I seek my strength in my inner world because if I seek my strength from the support of other people then I will have no strength at all. Only faith can continuously support to carry us with our burden.

Our constant fellowship with God must never be taken for granted in the entirety of human evolution. It seems that the world has been so busy and so filled with science that they forget the genesis of life. Witnessing further how science, social stratification, position and wealth accumulation has lead man far from the candor of God. It seems to deliberately change a person to another form of being yet filled with emptiness in his entirety. We forget the meaning and we find ourselves empty and continuously making a detour with our concept on life ideologies.

People could frantically worry about on a lot of things and work. They can be a member of any group or belong to any aspired circle of friends. One could be so successful but still lonely and devoid of happiness like our super action heroes and blatantly blonde actresses. It is because each of us needed to find time for ourselves, to find ourselves, to find God, and regain a better perspective in life. My bedroom gives it all, creativeness, wholeness, authority, comfort, and satisfaction to my passion in writing.



Free Essays

Privatization of Public Space

Privatization and Advertising in Public Space The fight to take over the world has begun. This fight is between big corporate companies and their race to take over the most public space and plaster it with their advertisements or just simply control it. In this paper I will examine a variety of opinions on how they have invaded public space and if this invasion is benefiting the public or not. In some cases when big companies come take over in a public location it can be positive.

Shea Stadium, although it was not exactly public, was greatly improved when Citigroup bought it and rebuilt the park. It improved the viewing experience at the Mets games and Citigroup gets publicity because people associate the park with them. Many people say that this sort of privatization by a big company can have numerous positive effects for people who use the space. Boston’s South Station has also been privatized in recent years. “The MBTA entered into a ground lease with Beacon South Station Associates, a wholly owned entity of Beacon Properties Corporation, on January 28, 1988”.

The MBTA still uses the station for the trains and buses but the company that leases it can set its own rules for within the space and has the right to sell advertising space within the station. Although commuters can still use the space for travel purposes the space is no longer public. During Occupy Boston the protesters peacefully assembled in South Station when the weather became colder but were asked to leave by police because there were not allowed to congregate there per rules of the company leasing the space.

According so Una Spencer, an activist and protester during the occupy movement, “everywhere we are encountering “public” spaces which we are told are under control of private companies”. She also mentions that’s our taxes are being used to police these areas that are owned by private companies. Spenser is “seeing is a chipping away of our civil rights from many directions” and our tax dollars are paying the police who keep us from practicing these rights.

David Morris, co-founder and vice president of Institute for Local Self-Reliance, brings forward the idea that companies should “compete on an equal footing, and where those with the most money do not necessarily speak in the loudest voice. ” Sometimes companies with the most money are able to get their name out more that a smaller company through advertising. By having ads plastered around a city, a consumer is more likely to choose that company’s product than a smaller company. He believes that by seeing ads for specific companies stifles our ability to choose freely between different things.

Morris believes in having public spaces where people within a community can congregate that is free of commercialism where people can share ideas. In Sao Paulo, Brazil people are in agreement with ideas similar to Morris’s and laws are being put into place to remove advertising. Larry Rohter, American journalist, covered the decision in Sao Paulo, Brazil to remove all advertising from the city. Sao Paulo is South America’s largest and most prosperous city and there has been much controversy over the law.

Rohter quotes Brazilian columnist Roberto Pompeu de Toledo saying the law “is a rare victory of the public interest over private, of order over disorder, aesthetics over ugliness, of cleanliness over trash. ” One controversy over this law is that people who work for companies creating advertising may lose jobs. Big companies who’s advertisements will be taken down are claiming “consumers will be less informed in their purchasing decisions and even that streets will be less safe at night with the loss of illumination from signs. Not only would the law ban billboards, but it would also ban ads on buses, blimps, and plains, and restrict the size of signs that stores would be allowed to have. Rohter reported one women in Sao Paulo saying “the truth is that there are so many banners, billboards, placards, signs, and posters all over the place that they’ve lost their impact. ” The mayor or Sao Paulo talks about bringing advertising back in the future, but with many restrictions and limitations. The city will become “an outdoor metropolis with no outdoor advertising. The Internet is another place that has become a common ground for advertising. Facebook used to be a free online community created by a group of college kids. Initially Facebook was supposed to be free of advertisements and that set it apart from other social networking sites. Now, not only does Facebook have advertisements, the advertisements are tailor made to each user based on that person’s likes and activities posted on their profile. On my Facebook is see ads for snowboard websites because I have the posted as one of my activities.

Facebook says it needs to have ads because it keeps Facebook free for users. They say it’s also beneficial for advertisers because the right group of people will see their ads. The Internet is just another place where companies are fighting to broadcast to more customers. Along with the Internet, companies also have influence in restaurants, a place where we may not have even suspected it. Have you ever been to a restaurant and when you ordered a coke and the waitress asks, “is Pepsi ok? This is because restaurants have deals with soda companies and they “receive additional benefits when they decide to be exclusive. ” By having restaurants that are exclusive the soda company theoretically has won that restaurant over and all the customers in that restaurant. It’s like a war to see which soda companies can have the most restaurants exclusively sell their soda. After careful consideration of all these opinions I cannot say I have come to a final conclusion on advertising in public space. I can see how in some cases advertising and privatization have gone overboard.

Losing our ability to congregate in South Station seems a little absurd to me because our tax dollars are paying to enforce laws that are keeping us out of a once public space. However, what would a place like Time Square in New York City be without its huge glowing billboards and signs? And in Sao Paulo they are outlawing blimps as a part of the anti-billboard law, and I think of Boston’s Hood blimp that I can see on the skyline from my dorm room window. Is it really such an obstruction to public space? I don’t think so. And it also doesn’t affect what milk I choose to drink because I still am not a big fan of hood milk.

In my opinion the best solution would be to haves stricter laws about advertising and privatization. I think Time Square would lose all its magic if the ads were to be taken off the buildings but in places like schools advertising should really be obsolete. As for privatization, I think if a public space is going to be privatized then public dollars should not be used in that space in any way. In South Station the Transit Police should not be enforcing rules put in place by a private organization when it is tax dollars paying the transit police, not the company.

I think it’s a pretty fine line and it is the responsibility of government officials to get the balance between public space, advertising, and privatization right. Bibliography “Advertising on Facebook. ” Facebook. 2 Oct 2012. https://www. facebook. com/about/ads/ Morris, David. “Curbing the Commercialization of Public Space. ” Institute for Local Self-Reliance. 15 Jan 2009. 2 Oct 2012. http://www. ilsr. org/curbing-commercialization-public-space/ Rohter, Larry. “Streets are Paved with Neon’s Glare, and City Calls a Halt. ” New York Times. 2 Dec 2006. 2 Oct 2012. ://www. nytimes. com/2006/12/12/world/Americas/12paulo. html? pagewanted=print&_r=0 Spenser, Una. “Occupy Boston: the Privatizing of Public Spaces. ” Daily Kos. 30 Oct 2011. 2 Oct 2012. http://www. dailykos. com/story/2011/10/30/1031512/-Occupy-Boston-the-privatizing-of-public-spaces “Why Aren’t Coke and Pepsi Sold Together at Restaurants? ” Xatal. 12 Mar 2009. 2 Oct 2012. http://xatal. com/miscellaneous/why-arent-coke-and-pepsi-sold-together-at-restaurants/ ——————————————– [ 1 ].

Una Spenser. “Occupy Boston: the Privatizing of Public Spaces. ” Daily Kos. 30 Oct 2011. 2 Oct 2012. http://www. dailykos. com/story/2011/10/30/1031512/-Occupy-Boston-the-privatizing-of-public-spaces [ 2 ]. Una Spenser. “Occupy Boston: the Privatizing of Public Spaces. ” Daily Kos. 30 Oct 2011. 2 Oct 2012. http://www. dailykos. com/story/2011/10/30/1031512/-Occupy-Boston-the-privatizing-of-public-spaces [ 3 ]. Ibid [ 4 ]. David Morris. “Curbing the Commercialization of Public Space. ” Institute for Local Self-Reliance. 15 Jan 2009. 2 Oct 2012.

Free Essays

Mun Unoosa – Topic: Space Junk – Country: Sweden

Jasmin Fashami 14 November 2012 United Nations Office on Outer Space Affairs Sweden Space Junk UNOOSA – Sweden A. Background of Topic 1. Space junk, also known space debris and space waste, is the collection of objects in orbit around Earth that were created by humans but no longer serve any useful purpose, which can consist of everything from old dead satellites to explosion and collision fragments. These objects often overlap the trajectory of new space shuttles or satellites, which can cause a potential collision risk, damaging the equipment.

Space junk presents a threat not only to space affairs, but also to matters here on earth; although most debris will burn up in the atmosphere, larger objects can reach the ground intact and present a risk. The ISS has had to repair numerous satellites and spaceships orbiting the earth due to the damage caused by space junk, causing them millions. Though the UNOOSA has published guidelines for nations to follow in hopes to reduce the amount of space junk, the UN still has many issues that need to be discussed and covered due to this growing problem. . Nations that are directly involved and affected by this issue include the USA, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, the UK, and others. 3. According to the U. S. military’s Space Surveillance Network, there are roughly 22,000 pieces of orbital debris larger than 4 inches currently in the outlying atmosphere, which include broken satellite parts and depleted rocket bodies. As these fragments travel through space, they pose collision risks to the ISS and the roughly 1,000 working satellites in orbit.

Many incidents have already occurred, such as in February 2009, a U. S satellite was struck by a non-operational Russian satellite. The impact destroyed the two spacecraft and created large clouds of dust and debris. “If we continue, as we have, to use these very popular orbits in near-Earth space, the density of debris and collision events will surely increase,” Marshall Kaplan, an orbital debris expert within the Space Department at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, told SPACE. com. Operational satellites will be destroyed at an alarming rate, and they cannot be replaced. We must prepare for this seemingly inevitable event,” Kaplan said. B. United Nations Involvement 1. Analysts first became aware of an emerging space debris problem in the early 1960s. However, February 2009 was when the UN first really got involved with this issue. The UNOOSA “called all Member States and international organizations to fully implement measures to curb space debris following the collision of an inactive Russian satellite with an operational one from the USA. This was the first major problem between countries regarding this issue. 2. Some organizations, committees, agencies, and NGOs that are involved with the growing issue include the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs, the European Space Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee. 3.

Every year, the COPUOS invites Member States to submit reports on national research regarding space junk and problems of collisions with space junk. Though there is no international treaty mandating countries to minimize space debris, in 2007, the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space published voluntary guidelines for nations to follow. The UNOOSA needs to continue to pass more guidelines and rules regarding space junk, and agencies like NASA to be more aware of the debris and the issues they are emitting.

Many methods have been proposed to solve this problem, but in the end, the international community needs to step up and put forth more action before the issue gets worse. C. Country Policy 1. Sweden has set up a wide-ranging space company that has 40 years’ experience in helping space organizations, companies and research organizations gain access to space, called the SSC, or the Swedish Space Corporation. This company has researched and developed numerous resolutions to many space problems, such as space debris. . Sweden believes that space junk in Earth’s atmosphere is a growing problem and is working to stop the damage it is causing. 3. On March 19th, 2012, Sweden, through the SSC, launched the REDEMPTION Experiment at the REXUS/BEXUS Esa Educational Programme, which is realized under a mutual agreement between the German Aeroscope Center and the Swedish National Space Board. REDEMPTION stands for “Removal of Debris using Material with Phase Transition IONospherical tests;” it is currently a work in progress.

