Free Essays

What are the risks of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) within sport?

Chapter one: Introduction

Sporting performance can be influenced by many differing factors. Aside from training, nutrition is the most important influence. To reach one’s highest potential, all of the body’s systems must be working optimally (ADA, 2000). Alongside a healthy diet many performers supplement an ergogenic aid; increasingly however many others use drugs to gain an advantage over their opposition.

Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) are one such drug used within sport to boost performance. In 1993 more than one million sports participants, ranging from recreational gym users to elite athletes were using anabolic steroids regularly (Yesalis, Kennedy, Kopstein, Bahrke, 1993). More recently it has been reported that 6.1% of 15-18 year olds within US high schools had taken a form of anabolic steroid (ADA, 2003).

This review aims to address the rationale behind the use of anabolic steroids, the relative risks and benefits of the drug, as well as previous research within the field, ultimately determining whether sporting organisations are correct in illegalising the drug and providing the reader with the information to make an guided decision for themselves.

1.1 Background to anabolic steroids

Anabolic steroids are the derivatives of testosterone (Bahrke and Yesalis, 2002). Primary research of testosterone in 1935 led to the development of AS. Testosterone is the primary natural male hormone. It is responsible for the androgenic and anabolic effects observed during male adolescence and adulthood. By 1935 testosterone had been isolated and chemically characterised (Kockakian and Yesalis, 2000). Testosterone itself is not considered an anabolic steroid due to it retaining its’ full androgenic effect on the body (Herbert, Hapt & Rovere, 1984).

1.2 Rationale behind Anabolic Steroids

Anabolic steroids are used, variably, by athletes and others to increase lean body mass, to reduce fat, to enhance performance and sustain periods of training (Hartgens and Kuipers, 2004). Anabolic steroids, dependent on chemical structure, bind to specific androgen protein receptor sites in the sarcoplasm of cells found within skeletal muscles. Complexes are formed through such binding with the product being transported through the cells nuclear membrane to interact with intra-nuclear chromatin and activate RNA polymerase, protein synthesis is triggered. Protein synthesis is the process in which cells build protein (Bruce, 2002) ultimately this increase is protein results in a build up in cellular tissue within the muscle, thus increasing muscular mass. Average male skeletal muscle consists of six to twelve kilograms of protein (McArdle et al., 2010). Strenuous physical activity such as weight training constantly increases the body’s protein requirements, as well as stress upon the body. Both in which Anabolic steroids are rumoured to remedy. Physical activity comprises any body movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in substantial increase over resting energy expenditure (Bouchard, 2006). In a day and age where millimetres win races, every edge a performer believes they can gain is crucial. Common belief that No one is guilty of steroid use except the other guy, the other team (Yesalis SR, 1934) aids widespread usage.

1.3 Differing types

Anabolic steroids can be taken by four different methods: Injection, Orally, Nasally and transdermally. For each method there are countless steroids available (, 2010). Most individuals who use anabolic steroids obtain the drugs from the black market (Tolliver, 1998). Table 1 shows the number of steroids currently available on the market. However this list can never be fully complete as athletes, researchers and trainers are always developing new drugs and in particular, combinations of drugs to try pass the stringent tests. Each modification to testosterone results in distinct changes in the deliverability, potency and the body’s adaptive responses to AAS (Hall, 2006).

1.4 Guidelines

Anabolic steroids are banned by athletic organisations to protect athletes from potentially harmful side effects (Quinn, 2010). Due to banning by all leading sports organisations it is important to note that no guideline amount can be stated. Doses used by weightlifters and bodybuilders have been at least 100 times those indicated for therapeutic use (Rogol and Yesalis, 1992).

Chapter Two: Scientific evidence

Following its’ development from 1935 onwards AAS has become one of the most researched performance enhancing substances available. (Celotti and Negri-Cesi, 1992). Almost all research has been into effects the drug has on the physical and psychological body, both positively and negatively. A number of reviews and they’re point of study are available in appendix two following.

2.1 Physical effects – Positive

Several studies have examined the positive effects AAS has on both the animal and human body. Despite their development in the 1930s, as recently as 1996 the true anabolic effects were often disputed.

Early studies in the physical effects of AAS by Wright (1980) showed that inexperienced weightlifters did not benefit from a dose of AAS but that more experienced weightlifters showed an increase in both muscle and strength. Due to the study coupling protein supplements along with AAS it was widely believed that it was in fact the protein supplement that benefitted the weightlifter, and that the strength was as a result of the extra muscle mass gained by the added protein.

Bhasin et al., (1996) remedied all doubt regarding the anabolic properties of AAS. It was shown that a relatively high dose of 600mg/wk added to a group of males performing weight training resulted in a 6.1kg increase in lean muscle mass over a ten-week period. In fact, even males not performing weight training increased lean muscle mass by 3.2kg. This is mirrored by Sjoqvist et al., (2008) who reached a conclusion that since adequate doping tests have been introduced in powerlifting, records have seized to be broken.

Herbst and Bhasin (2004) reported that high doses of AS in any adult male resulted in a significant decrease in lipid molecules within the body. A common result of increased muscle mass is an increase in metabolic rate. An increase results in more energy being expended throughout the day than being taken in through the diet. Fat stored in the body is used as a fuel source in situations such as this, thus resulting in a decrease in body fat levels.

Kuhn (2002) hypothesised that steroids may also block any catabolic effects of glucocorticoids released during training, thus allowing for a high intensity, longer workout.

2.2 Physical effects – Negative

Though AAS produces many benefits within the body to enhance athletic performance, many scientists believe that they also result in negative and dangerous consequences. During studies physiological side effects are broken down into: Cardiovascular, Liver, Reproductive and Dermatologic.

In relation to cardiovascular, there are many risk factors: blood volume, salt and water retention, hypertension, ventricular function, effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins and blood clotting. Of the above risks most research has been concerned with AAS’s effect on blood lipids and lipoproteins and blood clotting. AAS has an adverse effect on plasma levels of lipids within the blood (Thiblin and Petersson, 2005). This has particularly been present in athletes who took AAS orally (Lombardo et al., 1991). Rockhold (1993) reported high-density lipoproteins (HDL) fell by 22%. The reduction in HDL have been linked with an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease (Wagner, 1991). In terms of blood clotting many animal studies suggest a relationship between AAS dosages and the clotting of blood. The clotting of blood results in several conditions, such as stroke. So far, during study only one death has come from a stroke-linked death (Lombardo et al., 1991).

In relation to the liver. Peliosis hepatitis is associated with orally ingested AAS in particular. Tumours can also be caused, though rare. Tumour rupture ultimately prove fatal (Friedl, 2000). Liver failure occurs in extreme cases (Evans, 2004).

In men high doses result in quantity and quality of sperm being greatly reduced (Torres et al., 2001). Testicular atrophy ultimately results if long term use continues. There is very little research exploring AAS and the reproductive system of women. Hartgens and Kuipers (2004) showed an increase in clitoral size, reduction in breast size and uncommon menstrual irregularities. Parssinen and Seppala (2002) found that acne and loss of hair were very common dermatological effects in men of using AAS.

All effects have been shown to be fully reversible within several months of the dosage being ceased (Friedl, 2000). Haff and the NSCA stated that the effect of long term use of excessive high doses of AAS is virtually unknown. Parssinen and Seppala (2002) conducted a study that followed the participants of the Finnish powerlifting competition in 1977 for a period of 12 years. Premature death was 4.6 higher in these participants than the average population of Finland. As powerlifting does not cause mortality, AAS was widely blamed.

2.3 Psychological effects

Psychological and behavioural changes in participants, such as increased aggressiveness and irritability have been presented by Goldman et al., (1984) and Wright (1982). Several reports (Pope and Katz, 1987) suggest that AAS causes clinical depression amongst many other mental disorders. While Schulte, Hall and Boyer (1993) studied one male taking AAS over a four-month period. The subject was observed to become aggressive towards his wife and child. No previous aggressive behaviour had previously been recorded. Steroid abuse would appear to make subjects aggressive and depressed as well as easily irritated. Out of one million or more steroid users within the U.S. in 1993 only an extremely small percentage experience enough disturbances to result in clincical treatment (Yesalis, Kennedy, Kopstein & Bahrke, 1993). In terms of psychological benefits it is believed that an improvement in physical looks, as well as the enjoyment of winning would boost confidence as well as a short period of happiness. This however is not a direct effect of AAS and simply an effect of winning and hard work that can be achieved by other means.

A summary of all effects found can be found in Appendix two.

2.4 Numbers using anabolic steroids

Highest levels of use of AS have been attributed to American football players, weightlifters, powerlifters and bodybuilders since the 1960s (Yesalis, Courson & Wright, 2000). Several studies were carried out throughout many years, categorised as: adolescent, college and athlete studies.

In 1987 the first national study occurred in the U.S. at adolescent school level by Buckley et al., (1988). Investigations discovered that 6.6% of male school children were/or had taken AAS. 38% of this 6.6% population had taken the performance enhancing substance before the age of 16. In the mid 1990s these findings were confirmed by multiple state studies carried out. Whilst the more prevalent studies have been carried out within the U.S. it is important to note that many other studies in Britain, Sweden and Canada have also taken place. Showing a 1.2 – 5.9% generalised usage (Williamson, 1993).

Amoung college atheletes Anderson et al., (1985 – 1993) and the NCAA (1997, 2001) conducted a series of five surveys on both males and females. Finding that steroid use had seemingly dropped from 4.9% in 1985 to 1.4% in 2001. However Yesalis et al., (1990) believed that athletes were lying about their use. Yesalis used indirect questions aimed at others around the performers to divulge such information. A massive 14.7% usage in all sports was recorded when asking others, compared to roughly 4.9% when the performers themselves were asked.

In terms of the professional athlete many researchers used the Olympics (both summer and winter) as a base for their study as it is the pinnacle of all sports. Silvester (1993) surveyed athletes in the 1972 olympics in Munich. It was found that 68% of all the track and field athletes admitted using AAS. Widespread athlete usage was supported when in the 1992 Winter Olympics 80% admitted AAS use (Pearson and Hanson,1992) while 75% of medallists admitted the use (Pearson, 1994). Due the illegalisation, by WADA and the IOC, of all drugs these findings are now deemed useless as often any athlete who attempts the use of AAS is caught, for example British athlete Dwain Chambers, who received a two-year ban from the sport.

Chapter three: Conclusions

In conclusion it has been widely demonstrated and acknowledged recently that a high dose of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids, when coupled with a healthy diet and effective training program, improve a performer’s strength and muscular size, and decrease levels of fats and muscle catabolism. Thus resulting in an overall improvement in sporting performance in almost all sporting events. The continued use of AAS can also be associated with a variety of health problems, both physically and psychologically, that outweigh the positive effects. Due to the cycling requirement and short-term damage caused deemed unacceptable, much more research needs to be undertaken to fully investigate the long term effects of high-level doses.

AAS has ultimately been banned by the IOC and many other leading sporting organisations to protect the health of their athletes. Whilst this is the case many performers still increasingly chose to take them in some form to gain ‘the edge’ over their opposition. There are many other socially acceptable ergogenic aids available to sports performers, such as creatine. It has been estimated that creatine is used by up to 99 percent of elite athletes in today’s world, thus deeming it socially acceptable and fair. If 99 percent of elite athletes used anabolic steroids would they also be deemed fair also?

Figure 1.0: Mechanism of Anabolic Steroid effect


American Dietetic Association, Dieticians of Canada and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. (2000) Journal of American Dietetic Association. 160: 1543-1553

Anderson, W., Altrecht, M. & McKeag, (1993) D. Second replication of a national study of substance use and abuse of habits of college student athletes. Final Report. NCAA

Bahrke, M.S. (2000). Psychological effects of endogenous testosterone and anabolic-androgenic steroids. Anabolic steroids in sport and exercise. 2nd ed. 247-278.

Yesalis, C. & Bahrke, M. (2002).M. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids and Related Substances. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 4:246-252,

Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Philips, J., Burnnell, T.J., Tricker, R., Shirazi, A., Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiological doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J med. 335:1-7.

Buckley, W.E., Yesalis, C.E., Friedl, K.E., Anderson, W.A., Streit, A.L. & Wright, J.E. (1988). Estimated prevalence of anabolic steroid use among male high school seniors. Journal of the American Medical Association. 200(23): 3441-3445.

Celotti, F. & Negri-Cesi, P. (1992). Anabolic steroids: a review of their effects on muscle. 146:823-828.

Evans, N.A. (2004). Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids. AM J sports med. 32:534-542.

Friedl, K.E. (2000). Performance enhancing substances. Human kinetics. 209-228

Goldman, B., Bush, P. & Klatz, R. (1984). Death in the locker room, Steroids in sport. South bend, IN, Icarus Press

Hall, R.C. (2006). Abuse of supraphysiological doses of anabolic steroids. South med J. 98:550-555.

Haff, G.G. (2006). Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids. NSCA’s performance training journal. 7-14.

Herbert, Hapt Rovere (1984)

Herbst, K.L. & Bhasin, S. (2004). Testosterone action on skeletal muscle. Current opinion on clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 7:271-720.

Kochakian, C.D., & Yesalis, C.E. (2000). Anabolic-androgenic steroids: a historical perspective anddefinition. In C.E. Yesalis (Ed.), Anabolic steroids in sport and exercise. 2nd ed. (pp. 17-49).

Kuhn, C. (2002). Anabolic steroids, recent progress in hormone research, 57:411-434

Lombardo, J.A., Hickson, P.C. & Lamb, D.R. (1991). Anabolic/Androgenic steroids and growth hormone. Exercise science and sports med. Vol 4:249-278

McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I. (2010). Protein requirements. Essentials of exercise physiology.

National Collegiate Athletic Association Research Staff. (2000). NCAA study of substance use and habits of college student athletes. Indianapolis.

Parssinen, M. & Seppale, T. (2002). Steroid use and long term health risks in former athletes. Sports med 32. 83-94

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Quinn 2010 taken from the sports medicine website:

Rockhold, R. (1993). Cardiovascular toxicity of anabolic steroids. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 33:497-520.

Rogol, A.D. & Yesalis, C.E. (1992). Anabolic-Androgenic steroids and athletes: What are the issuesJournal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 74:465-469.

Schulte, H.M., Hall, M.J. & Boyer, M. (1993). Domestic violence associated with anabolic steroid abuse. AM J psychitar. 150:348

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Quotation taken from unnamed author from:

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Tolliver, J. (1998). Anabolic steroid black market in the U.S. Paper presented at drugs and athletes: A multidisciplinary symposim.

Torres-Calleja, J., De Celis, R., Gonzalez, M., Nuevo, N. (2001). Effect of androgenic anabolic steroids on semen parameters and hormone levels in bodybuilders. 74:1055-1056

Yesalis, C. (1934). Anabolic steroids in sport and exercise. Preface.

Yesalis, C., Buckley, W., Anderson, W., Wang, M.D., Norwig, J.H., Ott, G., Puffer, J.C. & Strauss, R.H. (1990). Athletics’ projections of anabolic steroid use. Clinical sports medicine,- 2:155-171

Yesalis, C.E., Courson, S.P., Wright, J.E. (2000). History of anabolic steroid use in sport and exercise. Anabolic steroids in sport and exercise, 2nd ed. pp51-71.

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Wright, J. (1982). Anabolic steroids and sport II. Natick, MA: Sports science consultants

Free Essays

A scoping report on the Beighton Extreme Sport Park proposal


1. Spatial Scope

The proposed site for the Beighton extreme sport park is located on the A57 which is the road connecting Sheffield city centre to junction 31 on the M1. Some of the local residential areas that surround the site include: Woodhouse, Hackenthorpe and Crystal Peaks, all of which could make up some for some of the workforce. Other local places of interest which could have an impact on the site include: the Shirebrook Nature Reserve, Westfield Sports Centre and Crystal Peaks shopping centre to the south. This can be seen more clearly in figure 1 and 2 below. The plot of land is currently owned by the Sheffield City Council and the developers are LBX Holdings Ltd who is based in Newcastle.

1.1 Transport Links

As I mentioned before the site is located near the M1, which is the main motorway linking the south of Britain to the north. There is a tramline that runs from Sheffield city centre to Crystal Peaks one of the neighbouring residential areas and a bit further afield on the other side of the A57 there is Woodhouse railway station which again runs into the Sheffield city centre. The site would also be easily accessible for people living in the local areas that surround the proposed site. This can be viewed better in figure 1 and 2 below.

1.2 Employment

The project information (2011) states that 140 full time jobs will be necessary during a 25 year operation period. More on employment will be discussed in section 3.

This image is courtesy of (2003) site accessed on (2011) from google images

Figure 1. This map shows the proposed site for the sports park which is highlighted in blue. As you can see it is located directly on the A57 and is very close to residential areas. The M1 is located just off to the right of the picture.

(Law) Motivation and managing diversity – Second Draft

Photo courtesy of Stephen Jay (2011)

Figure 2. This is an aerial photograph of the site which is circled in orange, again showing the A57 on the left and some of the residential areas surrounding the site.

2. Life-cycle of activities and Physical Presence

2.1 Materials

Where possible materials will be used from local areas for the six major constructions in the proposed area. The access for the lorries bringing the materials should be fairly easy due to the M1 and A57 being so close. Particularly for the snowdome, skate park and canoe area, specialised materials will needed to be brought in to make them successful. Basic construction materials will be needed for the administration building and hotel such as; steel, timber and glass and tarmac would also be needed for the car park. The project information hand out (2011) also states that 10,000 tonnes of topsoil will also be needed for landscaping.

2.2 Temporal Scope

According to the project information hand out (2011) the site will give 100 jobs for a 16 month construction phase with over 200,000 tonnes of materials being needed to complete the park. The hand out also states that these materials will be transported in 10,000 trips over a six month period assuming it is done in a six day week.

2.3 Dimensions

The dimensions, materials and layout in section 2.3 of each building are given in the Beighton Extreme Sports Park project information handbook (2011)

Snowdome – This building would be the largest, (2011) state that the square footage of the Xscape in Milton Keynes is 55,000m2 with a 44m roof. Beighton snowdome will be a lot smaller compared to this with only a small selection of restaurants so the dimensions will total 5,000m2 with a height of just 30m.
Skate Park – This is an outdoor activity and will be 450m2; the height will be around 8m. A few bars will surround the skate park too adding to the area slightly.
Canoe Park – (2011) states that their canoe run in Lee Valley is 300m long, again Beighton has a smaller area so the canoe run will only be 200m in length, with picnic areas surrounding the run and some restaurants.
Coach and Car Parking – Because this is a unique project and its easy accessibility the car park will be around 18,720m2 and floodlight. This includes all the circulation, floodlighting and bay parking areas. In total there will be enough bays for 590 cars 45 of which are for disabled drivers and in addition to this 120 spaces for overspill, plus 10 spaces for coaches.
Hotel – The hotel will be two floors and have a square footage of 3700m2, it will include the usual hotel amenities such as bar and two restaurants, there will also be 20 rooms on the ground floor and a further 80 on the second floor.
Administration Building – This will be 180m2 and will be built out of the same materials as the hotel which is timer steel and reinforced concrete.