In order to combat space debris and a possible, upcoming tragic event known as Kessler Syndrome, many research groups are developing technologies able to shift space junk into a safety orbit using a newly redesigned foam. Unfortunately, at the moment, a realistic system has not yet been found. 4. Sweden is still continuing to work towards the REDEMPTION experiment, whose main goal is to propose a new system based on a spray foam that solidifies.

This can be used as a link between satellites and debris and will have to work in space conditions – this will avoid future collision between debris and space equipment. Works Cited http://esa. int/SPECIALS/Space_Debris/SEMQHL05VQF_0. html http://redemptionteam. blogspot. com/p/about-redemption. html http://space. com/16289-space-junk-international-response. html http://sscspace. com/rexus-12 http://un. org/apps/news/story. asp? NewsID=29908&Cr=outer+space&Cr1#. ULGS8Ie7OSp

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Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster

The Space Shuttle Columbia was the second space shuttle disaster and the first shuttle lost on land happened on February 1, 2003. In this mission, six American astronauts and Israel’s first spaceman died when the space shuttle Columbia disintegrated 200,000ft above Texas. They are David Brown, Rick Husband, Laurel Clark, Kalpana Chawla, Michael Anderson, William McCool and Ilan Ramon. Rick husband is the Columbia’s commander was a US air force colonel recruited to the space program in 1994. He made his first flight in 1999; last week’s was his second.

William McCool is the Columbia pilot was on his first flight. A naval commander and test pilot, he was selected for the space program in April 1996, and trained at the Johnson space centre. Michael Anderson is one of only a handful of African-American astronauts, Anderson had logged 211 hours in space before the Columbia disaster. A USAF lieutenant-colonel, he joined Nasa in 1994. Kalpana Chawla is an experienced astronaut who made her first flight on STS-87 in 1997. David Brown was a military flight surgeon before joining the astronaut corps.

Laurel Clark joined Nasa in the same year as Brown, and was trained as a space flight surgeon. Lastly is the Ilan Ramon, an Israeli air force colonel, Ramon was his country’s first astronaut. He took part in the 1973 Yom Kippur war and the 1981 bombing raid that destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor. With the Columbia accident, not only has the nation lost a four-billion-dollar shuttle, seven outstanding astronauts and priceless experimental results, it has also lost confidence in manned space flight and space exploration. February 1, 2003 was a sunny day.

It was the perfect day for the Columbia shuttle return to earth. Everyone at NASA was excited for their return because the shuttle would bring back a lot of useful information from the 16 days mission. No one suspected tragedy will happen. At around 9am, the shuttle lost contact with NASA. The mission controllers thought it was a temporary problem because of the shuttle reentry into the atmosphere and also the temperature sensors on the inboard and outboard elevons (A control surface on an airplane that combines the functions of an elevator and an aileron. on the left wing had stopped functioning minutes before. NASA start to recognize something unusual happened when several 911 calls were made by the residents in Texas, Arkansas and the Louisiana area. The space shuttle Columbia and her seven crewmembers were lost. Immediately after losing of the shuttle and the seven crewmembers, NASA stopped all shuttle operations at Kennedy Space Center. They collected all the remains piece of the Columbia shuttle and grid on the floor of the Reusable Launch Vehicle Hangar.

The Columbia Reconstruction Project Team attempted to reconstruct the bottom of the orbiter as part of the investigation into the accident. The engineers found that a 20-inch piece of hardened insulation foam breaking off the main fuel tank and hitting the shuttle’s left wing during the launch on January 16th. They asked the top shuttle managers for outside agency assistance, but the request was denied. This is because the shuttle managers concluded that there was no safety concern due to the foam’s impact and decided to let the mission continue. Other possible causes were pilot mistake and space debris.

After investigations continued in the next few weeks, some molten aluminum debris from the shuttle’s wing structure, as well as molten steel debris, had been found. When the engineers eliminated the other possibilities, they began to focus on the foam from the external tank only. When the shuttle reenters the atmosphere, the temperature on its surface can reach nearly 1649oC. So the Thermal Protection System (Various materials applied to the outer structure protect the orbiter from excessive heat) on the shuttle is critical. There are four different materials in the space shuttles Thermal Protection System (TPS).

There are high-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) , low-temperature reusable surface insulation (LRSI), felt reusable surface insulation(FRSI), and reinforced carbon-carbon composite (RCC). The HRSI cover the high surface temperature reaches between 649 and 1260oC. The LRSI cover the low surface temperature reaches between 371 and 649oC. For another 2 materials are used in small amounts. Due to the temperature during reentry exceeds 1260oC at the nose cap, chin panel, forward external tank, and wing leading edge panels and T-seals, the RCC was break down.

For reuse purpose and to prevent oxidation, the outer layer of the RCC is converted into silicon carbide in a furnace filled with argon with a temperature cycle up to 1649oC. The main reason of the shuttle to break down is because the foam from the bipod of the external tank was shed, and struck the shuttle’s left wing during the launch. It had damaged the wing’s leading edge RCC structures which allowing reentry plasma to penetrate and disintegrate the underlying aluminum, damaging the wing’s structure.

The foam of the bipod ramp is BX-250, polyurethane foam applied with CCF-11 which is used to cover outside of the tank to prevent ice and frost on the surface. The foam is to reduce the weight so it made by light material. The engineers couldn’t believe that such a light material could damage the wing of the shuttle. Thus, some research had done by the Southwest Research institute. They used a compressed air gun to fire a foam block of similar size and mass to that which struck Columbia and at same estimated speed.

To represent the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing, RCC panels from Enterprise and from NASA stock, along with fiberglass mock-up panels, were mounted to a simulating structural metal frame. In the final round of testing, a block fired at the side of an RCC panel created a hole 41 by 42. 5 centimeters (16 by 17 in) in the protective RCC panel. The tests clearly show that the foam could cause visible crack on the tested RCC panels. These cracks could lead the shuttle breakup during reentry. The final report of the Columbia Accident Investigation was released on August 26th, 2003.

It concluded that this tragedy was caused by technical and organizational failures. The foam problem of the bipod area has existed for years, and NASA engineers have looked at a variety of ways to correct it. The report indicated that the space shuttle should not have been launched with this problem extant. The report further proposed that, although the shuttle had always returned to earth safely after the foam hit the wing during previous shuttle flights, the managers at NASA should not have rejected the engineers’ requests to make sure Columbia’s wing was not damaged this time.

Finally, it suggested that NASA should have had a backup plan for fixing the shuttle in space and insuring the crew’s safety if they found out the wing was badly damaged. On 26th July 2005, a shuttle discovery was launched. NASA had formed an independent Return to Flight (RTF) panel to monitor its preparations. There are 7 out of the 26 RTF panel members issued a minority report prior to the launch. They questioning if Columbia’s lessons had been learned and also expressing concerns about NASA’s efforts.

During launch, a large piece of foam separated from the external fuel tank, but fortunately did not strike the shuttle, which landed safely 14 days later. The shuttle fleet was once again grounded, pending resolution of the problem with the external fuel tank insulating foam. Reference: Columbia space shuttle disaster 2003. World news. http://www. guardian. co. uk/gall/0,,888045,00. html Space shuttles thermal protection system (TPS). US Centennial of Flight Commission. http://www. centennialofflight. ov/essay/Evolution_of_Technology/TPS/Tech41G2. htm Final report of Columbia Disaster. Columbia Accident Investigation Board http://caib. nasa. gov/ NASA’s Space Shuttle Program: The Columbia Tragedy, the Discovery Mission, and the Future of the Shuttle. Marcia S. Smith Resources, Science, and Industry Division. Updated by January 4, 2006. fas. org/sgp/crs/space/RS21408. pdf Lessons Learned from the Columbia Disaster. Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS). www. aiche. org/uploadedFiles/CCPS/… /Presentation_Rev_newv4. ppt

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Sending People Into Space

The history of sending people to the space is quite long. The first trip to the space was in 1961 by the Soviet Union during the cool war with the United States. It was an important event in the human history. However, since then sending people to the space become more and more for many reasons, such as research discover the space, espionage, and in the last 10 years for tourism too, so lots of money are spending in this field of sciences; which is not useful in some people’s opinion and they think the money should divert to worthwhile causes such as reducing world hunger. This essay explores both sides of the argument advantages and disadvantages.

There are a number of arguments in favour of sending people to the space. Firstly, discover the space which is very important to understand the space movement and predict any problems in the future, which would give people more time to find solution. For example, three weeks ago in the South America the space scientists predicted the hurricane before long time ,so the governments of Mexico and the USA control it, and the number of people who died or injured were a few.

Secondly, exploration of space allowing people to know more about the weather, plants, moon, sun and our solar system, last week a planet of our solar system was discovered in the USA by a space scientist. Thirdly, there is no doubt that sending people with their technology improved our communication; it is easier now to exchange the information than before. For example, international call, the internet and satellites. Finally, many things which often help to improve our lives were developed by space scientists. For example, drugs, human researches, and materials “Teflon”.

On the other hand, sending people to the space has also number of disadvantages. The first is that the majority of governments send people to the space for undeclared purpose which is espionage. Also they do not share the information with others. As a result each country sends their own, which means spend more money in situation they can share together. Moreover, in the recent year some companies started to attract rich people to go to the space, which costs lots of money. For example, Dennis Tito from the USA, who went with NASA for 8 days to the space and his trip cost £14m.

In conclusion, sending people to the space is necessary for both the governments and people; it will help and improve our lives in many ways. However, they have to work together in this field to reduce the number of money which is spending in their research.

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The Soyuz 11 Space Disaster: a Case Study in Engineering Disasters

The Soyuz 11 Space Disaster: A Case Study in Engineering Disasters ENGG 123 November 20, 2011 ABSTRACT In 1971, Soyuz 11 was the first manned spaceship to contact the first space station. As the astronauts were preparing to re-enter the earth’s atmosphere the crew cab depressurized and the astronauts were killed within seconds. This paper will discuss the events that happened and how they were investigated. It will also discuss how the disaster affected future engineering decisions regarding the Soyuz missions as well as other future space adventures. i Table of Contents

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………. i Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………. ii List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………………… iii 1. 0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………. 1 2. 1 What Happened……………………………………………………………………………… 3. 1 What Went Wrong………………………………………………………………………….. 4 3. 2 What Was Learned…………………………………………………………………….. 7 4. 0 Summary……………………………………………………………. ………………………… 8 Works Cited………………………………………………………………………………………… 9 List of Figures Figure 2. 1: a) a view of Soyuz 11 docked b) a view of Soyuz 11 taking off (Space Facts, n. . )………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Figure 2. 2: a) seating chart for the astronauts b) the three astronauts inside Soyuz 11 c) astronauts preparing for takeoff (Space Facts, . n. d)………………. 3 Figure 3. 1: a) map of the landing route for Soyuz 11 (Svens Space Page, n. d. )…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Figure 3. 2: a) Soyuz 11 after landing b) workers covering up the astronauts.. 7 ii Figure 3. : a) Funeral held for the three Soyuz 11 astronauts……………………. 7 1. 0 Introduction The purpose of this paper is to provide background and information on the Soyuz 11 space disaster. This disaster occurred in 1971 and took the lives of three astronauts who took part in the first successful visit to the world’s first space station. This paper will provide insight on how the disaster actually happened, what the causes were of this disastrous event. It will provide insight on how the events that occurred were investigated and also what was learned from these events and what changed. 2. 1 What Happened

Unless otherwise stated the information in this section is provided from About. com(n. d. ) 1 Salyut 1, a space station made by the Soviets was the first space station to ever be made. It was launched on April 19, 1971. It was a large cylinder with three compartments, could be used with or without people inside of it and it could only dock one spacecraft at a time. The primary use of this space station was to study the effects of long term space travel on a human body, as well as studying effects on growing plants.