Photo courtesy of Stephen Jay (2011)

Figure 3. This is another aerial photograph giving more detail into where the proposed buildings will be constructed.

3. Assessment of Environmental and Socio – Economic Effects/ Reasons for Scoping Report

3.1 Flora and Fauna

Currently the site is attempting to replant some trees and other smaller plants as shown in figure 4 below, this would ultimately be disrupted by the project. However new shrubs and trees would be planted if the site were constructed and many of the areas round the hotel, admin building and canoe run could retain the local flora and fauna.

Figure 4 shows some areas of Beighton Tip that has tried to be rehabilitated with trees and plants, some of this may be lost due to the construction plans.

3.2 Air and Noise Quality

The Park will undoubtedly increase traffic in the local area which in turn will increase noise and air pollution, this will partly be due to the proximity of the M1. In popular seasons such as the summer months And weekends the car park may reach its maximum capacity leading to some overspill into the local residential areas, which again would increase noise and air pollution. Because canoeing and skiing are very specialist sports and the site is not a natural habitat for either of these sports, a lot of energy will be used to pump water into the canoe run and ski slope for freezing, this process will lead to a decrease in air quality and may add to problems on a global scale.

3.3 Groundwater Problems

The project handbook (2011) states that 1 tonne of snow per day will be used and that inside the snow dome the temperature will be kept at around -2 C .In order for the snow to be produced 1500litres of water will be used per day with an underground tank storing 20,000litres. This could lead to some groundwater problems on the site if the tank were to break and lose water.

3.4 Light Pollution

Because the park will be open well into the night, it may cause problems for the local residential areas in terms of constant light during late hours. With the lights from the M25 so close by, the park may add significant light pollution to the local area. A strategic environmental assessment of Devon transport links (pp37:2006) identified some of the main problems linked with light pollution:

Light trespass: the intrusion of light into homes
Glare: unshielded bright lighting may be hazardous in a relatively small area
Sky Glow: the broad orange glow that prevents appreciation of the night sky

They discovered that these types of light pollution led to a loss of insects such as moths, disrupted bird migration patterns and even stunted tree and shrub growth.

3.5 Sewage, Waste and Litter

Currently there is a river running through the site which for the most part is underground. This is already has been polluted which is clear from the reddish colour which is most probably iron oxides and large amount of litter, figure 5a and b highlights this ; the construction of the site will only increase the amount of sewage in the area which could cause some problems. There is water quality testing points all over the site which are clearly visible in figure 6. Before any work can take place a lot of the rubbish and graffiti will need to be cleaned not just in the site but on some of the walkways leading to the proposed area, this is shown in figures 7 and 8. Recycling points and rubbish bins will be put in place all over the proposed site so as to limit the amount of litter when the project has been constructed. Hopefully the extreme sports park will deter vandalism and litter in the local residential areas.

Figure 5a & b indicates the iron oxides (on the left) and possible other pollutants that inhibit the local stream that runs through the site

Figure 6 shows the water quality stations over the site

Figure 7 & 8 highlights the litter and graffiti problems that the sites has and will need to be addressed.

3.6 Socio-Economic

The site will increase traffic in the local residential areas as I have mentioned before and may cause problems in parking if the sports park is full. It could encourage people to use the local shopping centre at Crystal Peaks which in turn would improve cash flows for other local businesses and as I mentioned earlier it would also provide jobs for the local area.

Hopefully with more money being pumped into the park and its local businesses improvements could be made by the council on local problems such as: litter and graffiti in other areas outside the park, better transport links, better residential facilities or improvements on current roadways.

There is some competition in Xscape Castleford outside Leeds and Milton Keynes which are similar projects; however the main competitor is Sheffield Ski Village which has a dry ski slope. The proposed ski slope at Beighton uses real snow from frozen water which I believe would make it a lot more popular and with the other attractions more successful.

4. Mitigating Measures

4.1 Table of Mitigation Measures and Alternatives




Car Park OverspillReduce the size of some of the other proposed constructions and increase the size of the car parkUsing another site close by as extra car parking space
Increased TrafficImprove local road networks such as expanding either the M1 or A57 allowing more cars on the road at one time. Encourage more bus routes or easier access to tram lines meaning people from Sheffield would use public transport over cars which would reduce trafficRelocate proposed site to somewhere less residential, which would affect less residential areas and at a site that has even better transport links which could manage the amount of traffic generated by the sports park.
Flora and Fauna LossLeave areas of current restoration as much as possibleIntroduce a new programme allowing restoration in other parts of the local area
Sewage and WasteBuild more recycling and rubbish points on the siteRecycle rubbish at legally and dump other waste and legal landfill sites
Air/Noise QualityClosing the park earlier and opening later, would reduce the amount of emissions and energy used, it would also decrease the noise created by the park at the later hoursUsing the site for other sports which require less energy and generate less noise such as indoor football, tennis etc.

4.2 Potential Dangers or Hazards

With such extreme sports there are always going to be risks and possible dangers. At each of the main constructions there will be first aid equipment and in each area there will always be a certified first aider. With the local transport links to medical centres in some of the local residential areas and the A57 leading to central Sheffield there is easy access to medical attention when needed.
In terms of the sports themselves, maintenance teams will need to be on site at all times ready to fix any dangerous problems, such as any malfunctions to the machines converting the water to snow or problems with the waterworks in the canoe run.

5. Legislative and Policy Context

5.1 Introduction to EIA Policy and Context

Carroll and Turpin (2009) state that the need for legislation when it comes to Town and Country planning which was introduced in 1990 is because it allows developers to apply to local authorities for guidance on whether an EIA is necessary to build on a certain plot of land. They go on to explain that the projects are split into schedule 1 to 3. Schedule 1 projects always require an EIA as they are potentially polluting projects, schedule 2 only need an EIA to establish whether it meets certain criteria or exceeds any thresholds established by the government. Schedule 3 is classed as the criteria needed for screening schedule 2. Due to Beighton extreme sports park not being primarily build for any natural resource extraction or used for any waste disposal it cannot be classed as schedule 1, therefore it must be classed as schedule 2 and 3, therefore screening is needed in order to establish whether the project proposal will meet the necessary thresholds and criteria

5.2 Need for EIA (Schedule 2)

All policies and legislation mentioned in section 5.2 and 5.3 was used from

from looking at the (1999) the town and country planning regulations it clearly states in schedule 2, section 10 infrastructure projects part b that, ‘Urban development projects, including the construction of shopping centres and car parks, sports stadiums, leisure centres and multiplex cinemas;’. It also mentions that all areas of development that exceed 0.5 hectares will require and EIA. The size of the proposed car park is 18,720m­2 which exceeds the criteria in this section of the schedule.
Still referring to schedule 2 of the town and country planning 1999 in section 12 Tourism and Leisure it states that in order for, ‘Ski-runs, ski-lifts and cable-cars and associated developments;’ to be constructed the threshold is, ‘the area of the works exceeds 1 hectare; or the height of any building or other structure exceeds 15 metres’. The proposed area of the snowdome is 5,000m2 and the height is 30m which exceeds both thresholds. Later on in section 12 it also says that, ‘Holiday villages and hotel complexes outside urban areas and associated developments;’ are also included, the proposal also shows that it exceeds these thresholds with the hotel being 3,700m2.

5.3 Need for EIA (Schedule 3)

According to the Town and Country Planning 1999 the criteria for screening include, ‘characteristics of development, location of development and characteristics of potential impacts’. Included in some of these characteristics are criteria such as, ‘size of development, pollution and nuisance, the risk of accidents, having regard in particular to substances or technologies used, proximity to nature reserves and parks and the extent of the impact (geographical area and size of the affected population)’. Also these factors may be affected by the proposed project and will need to be taken into consideration for example as I mentioned earlier some of the sports are considered extreme and accidents could occur, a scoping report would be beneficial in understanding more about the possible dangerous and what can be done to prevent them. The site is also located in very close proximity to the Beighton Marsh Nature Park


Wood, C. (2003) Environmental Impact Assessment – A Comparative Review 2nd Edition, London: Pearson Press

DTLR Transport Local Government Regions (2000) Environmental Impact Assessment – A Guide to Procedures, London: Telford Press

Carroll, B. Turpin, T. (2009) Environmental Impact Assessment Handbook 2nd Edition, London: Thomas Telford Ltd

(2011) Details on large buildings on a global scale for skyscraper enthusiasts (Online) Available: (9th March 2011)

Jay, S. (2011) Photos of Beighton Tip (Online) Available: (9th March 2011)

Devon County Council (2004) Strategic Environmental Assessment for the Devon Local Transport Plan 2006-11 Scoping Report (Online) Available: (15th March 2011)

Coughtrie, N. (2011) Photos of Beighton Tip (9th March 2011)

(2011) The Home of UK Legislation (Online) Available: (9th March 2011)

Jay, S. (2011) Beighton Extreme Sports Park Project Information (9th March 2011)

(2003) Map of Beighton tip and surrounding area (Online) Available: (9th March 2011)

Free Essays

Critical Investigation into Research background and Sport/Event sponsorship


This chapter will present information about the research background and sport/event sponsorship. This will also present the difference between event marketing and sports sponsorship. At the end of the chapter, we will state our purpose with the study as well as our research questions.

1. Background:

In modern age tools of marketing has changed drastically. One of the new technique followed by commercial firms is event or sports sponsorship. Main reason behind this is to achieve strong brand image and increase sales. (Abrahamsson et al 2003) In adittion Brassington-pettit (2000) states that in order to accomplish this marketing communication is very important. It will lead to grab new market share and improve the relation with exsisting customers. (Brassington-Pettit 2000)

Another important factor of marketing is promotion, which consists of diverse elements such as advertising. (Bassington- Pettit 2000) which in definition is any paid form of impersonal promotion transmitted through a mass medium. Abrahamsson et al (2003) states that advertising is paid for and impersonal. distinguish it from other promotion elements such as sales promotion and personal selling. All of these already mentioned promotional elements, along with public relations traditionally combine for a company’s promotion mix, which is the total marketing communication program of a company. (Abrahamsson et al 2003)

Due to increased in traditional mass media advertising cost commercial organisation has come up with the idea of sports or event sponsorship. Where is can serve equally to achieve marketing goals, such as increased sales, brand recognition and awareness. The companies search for new media opportunities, have during the past decades resulted in two new, related and increasing areas in the marketing communication mix, event marketing and sports sponsorship. (Eriksson-Hjalmsson, 2001)

Main reason of choosing Indian premier league is to explore the sport sponsorship industry of India which is heavily focused on cricket and its associates. Although, recently India has organised Commonwealth games and cricket world cup 2011. At prest the market size is $40 bn of which 90% delegated to cricket. New sensation in Indian sports industry is Indian Premier league (IPL) which is also based on cricket. (Chakraborty 2010)

1.1.1 Event Marketing

Event marketing concepts is very new in the commercial world and got a quick growth in past decades. According to Eriksson-Hjalmsson (2000) event marketing can be used as a vital tool in both business to business marketing or business to customer marketing. The conception of event marketing had its major breakthrough at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. The organizer of the Olympic games took the initiatives to offer the sponsors a greater use of their sponsoring of the Olympic games. Contracts were signed which specified the type of exposure the sponsors were to enjoy based on the amount of monetary contribution, as well to what extent the sponsors could use the event in their marketing communication as a whole. To distinguish the difference between the new type of sponsoring from the old, more philanthropic charity from companies, the concept of event marketing was created. (Behrer and Larsson 1998)

According to Cambell (2008) On the other hand event sponsorship got quite a huge market in India. Due to high growth economy and massive interest in sports specially in cricket the sponsorship market has grown rapidly in India. Multiply these together and you get huge prospects for sports TV rights and marketing. The predictions are born out by figures from recent years with the sponsorship market estimated at $250m per year, TV rights worth over $350m per year and both growing fast. (sportbusiness 2008)

According to Abrahamsson et al 2003, sponsorship growth is very high in recent year and Eriksson-Hjalmsson (2000) added that the growth of event management in the United States today is three times larger than advertising. Event marketing is an approach to cooperate the communication around an own created or sponsored event. In event marketing the event is an activity that gathers target groups in time and space: a meeting in which an experience is created and a message communicated. (Behrer-Larsson 1998)

It is very lucrative for the commercial organisation because through event sponsoring it is easier to reach the target market and also it is the best way to interact with the customer directly.(Abrahamsson et al 2003) Regardless of the title or place in the organization, in a sponsorship when a company sponsors a sports event or concert, or supports a charity with its resources, it is attempting to increase the perceived value of the sponsor’s brand in the consumer’s mind. Furthermore if sponsoring sport event the company reach two potential markets, the participant and the spectator. (Wells, Burnett & Moriaty, 2000)

1.1.2 Sports Sponsorship

Sports sponsor can be defined as investing in a sports entity such as athlete, league, team or event to support over all organizational objectives, marketing goal and promotional strategies. (Shank 1999) India is the second largest country in world regarding population and got plenty of potential in sports sponsorship. Cricket is the most popular sporting event for Indian people and few of its neighbour countries. Through sponsoring cricket a firm can easily reach its target market in India. Abrahamsson et al (2003) described that sponsorship is an important tool of marketing communication that seeks to achieve favourable publicity for a company and or it brands within a certain target audience via the support of an activity not directly linked to the company’s normal business. (Bennet, 1999)

Sponsorship activities present multiple opportunities for achieving awareness objectives, and much of the research to date in the sponsorship literature has focused on awareness issues such as sponsor recall (Gwinner, 1997). While there are obvious aesthetic pleasures in merely watching a sport performance, the real intensity comes from identifying with an individual or team as they strive to win. It is this phenomenon that has helped make sport a vehicle for the promotion of corporate interests, hen professional team sport has emerged in the nineteenth century, the relationship between sports teams and fans was sustained by reliance on local ownership and involvement. (Mason 1999) The general reasons for making sports sponsorship a part of the promotional mix, is the widespread appeal of sports across all ages, areas and life-styles. This is especially true when it is linked to the television broadcast of the events. Many sports and sporting events attracts high television coverage which means that even if the actual sponsorship coast might be high, the sponsorship is still quite cost effective in comparison to the cost of direct television advertising. (Brassington-Pettit 2000)

The difference between event marketing and sport sponsorship, which could be considered as a highly related area to event marketing, is that event marketing could only occur in marketing. In order for something to be classified as event marketing it is required that the company uses the event both as an attempt to communicate and as a separate medium. (Behrer-Larsson, 1998)

1.2 Research Purpose and Research Question:

As discussed earlier in the thesis, the use of sports sponsorship is becoming more and more common. Many of the companies are sponsoring sports event/team due to the fact that teams and sports events tend to draw a very variable audience. The motives for companies to sponsor a team can be to strengthen their image or increase awareness of the companies. However the sport sponsorship is very important to the teams, because a lot of the money that the companies put into team is often used to pay the players of the team. This means that the company that does the sponsoring becomes involved in a seller-buyer relationship. The sponsorship must however be in line with the other promotion activities that are conducted within the companies and must be measured carefully to be sure of the effects, to become successful when conducting sport sponsoring. It would be interesting to study sport sponsorship from a promotion perspective, which is to look at both the seller and buyer perspective. The research purpose of this thesis can be stated as follow;

“How and why is the Indian Premier League (cricket) being used in commercial organisation’s promotional strategies?”

There are many different factors that can be related to the research purpose, but this thesis will focus on certain aspects. However the complete understanding and describing of sports sponsorship will not provided. Interested areas to investigate further would be the objectives for sport sponsorship to describe how it is conducted and how it is promoted. One other area that is of interest is the sponsor and the sports entity, to investigate the effectiveness of sports sponsorship and how it is evaluated. Another issue that can be of great interest is how the companies select the right sports entity to sponsor. To be able to answer these questions, Three research questions related to the research purpose are formulated as follows:

1: How could the objectives for sports sponsorship be described- form the sponsor and the sports entity perspective?

2: How could the choice of the right sports entity to sponsor be described?

3: How could measuring the effectiveness of sport sponsorship be described?

1.3 Limitations:

The sport sponsorship area is a very large area with many different factors to investigate. However due to time limitations the thesis will focus on the company conducting the sponsorship and the team that are sponsored, from a marketing communications perspective. This is because it is beyond the scope of this study to include all factors within the area of sports sponsorship

2 Literature Review:

Marketing is one of the core functions of a business firm. There are plenty of issues to discuss about marketing. Academia and researcher has done lots of research on this topic and explored many areas of marketing. Many academia has described marketing is mainly based on fours area which are Product, Place, Price and Promotion. My research is mainly based on Promotion. Promotion is a vast area to explore which includes promotional mix. CIM (2009) described that, The promotional mix is a term used to described the set of tools that a business can use to communicate effectively the benefits of its products or services to its customers.

The promotional mix includes the following tools:

Public relations
Sales promotion
Direct marketing
Personal selling

Furthermore other academia included:

Viral marketing
Corporate images

In previous section I have described about promotion and promotional mixes. My main concern is Sponsorship and its uses in sports world specially on cricket and Indian Premier League(IPL).