On April 19, 1971 Soyuz 10 was the first spacecraft to attempt a mission out to the space station however this mission was unsuccessful. As the space craft attempted to dock it failed so the astronauts had to return to earth. On the return the ships air supply turned toxic but only one man passed out, all three astronauts recovered fully. On 2 June 6, 1971 Soyuz 11 embarked on a journey to the space station. This ship was originally supposed to be manned by Valery Kubasov, Alexei Leonov, and Pyotr Kolodin. Just before the launch, Valery Kubasov was suspected to have tuberculosis so this crew was replaced by three other men.

They were: Georgi Dobrovolski, Vladislav Volkov, and Viktor Patsayev. Soyuz 11 successfully reached the space station and managed to hand dock the ship once they were within 100 metres. Once docked, problems began to take over the mission. Instruments and telescopes were not working, cramped space made it hard to work, and personalities were clashing. A small fire had even broke out at one point. This is when the crew decided to cut the mission six days short and go home. Right after Soyuz 11 undocked and made its way back to earth, all communication with the crew was lost.

This happened much earlier than was to be expected. The ship made its way to earth and was discovered on June 29, 1971. When it was opened, all three members of the crew were found dead. The following images are from Space Facts(n. d. ) Figure 2. 1: a) a view of Soyuz 11 docked b) a view of Soyuz 11 taking off (Space Facts, n. d. ) a b Figure 2. 2: a) seating chart for the astronauts b) the three astronauts inside Soyuz 11 c) astronauts preparing for takeoff (Space Facts, n. d) abc 3 3. 1 What Went Wrong Unless otherwise stated the facts provided in this section come from Engineering Failures(n. . ) All the people on earth at the time thought this was a normal re-entry of a space craft. However upon opening the capsule the discovered differently. It was obvious to the people there that the crew had suffocated. Located between the orbital module and the descent module was a ventilation valve. As the two modules had been separated this valve was forced open. The two modules were connected via explosive bolts, these bolts were intended to fire sequentially or one after the other, but they actually fired simultaneously or at the same time.

Because of this there was extra force put onto internal parts of the space craft. The ventilation valve had been jerked open by all this extra force. This valve was intended to automatically adjust cabin pressure but because it was actually opened in outer space the cabin pressure of the space craft very quickly reached zero, a fatal pressure for the cabin to be at. This valve was located underneath of the astronauts chairs making it impossible for them solve the problem. One of the astronauts was wearing a suit with biomedical sensors that showed he died within 40 seconds of the pressure loss.

It only took 935 seconds for the cabin to reach a pressure of zero. 4 The facts in the next paragraph are from abyss. uoregon. edu(n. d. ) What caused all this to go wrong was a poor design. It should have been placed in a more accessible place. When thoughts were going into its design it was thought that it would only need to be used in an emergency, however no one thought what would be happening that it would need to be closed. The valve was intended for emergency but proved no use in the emergency because it was inaccessible.

This problem could have been solved if the design team performed more tests, however it is impossible for a design team of a safety device to know every single situation that could happen. The following is a quote from Geoff Perry, Senior Science Master at Kettering Grammar School. 5 “I picked up my first signals for over 7 days on 28 June around 2110 UT  – Salyut on 20. 008 MHz and assumed that recovery would take place on 29 June around 2000 UT. Consequently I set the alarm clock for 3. a. m. BST hoping to see two objects indicating that Soyuz-11 had separated from Salyut  but that was not to be.

We had no signals during 29 June and when 2000 UT came and went I went off watch, but, fortunately, left the time switch to do the pass at 2230 and 0300 UT. I did not believe that the Russians would worry about a recovery in darkness at this time of the year, considering their usual precision landings. However, they did worry and Soyuz-11 went two extra revs to give a daylight recovery. The time switch recorded signals 45 s after it had operated with LOS at 2247:15 +/- 15 s (allowing for possible variations in mains frequency affecting the clockwork).

Peter Bentley had banked on a daylight recovery and was listening at Menai Bridge and gives LOS at 2247:27 +/- 1 s (or, as he says, +/- 5 s for 99% accuracy). I have therefore adopted 2247:25 +/- 5 s as LOS and the time of separation of the descent module and instrument module. The tragedy must have occurred minutes, or even only seconds, later. Telemetry at LOS was normal for a Soyuz recovery”. (Svens Space Page, n. d. ) The following is a map taken from Svens Space Page (n. d. ) showing what information the Kettering group had received from Soyuz 11. Figure 3. : a) map of the landing route for Soyuz 11 (Svens Space Page, n. d. ) a 6 The following are images from after Soyuz 11 landed. Figure 3. 2: a) Soyuz 11 after landing b) workers covering up the astronauts a b Figure 3. 3: a) Funeral held for the three Soyuz 11 astronauts a 3. 2 What Was Learned 7 After this terrible and fatal accident much thought and consideration went into the next missions. First off the USSR never again attempted to send astronauts to the Salyut 1 space station. Eventually Salyut 1 was deorbited and burnt up. It took more than two years for another man mission to be attempted About. om(n. d. ) The Soyuz spacecraft went through a lot of modifications. The first main difference was that it was redesigned to only carry two astronauts instead of three. This allowed more room inside which allowed for the astronauts to wear space suits during the launch and the landing. The Soyuz capsule remained this way until a new design in 1980 which allowed three astronauts. 4. 0 Summary The Soyuz 11 space disaster was an extremely unfortunate event. Three astronauts died from a malfunction that should have been fixable. This is a

Free Essays

No life in outer space

For centuries, man has always wondered if he is alone in the entire universe, questions like who built the pyramids in Egypt or the Stonehenge in England have always been in a question in the minds. The term extra terrestrial has always fascinated us, and there have been many movies and book made and written simultaneously, and there have been claims of people who saw U.F.O (Unidentified Flying Object), and strange sized people, but till date no government in the entire world has not approved to these claims, and moreover most of them have been always declared as hoaxes or a misunderstanding with the high powered stealth planes.

But the fact of the matter is that whatever technology and scientific research we have, it shows that is impossible to have a life existence apart from Earth for various scientific reasons, as whole scenario of existence of aliens and life in outer space is just based on hoaxes, stories and assumptions.

The whole theory of existence of an alien life form exist on the cynical question, that if humans and other living creatures were born in this planet, then it is also possible for other life organism to take origin on other planets. The whole episode of existence was well supported, which led to the formation of the famous SETI (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence), but this organization which has a basis on scientific evidences on the basis of radio and optic frequencies have failed for more than four decades to establish even a single contact, or even to prove the slightest amount proof of living organism existing on other planets.

Even after their failure in detecting any life forms, the staff of SETI is still hopeful; this can be evident from the following:

 “If we are alone, then that’s extraordinarily remarkable in such a vast universe. Personally I don’t think we’re that special”

(Courtesy: Prof Seth Shostak, SETI institute)

On the basis of the amount of technology we have, if we have to assess the planets in our own galaxy, existence of life seems to be a very distance vision, as scientifically it cannot be proved that our solar system has any existence of an alien life form. If we take the instance of Mercury, being so close to the sun, it is impossible to have any possibility of having life, because of the intense heat. Moon which is supposed to be our satellite has no atmosphere, thus it is again impossible for life to exist without atmosphere.

The gassy planets in our solar system, provides inhabitable conditions, as there is no solid land for life to exist, critics have removed theories of possibility of life existence in Jupiter’s moon, but still no evidence has been proven. Pluto is very far away from the sun, making it a very cold planet, thus eliminating the chances of existence of life in it. Mars is the only planet that can be considered, because of a percentage of its nature like earth, but Mars has a very harsh atmosphere compared to earth, and it doesn’t have Ozone, theories are implicated about life in mars, but the “Viking” which was send 26 years ago and the “rover”, which was send now hasn’t given any substantial proof to it.

In fact SETI itself admits that the sightings done on earth were hoaxes or illusions which is confirmed by the following

“Most of the sightings can be explained as natural phenomena or aircraft or balloons or other mundane stuff. I still haven’t seen any evidence that any of these sightings involve alien spacecraft”.

(Courtesy: Prof Seth Shostak, SETI institute)

The truth is since we have can only base the theories of existence of life on other planets, is by look at our habitable conditions, and if we look for planets for conditions like ours, then it is next to impossible, to find the same amount of habitable conditions, as earth’s life was created by a no. of permuted combinations, which is further substantiated by the following:

“Intelligent life on earth – product of series of extremely fortunate accidents”

(Courtesy: “Life in the universe, are we alone”, Retrieved on February 10th 2008 by site

If theories still have to be raised then it would be of life existing beyond our solar system, but our technology hasn’t reached so far that we can actually scan the entire universe for life and with the amount of high technology we seem to have, it seems till date, life on other planet is not possible, as all the planets that have come under the scrutiny of possible existence of life do not match earth’s habitable condition, and thus are discarded from any possibility.

Aliens and extra terrestrial’s life forms have always and will continue to be a subject of awe and belief for many, and when it comes to science, it only asks for proofs and subjective evidence to accept any theory that would bring light to any evidence of life in outer space.



2)      Nicholas backman,”Life in outer space?”,

3)      SETI: Search For Extra-Terrestial Intelligence,


Free Essays

Office Space

Office space, a critically acclaimed film, although it may seem like this was a comically movie, it tells a much deeper story. Peter Giffins goes to work every day and really hates what he does until a hypnotist brakes the cycle of mundane and boring days . This movie sheds like on the stereo type of cubical America, in the 90s. My analysis will focus on emotional competency; the stress brought on to Peter and how he effectively dealt with it, identity management, listening responses, communication climate, and conflict management styles that take place in this movie.

Peter has quite the identity management crises over the course of the movie. Identity management (page 445) is the communication strategies people use to influence how others view them. Peter does this by changing his actions from when he is at work and when he is at home. When peter is at work he acts like a happy employee, but when he is at home all he can do is complain about work and think about work. He even at one point in the move told the hypnotist “Every day is worst then the last”. That doesn’t sound like a man who loves his job.

Peter also manages his identity by using nonverbal communications At one point in the movie, office space, peter uses his hands to communicate a strong gesture of hate as he pretends to shoot up his office building. The main actor peter also uses plenty of facile expressions to also help drive his hate in. Nonverbal communications do not even have to be gestures they can be as simple, as his boss, Lumbergh’s not making eye contact when he talks to his employees, or the way he stands when talking to petter.

Peter meets a lovely waitress, in the move, Joanna, who is played by Jennifer Anderson. Joanna’s boss communicates with her by using his, language illustrate concerns by using vague terms, abstractions and constructively. He does this by asking her about only having 16 pieces of “flair”. The minimum requirement for her job, at Chotckeys, as a waitress is 16 but the “over achiever” waiter has 36 pieces of “flair”. Her boss beats about the bush and basically states “ Brian has 36 pieces of “flair”. He could have used more sincere language and just asked her to put more “flair” on. Peters boss, Lumbergh, shows poor listening responses by not even looking a peter when he is talking to him. Lumbergh also does not even respond correctly to the rebuttals from peter about the cover letters. Peter told his boss at one point in the movie, office space, “I already have the cover sheet, right here. ” Lumbergh responds by saying “I’ll have a copy sent to you. ” Lumbergh’s shows a complete disregard for what peter told him.