Objectives for Sports Sponsorship:

One important issue with sponsorship that is often brought up by academia is the objectives, since the objectives could serve as a benchmarking tool when companies are in the process of measuring the effects of the sponsorship. (Hultman-Lindgren, 2001) Not unlike advertising objectives, sponsorship objective could be categorized into direct and indirect objectives. The direct objectives focus on short-term consumer behaviour and to increase sales. Indirect objectives will also ultimately lead to increasing sales, but focus more on generates awareness and create the desired image for the brand. (Shank 1999)

The Main Objectives in sponsorship are as follows:


Brand awareness is achieved by exposing the brand to as many potential consumers as possible. (Gwinner, 1997) To generate awareness or raise awareness for the company’s products, service, product lines or corporate name. From the sports entity’s perspective, having a large corporate sponsor will certain high lighten awareness for them as well. The corporate sponsor will also ensure that their promotion mix elements are integrated, which means that the sponsorship should work along with the advertising and sales promotion for instance, to achive the desired objectives. Recent studies have also shown that sponsorship generates higher levels of awareness in desired target markets compared to advertising. (Shank 1999)


Another objective is to meet any competitive threat on the sponsorship market. In other words, if they do not make the sponsorship investment, their competitors will. Even though, ambush marketing by competitors could damage the sponsorship. Ambush marketing means a planned effort by a competitor to associate there sleves indirectly with an event or a sports entity to gain at least some of the benefits and recognition that are associated with the sponsorship. (Shank 1999)

Brands that do not want to split out on expensive sports sponsorship often turn to ambush marketing. Ambush marketing has a negative effect on everyone involved with an event, and in the end, the sport itself. Event organiser find the value of their right diminished. It becomes harder to find sponsors and consequently, to host events. (Elliott 2002)

Reaching target markets:

One of the major benefits with sports sponsorship is the ability to reach people with a common interest; therefore sporting events are a natural form for psycho graphic segmentations of consumers. By doing that, the company reaches consumers with similar activities, interest and opinions. Therefore, sponsorship that is used effectively could reach target markets more efficiently than traditional advertising. (Shank 1999) Corporations are looking to begin or increase existing sport sponsorships to take advantage of consumer interest and the ability to reach large and yet specifically targeted audience. (Sherry, 1998)

Relationship marketing

Building relationship with clients or putting the principles of relationship marketing to work is another sponsorship abjective. Corporate hospitality managers from the behalf of the sport entity could for instance provide sponsors space and time to socialize with clients. The existence of luxury boxes at stadiums and arenas, are just one piece of evidence that corporate sponsors will go to great length and spend larger amount of money in order to maintain and build successful relationships with their clients. (Shank 1999)

Image Building

This perhaps the most important reason for sponsorship. Providing a positive association of the brand of the sponsoring organization. The sponsoring organization associates itself and its brands with the positive images generated by the unique personality of the sponsored sports entity. The main principle here is that the image of the sports entity should be congruent with the actual or desired image of the sponsored organization and their products. (Shank, 1999)

Amis and Lack agrees with that and further states, “Sport sponsorship has been shown to be an effective tool with which to alter and enhance a company’s image and reputation. Consequently, they believe that sport sponsorship should be considered an important resource, which can help companies to secure a position of competitive advantage. However, for any advantage thus gained to be sustainable, they content that the sponsorship on which the advantage is based must be developed into an area of distinctive competence within the firm” (Amis-Slack, 1998)

DeVous (1994) States that there is of high importance as a sponsorship objective to creat brand image locally, nationally and intentionally. Furthermore he states that sports sponsorship could provide effective associations for the product or the brand, bringing it values such as fitness and excellence. (De Vous, 1994)

Sales Increases:

This is eventual objective for almost all of the sponsoring organization, although sometimes indirect or through a hierarchy of effects. Occasionally, sporting events are created for the sole purpose of making profit. Without sponsoring, the event would lose its ability to do so. (Shank 1999)

The researchers Amis and Alack, like shank, also rates the objectives of awareness and brand images as the two most important objectives in sports sponsorship. (Amis-Slack 1998) Pope (1998) also ranks the increased awareness and brand image as the two primary sponsorship objectives and so do shanklin and Kuzman (1995). Another objective that is not mentioned by Shank is the objective of community relations and support of the local community, which is of particular importance as an objective when it comes to the sponsoring of a sport stadium. (Clark 2002)

Public relation could be considered as another promotional objective for sposrts sponsorship. There are several benefits with sports sponsorship in that perspective. First and foremost, it is developing consistent message points among all marketing factions, including public relations, advertising and promotions. Another benefit is opportunity. Experience will show taht there can be a number of missed public relations opportunities when public relations is practiced totally independent of promotions, advertising and other marketing functions. Another example of benefits from integrating marketing is the practice of using the making of an advertisement for public purposes. (Sherry 1998)

2.2 Choosing the right sports entity to sponsor

A number of factors need to be considered before a sponsorship decision is made, factors which are summarized in the model below:


The first consideration is relvance, which might be the most important factor of them all. There needs to be a match between the chosen sponsorship and the target audience that the organisation is seeking influence.

The Length of impact:

The length of impact may also be a consideration. One off event, unless they are of the very high profile kind, does not generally have the same capacity to build the community relations or establish brand familiarity that sponsoring of a sports league or a series of events could accomplish. However, if the objective is to raise the awareness on a short-term for a new product for instance, a one off event could be useful. (Brassington –Pettit, 2000)


Being the sole sponsor is something that is desirable, but not alway possible to accomplish, especially for larger international events or sports entities, where the costa are very high. Sponsoring a major league can, however, provide uniqueness without being the sole sponsor, as the awareness of the company could rise drastically through television and other forms of media coverage such as print media and broadcasted media. (Brassington-pettit, 2000)

Spin- off promotion

The potential of spin off promotion, is another important factor to consider. Spending more money on advertising and other forms of promotion along with the sponsorship would maximize the impact of the actual sponsorship. (Brassington-Pettit, 2000)


Finally, it is always important to ensure that there exists a compatibility with the sponsor’s overall promotional objectives. Sometimes personal interest of key personal in the sponsoring organization could cloud judgment over the real fit with the commercial objectives and all the cost effectiveness of the sponsorship in question. In that sense, it is recommended that sponsorship decisions are as calculated as unemotional from a corporate perspective as any other promotional decisions. (Brassington- Pettit, 2000)

Despite the growing role of sponsorship in the marketing activities of firms worldwide, academic research in this area has been limited. Adopting a classical conditioning framework, this research examines the effects of consumers’ attitudes about a sports event, their perceptions of sponsor-event fit, and their attitudes about the sponsor on a multidimensional measure of sponsorship response. The results suggest that sponsor-event fit, perceived sincerity of the sponsor, perceived ubiquity of the sponsor, and attitude toward the sponsor are key factors in generating a favourable response from sponsorship. Liking of the event and perceived status of the event have differing significance depending on how response is measured. Sponsor-event fit also has interaction effects with perceived status of the event and personal interest in the event. The implications of these findings for sponsors and event managers are examined, and future research directions are outlined. (Speed and Thompson, 2000)

Past sponsorship research has primarily focused on awareness building strategies, and has virtually ignored brand image issues. As a result, little guidance is available for firms that seek to use sponsorship opportunities to aid in brand positioning. This study reports the results of an experiment using undergraduate student subjects, who assessed the degree to which a sporting event’s image was transferred to a brand through event sponsorship activity. Subjects in the sponsorship pairing treatment were more likely to report similarities on brand-event personality components than subjects who were not exposed to the event-brand sponsorship link, thus supporting the notion that sponsorship results in image transfer. Further, we found that when event and brand are matched on either an image or functional basis the transfer process is enhanced. Management implications for sporting event sponsorship and future research directions are discuss (Gwinner and Eaton 1999)

Walliser (2003) on his article, extends and updates an existing review of 80 Anglo-Saxon studies on sponsorship published prior to 1996 with contributions of European origin (66 additional studies) and studies published subsequently (87 additional studies). His research thus gives an account of the evolution and current state of sponsorship research worldwide and points out new research directions. The researcher also mentioned that, over the past years there have been clear advances in research into, and evaluation of, sponsorship effects and strategic sponsorship management. There has also been a notable shift towards a better understanding of how sponsorship is perceived by the end consumer. Overall, however, research is focused too much on consumer goods and service companies pursuing awareness and image objectives while engaged in sports sponsorship. Other types of institutions, other sponsorship objectives and other sponsorship areas are widely neglected. The same is true of the functional affiliation of sponsorship within the firms and sponsorship budgeting processes.

Sports sponsorship always been a major part of US sports. Cornwell and Maignan 1998 states that, Sponsorship as a promotional activity has grown remarkably in recent years, estimated sponsorship expenditures reached $13.4 billion world in 1996 (International Events group report 1996). Total sponsorship expenditures in the united States across the categories of sports, music, entertainment, festivals, causes and the arts more than duble between 1989 and 1994, increase from $2.1 billion to $4.25 billion (Kate 992, Smith Shannon and MacClaren 1995). In comparison with total 1994 U.S expenditures of $150 billion (Advertising Age 1995), the $4.25 billion spent on sponsorships may appear trivial. However, available statistics on sponsorship expenditures account only for fees paid for sponsorship rights (InternationalEvents Group Report 1996), and therefore do not measure the impact of sponsorship in overall marketing strategies. Supporting advertising, promotion expenditures and client entertainment are some of the costs not incorporated in current figures. The leveraging of sponsorship investments through the use of sponsorship linked marketing programes that include everything from magazine, television and newspaper advertising to licensing, in store displays, sampling and incentives make sponsorship a significant contributor to many communication programs.

In recent years, India has put plenty focus on sports sponsorships and star endorsement. Recent invention of Indian premier league is now one the most highlighted event in sports world. Furthermore, Cricinfo (2010) mentioned that this not only sports event it is a golden goose for Board of Cricket Council India (BCCI). It also gave new meaning to cricket. Promoting the event is not only concern of BCCI, it is also a issue of promoting product and service for several firms. Management Funda (2010) highlited the groth and money involvement in IPL promotion. $1026 bn involved in the hole broadcasting process of the event and $108 mn is used for promotion of IPL. Sony television network got 10 years right of broad casting IPL. Furthermore, DLF has secured exclusive rights to the IPL title sponsorship worth Rs. 200 cr, which is over $50 mn.

Corporate sponsorship of sports, arts, and cultural events has increased dramatically over the past decade. Still, academic research on sponsorship as a promotional tool has been sparse. Cornwell and maignan (1998) offer a cross-disciplinary review of research conducted on sponsorship worldwide. Five research streams–nature of sponsorship, managerial aspects of sponsorship, measurement of sponsorship effects, strategic use of sponsorship, and legal/ethical considerations in sponsorship–are examined and critically assessed.

The increasingly important role played by sponsorship in the marketing mix has given rise to the view that it should be considered a strategic activity with the potential to generate a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. This paper extends that line of argument through the development of a conceptual model of the sponsorship – competitive advantage relationship. In particular, it argues that two levels of competitive advantage need to be considered, namely the competitive advantage of the sponsorship and competitive advantage in the market. Critical to attaining an advantage in the competitive world of sponsorship is the deployment of a range of organisational resources to support the sponsorship investment. A series of research propositions are advanced showing the relative importance of different organisational resources. Effectively resourced sponsorships generate a competitive advantage in the “market” for sponsorships, which in turns leads to competitive advantage and superior performance in product markets. (Fahy et al 2004)

The companies involved in sponsoring IPL is well renowned and big players in their own industries. All these companies are throwing money to get higher return. Sony television got the right to broadcast the whole event, which allow them to sign few more sponsors like, Coca-Cola, Hyundai, Vodafone, Citi Bank, Godraj group who have access to on air category exclusivity. The whole event allowed the broadcaster to fix a stratosphere rate beginning from $5000 per second to $25000 per second. During the event company profit rasied from 5.7% to 28.8%. (Hindustan Times, 2008)

The versatility of sponsorship as a communications medium to a variety of corporate audiences is examined, with broad clusters of sponsors based on audience orientation being identified. Audience priority is examined with reference to sponsor characteristics and the main promotion instruments used by sponsors to communicate with their audiences are analysed. (Crowley 1991)

Sports currently represents the eleventh largest industry in the USA. Despite this, there are few mainstream marketing journals willing to publish manuscripts on sports marketing. In an effort to circumvent this problem, some sports marketing authors have “disguised” their research under the guise of “servicescapes” or leisure services. Looks at the topical content of the leading outlet for sports marketing manuscripts, Sport Marketing Quarterly. The author classifies the articles into 18 categories. Sponsorship is the most frequent topic for sport marketing papers, followed by general research and research on fans, spectators, and participants. Provides an extensive bibliography of sport-marketing articles published in academic journals. While a few of these are in marketing journals, the vast majority are published “out of field”. (Shannon 1999)

Sports Sponsorship is used to support marketing and corporate objectives, such as improving a company or brand image and increasing consumers’ intentions to purchase a company’s product or service. Consumers’ intention to purchase derives from two main influences, a positive attitude towards the brand itself and brand exposure and prior use. This suggests a relationship between sport sponsorship activities, brand exposure and attitudes towards the brand itself. This relationship was explored in this research by considering the impact of three factors on the level of intention to purchase a company’s products or services. The factors considered were corporate image, prior product use, and belief that the company sponsors a sport or sports. Subject were asked to rate their intention to purchase products or services from 10 companies in five product groups. Companies were also assessed for corporate image, belief that the company was a sponsor of sports and prior use. The relationships between these variables were examined using ANOVA. Significant effects on purchase intention were found from brand, from the belief that the company sponsored sport, and from the corporate image of the company. No interaction effects between the independent variables were found. (Pope and Voges 2000)

The case examines the concept of sports sponsorship and how ambush marketing has become an integral part of such sponsorship. The reasons underlying the increasing use of ambush marketing tactics by companies during sports events are analyzed. The case discusses in detail the dispute between the International Cricket Council (ICC) and Indian cricketers in late 2002 regarding certain anti-ambush marketing clauses that restricted players from endorsing the products of companies other than the official sponsors chosen by the ICC. The case also examines the role of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), the official sponsors as well as the ambush marketers in the dispute. (ICMR 2003)

According to Hindustan Times (2008), the Indian premier league is a miracle in the world cricket. Cricketing world has experiences the drastic changes in cricket after the evolution of new cricket concept the Twenty20 cricket. Lalit Modi creator of IPL brought out the dream concept in reality. IPL has been as market controversy where the end result is unparalleled, residual awareness of product and brand recall. IPL is new in the market and established itself as a new brand in a very short span of time. Controversy could be an amazingly low cost marketing tool that makes for the phenomenal media coverage and can be very effective if managed well it reaches the minds of the masses and will be of immense help in eliminating the odd dose of adverse publicity in the short term.

By far it is quite clear that sports sponsorship is a big subject area which hasn’t been a major concern for the academia. Even though, major brands are involved in this matter but still remain in shadow. Another important fact is IPL, fast growing sporting event grab the attention of millions and billions of people. Now a days it is one of the hot topic in cricketing world. Sabnavis (2008) has described IPL as mixed of cricket, glamour, celebration and celebrity craze. Plenty of movie star from Indian movie industry with the backing from business tycoons of india like Ambani and Mallya are involved in the event.

To decribed the Main feature of IPL Hashmi (2011) says, IPL is the version of the game which is only 2 and half hours long, fast paced and exciting. IPL has employed economists to structure its lead so that revenue is maximized. Since it has a large potential mass audience, IPL is very attractive as a marketing communications opportunity, especially for advertisers and sponsors. The league functions under a number of franchises. Each franchisee is responsible for marketing its team to gain as large a fan-base as possible. The long-term success of all of the franchises lies in the generation of a solid fan-base. The fan-base will generate large TV revenues. Different fans will pay different amounts to watch their sport. There will be corporate hospitality, season tickets, away tickets, TV pay-per-view and other ways to segment the market for the IPL. There is a huge opportunity for merchandising e.g. sales of shirts, credit cards and other fan memorabilia. Grounds can also sell refreshments and other services during the games. Marketers believe that the teenage segments need to be targeted so that they become the long-term fan-base. Their parents and older cricket fans may prefer the longer, more traditional game. The youth market may also impress on their parents that they want them to buy their club’s merchandise on their behalf – as a differentiator or status symbol. Franchise fees will remain fixed for the up until 2017-18, which means that the investment is safe against inflation which is traditionally relatively high in India. (Hashmi 2011)

India is growing fast in the economy and IPL is one of the examples of building a strong economy. Not many academias have shown concern on this event but my concern is to go deep to find the promotional strategies of company involved in the event. This is a market of billion audiences with huge turnover. IPL is being used by many big brand companies to achieve competitive advantages in the market and different promotional strategies are involved in the whole process. My research will highlight all those fact involve in promotional strategies by commercial organisation involved in the event.

3 Methodology

In this part of thesis methodological issues will be presented. Methodological consideration and choices will be stated, as well as the research design, research approach, purpose, sample selection and data collection.

3.1 Research Purpose

According to Sauders (2000), there are three main stages in research exploratory, descriptive and explanatory.


Here research is designed to allow the investigator to “look around” with respect to some phenomenon. The aim is to develop suggestive ideas. The research should be as flexible as possible and provide guidance for procedures. The focus is initially broad and becomes progressively narrow as the research progresses.


The object of descriptive is to portray accurate profilr of persons, event or situations. It is necessary to have clear picture of the phenomena on which to collect information to the data collection.


Studies, which establish casual relationships between variables, may be turned explanatory studies. The emphasis here is on studying a situation or a problem in order to explain the relationships between variables.

In this research, I am exploring the sponsorship relation from both sides in a marketing communication perspective in order to gain a deeper understanding of our research area, describing when we discuss what the objectives are, how to the select the right sports entity to sponsor and how to measure the effect of the sponsorship, and explaining when I am answering my research questions. However, although I have parts of all three, I am mainly descriptive.

3.2 Research approach

Depending on what kind of information that is investigated, the qualitative or quantitative method is used. The qualitative method does not strive to generalize the problem, istead, the purpose is to give a deeper understanding of the problem. (Saunders, 2000) Further, the method is flexible and thereby, the researcher can correct possible weaknesses and incorrect formulations and also add lacking questions. However, one weakness with this method is that it can be a problem to compare information from the different objects of study.

Qualitative investigation usually take form of case studies or surveys, with few research objects. (Saunders, 2000)

The quantitative methods deals with the problem in a wider perspective, usually through large questionnaires with closed end questions, tha is, questions, which call for responses that are strictly limited. The gathered material is expresses in figures. The primary purpose of this methodological approach is to be able to generalize the gathere information. I have assumes that qualititavie approach in my research since i wanted to gain a deeper understanding of different issues regarding my research questions. (Saunders, 2000)

3.3 Research strategy

The purpose with my research was to investigate “How and why is The Indian Premier League (Cricket) beaing used in commercial organisation’s promotional strategy”I then divided this research purpose into three research questions:

The objective with sports sponsorship

How to choose the right sport entity to sponsor

Measuring the effect of the sponsorship

There exist five major strategies when it comes to research strategy, Experiment, survey archival-analysis, history and case study, which are explained further in the table below:

StrategyForm of research questionRequires control of behavioural eventsFocuses on contemporary events
ExperimentHow, Why?YesYes
SurveyWho, What, where, How many, how much?NoYes
Archival-analysisWho, What, where, How many, how much?NoYes/No
HistoryHow, whyNoNo
Case studyHow, whyNoYes

Table source: Relavent situation for different research strategies, Yin 2003

Case studies means to investigate few objects thoroughly. It is most suitable research strategy if the objective it to achieve detailed understanding about different kinds of processes in few objects. (Sauders, 2000) Since I am focusing on contemporary event and the fact that our research questions are formulated in “how and why” form, a case study generally, is the most suitable method for problem like this one according to Yin (2003)

3.4 Data Collection

First, The research has to decide if the investigation should be based on already gathered information, that is, secondary data, or if fieldwork has to be carried out, to gather primary data (Saunders, 2000). When conducting case studies and collecting data. There are six sources where the researcher can collect evidence and those are; Documents, archival records, Interviews, direct observations, participant-observation and physical artefacts. These sources of evidence can both be strong as well weak evidence according to Yin (2003). These types of evidence and the nature of them are displayed in the figure below this paragraph.