Our book states(page 237) that mindless listing, occurs when we react to others’ messages automatically and routinely, without much mental investment. Lumbergh’s responses are all mindless responses thought out the movie, office space. In the movie office space the communication between managers and employees are disconfirming by the simple fact that no one lesions to any one or knows any one, one example of this is when another employee doesn’t even know the peters friends names when she hands back the mail.

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Aerospace Engineering – Paper

Aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is a challenging and exciting field that is engaged in the design of aircraft and space systems. The US aerospace industry is a world leader and one of the largest positive contributors to the US economy. In Aerospace Engineering, strong technical competency in the fundamental principles of mathematics and fundamentals of science is needed to succeed. Aerospace Engineering provides career opportunities in both aeronautics or astronautics related fields.

In Aerospace engineering a person designs, test, and supervise the manufacture of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. The best places to earn your degree for this field are NC State, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, and University of Central Florida. The term “rocket scientist” is sometimes used to describe a person of great intelligence since “rocket science” is seen as a practice requiring great mental ability, especially technical and mathematical ability. The roots of aeronautical engineering can be traced back to the earliest sketches of flight vehicles, by Leonardo da Vinci in the late 1400’s.

The first was an ornithopter, a flying machine using flapping wings to imitate the flight of birds. The second idea was an aerial screw, the predecessor of the helicopter. The breakthrough in aircraft progress came in 1799 when Sir George Cayley, an English baron, drew an airplane incorporating a fixed wing for lift, an empennage, and a separate propulsion system. Because engine development was virtually nonexistent, Cayley turned to gliders, building the first successful one in 1849. Gliding flights established a data base for aerodynamics and aircraft design. “aerospace engineering. “) Aerospace engineering may be studied at the advanced diploma, bachelors, masters, and Ph. D. levels in aerospace engineering departments at many universities, and in mechanical engineering departments at others. A few departments offer degrees in space-focused astronautical engineering. Aerospace Engineering is all about flight – airplanes, spacecraft, hovercraft, helicopters, you name it. It includes the study of aerodynamics, aerospace structures, propulsion, flight mechanics and systems, and vehicle design.

A major in Aerospace Engineering, there is four seriously intense years, but a graduate will graduate with a solid understanding of the physical fundamentals underlying atmospheric and space flight and the ability to research, analyze, and design the flying machines of the future. Aerospace engineering is the main branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. It is divided into two major and overlying branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering.

The aeronautical deals with craft that stay within Earth’s atmosphere, and the astronautical with craft that operates outside it. Aerospace engineering is the primary branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and science of aircraft and spacecraft. Aerospace Engineering deals with the design, construction, and study of the science behind the forces and physical properties of aircraft, rockets, flying craft, and spacecraft. The field also covers their aerodynamic characteristics and behaviors, airfoil, control surfaces, lift, drag, and other properties.

Aerospace engineering is not to be confused with the various other fields of engineering that go into designing elements of these complex craft. For example, the design of aircraft avionics, while certainly part of the system as a whole, would rather be considered electrical engineering, or perhaps computer engineering. Or an aircraft’s landing gear system may be considered primarily the field of mechanical engineering. There is typically a combination of many disciplines that make up aerospace engineering.

Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering prepares students to design and test aircrafts, such as helicopters, jets, planes and spacecraft. Students are qualified to construct, manufacture and analyze space systems and aircrafts. The curriculum includes basic sciences and mathematics essential to understanding the functions of aerospace engineering. Some programs culminate in a final project designing an aircraft or spacecraft. Master’s degree programs can be found as a Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering and a Master of Aerospace Engineering.

Graduate aerospace engineering programs teach students on the technological problems and scientific solutions pertaining to the aerospace field. Students work with up-to-date technology, including simulation, computer analysis and computer-aided design, to solve real-world industry problems. Advanced coursework in aerodynamics and fluid dynamics, aerospace design and space design builds upon previously acquired theoretical knowledge. By completing such a program, graduate aerospace engineers will have a deep understanding of what goes into designing aircrafts and space modules. A Ph.

D. in Aviation and Aerospace Engineering is available to aerospace engineering graduates. Within these programs, students complete courses and projects that teach them the foundations of aviation, as well as the inner workings of mechanical designs. Students delve into innovative theories and practices of these two fields. The aviation program will emphasize the important aspects of safety management, economics and regulatory procedures. (“education-portal. com. “) At North Carolina State University, a bachelors, masters, and doctorates degree is available for Aerospace Engineering.

Academic GPA, class rank, and standardized test scores are very important in applying to NC State. It is required to have four English courses, two foreign languages, one history, four math’s, three sciences, one social studies, and at least one elective but four is recommended. With more than 5,900 undergraduate and 2,200 graduate students, NC State Engineering is the largest college at North Carolina State University. It consists of more than 20 centers, institutes and laboratories and 12 highly ranked departments, 9 of which are administered by the College and 3 administered by other NC State colleges, and 17 accredited academic programs. “NCSU”) At Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University a bachelors and masters degrees are available for aerospace engineering. Academic GPA, Class Rank, Recommendations, and Standardized Test Scores are very important when applying to Embry-Riddle. It is required to have four credits in English, one in history, three in math, two in science, two science-labs, two social studies, and three academic electives. One foreign language is recommended. The AE Department consists of 22 full-time faculty, 1,300 undergraduate students, and 100 graduate students.

The Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering has been offered since the 1950s, when Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Institute was located in Miami, Florida. Embry-Riddle moved to Daytona Beach, Florida, in 1965. Ten years later the BSAE was accredited by ABET, as it has been ever since. The initiation of the master’s degree in Aerospace Engineering took place in 1985. Enrollment in that program has grown steadily. It is expected that the first PhD students in Aerospace Engineering will be accepted for fall 2013. (“daytonabeach. rau. edu”) At University of Central Florida a bachelor’s degree and master’s degree is available for aerospace engineering. Lectures in class room settings delivered by our world class faculty provide the necessary inspiration for students to understand important topics, and they develop the skill to inquire and explore new ideas on their own. The students have the opportunities to engage in experiments, design work, project work, industrial training and team work to enhance the learning process so vital in engineering education.

The senior faculties are highly recognized in their fields and have earned numerous honors and awards from different engineering societies. The newer faculties are very promising and will soon become leaders in their fields. Many have won prestigious research awards from reputed funding agencies such as NSF, DoD, NASA, the Department of Energy, and the State of Florida. (“mmae”) The period through 2012 is likely to see a downfall in the demand for aerospace engineers. Competition from foreign firms and decrease in air travel are the main reasons for decrease in jobs related to designing and producing commercial aircraft.

Yet, promising opportunities for aerospace engineers are expected to occur due to the fact that the degrees granted for this branch have gone down significantly due to the perceived lack of employment in this field. This means that the number of engineers trained in this field may not be sufficient to replace the large numbers of aerospace engineers who will retire during the 2002-2012 period. In 2002, the median of annual earning of an aerospace engineer was $72,750. The middle 50 percent of aerospace engineers got salaries between $59,520 and $88,310.

The lowest 10 percept earned about $49,640 or less, while the highest ten percent earned around $105,060 or more. A 2003 salary survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers projects that aerospace engineer with a bachelor’s degree get salaries which average around $48,028 a year. While those with a master’s degree receive $61,162 and those with a Ph. D. receive $68,406. It takes many different systems to keep air- and spacecraft aloft and aerospace engineers typically specialize. In addition to specializing in a particular system, such as propulsion or guidance and control systems, they ight specialize in a type of craft, such as helicopters. If you wish to be an aerospace engineer, the most direct route is to earn a bachelor’s or master’s degree in Aeronautics or Mechanical Engineering. Although there are rare instances, especially during a labor shortage, when employers might hire those with training in math or other physical sciences to work as engineers, these majors are not the recommended preparation for a career in this field. Entry-level jobs in engineering often involve working under the supervision of an experienced engineer and focusing on aspects of problems that can be solved with standard, routine techniques.

Supervisors work closely with new engineers on the more unusual aspects of a job. As in most careers, with experience comes increasing independence and the opportunity to work on more-complex problems that can’t be solved by standard processes. Aerospace engineer jobs include openings in mechanical, structural, avionics, systems and other engineering fields. Applicants for aerospace engineer jobs are required to possess prior training and work experience, as well as the ability to interpret technical blueprints, schematics and manuals. Aerospace engineering encompasses the fields of aeronautical and astronautical engineering.

Aerospace engineers work in teams to design, build, and test machines that fly within the earth’s atmosphere and beyond. Although aerospace science is a very specialized discipline, it is also considered one of the most diverse. This field of engineering draws from such subjects as physics, mathematics, earth science, aerodynamics, and biology. Some aerospace engineers specialize in designing one complete machine, perhaps a commercial aircraft, whereas others focus on separate components such as for missile guidance systems. There are approximately 78,000 aerospace engineers working in the United States. (“bls. org”)

Free Essays

No life in outer space

For centuries, man has always wondered if he is alone in the entire universe, questions like who built the pyramids in Egypt or the Stonehenge in England have always been in a question in the minds. The term extra terrestrial has always fascinated us, and there have been many movies and book made and written simultaneously, and there have been claims of people who saw U.F.O (Unidentified Flying Object), and strange sized people, but till date no government in the entire world has not approved to these claims, and moreover most of them have been always declared as hoaxes or a misunderstanding with the high powered stealth planes. But the fact of the matter is that whatever technology and scientific research we have, it shows that is impossible to have a life existence apart from Earth for various scientific reasons, as whole scenario of existence of aliens and life in outer space is just based on hoaxes, stories and assumptions.

The whole theory of existence of an alien life form exist on the cynical question, that if humans and other living creatures were born in this planet, then it is also possible for other life organism to take origin on other planets. The whole episode of existence was well supported, which led to the formation of the famous SETI (Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence), but this organization which has a basis on scientific evidences on the basis of radio and optic frequencies have failed for more than four decades to establish even a single contact, or even to prove the slightest amount proof of living organism existing on other planets.

Even after their failure in detecting any life forms, the staff of SETI is still hopeful; this can be evident from the following: “If we are alone, then that’s extraordinarily remarkable in such a vast universe. Personally I don’t think we’re that special” (Courtesy: Prof Seth Shostak, SETI institute)

On the basis of the amount of technology we have, if we have to assess the planets in our own galaxy, existence of life seems to be a very distance vision, as scientifically it cannot be proved that our solar system has any existence of an alien life form. If we take the instance of Mercury, being so close to the sun, it is impossible to have any possibility of having life, because of the intense heat. Moon which is supposed to be our satellite has no atmosphere, thus it is again impossible for life to exist without atmosphere. The gassy planets in our solar system, provides inhabitable conditions, as there is no solid land for life to exist, critics have removed theories of possibility of life existence in Jupiter’s moon, but still no evidence has been proven. Pluto is very far away from the sun, making it a very cold planet, thus eliminating the chances of existence of life in it. Mars is the only planet that can be considered, because of a percentage of its nature like earth, but Mars has a very harsh atmosphere compared to earth, and it doesn’t have Ozone, theories are implicated about life in mars, but the “Viking” which was send 26 years ago and the “rover”, which was send now hasn’t given any substantial proof to it.