Source of evidenceStrengthsWeakness
DocumentationStabile can be reviewed repeatedly

Achival Records
Direct Observation
Participant observation
Physical artefacts

3.4.1 Secondary Data

Sauders (2000) points out, that secondary data is data, which already has been collected by someone else. For another purpose. Statistics and reports issued by governments, trade associations, and so on, are some sources of secondary data. The IPL websites and website and annual reports of company associates with IPL sponsorship are other sources of secondary data (Saunders, 2000). In this research I have used the website pages of case study event and companies for providing general company information in our data collection chapter.

3.4.2 Primary Data

Primary data collected directly by the researcher for specific purpose. Two main techniques for gathering primary data exist, that is, inquiries or interviews, Either one or a combination of both, can be used. (Saunders, 2000)

Inquiries can reach a geographically dispersed sample simultaneously, since the interviewer presence is not needed. However, the absence of the interviewer brings that the questioning process is beyond the interviewer’s control and the respondent does not have the opportunity to ask the interviewer questions. Therefore, the questions have to be standardized, and quite structured, so that the respondent does not interpret them wrongly. Problems that would have been clarified in a personal or telephone interview remain misunderstandings in an inquiry. (Saunders 2000)

Since I wanted to ask rather complex questions, I decided that inquiries would not suit my research.

3.5 Sample Selection

In order to select a sample for my case study, I have used judgmental sampling. Judgmental sampling basically means that the researcher select cases best suited to answer the research questions. This form of sample is often used when working small samples such as in a case study research when you want to select cases that are particularly informative (Saunders, 2000)

I have then chosen to look at the sponsorship collaboration with the Indian primer league (Cricket) and its sponsor DLF, Hero Honda, Kingfisher gorup and Sony entertainment

3.6 Data Analysis

Data analysis consist of examining, categorizing and tabulating or otherwise recombine the collected data. (Yin 2003)

There are three concurrent flows of activity in data analysis (Yin 2003)

Data Reduction: Selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming the data. The purpose is to organize the data so that a final conclusion could drawn.
Data Display: Taking the reduced data and display it in an organized and compressed way so that conclusions could be easily drawn
Conclusin drawing/verification: Noting regularities, patterns, explanations, possible configurations, casual flows and propositions

Then the data collected for each research questions is reduced and simplified through use of within case analysis. The within case analysis is performed by comparing the empirical finding with already exsisting theories and concepts brought up in th conceptual framework. (Yin 2003)

Since I only have a single case study, I will be using a within case analysis to analyze my data.

3.7 Validity and reliability

Mrshall (1997) put more importance on reliability and validity in a research. He also stated that, perfect reliability is often beyond reach in social science but we must aim to achieve as high a level as possible. According to Powell and Connaway (2004) emphasis need to be placed on the validity and reliability of any research design in order to reduce the risk of getting wrong answers. Validity seeks to ensure that the level of sophistication of the research design and the extent of control, achieves the set research question(s) while reliability seeks to guarantee consistency and legitimate generalizability of results obtained (Marshall 1997). Validity refers to how well a specific research method measures what it is supposed to measure. (Sauders 2000). A validity problem could be if my collected information were from poor sources. Generally other types of validity problems could lie in the analysis of the data and the conclusions drawn. (Saunders, 2000). A research can hold high reliability if it can be repeated. Several times and the results are the same, or almost same. One reliability problem could be if the respondent is not suited to answer my questions properly, to eliminate that problem, I have chosen annual reports and main website of all the sponsor and the event itself.

4. Data Presentation:

In this chapter, The empirical data collected from the company website and annual reports will be presented.

4.1 Comapny information – DLF

DLF Limited, is India’s largest real estate company in terms of revenues, earnings, market capitalisation and developable area. It has over 60 years of track record of sustained growth, customer satisfaction, and innovation. The company has 399 msf of planned projects with 56 msf of projects under construction.

DLF’s primary business is development of residential, commercial and retail properties. The company has a unique business model with earnings arising from development and rentals. Its exposure across businesses, segments and geographies, mitigates any down-cycles in the market. DLF has also forayed into infrastructure, SEZ and hotel businesses.

Development Business

The development business of DLF includes Homes and Commercial Complexes

The Homes business caters to 3 segments of the residential market – Super Luxury, Luxury and Mid-Income. The product offering involves a wide range of products including condominiums, duplexes, row houses and apartments of varying sizes.

DLF is credited with introducing and pioneering the revolutionary concept of developing commercial complexes in the vicinity of residential areas. DLF has successfully launched commercial complexes and is in the process of marking its presence across various locations in India.

The development business at present has 302 msf of development potential with 40 msf of projects under construction.

Annuity Business

The annuity business consists of the rental businesses of offices and retail.

With over six decades of excellence, DLF is a name synonymous with global standards, new generation workspaces and lifestyles. It has the distinction of developing commercial projects and IT parks that are at par with the best in the world. DLF has become a preferred name with many IT & ITES majors and leading Indian and International corporate giants, including GE, IBM, Microsoft, Canon, Citibank, Vertex, Hewitt, Fidelity Investments, WNS, Bank of America, Cognizant, Infosys, CSC, Symantec and Sapient, among others.

DLF pioneered the retail revolution in the country and brought about a paradigm shift in the industry by redefining shopping, recreation and leisure experiences with the launch of City Centre in Gurgaon in 2000. The Retail Malls business is a major thrust area for DLF. Currently, DLF is actively creating new shopping and entertainment spaces all over the country.

The company has land resource of 86 msf for office and retail development, with 16 msf of projects under construction.

DLF owns and operates the luxurious Aman Resorts across the world and also has an alliance with Hilton Group for development and management of hotels in India. The hotel business is currently undergoing a comprehensive review by the company as regards its future plans, commitment towards resources and the extent of scale and size that the company aspires to achieve in this segment. DLF has a development potential of 11 msf for its hotel business.

DLF has a strong management team running independent businesses, though complementing each other in cases of opportunities of mixed land use. DLF’s mission is to build a world-class real estate development company with the highest standards of professionalism, ethics and customer service and to thereby contribute to and benefit from the growth of the Indian economy.

4.2 Event Information: Indian Premier League (Cricket)

The Indian Premier League (IPL) is a professional league for Twenty20 cricket competition in India. It was initiated by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) headquartered in Mumbai supervised by former Chairman and Commissioner of the Indian Premier League Chirayu Amin. It is currently contested by 10 teams consisting of players from around the world. It was started after an altercation between the BCCI and the Indian Cricket League.

In 2010, IPL became the first sporting event ever to be broadcast live on YouTube. Its brand value was estimated to be around $4.13 billion the same year.According to global sports salaries review, IPL is the second highest-paid league, based on first-team salaries on a pro rata basis, second only to the NBA. It is estimated that the average salary of an IPL player over a year would be $3.84 million. The brand value of Chennai Super Kings (winner IPL 2010, finalist IPL 2008 and semi-finalist IPL 2009) is estimated at USD 48

IPL Trophy

The diamond-encrusted trophy of DLF Indian Premier League (IPL) Cricket was designed by Orra brand, owned by Antwerp-based Rosy Blue Group. It comprises of a player in a gold leafing. He is shown holding a bat in his hand, next to a map of India. On the map, the names of all the IPL teams have been engraved by rubies. It took a team of as many as 14 craftsmen to make the trophy. Every year, the winners of the IPL T20 tournament are presented with a replica of this trophy, along with the prize money


The winning bidders for the eight franchises were announced on 24 January 2008. While the total base price for auction was US $400 million, the auction fetched US $723.59 million.

On 21 March 2010, Pune and Kochi were unveiled as the two new franchises for the fourth edition of the Indian Premier League. The base price was $225 million. While Pune was bought by Sahara Adventure Sports Group for $370 million, the Kochi franchise was bought by Rendezvous Sports World Limited for $333.3 million. The process was to have been completed on March 7 but was postponed by two weeks after many bidders and the BCCI objected to stiff financial clauses. The second franchise auction fetched total $703 millions

Television rights and sponsorships

The IPL is predicted to bring the BCCI income of approximately US$1.6 billion, over a period of five to ten years. All of these revenues are directed to a central pool, 40% of which will go to IPL itself, 54% to franchisees and 6% as prize money. The money will be distributed in these proportions until 2017, after which the share of IPL will be 50%, franchisees 45% and prize money 5%. The IPL signed up Kingfisher Airlines as the official umpire partner for the series in a 106 crore (US$23.53 million) (approximately ?15 million) deal. This deal sees the Kingfisher Airlines brand on all umpires’ uniforms and also on the giant screens during third umpire decisions.

Television rights

On 15 January 2008 it was announced that a consortium consisting of India‘s Sony Entertainment Television network and Singapore-based World Sport Group secured the global broadcasting rights of the Indian Premier League. The record deal has a duration of ten years at a cost of US $1.026 billion. As part of the deal, the consortium will pay the BCCI US $918 million for the television broadcast rights and US $108 million for the promotion of the tournament. This deal was challenged in the Bombay High Court by IPL, and got the ruling on its side. After losing the battle in court, Sony Entertainment Television signed a new contract with BCCI with Sony Entertainment television paying 8,700 crore (US$1.93 billion) for 10 years. One of the reasons for payment of this huge amount is seen as the money required to subsidize IPL’s move to South Africa which will be substantially more than the previous IPL. IPL had agreed to subsidize the difference in operating cost between India and South Africa as it decided to move to the African nation after the security concerns raised because of its coincidence with India’s general elections.

20% of these proceeds would go to IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees. The money would be distributed in these proportions until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares (But recently in March 2010, IPL decided not to go public).

Sony-WSG then re-sold parts of the broadcasting rights geographically to other companies. Below is a summary of the broadcasting rights around the world.

On 4 March 2010 ITV announced it had secured the United Kingdom television rights for the 2010 Indian Premier League. ITV will televise 59 of the 60 IPL matches on its ITV4 free to air channel.

On April 1, 2011, Rogers Sportsnet announced that it signed a four year exclusive deal in Canada to broadcast 36 group stage matches, 3 playoff matches and 1 championship match on Rogers Sportsnet One.


India’s biggest property developer DLF Group paid US$50 million to be the title sponsor of the tournament for 3 years from 2008 to 2010.

Other year sponsorship agreements include a deal with motorcycle maker Hero Honda worth $22.5-million, one with PepsiCo worth $12.5-million, and a deal with beer and airline conglomerate Kingfisher at $26.5-million.

Revenue and Profits

The UK-based brand consultancy, Brand Finance, has valued the IPL at $4.13 billion (Rs 18,998 crore) in 2010. It was valued at U$2.01 billion in 2009 by the same consultancy.

There are disputed figures for the profitability of the teams. One analyst said that four teams out of the eight made a profit in 2009. While the London Times said that all but Kings XI Punjab made a profit. In 2008, Kolkata Knight Riders is the most expensive team followed by the Mumbai Indians but unable to make it into the semifinals despite being the favourite.

In 2010, the IPL expects to have 80 official merchandising deals. It has signed a deal with Swiss watchmaker Bandelier to make official watches for the IPL.

According to a recent study by a UK-based brand valuation consultancy, the brand value of the IPL has more than doubled to USD 4.13 billion (over Rs 18,000 crore) from USD 2.01 billion in 2009.

The franchises have been a part of this growth. Chennai Super Kings, who were ranked fourth last year, has emerged the most valued franchise in 2010. The CSK franchise has moved up the ladder to number one with a valuation of USD 48.4 million. The Kolkata Knight Riders co-owned by Bollywood actor Shah Rukh Khan comes in second with a valuation of USD 46 million and the Rajasthan Royals, co-owned by Bollywood actress Shilpa Shetty comes in third with USD 45.2 million. The Royal Challengers Bangalore, owned by Vijay Mallya, is ranked fourth with a valuation of USD 41.9 million and is followed by the Mumbai Indians (USD 40.8 million), Delhi Daredevils (USD 40.5 million) and Kings XI Punjab ( USD 36.1 million). The Deccan Chargers are at the base with a valuation of USD 34.4 million.

5 Data Analysis:

In this chapter I will analyze the collected data, utilizing a within case analysis each of my three research questions.

5.1 RQ1- Objectives:

In my conceptual frame work Shank (1999) lists six xommon objectives fro sports sponsorship, objectives, that are also frequently used by other researcher such as Amis and Slack and Pope. This six objectives are awareness, relationship marketing, reaching target markets, image building, competition and sales increases.

Furthermore in my conceptual framework, sherry (1998) emphasizes the importance of the public relation factors as a sponsorship objective.

5.1.1 DLF

Of those objectives mentioned in the section above DLF belives that image building, in terms of associating themselves with successfull sports like cricket and an event like IPL, with broad public interest and awareness, would be beneficial from an image point of view. Another image related objective is that DLF feels that sponsoring IPL is a way of supporting country economy and cricket infrastructure.

As DLF is in building and construction business it can attract the customer from other countries. Cricket is not only popular in India is also equally popular in many develop countries like England, South Africa, Australia, Newzealand, Canada. Apart from this developing countries like Pakistan, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Kenya are involved with great in big terms. It is a very big market for DLF to explore and growth.

The one objective that DLF differ from shank’s (1999)stated objectives are competition. DLF does not make their sponsorship decisions based on possible threats from competitors and risk of ambush marketing. In accordance with Sherry’s (1998) theories are the facts that DLF rates the possible media coverage high as a sponsorship objective and that the company values the opportunity to participate in events with IPL, that could give positive public relation effects. An example of such an event could be IPL signs a high profile players like Shachin Tendulkar, Jaque Kallis, Watson, Pollarad, Gayle, Malinga. This creats an opportunity for DLF to take advantage of to achieve positive PR.

5.1.2 Indian Premier League

Like the sponsoring company DLF and hero Honda, the sports entity IPL also rates image building objective quite highly. IPL aims to strengthen its own bran by associating it with other strong brands in a sponsorship relation.

From Image point of view, success for IPL in a sports perspective is also important, since it strengthens the brand and makes them attractive for sponsors. Success from a sports perspective also leads to increased media coverage, which is important both for IPL and for the sponsors since it provides increased brand exposure.

In line with (Shanks 1999) objectives, IPL relates relationship marketing as an important objective. IPL treats its sponsors as business parteners and provides setting for interacting between different sponsoring companies as well.

Revenue or sales from the sponsoring is vital as an objective for IPL, since most of their annual turnover is derived from various sponsorship deals. To contradict Shank, IPL has no clear objective for sponsorship when it comes to generate awareness or to reach new target markets. Neither is sherry’s (1998) public relation objective of any importance for IPL.

5.2 RQ 2- Selection

As stated by brassington and Pettit (2000) in my conceptual frame work a sponsorship decision is based on the following factors: relevance, length of impact, uniqueness, spin off promotion and compability. For the selction of which type of sports entity, shank (1999) separated sport entities in athletes, team, leagues/sports and events

5.2.1 Sponsors: DLF, Hero Honda and Sony Entertainment

Sponsors of IPL got two main considerations in the selection process is that the sponsored sports entity should be in a sport of general public interest, which is coherent with what Brassington and Pettit (2000) states about relevance, and the long term impact. DLF, Hero Honda and Sony wants sign sponsorship deal over the course of three years at the time. The importance of the long term impact is also in accordance with brassington and Pettit.

The factor of uniqueness in the sponsorship and maybe being the sole sponsor is also of importance for the IPL sponsors, as it is for Brassington and Pettit. DLF also states that the image compatibility between the company and the sponsored sports entity is essential and it should be natural the encounter the company’s product in context of the sponsores sports entity. This is also in accordance with Brassington and Pettit Theory.

The principle on which DLF decides for which types of sports entity to sponsor, is in accordance with shank’s (1999) theory since DLF does not sponsor individual athletes, due to the risk of image problems to could occur from inappropriate behaviour from athlete.

5.2.2 Indian Premier League

The main consideration for IPL in the selection process is that the deals are done on a long term basis at least three years at a time. As IPL sees it the main reason for companies to sponsor them is because they want to strengthen their image and please their customers, supplier and employees. All this in line with Brassington-Pettit (2000)

In IPL they believe that having a sole title sponsor could both good and bad. To have one sole sponsor could close down possibilities for other who want to sponsor but it can also mean a long term security, which is in accordance with Brassington-Pettit. It is also of importance with the major sponsor that they share the same vision and strives towards the same goal, which is not an issue brought up in an theory.

It does not have to be an exact match between the sponsor and the audience but the sponsoring company cant be one that have a bad reputation or who are risk of getting bad publicity, which contradicts theory of Brassinton-Pettit. The location of the sponsored companies head office is not of great importance.

5.3 RQ 3- Effect Measuring

In the conceptual framework I have relied mainly on Meenaghan’s (1983) theory on how to measure the effectiveness of sport sponsorship. The theory consists of four methods. The four methods are measuring the sales effectiveness from the sponsorship. Furthermore I will support Meenaghan’s theory with the three step method of evaluation developed by Bennet in 1999. This method includes measuring the effectiveness regarding awareness and position with the desired target market before the sponsorship, detection of changes during the sponsorship and evaluation of the possible changes after the sponsorship.

5.3.1 DLF

DLF has not been able to detect direct impact of the sales increase because there are other factors such as the product characteristics and other parts of DLF marketing mix that influence the sales. Therefore they cannot measure the sales effectiveness from the sponsorship; however they believe that the success for the sponsored sports entity such as IPL will help them to strengthen their brand. To be able to measure the communication effectiveness from the sponsorship DLF is looking at the increase of advertising awareness. DLF also states that they are measuring the effectiveness of the media coverage as well as printed press.

In contradiction to Meenaghan (1983), DLF does not measure the effectiveness regarding the sponsorship objectives according to DLF. They can not detect if their exits a local loyalty towards their brand either, due to the same reasons as it cannot detect sales is dependent on the sponsorship.

DLF states that it is hard to be detect changes during the sponsorship, but to be able to do that DLF are evaluating their sponsorship agreements continuously and are also making a final evaluation in order to see if the sponsorship objectives have been reached.

5.3.2 Indian Premier League

In last three year IPL is been very successful and it’s been one of the hot topic in the sports industry now. According to the theory if IPL is successful during the season they can detect increased sales, which is considered to be new sales effectiveness of the sponsorship. Regarding the measurement of media coverage, IPL receive monthly statistics from Sony entertainment. Which is an important tool for them to measure the media coverage effectiveness from the sponsorship. When it comes to measure the communication effect, IPL are looking at how well the relationship between the organization and their sponsors are working this is made continuously throughout the season.

In contradiction to meenaghan, IPL cannot measure the effectiveness regarding the continuing appropriateness of the sponsorship over time. This is because it is too hard to measure according to IPL. However they believe that the sponsorship can derive a local loyalty towards a brand such as DLF.

6 Finding and Conclusions:

This chapter will present the research finding and will come to a conclusion

Research indicates that there exist several forms of objectives regarding sports sponsorship. My research shown that both of the entity is highly after image building and increasing its sales. Along with that relationship marketing, media coverage was an important issue for the both entity.

The sports entity in the case study, sees it as an important objective to create an environment for companies to strengthen and build relationship in the context of the sponsorship and from the sponsoring side, this opportunity of relationship marketing is an important sponsorship objective.

Increase of sales and increase of revenue is also important objective, which also ties in to sport success. The sports entity is likely to increase sponsorship revenue in case of success, which is an important source of income. A discrepancy is that the sponsoring company is trying to reach new target markets and increasing awareness as sponsorship objectives and the sports entity has not. The reason behind that could be that the sports entity doesnot have those objectives in a formal way, but they are still indirectly reaching new target markets and strengthen their awareness by being successful, which then could lead to even more lucrative sponsorship deals for them.

I have found that neither of the two companies is evaluating awareness and their target markets before entering a sponsorship relation. However both parts in the relationship are evaluating the relationship during the sponsorship agreement continuosly in both formal and informal was. The formal evaluation is statistics from changes in media coverage and advertising awareness. With informal means that both parties have more of a friendship relationship and if something is wrong they receive instant notice of it. However both parties evaluate the sponsorship agreement after finishing season to see if the sponsorship objectives have been reached.

Thus Following is concluded:

No evaluation plan exists to measure the effectiveness of the sport sponsorship relation. This should be important to develop for both parties since it should give more stabile measurement
Although long term commitment is an important slelction factor for both sponsorship sides, it could be quite risky for a sports entity to be too dependent on a single sponsor. However the sports entity in my study DLF managed quite well to balance the needs of their major sponsor DLF with their own needs for independence.


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Free Essays

Sport Tourism in Manchester, United Kingdom


The evolution of Urban Tourism has provided a wide range of opportunity for the city of Manchester, UK. Alongside this opportunity Manchester has determined to employ a sport centred economic plan in an effort to bring in revenue. This study begins by assessing the underlying policies alongside the economic and social context in order to establish the overall direction of the rebranding effort of the focus on the area of sport. Next, this work examines the competing interests with the advent of the policy records in order to produce a credible series of results. Employing these results illustrated a wide range of benefits for the sport centred urban tourist effort. Alongside the positive elements is a strong residual argument that further study of the often volatile market segment will be needed in order to fully assess every opportunity.


Current statistics illustrate the UK tourism market is centred in urban areas by a wide margin (Beioley 2002, pp. 1). This revenue stream can be utilized to reinvigorate a local or regional economic outlook in a variety of manners. Analysis demonstrates that city tourism differs from national tourism in that it is shorter, higher spending and far more reliant on the underlying public services (Beioley 2002, pp. 2). This is a positive component to the effort by Manchester, suggesting that there is a fundamental shift in policy to accompany this approach. Beginning with an initial report on the feasibility of transforming Manchester into a tourist destination, the concept of a sport centred industry has been favourably looked upon by the city (Law 2012, pp. 1). Lacking the infrastructure support would hamper the overall implementation of this avenue, making regulatory partnership vital. Manchester has found itself in positive area by building a partnership with both the social and legislative elements.

Manchester has recognized that the area of sport is a very popular cultural draw with the potential to spread good will towards the entire city and region (Tallon 2010, pp. 239). This facet of their plan not only built a solid foundation, but expanded the accompany revenue base. Regulators instituted policies that have resulted in the construction of the City of Manchester Stadium, with the explicit goal of revitalizing the entire district. This approach to the revitalisation effort has been heralded as a solid foundation upon which to build the regeneration of Manchester’s entire infrastructure (Tallon 2010, pp. 239). Underlying policies that are conducive to the sport arena are credited for energizing the tourist trade, transforming the image of the city itself as well as creating a sustainable form of industry that can serve to propel the city into the next era. Each of these components adds value, yet, the potential for a substantial lack of cohesiveness does exist (Tallon 2010, pp. 239)

Employing governmental assistance that designated Greater Manchester an ‘Enterprise Zone’ in 1987, there has been a sustained drive to capitalize on the potential for urban tourism centred on the area of sport (Tallon 2010, pp. 52). This on-going assistance has been a tremendous benefit to the implementation of the urban renewal plan.

As a result of the on-going campaign to build economic progress, regulators have actively worked to instil a tourism friendly element that is a continual boon to the urban recovery process in Manchester (Weed 2010, pp. 187). Alongside the recognition of the potential revenue to be found in the tourist trade, Manchester has worked unceasingly to put itself in a better strategic marketing position. It is the combination of forward thinking policy in conjunction with an adaptable industry that demonstrates Manchester’s long term commitment to the area of urban tourism.

Economic and Social Context

In a very public effort to rebrand the city in the 1990’s, Manchester adopted the new motto “The life and Soul of Britain” (Spirou 2011, pp. 112). A demonstrative first step allows a positive perception to begin. This rededication was a precursor of the effort to improve the social and cultural perception of Manchester as a destination. Acting on the potential for an increase in revenue, Manchester rightly pursued the industry of sport as a method to address this deficiency (Weed 2010, pp. 187). Succeeding in attaining their goal of the Common Wealth Games of 2002this economic activity served to lift the city above the dismal outlook with the further positive ramification of being judged relied upon to do the same for many similar progressive endeavours (Weed 2010, pp. 187). This is a positive element in that each project further strengthens the infrastructure.

Manchester’s demonstrated the widely felt social imperative to look beyond the current methods of creating revenue in order to make the most of the possibilities (Ashworth and Page 2010, pp. 1). This approach is in line with the working recognition for the need to employ an approach that connects the infrastructure of social sciences, with a focus on the element of urban studies to industry. Manchester’s ability to embrace the social science aspect has led to a tourism industry that has the potential to continue to expand (Ashworth and Page 2010, pp. 1). An associated increase in revenue and visitors is a positive credit to the underlying effort.

The implementing of the urban tourism plan has yielded substantial benefits to the social and cultural fabric of Manchester (Law 2010, p. 129). Underlying infrastructure such as road and regional travel has drastically improved as a result of the urban tourism drive. The establishment of stronger underlying elements enables the wide variety of non-sport related activities to benefit from the industry as well (Law 2010, pp. 129). Through the increased capacity to travel easily, more visitors have been attributed with coming to the city, providing a wealth of revenue for many of the industries that rest well outside of the sport focus. Yet, this also brings in the potential for related issues that could detract from the sport centred focus of the city (Law 2010, pp. 130.) The lack of proper application has the potential to result in the splitting of vital resources to the detriment of everyone.

Manchester was able to learn from their bids for the Olympic Games, adapt and make a successful bid for the Commonwealth Games (Cook and Ward 2011, pp. 2519). This is clear demonstration that the legislative and social perception was ripe for the development of an industry mechanism with the capacity to help them succeed. Combining the element of politics, social responsibility and ethical practice Manchester has managed to achieve a state of relative prosperity that will lend credence to the spirit of urban tourisms vital capacity to lend aid to struggling economies.

Competing Interests

Alongside the development of Manchester as ‘SportCity’, there are the separate industries that must compete in order to survive (Smith 2013, pp. 385). This recognition requires that any successful long term plan must include the capacity to bring in each of the disparate elements in such a manner that it promotes the whole. Modern studies on the benefits of creating a sport centred industry have been found to be beneficial, although the lack of adequate planning has the inherent capability of hobbling the industries that have little to do the with sport (Smith 2013, pp. 385). In the drive to enable the full range of economic benefits, ill-considered actions can have a tremendous impact on the remaining components of any cities combined industry.

An emerging market that has found turbulence in Manchester sport is the market for the gay community (Hughes 2003, pp. 152). Many argue that the perception of the gay lifestyle is in direct contrast to the effort to establish a sport destination spot. Targeting a market with substantial revenue, yet possessing potentially negative aspects when interacting with sport centred marketing, there is a real need to develop an overall approach that provides an inclusive element for progress (Hughes 2003, pp. 152). The ability to include the often contrasting positions of the competing groups in the city provides an ample illustration of the capability of the regional government to conduct large scale tourist attractions.

In an effort to address the diverse industries vital to the city, Manchester created a council referred to as the Employment in Construction Charter with the focus of linking the public sector to the private companies in order to distribute the growing revenue (Spirou 2011, pp. 206). This is a direct reflection of the effort to balance the division of power in order to promote a policy of growth for each of the separate factions. During the bid for the Commonwealth Games, Manchester was credited with not only appealing to the larger international community, but providing substantial providence for the local retailers as well (Cook and Ward 2011, pp. 2525). This demonstrates that Manchester learned from the prior Olympic Games Bid and adjusted to meet the requirements of the diverse elements in a successful manner.

Effectiveness of Policy

The City of Manchester efforts to revitalize the region through the utilization of the urban tourist area of sport has yielded significant results. The cities recognition that tourism is one of the highest revenue producing streams available has created a viable window of opportunity (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 269). This approach has begun to yield a substantial return in both the financial and social perception areas. Sports tourism has the unique ability to both unlock the heritage elements that benefit that region of industry and the underlying natural and cultural depth that lies alongside the city (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 269). These outcomes serve to illustrate the veracity of the path taken by Manchester in the effort to rejuvenate their city on every level.

Working towards goals that include the International Olympics and the Commonwealth Games are a very effective policy for a wide variety of reasons (Ritchie and Adiar 2004, pp. 269). Even the unsuccessful bids produce a litany of economic resources for the city. With national entities such as Tomorrows Tourism, Britain’s National Tourism concern, actively participating in the drive to establish a positive outcome, the underlying infrastructure benefited on every level.

Many of the internal improvements to the city are reflections of the efficacy of the urban renewal efforts. With the increased amount of visitors, the number of museums in Manchester is on the rise, with the subsequent impact of improving the outlook for the Greater Manchester Museum of Science and Industry (Law 2010, pp. 76). This is a direct result of the effectiveness of the policy in place. Manchester has successfully raised its profile to an international level that has the capacity to fuel the cities entire economic engine (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). Forging trade alliances in several fundamental industries outside of the sport centred world served to broaden the Manchester business base, which in turn will balance the long term sustainability outlook for the cities programs.

Currently, Manchester boasts ultra-modern constructs such as the Lowry Centre, which alongside the rapidly developing art and culture industries have evolved into a very credible, and well balanced economic environment (Di-Toro 2010, pp. 1). This is a very apt demonstration of the ability of a savvy electorate to forge a business environment that is perceived to be beneficial by the majority of the populace. This concerted and progressive policy implementation has vaulted Manchester to third in the most visited cities in the UK, following London and Edinburgh (Di-Toro 2010, pp. 1). Together with the foundation of sport centred tourism, Manchester is rapidly becoming a well-rounded destination that has an appeal to many separate social levels, thereby increasing the cities overall value in terms of urban tourism potential.

Areas of Improvement

The ambitious drive by Manchester to lift their economic outlook via the instrument of sport centred tourism has not been without its significant detractions (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). With the most glaring error being the single minded approach to the marketing method, the availability of associated markets in Manchester has been deemed to be small as compared to other regions. As a consequence, there is not a strong central or primary community that will allocate the overall distribution of income (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). As the sport industry continues to thrive without proper planning, there is the real potential for the other un-associated industries to flounder. Davies (2010, pp. 1238) argues that there needs to be a far greater development of the role of sport within the underlying infrastructure before implementing any long term planning. The often volatile nature of the field itself can hamper the successful proliferation of progressive policy, instead hampering the growth due to poor performance.

The focus on the building of ‘Sportcity’ in Manchester, while producing an economic viability option, has taken over much of the city itself, irrevocably altering the face of the city forever (Berg, Braun, and Otgaar 2002, pp. 56). This fact has the potential to diminish the historical or creative aspects of the city’s tourism potential. The overall effort to instil a sense of long lasting progress will be reached through the development of a strategic plan that brings together the disparate elements of both the sport and tourism industries (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). The arena of tourism is dominated by the area of commercialism, bringing the very real potential for the base interests of the commercial industries to begin to take precedence over the needs of the local population. The addition of the sport element, with its series of oversight mechanisms enables the creation of a credible system of checks and balances with the depth to take the city forward into the next era.


Ashworth, G. and Page, S. 2010. Urban tourism research: Recent progress and current paradoxes. Tourism Management, 32 (1), pp. 1-15.

Beioley, S. 2002. Metro land-The urban tourism market. Tourism Insights, 1 (1), pp. 1-3.

Berg, L., Braun, E. and Otgaar, A. 2002. Sports and city marketing in European cities. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. pp. 1-125.

Cook, I. and Ward, K. 2011. Trans-urban Networks of Learning, Mega Events and Policy Tourism. Sage Journals, 48 (12), pp. 2519-2535.

Davies, L. 2010. Sport and economic regeneration: a winning combination?. Sport in Society, 13 (10), pp. 1438-1457.

Di-Toro, M. 2010. Britain’s hip new tourist destinationsManchester, Glasgow, Birmingham and Liverpool. Visit Britain, 1 (1), pp. 1-3.

Hughes, H. 2003. Marketing gay tourism in Manchester. Vacation Marketing, 9 (2), pp. 152-163.

Law, C. 2002. Urban tourism. London: Continuum, pp. 1-200.

Ritchie, B. and Adair, D. 2004. Sport tourism. Clevedon, England: Channel View Publications. pp. 1-300.

Smith, A. 2013. The Development of “Sports-City” Zones and Their Potential Value as Tourism Resources for Urban Areas. European Planning Studies, 18 (3), pp. 385-410.

Smith, A. 2013. REIMAGING THE CITY: The Value of Sport Initiatives. Annals of Tourism Research, 32 (1), pp. 217-236.

Spirou, C. 2011. Urban tourism and urban change. New York: Routledge, p. 1-200.

Tallon, A. 2010. Urban regeneration in the UK. London: Routledge, pp. 1-200.

Weed, M. 2010. Sport, Tourism and Image. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15 (3), pp. 187-189.

Free Essays

Should Extreme Sports Be Banned as They Put People’s Lives at Risk?

Extreme sports have become popular in the last two decades. For may people practising them is the only way of living. For them the adrenaline is the most important thing in their lives and that’s why they must try even more and more dangerous things. But, of course, that’s not the only reason. Extreme sports are trendy and many people practise them just because of that fact. It’s true, that extreme sports, like bungee jumping, canyoning, rafting, ice climbing, snowboarding, surfing, parachute jumping, paragliding or mountaineering always bring a risk.

Even if you are very good sportsman you must know that only one, small mistake can be very dangerous and can cause your death. Alhought many people die every year making extreme sports, the number of “courageous” is higher and higher. But its question of choice what are we doing in ours lives. For many people extreme sports are the only way of living. They have to feel adrenaline, they want to break their own records, they want to feel free.

They usually say: “there is a risk, there is a fun”, but they know that they do it at one’s peril. Extreme sports often are an escape from reality, from stress and from monotony. You don’t have to think about your problems. You just think about yourself, you can relax, and prove that you can do things which are admired by other people. There is even a special TV channel- “Extreme Sports”, where everyone can watch amazing tricks, and crazy people who make that extreme sports are more and more popular in the world.

But it’s impossible to write what do the people feel during making extreme sports. You must try yourself to know how huge survival it is. And if you do it one time, it’s very possible that you will do it often. But the question is if “should extreme sports be banned as they put people’s lives at risk? ” And my answer is “definitely not”. As I said, It’s question of our choices. If you want to fell more adrenaline than extreme sports are very good way. And even if the extreme sports were banned, people would do it still.

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Short Essay About Sports and Education

The great Duke of Wellington, of Waterloo Victory fame, once saw the boys of Eton public School playing on the field and was moved to say, There our great battles were won” He meant that young lads acquire on the playground not only physical stamina but discipline, the habit of obedience, the will to win, -and these virtues make them good soldiers when their country calls them to the field of battle. It is good to enjoy the delight of running about in the open field and to ‘feel life in every limb’.

But that only makes the lesson that we learn, of discipline, obedience and tenacity, all the more pleasing. To develop character not by arid and dry moral lessons, but in the course of our enjoyment of games, is a privilege which we must set store by. The most important lesson that sports of all kinds teach us is a sense of discipline. A good sportsman must always learn to obey the rules of the games and the orders of the captain. He knows the value of the proverb – “He who knows how to obey will know how to command”.

Discipline goes hand in hand with duty. On the playground, each individual has an allotted duty to perform. He has to carry out his share. It is his duty to help in winning games by obeying his captain and maintaining teamwork through concerted movement and display of spirit de crops (team spirit). Another great virtue, which sports help us acquire, is the will to win. Life is a struggle, a constant fight against difficulties. The week-willed man resigns himself to what he calls his fate. Hr belongs to the ranks of the defeated.

He is not a sportsman. For a sportsman takes defeats and disappointments as a true part of the game in its stride. Today he is defeated, but he knows that tomorrow he may win. He knows also how to take defeat in a sporting spirit, and to prepare for a greater fight. The true sportsman knows also the value of unity in action. Look at the rowers in a boat from the cockswain to the helmsman, how harmonious and concerted are their strokes. If one of them misses his rhythm, the harmony is destroyed.

How often have we not seen on the football ground, a splendid opportunity lost by the selfish desire or individualistic effort of one man to score! It is the same in the cricket field; the same everywhere, not individualistic display for record but to play for the team. Sports should teach us another lesson, which is often ignored, to obey the umpire or the referee whether he is right or wrong. In the hard battle of life, we do not always get justice. Often the verdict goes against us through no fault of ours.