In fact SETI itself admits that the sightings done on earth were hoaxes or illusions which is confirmed by the following

“Most of the sightings can be explained as natural phenomena or aircraft or balloons or other mundane stuff. I still haven’t seen any evidence that any of these sightings involve alien spacecraft”.

(Courtesy: Prof Seth Shostak, SETI institute)

The truth is since we have can only base the theories of existence of life on other planets, is by look at our habitable conditions, and if we look for planets for conditions like ours, then it is next to impossible, to find the same amount of habitable conditions, as earth’s life was created by a no. of permuted combinations, which is further substantiated by the following:

“Intelligent life on earth – product of series of extremely fortunate accidents”

(Courtesy: “Life in the universe, are we alone”, Retrieved on February 10th 2008 by site

If theories still have to be raised then it would be of life existing beyond our solar system, but our technology hasn’t reached so far that we can actually scan the entire universe for life and with the amount of high technology we seem to have, it seems till date, life on other planet is not possible, as all the planets that have come under the scrutiny of possible existence of life do not match earth’s habitable condition, and thus are discarded from any possibility.

Aliens and extra terrestrial’s life forms have always and will continue to be a subject of awe and belief for many, and when it comes to science, it only asks for proofs and subjective evidence to accept any theory that would bring light to any evidence of life in outer space.




3)      Nicholas backman,”Life in outer space?”,

4)      SETI: Search For Extra-Terrestial Intelligence,


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Bombardier Aerospace

Case 1Bombardier Aerospace| Prepared for:| AKM Mominul Haque Talukder Course Instructor Human Resource Management East West University Prepared By:| Group- 6 Name| ID No. | Ismat Jahan Senjuti| 2011-1-90-001| Bani Biswas| 2011-1-90-002| Nusrat Jahan| 2011-1-90-006| Jubaid Rashid| 2011-2-90-008| Mukshuda Akhter| 2011-3-90-002| Nazmus Shakib| 2012-1-91-001| Khandoker Mehedi Hasan| 2012-1-90-015| Sec: 01 East West University East West University October 20, 2012 CONTENTS Case Summary – Bombardier Aerospace1| Comptications 3| Question # One4| Question # Two5| Question # Three6| Question # Four7| Implication8| . 0 Case Summary – Bombardier Aerospace Bombardier Aerospace is a division of Bombardier Inc. and is regarded as one of the third largest aircraft company in the world in terms of yearly delivery of commercial airplanes overall, and the fourth largest in terms of yearly delivery of regional jets. It is headquartered in Ville-Marie, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Bombardier started its journey with the founder J. Armand Bombardier in 1942 to manufacture tracked vehicles for transportation on snow covered terrain and has earmarked itself as one of Canada’s oldest, most diversified and reputed companies.

By 2002, the company has grown revenues to $21. 6 billion with a net income $390. 9 million from 5 operating units including: Bombardier Transportation, Bombardier Aerospace, Bombardier Recreation Products, Bombardier Capital and Bombardier International. Bombardier Aerospace, a SBU of Bombardier Inc, had over 33, 000 employees and established itself as an internationally integrated organization with full design and production operations in Canada, United States and UK. Such operations made Bombardier Aerospace as the third largest civil airframe manufacturer and a leader in region airliners, business jets and amphibious aircraft.

Its high-performance aircraft and services set the standard of excellence in several markets, including: Business Aircraft | Commercial Aircraft | Amphibious Aircraft | Jet Travel Solutions | Specialized Aircraft Solutions | Aircraft Services And Training | During 1999, after several months of negotiation and planning process Bombardier Aerospace was able to build a unique relationship with the Canadian Government, who after the Cold War started at looking how military could operate under tighter fiscal restraints.

In a joint initiative under NATO, Bombardier Aerospace agreed to service and own training aircraft and in turn leased these aircraft to the Canadian military for training purposes. This arrangement was named as NATO Flight Training in Canada (NFTC) which aimed at managing Ground Based Flight Training School and Simulator Training. In any given time , approximately 75 students from Canada and other NATO countries were enrolled in the NFTC training program. Alex Lachance hails with 20 years of flying experience in the Canadian military and after an illustrious experience with Canadian military has also occupied several other positions.

During 2002, Alex joined Bombardier Aerospace as the manager of ground-based training operations for Nato Flight Training in Canada NFTC and almost at some point in time Ted Baker who had successfully completed Bombardier’s interview process few months before joined as an instructors in Nato Flight Training in Canada (NFTC). The hiring process at bombardier was quite a challenging once since achieving the two crucial objectives of finding an incumbent for the vacant position who is equally equipped in terms of the technical expertise required along with their fit of the candidate with the Bombardier culture of was not an easy task.

Also, it was seen that whoever bargained during the interview process, on the whole achieved a better remuneration package with the ‘per diem allowance’ paid only to those who negotiate for a moving allowance of this nature. When Ted, a new hire came to know about this, he was utterly dismayed and disappointed on the impartial and unfair compensation system of Bombardier’s. Ted raised this issue to the newly appointed manager, Alex who was utterly surprised and after being communicated took the issue to the HR.

Once he obtained a thorough idea and comprehended that the per diem allowance has been only paid to those who have bargained. He thought of raising the issue to the corporate head office. The dilemma over which Ted is now fixated is what will the after effect of implementing such a policy? Will it imply Bombardier changing its policy for all its operations? Will it mean that it will increase cost to the company? These were several questions which were pondering in Alex’s mind. Also the fact being that he has just joined the company not even few months ago he was quite perplexed and confounded regarding what step to take. . 0 Complications Critical challenges which were witnessed in the case ‘Bombardier Aerospace’ are depicted below: * The interview process in the overall hiring procedure remained to be quite challenging since achieving the two crucial objectives of finding an incumbent for the vacant position who is equally equipped in terms of the technical expertise required along with their fit of the candidate with the Bombardier culture of ‘ entrepreneurial high achievement’ was not an easy job. * Bombardier’s current relocation policy did not seem to be fair and transparent to all.

It meant candidates who better bargain in their interview process would benefit most as only if someone raises concerns on moving incidentals and meals only those were offered the ‘per diem allowance’. * Discrepancy which existed amongst new hires in terms of compensation was heard by some of the new appointed instructors and potential recruits expressed dismay and consternation which certainly affected employee morale to work for this company and loss resulted in lack of enthusiasm about their job. Another associated challenge was if these newly appointed instructors those who have not been provided with the benefit of the ‘per diem allowance’ for moving incidentals and meals together lodge an objection and appeal to the Labor Relations Board, it will cause not only monetary loss for ‘Bombardier Aerospace’ via compensations but also image loss which would have trickle affect in potential future instructors as they will be reluctant to become part of Bombardier Aerospace which is unfair and unjust with their employees. 3. 0 Question

Q #1. Evaluate Ted Baker’s reaction to NFTC’s relocation policy and his decision to approach Alex Lachance? | Ted Baker had successfully completed Bombardier’s interview process during summer of 2002 and was offer an appointment in Nato Flight Training in Canada (NFTC) to commence work few months later. During this same time nearly about other 20 instructors were also appointed. About few weeks after, Alex Lachance joined Bombardier Aerospace as the manager of ground-based training operations for Nato Flight Training in Canada NFTC.

After Alex joined, Ted approached him and communicated some of his major concerns about which he was extremely dismal. He had overheard the conversations of other newly employed instructors regarding their relocation benefits and compensation and most importantly the ‘per diem allowance’ provided to cover their moving incidentals and meals. Ted was extremely disappointed to see the relocation policy of Bombardier which to him reflected an unfair and inequitable system as he felt that it was not fair for some employees to receive a per diem allowance and while others did not.

Also, when Alex came to know about it, he was shocked and surprised to learn about such compensation policy and he too felt it was not an evenhanded and a just policy to handle recruits, however he did not mention anything to Ted upfront. Also, one important thing was Ted had negotiated compensation for moving allowances, a paid trip to Moose Jaw and interim lodging and this additional compensation was tied up to the typical three- year loan agreement and similarly other new recruits who were paid all these what Ted received and in addition also the per diem allowance also was tied up with the same experience.

Hence, Ted had a very disapproving reaction about the NFTC’s relocation policy. Q # 2 In your position as Alex Lachance would you attempts to change the relocation policy? Please be specific? | If I was given the position and responsibilities of Alex Lachance, I would have adopted an absolutely fair and impartial relocation policy. Hence, for this if required changing the policy, I would have certainly opted for that taking approval from all those concerned. The case presents the scenario of a recruit ‘Ted Baker’ who felt his package was discriminated when compared to some of the recruits who were offered appointment during the same time.

If I was in the position of Alex Lachance, then after hearing the rationale from the human resource department which purely stated that these additional benefits were paid to those who displayed better bargaining power during the interview. Based on the potential incumbent’s request and negotiation skills during the hiring process they were entitled for that benefit. Hence, quite often new employees those who did not ask for the per diem allowance, they were not paid. Thus, overall it reflected an unfair and non-uniform relocation policy:

I would have taken the below specific steps to resolve this matter: * Step 1: I would have taken this issue to the Corporate Head office, Human Resource department in Montreal before circulating a new uniform hiring and compensation policy. This was to understand the implication of such policy at a group level as Bombardier had so many employees all over the world. * Step 2: Also, I would have given recommendation to the Corporate Head Office to take any of the two alternatives as the way forward I.

To re-look at the entire human resource policy and most importantly the cost attached of having to be paid all the new employees who are re-locating the ‘per diem allowance. ’ If that was feasible in terms of cost to the company then we should have proceeded with that. II. Secondly, if it came to the situation that such uniform policy will tremendously increase the cost to the company, in such an instance my recommendation would have been not to provide ‘per diem allowance’ to any of the employees as most importantly it was not fair.

Also, if some employees chose to go and appeal to the Labor Relations Board for such unfair treatment, this might cause law suit charges to be paid and also loss of reputation and image as an employer and company. Q # 3 How would you respond to Ted Baker? | My response to Ted Baker would be a very candid, direct and impartial one which I would have provided him after thoroughly understanding and evaluating the given situation. First of all, I would have thanked Ted Baker for being upfront and telling me about the exact issue what he heard from other new instructors’ without creating rumor about the company.

And would also point out that his behavior and attitude was a reflection of him already being part of the company. As a second step I will provide him re-assurance that after critical scrutiny it has been observed that there has been some discrepancy in the past about the offer of ‘per diem allowance’. Hence, with my proposed recommendation of bringing uniformity in the relocation policy it has been notified to the Corporate Head office, Human Resource department in Montreal.

Either their decision is to continue with this benefit or not, what I will ensure Ted is the end outcome would be something which is fair, impartial and transparent to all the employees. This is how I would try to regain the confidence of Ted Baker on the company and try to bring his enthusiasm back for his job and Bombardier. Also this might reduce the dismay and consternation of Ted and allow him to recuperate his expectation and enthusiasm about working at Bombardier. Q # 4 what’s your learning out of this case? |

HR Compensation and benefits policy affect the productivity and happiness of employees, as well as the ability of an organization to effectively realize its objectives. It is to an organization’s advantage to ensure that the employees are creatively as well as equitably compensated and knowledgeable of their benefits. Key learning’s which any organization and most importantly any head of the HR department can educe are illustrated below: * Ensure equity and fairness in the remuneration and compensation policy and system as globally it has been identified as a key component in creating a successful compensation system.

The equity can be ensured in the following three unique ways: * Provide workplace equity which implies giving perception that all employees in an organization are being treated fairly * Establish a culture of internal pay equity where all employees in an organization can perceive that they are being rewarded fairly according to the relative value of their jobs within an organization * Offer pay by omparing external pay conditions to ensure external equity exists when employees in an organization perceive that they are being rewarded fairly in relation to those who perform similar jobs in other organizations * Perceived inequity or unfairness, either external or internal, can result in low morale and loss of organizational effectiveness. For example, if employees feel they are being compensated unfairly as was illustrated in the case of Ted Baker, it can have a negative and demoralizing impact.

Employees may restrict their efforts or leave the organization, damaging the organization’s overall performance and also cause loss of goodwill. The key learning’s from this case can also be linked to one of Abraham Lincoln’s famous quote which states “It is true that you may fool all the people some of the time, you can even fool some of the people all the time, but you can’t fool all the people all the time”. Also a related quote can be drawn to express the learning’s from the case “It’s better to lose in a cause that will someday win, than win in a cause that will some-day lose! 4. 0 Implications Every organization is powered by its people. Consequently, effective HR strategies are critical to ensure productivity and maximum success. HR professionals play an important role in terms of coming up with the right strategies to support organizational direction but must have the ability to think beyond tactics to identify the high-level areas of focus that will drive success. * Consider Strategic Vision HR leaders should review the company’s current vision to determine ways in which HR activities can support that vision.

In concert with other organizational leaders, HR staff must consider whether the vision is applicable based on external and internal factors and whether changes in the marketplace may be suggesting a new vision. * Consider Demographics HR leaders should examine the demographics of the workforce to determine where gaps may exist between current skills and the need for skills and experience that may emerge in the future, in alignment with the organization’s vision and strategies.

HR strategy should be focused on filling these gaps through strategic recruitment, retention and training efforts. * Transfer of Knowledge Ensuring transfer of knowledge between department workers — whether they are departing voluntarily or involuntarily, or due to retirement or other reasons – is necessary to ensure continuity and minimal impact on productivity and effectiveness.

Free Essays

Earth from Space

NOVA “Earth From Space” 1. They describe at least three teleconnections in the film. The movie talks about sandstorms in the Sahara Desert transforming the rainforest across the globe. Also explained are the waterfalls under the sea in Antarctica, leading to a feeding frenzy in the ocean by the equator. Finally, they talked about streaming water off the coast of Africa causing a disastrous weather storm in the United States. This happens because all of the activity in the ocean, sun and atmosphere are bound together.

When an action occurs to one of them, a reaction occurs within another. It’s almost like a butterfly effect that occurs between the three. 2. We can learn and visually see all these different parts of the Earth by using satellites. I. Geosphere (Solid Earth) The Geosphere is made up of mostly rock. Beneath the surface of Earth, forces inside are a crucial source for the basic materials that nurture life. Volcanoes and earthquakes are examples of reactions to disturbances that initially took place under the Earth’s surface.

Although destructive, the natural forces behind these events also provide the materials we and other living organisms need to survive. Through satellites we can see that the Earth’s crust is constantly moving. II. Cryosphere (Ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice) The Cryosphere can be observed from space using satellites. The reason the Cryosphere doesn’t receive much heat from the sun is because the sun strikes these regions at an oblique angle and any heat that does reach the cryosphere is reflected back into space by the sheets of ice covering it.

III. Atmosphere (Gases, clouds, weather) As water vapor evaporates from the ocean it works its way up into the atmosphere and eventually creates clouds, who size depends on how much water vapor was evaporated. The heat that water vapors carried before they became clouds is eventually what triggers storms to occur. If there is enough heat influencing the clouds it will cause the clouds to shoot upward and the rotation of the Earth is what makes them spin. If the clouds turn into a vortex, hurricanes are formed. IV. Biosphere (Life on Earth)

Life on Earth is affected by all the other parts of the Earth including internally and externally. The catastrophic storms that are caused by the atmosphere effect life on Earth more and more every year. Mother Nature is so unpredictable and it is very hard, even with all of earth-observing technologies humans have created, to prepare for Earth’s catastrophic events. It is even harder for other organisms to survive that do not have the same knowledge about technology as humans do. When hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes do occur, it is instincts that ultimately help different species survive.

V. Hydrosphere (Oceans, lakes, rivers) The hydrosphere plays a big part in the water cycle. Energy from the sun causes evaporation from all wet surfaces on the earth. Because the earth is two thirds water, the oceans are important for homeostasis on the planet Earth. The water helps the atmosphere function properly and vice versa. Without one there would be no other. The ocean and lakes are also the homes to millions of organisms. Some believe the ocean is even where the first walks of life were formed. Ocean circulation greatly affects climate and weather. . One NASA’s newest satellites named Polar Orbiting Suomi, after a meteorologist, is an electronic eye in space that measure the impact of the sun’s energy all around the Earth. This satellite can see much more of the electromagnetic spectrum then the human eye can. One of this satellites’ key instruments in called Cloud and Earth’s Radiant Energy System. It helps detect the ultraviolet and infrared parts of the spectrum that we can’t see. This instrument helps detect anything on Earth that gives off heat.

Aqua is a satellite that uses another earth- observing technology that monitors the interaction between heat and water. Aqua uses infrared to analyze the temperature of water. Using the infrared, Aqua can see how much water vapor is evaporating from the ocean into the atmosphere. TRIM is a satellite equipped with a radar and imager that operate in the micro wave range of the electromagnetic spectrum. These radio waves are higher in energy and shorter in wavelength than others. The instruments on this satellite bounce micro waves off raindrops in the clouds allowing scientist to build a three imensional structure of the internal structure of a hurricane. 4. Scale I. The temporal resolution specifies the revisiting frequency of a satellite sensor for a specific location. A low temporal resolution can last greater than 16 days whereas a high temporal resolution will last only up to 3 days. II. Using satellite remote sensing we can view the earth’s surface as frequently as we would like too. As long as the satellites are working efficiently there should be no problem. III. The spatial resolution specifies the pixel size of satellite images covering the earth surface.

IV. The level of detail does depend on what the satellites are observing. The different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions are the limiting factor for the utilization of the data they find. Unfortunately, because of technical constraints, satellite systems can only offer the following relationship between spatial and spectral resolution. Ether a high spatial resolution is associated with a low spectral resolution and vice versa. That means that a system with a high spectral resolution can only offer a medium or low spatial resolution.

Therefore, it is either necessary to find compromises between the different resolutions according to the individual application or to utilize alternative methods of data acquisition. 5. I found the most striking thing in this movie to be, how easily events like hurricanes, volcanoes, and tsunamis could be created. A little bit too much moisture in the atmosphere or a little disturbance in the Earth could eventually lead to a disastrous, possibly life threatening event. This movie made me grateful to live in an area that is not as highly affected by natural disasters and sympathetic towards those that do.

Free Essays

Black Men and Public Space

Cesar Augusto Gonzalez Professor Hargett English 1101 October 14, 2010 Vicious Cycle Throughout history, literature has served as a way of expression. Human beings have poured out their feelings onto paper, as long as there have been people interested in them. Common themes have risen through the ages, such as the contrast between light and dark. Darkness is known for its negative undertone. In earlier times, we saw darkness as an interpretation of evil; likewise, light represented God and all good.

From literature we, as a society, have built what later became social rules, giving rise to things such as prejudice. In Brent Staples essay “Black Men and Public Space” this is clearly shown by the authors own experiences of antipathy and hostility towards him caused by his own self. In “Black Men and Public Space”, Brent Staples begins by coming to the realization of the way he’d be viewed for the rest of his life. He describes feelings of uneasiness towards his newfound self-image. It all came to him one evening in an ally where his tall frame walked behind a young woman.

She proceeded to perceive him as a threat to her safety even her life, and race off into the night. Later on his –problem- took a deeper hit on him when even as a professional this image continued to follow him. It evolved into harm for himself when he is mistaken for a thief several times. Toward the end the author learns how to manage this issue by cleaning his image, and controlling his rage toward the ones who considered a criminal. Consistent rejection can cause a man –or woman to see the world as of one color or the other, to the extremes.

Thus creating a situation of self-blame where one might think and accept that every bad incident its their own fault. He is blaming himself for actions that occur without actual intent of the so-called attacker. In “Black Men and Public Space,” Staples writes, “My first victim was a woman” (566). This phrase creates a dark tone that only gets clearer as the essay moves on. The image of – the victim- is passed onto the author itself. And the fact that is proclaiming himself as an aggressor indicates that he has acknowledged this as a reality.

In today’s society, people have the tendency to change how they –act and react- toward certain groups of people, places of interaction, friends and strangers. It can range from lowering safety standards when ones home, to the point of running from someone that, by mistake, its portrayed and related to something harmful. This can create a unique experience, most of the time being of uneasiness and stress. Staples write, “I First began to know the unwieldy inheritance I’d come into- the ability to alter public space in an ugly way” (566).

It is clearly stated in the previews quote that the author is now experimenting a new way of social awareness that it’s brought upon him by just being that way he is. It is surprising how fast people tend to judge yet it also can be way of protection. Even though the author might not be the real aggressor that does not takes the fact that another man like him could be the authentic one. Today’s civilization has grown with fear. Fear of loosing what’s theirs, fear of the police, fear of politics, fear of what’s unknown and different.

Sometimes this can manifest in avoidance of the subject but in some occasions it can be a little more –active-. Staples writes, “And I soon gathered that being perceived as dangerous it’s a hazard in itself” (567). As a result of his dangerous association the author realizes that it’s unsafe to be outside too. As some women tend to opt just to sprint away from you, some men might choose to fight the problem. This brings concerns to the author who apart form being socially un-welcome is now threatened by his own naturally built image. Fear is accompanied by a need for survival.

Some animals grow being dominant, creating fear to control. Other just decide to hide hoping not to be involved into precarious situations. In “Black Men and Public Space”, Staples describes, “I chose, perhaps unconsciously, to remain a shadow – timid, but a survivor” (568). Staples explain that he took the –smaller animal- path and tries to remain un-recognizable in order for him to have a safer journey around avoiding confrontation. Is easier to hide that to fight but in the long run that –easiness- brings other problems, where self-blame can evolve to depression and self-depreciation.

It comes a time in every man’s life when he has to choose between himself and society. When he has to decide whether to stand on his own or simply hide his true self in order to escape confrontation, arguments and possible rejection. Most people have a tendency to – go with the flow- be just like everyone else. Staple writes, “I now take precautions to make myself less threatening” (568). This quote describes the idea previously expressed. He chooses to alter his image to make his journey safer. In order to add this newer safer self, he must subtract what he was before, losing his identity.

In Staples essay “Black Men and Public Space”, big issues are explored and described in a way that we can relate to without getting lost in the context. On a narrow sense the essay can be viewed as how the author goes through the realization of how he is pictured, moving to the changes he has to make to be -socially- less threatening. Doing this one can go a process of depression and losing identity. This is just the example of only one person but this case is not reserved to him only, it happens to almost everyone and in many different levels.

We are 6,602,224,175 humans suffering form all kind of unreal and unfair treatment and as a result, hate and resentment are created, and in fact they are he main cause of racism and un fair treatment towards others thus creating a vicious cycle from which we need to get out in order for humans to walk though these crowded streets in harmony. Work Cited Brent Staples. “Black Men and Public Space”. Four in One: Rhetoric, Reader, Research Guide, and Handbook. Eds. Eduard A. Dornan and Robert Dees. 5th Edition. Boston: Longman, 2011. 167-169. Print

Free Essays

Public Space Planning

Public space provides the grounds for cities to be seen and experienced. Whether it is a square, a market, or a park, public space in cities has been noted as the place where ideas are exchanged, city identity is built and citizenship is learned (Carr et al. , 1992; Low, 2000; Goodsell, 2003). Such places are important and even necessary for citizens to enjoy a good quality of life and well-being (Relph, 1993). Historically, public places have played an important role in cities in many cultures.