A true sportsman takes these ‘slings and arrows of outrageous fortune’ as in the course or part of the game. He is not disheartened but prepares for a further effort; for he is not to question why in defiance. So sports of all kinds are not only good for the body, but they are good for the mind and for the moral make-up, i. e. that is, conducive to building the character. The lessons learnt on the playground will make better soldiers of us in the battlefield of life, in our war with adversity, illness, opposition and destiny itself.

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Should Blood-Sports Be Banned?

I say it’s time that all deliberate cruel killing of animals for “sport” be banned by law. There is no excuse for causing immense pain and suffering to these creatures just for the sheer heck of it… for fun and games. Okay, I know animals are killed for meat… but there’s a difference: the animals in that situation CAN be treated humanely right up to the moment they are killed instantly. I’m not saying that’s an ideal situation. There are other objections to killing for meat but what concerns me in this posting is UNNECESSARY AND DELIBERATE CRUELTY TO ANIMALS FOR FUN.

In Spain, bulls are tortured to death… by being stabbed with lances and darts and then taunted by the “heroic” Matador who kills him with a sword. In Ireland, hares are captured and forced to act as bait for savage dogs at so-called coursing events. The animals are terrorised to amuse the spectators and many are mauled to death. Foxes are hunted with packs of hounds… chased to exhaustion and then ripped to pieces, again for “fun”. Some nations or states allow cockfighting, dogfighting, badger baiting… you name it.

Anything you can think of that can inflict agonising pain and suffering on an animal is deemed “sport” by some set of people out there. Is shooting a cruel sport? It certainly is when the shot bird or animal, as often happens, is not killed by the bullet or pellets but just injured and left to die of its injuries. And there’s the question of how blood sport fans behave towards other human beings. In his book Bad Hare Days, Irish animal protection campaigner and journalist John Fitzgerald highlights the violence and bullying to which opponents of organised cruelty to animals are subjected… hey pay a high price for their compassion. In Ireland, campaigners have been severely assaulted, fired from their jobs for being against blood sports, and have suffered wrongful arrest at the hands of police who were leading members of hare coursing clubs. Fitzgerald addresses brilliantly the link between the violence and cruelty of blood sports and violence directed against human beings, and makes a powerful case for banning blood sports both on the grounds of animal cruelty and the risk to human safety and wellbeing inherent in these “recreational cruelties”.

I hope that someday recreational cruelty to animals IN ALL ITS SICKENING FORMS will be outlawed worldwide. I the meantime, I urge support for the campaign groups in various countries battling for the protection of animals from “Fun Cruelty”. However, there are some people who strongly disagree with my view, they feel that blood sports are a necessary part of life and should continue. Many rural communities would be devastated by a ban on hunting. In Britain figures from the Field Sports Society estimate, that hunting is worth ? 175 million to the economy with some 11,000 jobs depending on the hunting industry.

Whilst these numbers might seem relatively small as a percentage of the workforce, the jobs are concentrated in a small number of areas across the country. Hunting is also an integral part of effective wildlife management and makes a positive contribution to the countryside in general. Only those animals that are edible or pests are hunted – and they would have to be killed anyway regardless of whether it was for sport or not. Hunting with dogs is not especially cruel as it is natural to many animals to be chased, and the adrenaline they experience limits their suffering.

Hounds may rip a fox apart, but this only occurs after its death, which is usually very quick. In America, taxes collected from hunters are used to fund conservation work and monitor the number of animals that need to be killed each season. Evidence from America shows a strong positive correlation between increases in hunting and the numbers of game species, largely because hunting provides an incentive to protect land rather than manage it purely in the interests of agriculture. | To summarise, I personally am against blood sports and do feel quite strongly about my opinion.

At the end of the day the test for whether beings should enjoy moral significance is their capacity to feel pain. Animals react in a way consistent with our understanding of what it is to be in pain – they scream and avoid the source of that pain. Research also shows that the pain sensing structures of animals’ nervous systems are similar to our own. A distinction cannot be made between animals and humans on grounds of intelligence since we don’t consider the new-born, senile or mentally impaired to be non-human.

Therefore, both humans and animals should enjoy equal moral consideration. Any attempt to distinguish between animals and people is ‘speciesism’. To say that animals deserve less consideration simply because they are animals is analogous to claiming that women deserve inferior treatment by virtue of their sex. ‘The question is not, Can animals reason? Nor, Can they talk? But can they suffer’. (Vicki Hearn, What’s Wrong with Animal Rights? )

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Extreme Sports Motivation

Extreme Sports Motivational Factors Lawrence Cannon December 4, 2011 PE 5880 Abstract In the 1970s, extreme sports had been growing rapidly since its introduction. However, there has been little research done on extreme sport participants. In specific, the reason why consumers participate in extreme sports has not yet been investigated, although the number of participants and spectators of extreme sports is rapidly growing. Since motivation is a significant factor of sport participation behavior, it is essential for the sport marketer to understand psychological needs and motivations of extreme sport participants.

The purpose of this study is to analyze motivational factors of people who become involved in extreme sports. The researchers modified and applied the scale of sports participant motivation. The original scale includes forty one items which represent many motivational factors like achievement, competition, social facilitation, skill mastery, physical fitness, risk-taking, affiliation, aesthetics, aggression, value development, self-esteem, self-actualization, and stress release.

A total of several samples will be included in the current study. The researcher collected the cases at the X Game Sports and Freestyle Motocross World Championships held in the United States. A chain of ANOVA and MANOVA tests will contain the data analyses. The hypothesis will suggest that extreme sport participants have a high level of motivation in fun and imitation, which are two more structures added to the original scales.

The analysis of the data may also reveal that motivation of extreme sport participants vary across gender and past experience. This study will advance the knowledge base of consumer motivation research in the field of sport marketing and provides leaders in the extreme sport industry with meaningful implications. At the end of the day, the result of present studies will support the extreme sports industry in predicting the trend of action sports consumer behavior. Introduction

Extreme sports are “activities that either ideologically or practically provide alternatives to mainstream sports and mainstream sport values” (Rinehart, 2000, p 506). The increased number of events and participants in extreme sports support the trend of growth in extreme sports (Liberman, 2004; Ostrowski, 2002). In the 2002 statistics, about eighty-six million people were participating in extreme sports (Ostrowski, 2002). According to American Sports Data, within the U. S. port industry, extreme sport generated one-third of sporting goods sales, which totaled to more than $14 billion (Liberman, 2004). Although the overall number of sport participants in the U. S. has increased about ten percent over the last decade, the number of participants and spectators in dominant sports such as basketball and volleyball has decreased (Stotlar, 2002). This trend in the sport industry further supports that emerging sport activities such as extreme sports gain their popularity by becoming mainstream sports (Kress, 2003; Ostrowski, 2002).

While the increased interest in motivational factors draws scholars to conduct research to investigate psychological principles of dominant sport participants, research on sport consumers in extreme sports has not been a main focus of investigation within academic area of sport management and marketing. Hereafter, there is very little information in the literature regarding the characteristics of extreme sports and its consumer’s behavior. Considering the current trend and the future prospect of extreme sports, scientific and systematic analysis of sport consumers in the extreme sport industry needs to be conducted.

In particular, in order to continue and improve the profitability and productivity of the extreme sport market, sport marketers should have better understanding of the fundamental needs and wants of extreme sports participants. Needs of Study The study of motivation in sports has been conducted in various segments such as general physical activities. As the market becomes competitive within the extreme sport industry, the lack of experiential research on sport consumers, the results will widen the gap between the academic and the practical field of knowledge regarding extreme sport consumers.

To fill this gap within the sport industry and sport study, there is just as much need to explore the motivation of sport consumption. Without any understanding of the motives of sport customers, sport marketers cannot successfully achieve their marketing outcomes. Thus, an investigation of what motivates sport consumption would be the first step for future development of the action sport industry. Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze motivational factors of people who become involved in extreme sports.

This study will advance the knowledge base of consumer motivation research in the field of sport marketing and provide implications for sport marketers within the emerging sport industry. This study is meaningful because the consumption motivation provides a more in-depth useful tool for determining the behavior of consumers than asking “why” (Beck, 1990). The Significance of the Study The goal of this study is to develop a better understanding of extreme sports consumers and action sport itself, then further investigate motivational factors of participants in action sports.

Moreover, this research contributes to the extreme sport industry and the field of sport marketing by developing a knowledge base of extreme sport participants. Literature Review The literature review on the extreme sports industry regards the demographics, trends, characteristics of the sport consumer behavior and motivation of spectators, as well as participation in general sports. Through the process of reviewing motives of sport participants, the researcher will investigate the growth factors of extreme sports in business and the following importance of the motivation study: What is extreme sports?

Who are targets? Why do people participate in extreme sports as consumers? What is the value of the motivational factors in sport concepts? Extreme sports are defined as a relatively new form of sport or “a combination of extraordinary individual achievement and unmatched personal enjoyment” (Rinehart & Sydnor, 2003, p. 3). Another interpretation for extreme sports is mostly individual sports that have risk, danger or unconventional rules or techniques which differ from dominant team sports (Bennett, Henson & Zhang, 2002). While dominant team sports like ootball and baseball are rooted in a traditional value such as cooperation, teamwork, character-building and group competition. The various types of sports that are called extreme sports are roller-blading, windsurfing, sky diving, dancing, surfing, BMX, mountain biking, eco-challenging, kayaking, white water sports, climbing, surfing, skateboarding, extreme skiing and snowboarding (Rinehart & Sydnor, 2003). Thus, extreme sports participants or athletes often perform daredevil acrobatic stunts which are dangerous at high speed.

They tend to show off skills for spectators and stimulate viewers to try to be like. Motivation is defined as an act of instance of motivating, or providing with a reason to act in a certain way which serves as a factor in determining an individual’s behavior or social conduct in a given situation. As a mentioned that the motive of motivation study for consumers is based on aim to discover how influences the past or present behavior on current decision making of the consumer. In general, motivation is important tool for understanding consumer behavior.

There are some words that have been introduced to the general public, such as; “dizzying,” “hyper caffeinated,” or “edgy, adrenaline- inducing pursuits” are used to describe their experience with extreme sports. They are conversant with the language of dominant sports (Spiegel, 1998). In the year 2003, Howe describe some extreme sports as having grown out of the board sport culture of snowboarding, derived from surfing and skateboarding (Howe, 2003). In the same way, there are many examples of new unoriginal typical sports like; BMX racing and mountain biking are rooted in cycling.

Others are barefoot water skiing stems from traditional water skiing. In-line skating was developed from roller skating. In the journal article “Gender Differences in Beliefs about the Influence of Ability and Effort in Sport and Physical Activity” their study was to explore the different gender in reasoning about the relationships between natural ability, effort, practice, and final skill level, performance across sixteen physical activities at both recreational levels. Their participants were one hundred fifty three college students that had enrolled six physical activity classes.

They completed two questionnaires. Their results indicated that in physical activity domains, male students tended to have a much better natural tempo ability that as a more significant for successful skill level and performance as female students did. Their beliefs seemed to vary for activities that are gender-linked. For all the participants, natural ability was viewed as more important at the recreational level. A strategy for practitioners and coaches was to use encouragement beliefs for effectiveness of developing a challenging for conception of sports as gender-typed and promoting the concept of sports for all.

In the journal article “The Extreme Sports of Research”, Mr. Bartoletti discusses the steps shared from several members of the “Team Extreme Research” group and how their methods and practices went. The group talked about how extreme sports are having a major impact on youth sport activities. School-age athletes are attracted to the fun and excitement of extreme sports such as snowboarding, BMX cycling, and skateboarding. One of the original extreme sporting events, pole vaulting, is a unique and exciting event that has been part of the scholastic track and field program for more than half a century.

What I found in “Situational state balances and participation motivation in youth sport: A reversal theory perspective” Their purpose of their study was to examine the relationship between situational state balances and motives for sport and physical activity participation in adolescents using the theoretical framework of reversal theory. Their participation motives and the interacting factors of their situational state balances, gender, and level of participation were examined. The secondary school students were ages about fourteen to twenty years old who participated in competitive or recreational sport.

The factor analysis were the participation motives yielded factors to which ANOVAs and MANOVAs were applied with situational state balance, gender, and participation level as independent variables. Their factor analysis resulted in seven motive factors: status, team, friend, excitement, challenge, skill, energy release, fitness, and situational factors. Their ANOVAs and MANOVAs indicated significant differences in the sport motives between the situational state balances, genders, and levels of participation, and between pairs of situational state balance groups in males and females of competitive and recreational level.

Methodology The purpose of this is to identify suitable methodological procedures. The methodology is described be the relation to the following aspects of the study: survey instrument scale, the research of the questionnaire and ANOVAs and MANOVAs data analysis procedures. Questions 1) What are the extreme sports motivational factors for the participants? 2) How many different motivational factors are there in extreme sports by gender and experience? Proceed of Study I will apply a survey instrument which was developed by McDonald, Milne and Hong, in 2003.

This will be examined to measure motivational factors of extreme sports participants because the existing scale is focused on motivations of both several sports participants and spectators. The survey instrument was modified by wording changes from existing scale through a field test and panel of experts and item purification through a trial test. As a second step for modifying the existing scale, a trial test was employed to test reliability of the survey instrument.

The revised instrument by panel of experts was administrated to a representative sample of the target population. The researcher selected a convenience sample of students from the Sport Management classes of a large University. The participants of trial test will not be included in the final sample. The format for the survey instrument will be a seven-point format ranging from “1-10 grading scale. ” With one being the lowest and ten begin the highest. Then a questionnaire will be applied of two parts.

First, respondents will be asked to provide their demographic information and experiences regarding to extreme sports, such as gender, ethnic background, age, level of participants in action sports, a period of time that participation in extreme sports and type of extreme sports what they have participated in. The second part contained items of motivational factors in relation to participation in extreme sports. The survey instrument contains several items with many motivation scales. The researcher will scheduled for data collection from extreme sport competition at the X Game Sports, Freestyle Motocross World Championships.

This competition, part of the Extreme Sports Championships, features the season-ending World Championships events for skateboarding, BMX, inline skating and freestyle motocross. The researcher sampled from the audiences who are interest in participating in extreme sports. The size of sample will deal with the age ranges between13-35. The researcher employed trained staffs to survey at the competition. Each staff will provide survey packets, each containing a questionnaire, a cover letter explaining the purpose of the study and directions for completing the questionnaire, and pens.

The survey instrument includes the following information: personal information, the purpose of the study, confidentiality, directions on responding to questions, and appreciation for the respondent’s cooperation. In the actual survey, the trained staff for the survey introduces the purpose of the study and explains specific procedures and methods to the subject before the data collection to minimize the non-response data missing. At this point, the collected data will be analyzed by using ANOVA and MANOVA to identify the significance of motivational factors of action sports participants. Discussions

It is important for sports marketers to understand basic needs of sport consumers. In particular, it is necessary to investigate the sport consumption motivation in extreme sport based upon their demographic and psychographic characteristics (Bennett, Henson, & Zhang, 2003). However, there has not been organized research on extreme sport consumption motivation. This study examined motivation for extreme sports participants. Sport marketers may utilize this proposal to develop effective marketing strategies like market segmentation, differentiated program service offering to satisfy the needs and wants of extreme sports consumers.

These results strengthen the relation between each groups and motivation factors to contribute to sport motivation studies. The unique contribution of the present study is verifying two new motivational factors; fun, enjoyment, trend and imitation. I think that the results may show that the mean score of fun and enjoyment will be the highest for both male and female groups although there was no significant difference between these two groups. Extreme sports participants will rate their fun and enjoyment as the most important motive and considerable effects.

Thus, that I did hypothesized that some participants in extreme sports might be involved in the activities based upon their elective choice for fun and enjoyment. Also, the mean score of trend and imitation may be somewhat high for gender groups and experience groups. I have recognized that younger people who are interested in winter sports such as skiing or skating move to new sports such as snowboarding and extreme skiing. The researcher considered that younger people attempt to follow their peer group not only for fashion or music trend but also for sports activities.

With this happening the researcher made a decision to try to investigate by adding the trend and imitation to the existing motivation scale. Another important finding is that different characteristics of extreme sports like fun, enjoyment, risk-taking and aesthetics were rated higher than other motivational factors by extreme sports participants including, particularly among male and the expert-level experience groups. This outcome suggests that sport marketers in extreme sports should develop differentiated marketing strategies focused on male participants and expert-level participants.

In general, an extreme sport has been considered to be emerging sports just for our generation. However, this study suggests different point of view for sports marketers and scholars. Interestingly, all board-sports like snowboarding, skateboarding and surfing in this study, these extreme sports ranked top three among thirteen types of extreme sports. It will allow academics and practitioners in extreme sports to accompany with other leading or traditional sports because extreme sports have its origin to the board culture, which has a long history (Howe, 1998).

For this reason, sport marketers at the extreme sports industry may able to use the marketing strategies for leading sports as cross-promotion for extreme sports focusing on the targeted consumers. At the end of the day, the discussion of the present study will support practioners in the extreme sports industry in predicting the consumption behavior of action sports participants. Further, the present study may lead sports marketers and managers to utilize the motives found for effective marketing strategies. Accordingly, sport marketers in extreme sports could highlight their targeted promotion with present study ideas.

To promote and move the sports consumer for successful sport marketing, the motivation based knowledge is the first step to be studied by scholars. For the future studies, I will apply ethnic background groups and different extreme sports events participant groups regarding extreme sports consumption behavior. Conclusion In conclusion, understanding consumer is fundamental to the marketing concept. This research of motivations factors are an important determinant of extreme sports consumer behavior. Future research is needed to better develop these constructs and explore how motivation can be utilized as a segmenting tool.

Such an understanding might lend itself to predicting the possibility of an individual engaging in various extreme sporting activities. Finally, sport consumption is a complicated activity in which participation and imputer are often twisted. While this study examined participation and imputer separately, future research is needed to under the relations and connections between these consumptions territory. References Bartoletti, S. (2011, April, May). The extreme sport of research. The Horn Book Magazine 87. p. 24-30 Beck, R. C. (1990). The nature of motivation theory.

Motivation: theories and principles (3rd ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Bennett, G. , Henson, R. K. & Zhang, J. (2003). Perceived status of the action sports segmentamong college students. International Sports Journal, 7(1), 95-138. Cindy, H. P. , & Lindner, Koenraad, J. (2006). Situational state balances and participation motivation in youth sport: A reversal theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Psychology 76 , 369-384. Howe, S. (1998). (Sick): A cultural history of snowboarding. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Kress, A. (2003). To the extreme.