Public spaces such as the Greek agora, Spanish plaza, and colonial town square provided a place for markets, celebrations and civic life to flourish (Carr et al. , 1992). In modern cities public spaces play many diverse roles; they are sites of recreation, economic development, consumption and community; they take shape as plazas, parks and urban entertainment areas; they mean many things to many people and can establish an identity for a neighborhood or a city at large. Public spaces, in any incarnation, are important to civic life (Goodsell, 2003).

While we may have a good understanding of why public spaces are important in cities, what is still largely unknown is how the planning process itself contributes to the development of these important places. In addition to understanding the role of public spaces in cities today, the means of public space creation, the underlying interests, processes, and motivations involved with their construction, must also be scrutinized and better understood in order to come to a full understanding of how public spaces achieve their desired goals.

Two case studies were chosen to illustrate approaches to public space planning: Toronto’s Yonge Dundas Square and the City of Mississauga’s City Centre Parks. These sites were chosen because of their similarities and also because of their differences. Both sites were intended to achieve similar goals of creating a sense of place and creating new opportunities for economic development in their cities. Their efforts, though, are taking place in very different contexts and employ different planning approaches.

In Mississauga, a rapidly growing city with a developing downtown core, a “placemaking” process featuring public workshops and staff training was used. In the Yonge Dundas Square example, located at one of Toronto’s historic commercial nodes, a public-private partnership was used to achieve the goals of the project. In addition, the cases are also at different stages in their development. The Mississauga project has only completed its initial visioning and preliminary design stages while the Yonge Dundas Square project is nearing completion.

In choosing these disparate cases, I was able to explore the strengths and weaknesses of different styles of public space planning. Specifically, these cases allowed me to investigate differences between what seemed to be a tightly controlled planning process in Yonge Dundas Square and a seemly very public planning process in Mississauga. Ultimately, the comparison of these cases helped me to elicit relevant criticisms and policy recommendations for planners of public space, regardless of the process they are working within.

Through research about these case studies, key informant interviews and in-depth analysis of planning documents and relevant literature this report presents a critique of public space planning processes practiced in the context of Yonge Dundas Square and the City Centre Parks. While having goals that use the language of sense of place, the planning processes employed are more effective in serving the economic goals of the projects. Because socio-cultural goals like sense of place are defined broadly and grow over time, the planning process does little to directly address them.

Ultimately this report suggests that socio-cultural goals like sense of place should not be removed as a goal of public space planning, but rather, the planning process should attempt to reconcile economic and socio-cultural goals. By increasing awareness of the importance of the socio-cultural function of public space through educational outreach to developers and the public at large, as well as by incorporating socio-cultural goals into long-term strategic plans and mission statements, municipalities can more effectively create public spaces that are not only economically strong, but also socially important to their citizens.

Free Essays

Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Programme

BOB Space programme plays an important role in our life because it helps human know the world clearly. There are increasing number of money spent on space programmer in United States and Russia, which has had a significant impact all over the world. Although there are some advantages like contributing to economy growth and providing chance to search new planet for human to live, there are several disadvantages need to be considered like wasting non-renewable resources and including unforeseen risks.

Developing space programme has many advantages. First and foremost, developing space programme promotes the development of economy by creating job opportunities. Jewell. R(2011) said that “Aerospace-related industries employed millions of worker and supported a great number of profitable companies. Many experts believe that space tourism and development of space could result in an economic boom” Thus, the development of space programme helps the economy growth.

Secondly, developing space programme provides the opportunity to search new planet for human to live. with the rapid development of industry, the natural resources are becoming rare in the earth and the earth is deeply polluted by human beings. For this situation, it seems obviously important for human to find a new planet to live in. Therefore developing space programme is a long-term consideration for human beings. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages in developing space programme.

Firstly, developing space programme waste a lot of non-renewable resources. Every year millions of tons of coals were consumed by aerospace industry, which means a mass of waste gas, like carbon dioxide, discharged into air annually, resulting a series of environment problems such as ozone hole and acid rain directly. Consequently, spending vast amount of money in space programme is completely bad for the environment. Furthermore, there is always full of unforeseen risks with space exploration. Lichtenstein D. 2011) said that “The space shuttle Challenger exploded during launch in 1986, killing seven astronauts, and the shuttle Colombia exploded during re-entry in 2003, also killing seven” human’s life is valuable because everyone only lives once, which is not only precious for themselves, but also for their relatives. Thus, the development of space programme could threaten human’s life. To sum up, developing space programme has many advantages like promoting the development of economy and exploring new planet for human to live. However, there are some disadvantages like wasting non-renewable resources and filling with unforeseen risks.

The decision to develop Space programmer not only affects human beings now, but also has an impact on their future life. Therefore, people should still develop Space programmer so that their can know more about the world. Reference Jewell. R(2011) “Positive Effects of Space Exploration” Retrieved 17/03/2013 from http://www. ehow. com/info_839090880_positive-effects-space-exploration. html Lichtenstein D. (2011) “Bad Things About Space Exploration” Retrieved 17/03/2013 from http://www. ehow. com/info_8523069_bad-things-space-exploration. html

Free Essays

National Airspace System

MGMT 203 Management for Aeronautical Science Manager’s Perspective Paper – The National Airspace System (NAS) March 16, 2013 Prepared for Dr. Daniel Nation Lecturer Prepared by Ong Wei Jian Lionel Introduction In this report, we will be looking at the National Airspace System (NAS). We will be taking an in depth look at the overview and the infrastructure of the NAS, discuss about the FAA Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), and also examine the future needs of the National Airspace System.

Overview of the NAS The National Airspace System is defined as a complex combination of systems, procedures, facilities, aircraft, and personnel which work together as one system to ensure safe and efficient air travel in the United States. The NAS consists of several components, and these include: • NAS Operational Facilities (unstaffed) • Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) • Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCT) • Ground Radios and Radar Systems • Airports • Aircrafts (commercial, private, and military) Airline Personnel (operating, maintaining, and modernizing the system) • Passengers (commercial and military) Infrastructure of the NAS The NAS helps to maintain a safe and efficient flight over the US airspace by allowing all control towers, control centers, radios, radars, and many airports to be interconnected to one another to form a NAS operational communications network. This NAS communications network helps pilots to communicate with air traffic controllers and airline operation centers to ensure a safe flight as they travel over the airspace.

There are a three systems that make up the NAS, and these include the Digital Airport Surveillance Radar (DASR) System, the Voice Communication Switching System (VCSS), and the Department of Defense (DoD) Advanced Automation System, or DAAS for short. The DASR System is a traffic air control radar system that helps to detect aircraft position and weather conditions in the vicinity of civilian and military airfields. It consists of two main electronic subsystems: the primary surveillance radar and the secondary surveillance radar, which make use of electromagnetic waves reflected off aircraft to monitor their positions.

The VCSS is the communications system used to manage the voice communications of any Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility. The VCSS must be able to support all analog and digital communications between the DoD, the ATC facilities, and the pilots. The DAAS is a system that is used to retrieve and process radar data, flight plans, and weather / airport environmental data to support DoD ATC services. The system transmits part or all of this processed data to a display or workstation (within geographical proximity) for air traffic controllers to access in order for them to control and monitor the activities in the airspace.

FAA NextGen Air Transportation System The NextGen program is an initiative developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to help improve the efficiency, convenience and dependability of the NAS. The NextGen modernization of the U. S. air traffic system seeks to increase the efficiency of the NAS through technological advancements; and as well as improved approaches and procedures. The NextGen program plans to make use of satellite navigation, which will allow pilots to know the precise locations of other airplanes around them and enhance the overall safety of air travel.

Airports are now already benefitting from the NextGen program. These new capabilities include the national rollout of a network of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) ground transceivers. These transceivers will receive GPS position reports from aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out (an upgrade required by 2020 for aircraft flying in most controlled airspace); and by 2013, these transceivers will be installed to provide nationwide coverage. Air traffic data such as Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) and Flight Information Service-Broadcast (FIS-B) will be transmitted by the ADS-B transceivers.

The FAA also tested a newly automated Collaborative Departure Queue Management (CDQM) system that aims to help airports improve departure management. The FAA is also putting in place tools that will enable airport operators, airlines, and other NAS users better access to shared surface surveillance data, which is vital for safe and efficient airport operations. The Future Needs of the NAS The current features of the NAS unfortunately, are not sufficient to guarantee efficient or uninterrupted operation in the future.

The greater interconnectivity of systems brought about by the NextGen program means that the cyber risks to the NAS are also increased. The future cyber security needs of the NAS require a change in both the NAS infrastructure and safety culture in order to be effective against increased the potential cyber risks that will follow. Improved cyber security requires changes to the present NAS safety provisions. More safety reviews for continual monitoring is needed. Actions and responsibilities of each and every NAS staff now have to be carefully scrutinized and taken into consideration.

Responsibilities of system administrators and network operators have to be expanded, from maintaining the performance of the system to detecting intrusive actions. Improved cyber security also requires changes to the current NAS infrastructure. Data provided by external partners and actions requested by external partners have to be made sure that they are not malicious in intent. The existing cyber security architecture also has to be modified and upgraded accordingly to counteract the changing cyber threats, all in a short timeframe; whilst not compromising on the operations of the NAS during these infrastructure changes and modifications.

References • NextGen for Airports. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from the Federal Aviation Administration website: http://www. faa. gov/nextgen/qanda/airports/ • What is NextGen? Retrieved March 15, 2013 from the Federal Aviation Administration website: http://www. faa. gov/nextgen/slides/? slide=1 • Houston, Sarina (n. d. ). The National Airspace System Explained. Retrieved March 15, 2013 from website: http://aviation. about. com/od/Air-Traffic-Control/a/The-National-Airspace-System-Explained. htm Wadas, Burt (n. d. ). National Airspace System (NAS) Overview. Retrieved March 16, 2013 from Armed Forces Communication and Electronics Association (AFCEA) website: http://www. afceaboston. com/documents/events/cnsatm2011/Briefs/01-Monday/07-Wadas-HBAG%20NationalAirspaceSystemOverview. pdf • Williams, James H. (February 2011). National Airspace System Security Cyber Architecture. Retrieved March 16, 2013 from The Mitre Corporation website: http://www. mitre. org/work/tech_papers/2011/10_4169/10_4169. pdf

Free Essays

Space Travel

SPACE TRAVEL 1. Only three nations have successfully put people into space: the US, Russia and China. All have been government programmes, developed at great expense. Now, a new era is beginning in which private enterprise will take people 100km or more above the Earth. _________________ 2. In 2001, an American, Christ Tito, became the first space tourist. He travelled to the International Space Station by Rocket and stayed there for ten days. A year later South African Millionaire, Mark Shuttleworth, went on the same trip. When he returned to earth he said, “Every second will be with me for the rest of my life”.

Both men paid $20 million for their holidays. _________________ 3. The company that organised their trips is called Space Adventures. Its president, Eric Anderson, thinks space tourism will be the next big thing. “Everyone is looking for a new experience,” he says. In a few years he is going to start selling rocket trips to the public for about $ 100. 000. _________________ 4. Another company, The Space Island Group, is planning to build a circular hotel in space like the spaceship in the famous film 2001: A Space Odyssey. It will have everything a normal hotel has, except that the bedrooms won’t have windows.