The business Journal Phoenix. 23(48). 3 Li, Weidong; Lee, Amelia M; Solmon, Melinda A. (2006). Gender differences in beliefs about the influence of ability and effort in sport and physical activity. 147-156. Liberman, N. (2004). New heights or a crash landing? Street & Smith’s Sports Business Journal,July 12-18, p 25. Ostrowski, J. (2002). Corporate America makes pitchmen of pariahs. Street & Smith’s SportsBusiness Journal. Aug. 12-18, p. 19, 26. Rinehart, R. E. (2000). Arriving sport: Alternatives to formal sports, in Jay Coakley and EricDunning (eds. ), Handbook of Sports Studies.

Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication. Rinehart, R. E. & Sydnor, S. (eds. ). (2003). To the extreme: Alternative sports, inside and out. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Spiegel, P. (1998, December 14). Gen-X-tremist pitchmen. Forbes, 188. Sporting GoodsManufacturers Association (SMGA). (2001a). Sports Participation Top Line Report2000. North Palm Beach, FL: Sporting Goods Manufacturing Association. Stotlar, D. K. (2002). A decade of evolution: The sport industry. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11(1), 55-58. http://www. dissertations. wsu. edu/Thesis/Fall2004/h_park_122104. pdf

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Sport Btec Fittness Cards

Muscle exercised Pectorals, triceps, biceps and deltoids. These muscles are located in your shoulders, arms and thorax. Method Lie down on the bench, make sure your comfortable as you do not want to be adjusting during reps. Grip barbell roughly 8 inches apart, again make sure your grip is secure and comfortable. Lower the bar slowly and smoothly directly over your chest and in the same rhythm up to the top again. Try to remain smooth in your transaction from the down to the up as if you are doing it in a jerking action you my cause injury.

Your back should remain in contact with the bench at all times and your arms should not lock. Notes Your biceps and pectorals are agonist when your on the way down with bar and on the way up they are antagonist. your biceps are synergist with your triceps because when your biceps are agonist your triceps are antagonist and vice versa. Deltoids are agonist when the bar is on the way up and antagonist when the bar is on the way down. Muscle exercised Rectus abdominis Method Standard sit ups consist of lying flat on your back with your legs bent up at the knees in a triangle shape.

You then bring your chest up too your knees, this should be done with your arms across you chest because if they are behind your head it is easy to pull your head up and strain your neck. Obviously you then reverse the action going back down trying to keep your back slightly of the ground each time as to feel the full effects of each sit up. Notes The rectus abdominis is agonist on the way up in the standard sit up and is antagonist on the way back down. This means that on the way up it shortens to allow the movement to take place and then on the way down the muscle will relax again.

The best example of agonist and antagonist movements is in a twist sit up. This is because when your internal oblique is agonist your external oblique is antagonist and vice versa. Muscles exercised Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris Method In a squat you start by putting the maximum or close to the maximum weight you can lift on a barbell. You should then place the barbell across your shoulders you will then lower yourself to a close to sitting position. During this the torso must be kept straight as not to put any strain on your back.

You then slowly rise back up to the starting position and repeat. Notes The quadriceps are agonist when on your dip and on the extension back up they are antagonist. Simultaneously to this your semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris otherwise known as your hamstrings are doing the opposite. The muscles of your abdomen are synergists that work together to allow the agonist to operate more effectively. Muscles exercised Gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior Method Nautilus workout machines target all the muscle groups in the leg. The machine best suited for these muscles is the nautilus calf machine. et up the machine by putting the pin in the stack at the weight most appropriate for you. Then step up on to the calf raise platform and put your shoulders under the pads making sure the middle of each foot rests on the platform. You then proceed to push up so you are on your tip toes, slowly lower your feet back down to finish repartition. Notes When going up on to your tip toes your soleus and tibialis anterior are the muscles that are agonist and your gastrocnemius is antagonist. When lowering back down to flat footed the roles of the agonists and antagonists are reversed.

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Traditional Sports in Assam

Traditional sports in N-E Games soon| A STAFF REPORTER| | A traditional sport in progress during the recent Bihu festivities. A Telegraph picture | Guwahati, May 22: The newly-formed Assam Traditional Sports and Dragon Boat Association claimed that efforts were being made to include some traditional sports of Assam in the North-East Games in near future.

Addressing the media, regarding the proposed traditional sports carnival — Amar Khel, Amar Utsav — on Saturday, one of the founder office- bearers of the association, Subhash Basumatary, said he was making efforts to get a few disciplines included in the North-East Games, organised annually by SAI. Basumatary is also the director-in-charge of the SAI regional sub-centre, Guwahati. Boat racing, one of the most popular traditional sports, is all set to be the first from among a dozen traditional deciplines which could make it to the North-East Games.

The Dragon Boat carnival, to be held here on Saturday, will include 10 other disciplines apart from boat racing at Dighalipukhuri. The field events at the carnival at Latasil ground include dhop khel, koni juj, ghila khel, malla juddha, rashi tana, tel khuta, tangon tona, kelah loi dour, tekeli bhonga and dighal thengia dour. “The idea is to conserve the traditional sports and bring them out of the remote villages to the urban areas. We hope to get co-operation from the government too in organising the event.

So far, the tourism department, the State Sports Council of Assam, the Kamrup (Metro) district administration and few others have already come forward to help us in the noble venture,” the association’s president Taher Ahmed said. | Dhopkhel The most popular indigenous game in the state of Assam is Dhopkhel. An ancient game, it is closely related with the development of the state as such. The game requires absolute physical fitness – speed, stamina and acrobatic skills. Dhop is a seasonal game, played during the state’s Spring Festival, known as Rangoli Bihu.

The game really flowered under the royal patronage of the Ahoms. There are two types of Dhop, one played by men and the other by women. The game, which uses a rubber ball, is played by two teams comprising 11 players each, in an open field, 125 m in length and 80 m in breadth, with a central point in the right middle of the arena. Two lines called kai are drawn at a distance of 12 ft on each side of the point at the centre. At the four points where the kai meets the 125 m lines, four flags are planted. Similarly, four flags are planted in the four corners, known as chukor nishan.

Parallel to the central point in each half of the field, is one point each, at a distance of 13’6″ from the centre, and circles surrounding them known as gher. The game begins with the dhop i. e the ball being thrown in the air, by a player. If the ball does not fall in the opponent’s court, it is to be thrown again. The dhop has to be caught by the opposing team, and if they fail, then the other team takes the throw. If caught, the player who takes the catch proceeds to the gher of the court, and throws it to the katoni, who stands on the other gher.

If the thrower fails on either count, his team forfeits the chance of a throw at the katoni, and the guilty player is requested to deliver a high lob to the opposing team, like the lob which started the game. The opposing team thus gets a chance once more for a catch and throw, at the opponents’ katoni. If the katoni is hit below the waist, it is considered a kota, and the katoni becomes a hoia or a bondha, and automatically loses his status of a ghai – a name initially used for all the players. The bondha goes over to the opposing side and tries to prevent the players of the team from catching the dhop. This move is known as aulia.

If a bondha succeeds in catching the dhop in the opponents’ court and can recross over to his original side without being touched by any of the opponents, he becomes a ghai, and this move is known as hora. However, he has to cross both kais and he cannot leave the court in the process of crossing over, or catching the dhop in the zone between two kais. If a team loses ten ghais as hoia or bondha, then the last ghai will be named ghai katoni, and if a kota can be done to him, then it is known as piriutha, which signifies victory for the side. If at the end of the game, there are equal number of ghais, the game is pronounced a draw. Rang Ghar

Location: Joysagar, 4 km to the west of Sibsagar town Built By: Ahom King Pramutta Singha Built In: 1746 AD Highlights: Oldest amphitheatre in Asia Rang Ghar is one of the major attractions of the state of Assam. It is said to be the oldest amphitheatre in the whole of Asia and has often been referred to as the ‘Colosseum of the East’. Situated to the northeast of the Tolatol Ghar, in the Joysagar area of the Sibsagar district; is the two storied Rang Ghar, which was the royal venue for witnessing a number of games, like buffalo fight, bull fight etc. This ancient amphitheatre was constructed by the Ahom ruler Swargadeo Pramutta Singha.

Rang Ghar dates back to 1746 AD, when it was basically built for the purpose of amusement and fun. The theatre is a double storied building and on the roof, there is a design of an Ahom royal long boat. It is overall oval in shape, unlike the multi-storied Tolatol Ghar situated just adjacent to it. Every year, during the occasion of Rongali Bihu, Rang Ghar used to be the royal sports pavilion, from which the Ahom kings and nobles witnessed games in the Rupahi Pathar below. The Rupahi Pathar is a vast field, where various activities like bull fighting and other such traditional games used to be organized for the entertainment of the royalty.

The Rang Ghar was even the symbol of the recently concluded 33rd National Games, which was held in February (9th to 18th) 2007, in Guwahati, Assam. In case you are planning to visit Sibsagar district of Assam in the near future, do make sure to pay a visit to the Rang Ghar as well. Rang Ghar (Assamese: ???? , rong ghor) (meaning “Amusement House”) is a two-storied building, which was the royal sports-pavilion from which the Ahom kings and nobles witnessed games like buffalo fights and other sports at the Rupahi Pathar (pathar meaning field in Assamese) specially during Rangali Bihu festival in the Ahom capital, Rangpur.

On the roof of the Rang Ghar is a design of an Ahom royal long boat. The building was constructed during the reign of Swargadeo Pramatta Singha in 1746. It is located north east to the Talatal Ghar a multi-storied royal complex in Joysagar west of Sivasagar town, on the other side of the Assam Trunk (AT) Road in Sibsagar district in Assam, India . The Rang Ghar is said to be the oldest amphitheater in Asia[citation needed]. The base of the monument has a series of arched entrances and atop the roof is a decorative pair of carved stone crocodiles.

In many of these, only the brick framework exists with vestiges of sculptural adornments here and there. The Ahoms, who used special thin baked bricks, did not have the use of cement and, therefore, used a paste of rice and eggs as mortar for their construction. They also made use of powdered mixed lime and bricks to cover the surface of the inner walls. It is said that this layer of powder used to keep the inside of Ranghar cool. The entrance to Sankardev Kalakshetra at Guwahati is made in the style of the Rang Ghar.

The Rang Ghar was the logo of the recently concluded 33rd National Games that was held from 9 to 18 February, 2007 in Guwahati, Assam. About a kilometer towards the north east of Rangh Ghar is the Jaysagar Pukhuri. It is a manmade tank, encompassing an area of about 120 Bighas of land. It was dug in memory of Rani Joymati, the mother of Rudra Singha, the most illustrious of the Ahom kings. Guwahati, Apr 6 (PTI) Seisimic survey work by the ONGC is posing a threat to Assam’s 18th century amphitheatre, ‘Rang Ghar” at Gargaon in Sibsagar district, perhaps the largest stadium in Asia, which has proudly stood the ravages of time.

Lesser known than the internationally famous `Colosseum’ in Italy, the ‘Rang Ghar’ bears mute testimony to the state’s chequered history. The most potent symbol of the glorious 600 year rule of the Tai-Ahom kings hailing from Thailand, the monument constructed in 1746 AD, has been in the news after a report carried by PTI on cracks appearing on its facade. The report prompted the Assam government to constitute a seven-member expert committee to examine the damages on the walls of the heritage site.

The damages to the protected monument have prompted the Archaelogical Survey of India (ASI) which maintains it, to threaten legal action against the public sector Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) The ASI move comes after eight 10 metre cracks have appeared on the Rang Ghar walls following blastings in the seismic survey work at nearby Rupohipathar, an open oil field. The ONGC officials when contacted refused to comment on the matter and only maintained “that precaution had been taken not to harm the heritage sites and historic monuments during survey works”.

The damages have created a public outcry with a local students body, All Assam Tai Ahom Students Union (AATASU), calling an ‘indefinited ONGC bandh’ from March 5 and the proscribed ULFA issuing a warning to the ONGC to stop all seismic work or face dire consequences. The Rang Ghar, stated to be the oldest outdoor stadium in Asia, bears mute testimony to Assam’s history. The medieval Tai-Ahom kingdom (1228-1826) was founded by Sukapha in the 13th century establishing its suzerainity over the Brahmaputra valley and putting paid to Mughal expansionism in the North-East seventeen times sucessfully.

The monument also saw the annexation of Assam by the British Empire through the historic Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826 paving the way for the advent of the Britishers into the state and the end of the 600 year old Ahom rule. The monument at Gargaon was the crucible of the proscribed ULFA movement with its leaders congregating under Rang Ghar’s portals on April 7 nearly 30 years ago to script one of the most violent chapters in the annals of the state in its fight for an independent homeland.

The original ampitheatre was constructed with wood and bamboo by King Rudrasingha, also known as Siukapha who ruled between 1696-1714, but was rebuilt into a permanent structure by King Pramatasinha (1744-1751). With no knowledge of modern day cement, the Ahoms used a paste of rice and eggs as mortar and special thin bricks for construction of the Rang Ghar, that has withstood decades of neglect till Independence. As its name suggests, ‘Rang Ghar’ was a `merriment house or a place of joy’. It was in this sports pavilion that elephant, buffalo, bullock and hawk fights, wrestling, besides Bihu (Assamese cultural festival), etc. were held. The Mongolian style oval-shaped two-storyed pavilion is 10 metres high, 11 metres across and 27 metres long with a steep flight of steps leading to the higher elevation from where the royal patrons and nobles are presumed to have watched the contests on the Rupohi Pathar (field) below surrounded by a huge meadow meant for the royal subjects. The monument’s base has a series of archways with vestiges of sculptural adornments, and its roof is designed like a royal long boat with a pair of carved stone crocodiles on either ends.

The ampitheatre is located north east to the royal palace `Kareng Ghar’ in modern day Sibsagar town in Upper Assam. The Ahom kingdom with a successful multi-ethnic polity made major advances under king Susengpha Pratap Singha who revamped the administration and established the first military and diplomatic contact with the Mughals. Under King Gadadhar Singha, Mughal influence was, however, completely removed from the Brahmaputra valley and the Ahom Kingdom achieved its golden period under his son Rudra Singha.

The Ahom rule declined with the rise of the Moamoria rebellion and subsequently fell to a succession of Burmese invasions. The defeat of the Burmese after the Anglo-Burmese War and the treaty of Yandaboo on Fewbruary 24, 1826, control of the once glorious Ahom kingdom passed into the British hands. Though during the colonial and subsequent times the Tai- Ahom rule was called the `Ahom Kingdom’, the Ahoms called their kingdom `Mong Dun Shun Kham (casket of gold), while others called it Assam. The Rang Ghar was the logo of the 33rd National Games held in Guwahati from February 9 to 18 last year.

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“Comparing Male and Female Sports ” Eassy

ITCW 11/20/12 Essay from page381 #5 Essay on Male and Female sports teams I personally agree with what the author wrote about in his writing. If you take a look at how both men and women play sports, you will clearly see that not only are men more aggressive with the sports they play; but they also treat each other more aggressively than girls do. If a guy was to be playing football and dropped a pass chances are he will get a lot of grief from his teammates and they might harass him about it for weeks.

While if a girl made a mistake playing her sport chances are the girls will try to help her get better. Instead of showing her tough love like their male counter parts would. For the guys I think they act how they act and show tough love and aggression to each other because they normally have to fight and act tough with each other to stand out. Look how guys socialize they normally are insulting and calling each other names.

Playing of course but none the less they do it, I believe some forum of that has just carried on to the sports they play. Also guys tend to break into groups more so than their female counter part. Guys who are good at a sport will usually hang out and socialize with other athletes who stand out, leaving the ones who are not as good behind. For girls like I said in my previous paragraph, they normally can keep their cool and know how to talk to each other better during the heat of the moment unlike the guys.

This is typically due to the fact that like I previously said the girls tend to help each other more then the guys do. While the guys are cirdasizing each other; the girls who are the stand out stars are helping the girls who are not as good as them. Which in the long run might make it so the girls get a better understanding of the meaning “Team Sports”? There are also other reasons one must remember when comparing male and female sports teams.

For instance Guys normally have to act a certain way and out do his male counter parts when he is in the work field to stand out or even receive a promotion, While normally girls won’t have to act as cut throat as guys in the work field. Which could explain why girl sports teams show more “team sportsmanship”? All in all both male and female act a certain way when they play sports Now when it comes to how they act, that all just depends on how mature they are and how they are as a person.

Me personally I think more so for guys, when they are in the middle of a football game or basketball and a teammate makes a critical mistake. They might over react or say something that might sound a bit harsh but one must remember they are “In the heat of battle”. So typically what is being said isn’t always how they truly feel about each other. I also believe that girls have more pations then guys do and are more willing to help someone who isn’t as good as them. So that is why girl teams help each other more and show more team sportsmanship.

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Steroids in Sports

Steroids in Sports In many places around the world today, sports competitions are increasing in popularity due to the quest to win, to be the best. Many athletes will do anything to win, whether that means breaking the rules or cheating. The desire to win is imbedded into all humans, especially when professional athletes of today’s age are becoming icons and are viewed as figures of greatness by their rare abilities to perform at such a high level. The quest for money and fame is also a common reason for athletes to cheat or bend the rules.

Steroid use is the most common form of cheating in all sports today. Other than the fact that they are harmful to your body, they are taking away from sports and sending the wrong messages to aspiring athletes. The issue that is currently being addressed in the sports industry is that if so many people are already using steroids, such as bodybuilders and athletes, then why not make them legal and let people use them at their own risk? Or rather should we just keep them illegal due to their harmful health risks and promotion of unfair advantages in sports?

Before getting into the ethical concerns about the legalization of steroids, let’s talk about what steroids are and how they work. A steroid is a synthetic substance similar to the male sex hormone testosterone. The most common use of steroids is having them injected into skeletal muscles or they are taken in powder and pill form. There are so many types of steroids and each of them has its own value. Many types of steroids are used for medical conditions and health problems. These types of steroids are prescribed by doctors. Any type of steroid that is not prescribed by a doctor is illegal.

Steroids that are taken by athletes and other abusers take them in cycles of weeks and months. This is called cycling. Cycling involves taking several doses of steroids over a definite period of time, stopping for a period, and then starting again. Along with this method, steroid users often use the “stacking” method during their cycles (NIDA 1). This is when users will combine several different types of steroids to get maximal results while minimizing negative effects. There are many effects from the use of steroids, some positive and some negative.

Though there are more negative effects then there are positive ones, many of the positive effects of steroids include treatment for medical conditions. Anabolic steroids can be legally prescribed to treat conditions like delayed puberty as well as diseases that result in loss of lean muscle mass, such as cancer and AIDS (NIDA 1). Short term effects of steroids are the ability to train harder and longer and an increase in lean muscle mass and strength. Minor negative side-effects include excessive hair growth, oily skin, acne, and a deepening voice.