This is because the hotel will revolve, in other words it will turn around itself and people will feel sick if they look out of a window. Instead there will be screens showing pictures from space. Gene Myers, the company’s president, thinks that in 2020 a five-day holiday at the hotel might cost only $25,000. _________________ 5. Other companies have even bigger plans. Bigelow Aerospace is spending $500 million on a plan to build a 700-metre spaceship to fly tourists to the moon. There will be 100 tourists on each trip and each person will have a private room with a view of the Earth’s sunset.

The Hilton Hotel Group has even talked about building a hotel on the moon. 6. Built by Burt Rutan and financed by Paul Allen, SpaceShipOne has entered the history books to become the first private manned spacecraft to fly to the edge of space and back. Mike Melvill became the first civilian to pilot a craft into space. Steve Bennett, chief of the British civilian space project, Starchaser Industries, said it was an important achievement. It finally came back to Earth after its 90-minute flight. Messages of congratulations came from Nasa’s administrator Sean O’Keefe.

He said that this just proves that you don’t have to be Nasa or a government organisation. At the moment only millionaires can go on holiday in space. However one day you might be able to go there yourself- and it could be sooner than you think. (Taken and Adapted from Face to Face & http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/science/nature/3811881. stm) I) Read the article about Space Travel above and match headings a-e to paragraphs 2-5. a) Space hotelsParagraph:_______________ b) Going to the moon Paragraph:_______________ c) The future of tourismParagraph:_______________ ) The first space touristsParagraph:_______________ II) Read the article again and answer the questions. 1) Who were the first space tourists? _______________________________________________ 2) Did these space tourists enjoy their journey? How do you know? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3) Eric Anderson thinks that space travel will be popular because ________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ) The Space Island Group will not have any windows in their hotel because _______________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5) Which two companies have bigger plans in comparison to The Space Island Group? What are their plans? a. ________________________________________________________________________ b. ________________________________________________________________________ 6) History books talk about SpaceShipOne as the spacecraft which ______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ) According to Sean O’Keefe the success of SpaceShipOne proves that ___________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 8) Find these numbers in the article, what do they refer to? a. $20 million; ______________________________ b. $100,000; ________________________________ c. $25,000; _________________________________ d. $500 million; _____________________________ e. 90; _____________________________________ 9) Find the following words in the article, what do they refer to? a. In para 2, line 3 “same trip” refers to; _____________ b.

In para 6, line 3 “it” refers to; ______________ c. In para 6, line 4 “its” refers to; ______________ 10) What does the word “achievement” in para 6 line 4 mean? ___________________________________________________________________________ ANSWER KEY: Part I: Space hotelsParagraph:_____4_________ Going to the moon Paragraph:______5________ The future of tourismParagraph:_______3_______ The first space touristsParagraph:_______2_______ Part II: 1) an American, Christ Tito and South African Millionaire, Mark Shuttleworth 2) Yes, they enjoyed their trips.

For instance, when Mark Shuttleworth returned to earth he said, “Every second will be with me for the rest of my life”. 3) because everyone is looking for a new experience. 4) because the hotel will revolve, in other words it will turn around itself and people will feel sick if they look out of a window. 5) a) Bigelow Aerospace is spending $500 million on a plan to build a 700-metre spaceship to fly tourists to the moon. b) The Hilton Hotel Group has even talked about building a hotel on the moon. 6) flew to the edge of space and back. ) this just proves that you don’t have to be Nasa or a government organisation to go to space. 8) a) the money that the first space tourists paid for their holidays b) the price of rocket trips c) the possible cost of a five-day holiday at the hotel in 2020 d) the money that Bigelow Aerospace is spending on a plan to build a 700-metre spaceship to fly tourists to the moon e) the length of the flight of SpaceShipOne to the edge of space and back 9) a) travelling to the International Space Station b) SpaceShipOne’s flight to the edge of space and back c) SpaceShipOne’s 10) success

Free Essays

The Second Race for Space: Nasa vs. Private Space Enterprise

“NASA spent millions of dollars inventing the ball-point pen so they could write in space. The Russians took a pencil. ” This quote stated by the historian Will Chabot signifies the controversy surrounding NASA’s excessive spending throughout the years. In 1957 it was made clear the Soviets were the first into space when an alien like beeping sounds were projected through radios across America. President Dwight. D Eisenhower portrayed America was far behind the Soviets when he signed the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Act of 1958.

Despite the past significance of Neil Armstrong’s walk on the moon, we find ourselves today charitably donating this government run bureaucracy billions of dollars that could be used more effectively in the field by others. People still believe in the government ran NASA, stating they use their funds effectively towards research and space exploration. These people feel organization should continue to receive money from the government to better our knowledge on space exploration and research.

There is, in contrast, the growingly popular view that independently funded and run commercial space corporations deserve a share of the funding contributed to NASA. From looking at NASA’s wasteful past, its unproductive organizational management, along with what commercial enterprise has already proven for itself, it is made clear that there are effective alternatives to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Many American citizens know little about NASA’s projects throughout the past few decades; sure enough there is a reason why.

Since the 1980s nearly five billion dollars have been wasted by NASA’s projects that had little success nor benefits for the science community. In President Reagan’s 1986 State of the Union Address, he proposed The National Aerospace Plane to be built by NASA. Just six years and 1. 7 billion dollars later, the program was canceled before anything was even built. In the years to come Vice President Al Gore announced the acceptance of the replacement X-33 project, a spacecraft that could be used more than once.

In 2001, by NASA’s error, cracks were found in the spacecraft’s fuel tanks. This led to yet another botched NASA project, causing a waste of a staggering 1. 2 billion dollars. Throughout the same years as the X-33, NASA was working on the X-34 and X-38, a reusable rocket and a reusable lifeboat for the International Space Station. After four years and almost no hardware production, both were canceled resulting in another waste of well over one billion dollars. The amount of scientific data gathered from these models didn’t compare to a fraction of the price NASA contributed.

During the year 2000, even as the previous projects were being exterminated, NASA managed to get approval for another program known as the Space Launch Initiative. For two years this project consumed 800 million dollars resulting in nothing other than blueprints (Zimmerman). These pricey papers were soon added to the heaping pile of waste NASA accumulated when the project was cut. While these numbers seem baffling to most, there is still more ways this organization has wasted our tax dollars.

NASA’s ill equipped security systems put at a costly risk the successful projects they have spent so much money on creating. There has been a minimum of 5,408 successful breaches in NASA’s security, many of which were sponsored by foreign intelligence agencies (Fogarty, par. 7). To illustrate why this is such a critical problem for our funding, we will take only the years of 2011 and 2012 into account. Throughout this time NASA has not only lost control of the International Space Station’s functions, but suffered a loss of seven million dollars in hacked restricted data (Fogarty, par. ). Is this the corporation we want to invest billions in? From what continues to happen to this day it is made clear that NASA has, and will continue, to improperly manage the money it is given for space exploration and research. Though the staggering number of wasted funds seem unbelievable to most, the reason for their existence can be found in the organizations very own infrastructure. NASA’s organizational management is counterproductive when working with a budget.

NASA has shifted resources away from effective principal investigators, when a single man is responsible for a projects completion, and towards manufacturers that operate under the governments bureaucratic rein (Baker, pg. 2). While looking into NASA’s management it is clear that there isn’t close to a sufficient amount of authoritative decision making. It is not that teams operating under a bureaucracy such as NASA aren’t skilled enough to take the best plan of action; it’s that no one has the jurisdiction to assign tasks and hold people accountable for their completion. (Molta, par. 2).

This lack of authority has led to shuttle catastrophe where America’s citizens watch their countries creation ignite in a ball of flame. The NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe presented himself before a Senate committee years after the Columbia tragedy. Senator Fritz Hollings scolded O’Keefe for taking one of the Columbia shuttle managers who was criticized for the explosion and made him second in command of NASA’s safety office. “That doesn’t indicate to me that you got it,” Hollings stated (Zimmerman). While something must be going on behind the scenes there is another problem at hand.

Bureaucracies such as NASA have trouble with establishing proper span of control. There is of course no set number of subordinates a NASA advisor can successfully supervise. This leads to employees not getting enough management support when taking actions that may jeopardies the project (Molta, par. 3). After all most of us cannot even fathom the money and precision that goes into creating something such as a space shuttle. NASA’s thriftiness is further decreased from the basis in which it receives funds. The entrepreneur who co-founded PayPal, Mr.

Musk, stated “NASA’s contractors work by the “Cost plus” model encouraging aerospace companies to find the most expensive way to do something and drag it out as long as possible. ” He went on to say ”Future contracts should be given to meet milestones based on objective design reviews and actual hardware completion. If a company meets the milestone, they get paid. If not, they don’t” (Tierney, par. 9). Due to the fact that NASA does not get any reward for accomplishing any landmarks within a specified time zone, there is no telling how inefficient they will be with the funding they receive.

They have no incentive to be thrifty with the funds that they have. From these reasons it is made clear NASA’s flawed structure wastes our money. Indeed this negative talk of NASA may make it appear as though space exploration is nothing but a waste of money. However, independently owned commercial space corporations have proven to be highly beneficial. Throughout NASA’s most notorious years of the 1960s it was the competing private space enterprises that manufactured the products NASA gets accredited for.

Specialized private companies manufactured for NASA rockets, capsules, and lunar landers for cheap prices with the intentions of the government buying their products for years to come. However, once the Cold War was over NASA stopped working with outside companies, causing many to collapse (Zimmerman). It is clear from NASA’s history that it hasn’t been close to as efficient as it has been while it was purchasing from outside manufacturers. Present day Private space corporations have had several innovational breakthroughs NASA had not discovered after its nearly sixty years in existence.

After only a few years in existence, Xcore developed for NASA the rocket engines that are generally inside the jets of the nascent rocket-racing industry. They have also provided NASA with an engine that can run on nothing other than liquid oxygen and methane (Klerx, pg. 18). The next example is a key reason why private companies forced to accomplish tasks on a minimum budget have the brain power to do so accordingly. While NASA goes about building every rocket vertically, Space X revolutionized the assembly process by instead creating rockets horizontally.

This avoids the multimillion dollar cost NASA incurs for having to create and move customized towers and scaffolding (Tierney, pg. 7). From four private enterprise’s recent accomplishment came $269 million gifted to them by NASA. This award was granted by the Obama administration’s Commercial Crew Development Program, whose goal is to push outside companies to get their ships into orbit at a quicker pace and at a lower cost than NASA (Chang). From looking back from NASA’s glory days to recent monetary rewards, commercial space corporations have already left their mark in what humans have accomplished.

With the government increasingly working with private enterprise, there is no telling what NASA’s fate will be. What can be made certain of is the fact that there will always be at least two points of views surrounding this controversy of government versus private space enterprise. While many will stick by NASA’s side until life itself is over, others will take into consideration NASA’s improperly managed funds, its flawed organizational management, and commercial enterprises advances that have already been accomplished.

These supporting groups of information all revolve around the fact that commercial space enterprise will much more effectively put to use the money that NASA consumes. Stephen Hawking proclaimed “I don’t think the human race will survive the next thousand years unless we spread into space. ” For this reason and many more humans will forever continue their mission to the final frontier. Only time will truly tell if private or public will better help man in this race for space.