These are just minor short term side-effects though. The effects of steroid use that are the main concerns of users are increased risk of cancer, heart attack and liver disease. Also, increased blood pressure, increased risk of atherosclerosis, and obstructive sleep apnea may occur (NIDA 2). For men, shrinkage of the testicles, baldness, and risk of prostate cancer are things to be aware of. For women, common side-effects are facial hair, male-pattern baldness, and a deepening voice. Lastly, adolescence taking steroids may stunt their growth and accelerate puberty changes.

The use of steroids in baseball has been revealed, and was put out in the open. Steroids have been utilized in baseball for decades, but just lately have arrived into the lime light. In the summer of 2003, the USADA obtains a secret fluid, brought in anonymously. This fluid, ‘the clear’, turns out to be Tetrahydrogestrinone. It’s an untraceable steroid utilized by some of the world’s top athletes. Later it is disclosed that Trevor Graham, a sprint adviser to some of the elite sprinters, submitted the steroid and the baseball steroid era began.

The steroid was traced back to Victor Conte at BALCO labs, and it is finally discovered out that Patrick Arnold was the pharmacist who evolved the steroid. Barry Bonds’ name is cited as one of BALCO’s large-scale clients. In fall of 2004, steroid checking starts under the MLB’s new collective bargaining agreement. Barry Bonds undergoes random checking, and proceeds on to win his 7th organization MVP. Over the next couple of years, some athletes are connected to BALCO and anabolic steroids. Many athletes came ahead and accepted their steroid usage while some still asserted innocence.

In 2007, previous Senator George Mitchell issues a 409 piece report, after a 21 month enquiry considering steroids in baseball. The report titles 89 people engaged in baseball who have are suspect of utilizing steroids. Again, some athletes eventually accept to utilizing steroids, while there are still numerous, which have been suspect, deny utilizing anabolic steroids. In the years after 2007, more proof is discovered opposing many MLB players and some apologies are made. Anabolic steroids are still utilized in baseball today, and ball players still undergo drug tests.

Professional sports needs the most gifted athletes in the world, and people will manage anything they can to get the intended for display, even if it is endangering their career. Tetrahydrogestrinone, opened the eyes of newspapers and followers around the world to not only steroid use in baseball, but steroid use in all sports. Not a day goes by without hearing about a steroid associated case, or an athlete failing the drug test. Fans and parents anticipate professional athletes to be models. Because of baseball’s steroid scandal, steroids are better liked than ever, in both adults, and teens.

Several associations, and retired athletes, for example Jose Canseco, are now conversing to juvenile teens about steroid edge consequences, steroid misuse, and hazards of anabolic steroids. Major League Baseball had an established steroid rule which was made in 2002. Under this rule, a first time violation would only result in therapy for the player. Not one contestant was ever suspended. After the BALCO scandal, Major League Baseball eventually determined to buckle down and topic harsher punishments for steroid users.

The new principle, which was acknowledged by Major League Baseball players, was handed out at the start of the 2005. It stated that the first positive test will result in a suspension of up to ten days. The second positive test will result in a suspension of thirty days. The third positive test will result in a suspension of sixty days. The fourth positive test will result in a suspension of one full year. Finally, the fifth positive test will outcome in a punishment at the discretion of the Commissioner of Major League Baseball.

Players will be checked not less than one time per year, with a possibility that some players can be checked many times per year. Bud Selig, the Commissioner of Major League Baseball, successfully made the living principle and has suggested even harder punishments for positive tests than the ones in place today. The new punishments that Bud Selig has suggested are a “three strikes and you’re out approach”. This is that the first positive test would result in a fifty game suspension. The second positive test would result in a one-hundred game suspension.

Finally, the third positive test would result in a lifetime suspension from Major League Baseball. These new suggested punishments are much harsher than either of the first two, although, they should be acknowledged by both the players before any changes can be made. Under the present rule, the first Major League ballplayers have been suspended for checking positive. The Mitchell Report, or Report to the Commissioner of Baseball of an Independent Investigation into the Illegal Use of Steroids and Other Performance Enhancing Substances by Players in Major League Baseball, is the outcome of previous United States Senator George J.

Mitchell’s enquiry into the use of anabolic steroids and human development hormone in Major League Baseball. The 409-page Mitchell Report, issued on December 13, 2007, shows the use of illegal game enhancing substances by players and the effectiveness of the MLB pharmaceutical checking program. It’s still present that Senator Mitchell’s recommendations considering the management of past illegal drug use and future avoidance practices. The Mitchell Report names eighty-nine Major League Baseball players who are supposed to have used steroids or drugs.

George Mitchell, a previous United States Senator and prosecutor, was nominated by Baseball Commissioner Bud Selig on March 30, 2006 to enquire the use of performance-enhancing drugs in MLB. Mitchell was nominated throughout a time of argument over the journal Game of Shadows, which chronicles thought complete use of performance-enhancing drugs, around some distinct kinds of steroids and development hormone by Barry Bonds. Bud Selig determined to start the method of ending the illegal use of steroids and performance enhancing drugs after reading Game of Shadows.

The term was made after some influential people of the US Congress made opposing remarks about the effectiveness and honesty of MLB anti-performance enhancing drug policies. In recent news in sports today, many players are being caught using illegal substances of performance enhancing drugs. For example, San Francisco Giants outfielder, Melky Cabrera, was caught using illegal performance enhancing drugs late in the 2012 season. He was sentenced to the 50 game suspension and this also takes a toll on his popularity which was increasing due to his MVP caliber stats. His suspension is the most significant in-season ban by MLB since Manny Ramirez received his first 50-game suspension in 2009” (Lacques 1). Though the Giants won the World Series without Melky Cabrera, they most likely will not offer him a contract extension in the 2013 season, in which he will be a free agent. Steroids may also cause inner turmoil within players. They may become disliked by other teammates because they are harming themselves and cheating. It is not fair to those who don’t take steroids and work out hard to make themselves become a better player.

For example, Dustin Pedroia, 5’ 6” second baseman for the Red Sox, won MVP of the league in 2008 without any steroid use. On the other hand, Alex Rodriguez, Yankees third baseman, who has won multiple MVP’s recently admitted to three years of steroid use. As far as the fans know, steroids could have helped him during his years of greatness. That leaves many people to believe he is a great player, but did not put in the hard work like Dustin, who earned the respect of millions with his work ethic and determination.

I believe that the use of steroids or any performance enhancing drugs should remain illegal in sports. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) division on anti-doping believes that “doping jeopardizes the moral and ethical basis of sport and the health of those involved in it” (Ashby 1). I agree with UNESCO because steroids will cause an unfair advantage for many people in sports. Sports will no longer be about who has the most talents or puts the most work into becoming better but more about who has the better steroids to make them better.

The National Football League created its own policy on steroids and performance enhancing drugs because they believe it threatens the integrity of athletic competition (Ashby 1). Many people are beginning to believe that legalizing steroids will benefit sports because it will create a higher, faster level of play. It is also argued that since many athletes are being caught using them anyways that they should just be made legal to stop with the suspensions and taking away of titles earned by players while using steroids.

For example, the US Anti-Doping Agency stripped cyclist Lance Armstrong of his seven Tour de France titles and banned him from the sport for life for doping. There are some who believe it is wrong to take his titles away but in my belief I think that it is only right for his titles to be stripped. Well, maybe not all seven of them, but the ones in which he was using steroids during. There are many psychological and physical side effects to your body from continued steroid use. Psychologically, a player may go from a state of well-being to a state of depression.

Players tend to have outbursts known as “roid rage”, which is a feeling insecurity when they are playing bad even though they are on this drug. Mood swings and intense aggression and violence have also been known to occur. Some players feel that steroid use will benefit their career by making them a better player. This is not true. Most are looking for a quick way to increase their speed, endurance, muscle mass and physical size. They want to have a stronger physique which gives them confidence as well as strength to perform better on the baseball field. Some also tend to get addicted to the steroid habit.

Some players who have been injured, mildly or dramatically, require this drug to recover from the injury, but then cannot live without it. Jason Giambi, former Yankee first baseman, was overweight, slow, and a poor hitter at the beginning of his career. In order to maintain his position on the team, he chose to take steroids after workouts to alter his body. This had an immediate effect, but after he was caught, he went from being a well-rounded player, back to slumps in his game and having to work hard like everyone else. There is also the business standpoint that leaves many people to think that steroids should be legal.

Former baseball players Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa put on two of the most memorable baseball seasons in 1998 and 1999. Fans became invested in the home run races, especially in 1998 when McGwire shattered Roger Maris’ 37-year-old single season home run record. More jerseys were sold that offseason than in any other. This view is that steroids will cause many players to break records and there will be an increase in fans. My view is that the players who take steroids and break records are breaking the records of those who actually worked hard and stayed clean while achieving them.

This, to me, is a good way to describe the unfairness due to the fact that sports won’t be about achieving greatness and success through hard work, determination, and great talent, but by having some talent and taking lots of steroids. Based upon research and studies of the dramatic effects steroid use, I believe that steroid should remain illegal unless used for medicinal purposes. Reasons being the negative and long lasting effects it can have on one’s body, along with the negative effect that they will cause in the change of the integrity and fairness of sports.

Numerous anti-doping policies have been created to stop the use of steroids in sports today and I feel that with a strong push towards a clean and fair game, these organizations might be able to nearly eliminate steroids from many sports. Major athletes may enjoy the results but are clueless to extent of the damage it will cause them in the future. Lastly, there is no reason for people to harm their bodies for short term results and according to April Ashby, “Steroids have no place in sports” (Ashby 1).

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Hello Guys It’s Sports Day

I feel it a great pleasure to participate as Chief Guest in the 20th Annual-cum-Sports Day of Akal Academy Baru Sahib here today. Today’s world is very competitive. Mere education will not suffice. Education combined with good, moral character and knowledge with proficiency in sports and extra curricular activities is necessary. Education ignites the minds of youth and it should be knowledge-based and should kindle the thinking process in the youth. Educating more and more rural youth is essential. It should reach the unreached. Qualitative improvement in education suited to the changing scenario is warranted.

Education is a continuous process and starts right from childhood and gradually makes one a leader. It is he teacher who nurtures good conduct and character amongst students. Real education moulds the youth into useful citizens of tomorrow. Inculcating discipline and moral values in the students are necessary. The onerous responsibility of shaping the youth rests with the teachers. The teachers should stand as role models for the students. The teachers are like Gurus and are next to God. The Gurukul form of education was prevalent in earlier days.

There were lot of restrictions on students and strict discipline was maintained. The Gurus were above all in the society and they received great respect. Now the residential schools provide various avenues for learning. All subjects are taught and students are involved in various extra curricular activities also. Sports is recreation and the joy of participation, developing skills, regular practice and hard work that makes one to excel in sports. Taking to extra curricular activities is a must for students. It helps one to develop good physique, reduces stress and develops the quality of team spirit.

Learning self-confidence, goal-setting and time management are the necessary for a sports person. Concentrate on sports. Rigorous practice and dedication will help you to win laurels to your institution, state and the nation. The physical education teachers and the educational institutions should take it as their bounden duty to identify talents from the students and put them to special coaching. Starting of exclusive sports schools as in US and UK should also be considered. I am sure that by starting sports schools, we can produce many talented sportspersons, who can compete at the global level and in Olympics.

I am sure that the Kalgidhar Trust/Society would formulate plans to further improve sports in this complex. I congratulate all the students who have won prizes in various events. Sant Attar Singh Ji and Sant Teja Singh Ji were both extremely dedicated persons. Sant Attar Singh founded many educational institutions in rural areas in Punjab and also Akal College, Mastuana. He sent Sant Teja Singh to foreign countries for higher education and learning and after coming back he dedicated his life for imparting quality education to the needy. This institution was also started according to their wishes.

My mother told me that Sant Ji used to perform Kirtan in a loud voice, which could be heard half a mile away as there were no loud-speakers in those days. He was invited to lay the foundation of the Hindu University, Banaras by Pandit Madan Mohan Malavia. This place is blessed by such great saints and that is why the Baru Sahib Academy, which was started in 1986 with just 5 students, now has strength of 23,000 students studying in its 22 CBSE affiliated Secondary schools. I congratulate the Akal Academies established by The Kalgidhar Trust for yeoman service to the society and to the spread of education.

It is heartening to note that the Kalgidhar Trust and the Society are working with a mission to establish a permanent peace in the world through the synthesis of value-based scientific education and moral rejuvenation creating good global citizens. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a great enlightener and a teacher. Guru Nanak’s concern with the right conduct of individuals and society and social responsibilities, is of universal significance. The educational institutions and the teachers are bestowed with the responsibility of producing students with good conduct and character.

Service to poor is service to God. I am pleased to learn that The Kalgidhar Trust, a non-profit charitable organization has dedicated itself in the promotion of quality education and in creation of future citizens with good conduct and character and committed towards society. The services rendered by the Kalgidhar Trust/Society towards spiritual upliftment of the underprivileged and in primary health care in rural areas in North India and its dedication towards upliftment of the socio-economic status of rural poor is laudable.

Health is the prime wealth for a nation and various welfare schemes are implemented by the Central and State Governments to take care of the health of the people. NGOs provide a helping hand in providing healthcare and in creation of awareness on health and hygiene. I congratulate the Kalgidhar Trust & Society for its dedicated efforts to improve basic healthcare through better immunization, child and maternal healthcare, establishing de-addiction centers and by taking out preventive and curative measures to control diseases and for working with a mission to provide healthcare to the underprivileged.

The services rendered by the Trust to HIV and AIDS affected persons, through ‘One Stop Centers’ is laudable. A nation develops when there is explosion of knowledge and by development of education. As students, your contribution is vital. Aim high in life. Set your goals. Work hard to achieve them. This is what your parents, your teachers and the institution expect from you.

I am pleased to learn that the Kalgidhar Trust and Society’s vision is to create high caliber students with all-round excellence, beyond academic dimensions and to provide more such students and to enable the underprivileged to attain this distinction. I convey my warm felicitations to Baba Iqbal Singh Ji, Dr. Khem Singh, who are experts in their own fields and to all the office-bearers and members of the Kalgidhar Trust and Society, the principal, teachers, staff and students on the 20th Annual-cum-Sports Day and wish The Kalgidhar Trust and Akal Academy all success in its endeavors. Jai Hind

Free Essays

Le Coq Sportif

Governance of le coq In 2005, a Swiss Holding buys the brand Le Coq Sportif. Indeed the results of the brands were well below the desired expectations. With the partnership of Sir Robert Louis Dreyfus, a great Swiss businessman who was leader of the group including Adidas, Le Coq sportif sees the opportunity for a fresh start with this strategic alliance for the future. Airesis immediately set up a plan to revive the brand that demonstrates the strong interest of the group to give new life to this legendary French brand.

Here is a chart explaining the governance of the brand Le Coq Sportif since it creation (1882) until the takeover by the Swiss holding Airesis. Few words about Airesis: Historic part: HPI Holding AG is a name that marked the industrial history of western Switzerland since 1920, date of creation of the company. Hermes Precisa International (formerly Plants Paillard) has built its success on the production of typewriters Hermes known internationally. Since 1981, the holding company HPI has been used as an investment vehicle for investments in new technologies that have suffered damage in the industry with full force in early 2000.

Currently, there are eight entries all together in the sub-holding A2I SA. In 2004, reducing the part value of its shares cleaned up the company. A capital increase of the arrival of four participants (the Boards & More group, the group Fidexpert, group and society Ouat Hazard Properties SA). These arrivals have been extraordinary for the group which has restored and a new life HPI Holding AG, which has since become Airesis. The majority shareholders (Sirs: Robert Louis-Dreyfus, Yves Marchand and Marc-Henri Beausire) then set up the new company strategy: active management of its investments in private equity and residential property.

Today the group owns brands such as: * Le Coq Sportif * Fanatic * Ion * North Kite boarding * North Sails Windsurf Here we are going to explain few words about each brand, because most of them are unknown. Fanatic: In 1999, leaving his first kite a board, Fanatic has to believe in this new trend. With its history in windsurfing, the company was able Fanatic showcase its expertise to make its entry into the sport in the making. Ion: In spring 2005, Boards & More brand launches Ion.

The technical skills of the mark are highlighted in the wet suits, neoprene accessories, harnesses, a range of clothes and carrying bags, all items used in sports on the water. North Kite boarding: Kite boarding world leader. North Kite boarding has entered the market in 2001 and became leader. This brand has a very good technical level recognized. North Sails Windsurf: The company specializes North Sails sailboat U. S. and world number 1 in this sector. Boards & More has acquired the exclusive license for the sail of surfboards since 1981.

Its strategic axis is oriented technique and style. Since late 2005, Robert Louis-Dreyfus, former owner of Addidas and Yves Marchand, who was the boss of the three stripes for France, have gained a foothold in the business and have made ?? some good seeds to make: 10 million euros through the Swiss investment fund Airesis. And some big marketers have been poached in market heavyweights such as Reebok, Nike, Puma and Quicksilver… For example, the arrival of Antoine Sathicq, former CEO of Adidas, which was transferred to the head as general manager of Le Coq Sportif.

After joining Adidas in 1997 as director of sales, this former Procter & Gamble, aged 44, joined a new team of Le Coq Sportif establishment since its acquisition by Airesis. A team already marked by the culture of this Adidas Swiss investment funds: Airesis is held by Robert Louis-Dreyfus, former CEO of Adidas France, Marc-Henri Beausire and Yves Marchand, former CEO of three stripes. The latter assumed the presidency of Le Coq Sportif, replacing Olivier Jacques, former majority shareholder. Antoine Sathicq therefore had the task of launching again the Coq Sportif.

Porter’s Five Forces: Sportswear Industry Internal Rivalry – Fierce Competition Adidas,Reebok, Nike – Mature Industry – Mostly Non-Price competition – Differentiation strategy Threat of New entrants – Capital Intensive – Strong Brand Following Economies of scale – High R & D Costs – Industry in consolidation phase Supplier Power – Raw Materials are abundantly available – Cheap resources commodity items – Cheap labor on the East World. Buyer Power – Everything depends on Customer Preferences – Price sensitivity issues – Growing power of retail chains

Substitutes * Other types of products from other brands * New brands that make the sport more ready to wear high-end (15 Serge Blanco, Eden Park … ) * Entertainment brand to substitute to sport activities (Reading, video games…) Internal Rivalry – Fierce Competition Adidas,Reebok, Nike – Mature Industry – Mostly Non-Price competition – Differentiation strategy Threat of New entrants – Capital Intensive – Strong Brand Following Economies of scale – High R & D Costs – Industry in consolidation phase Supplier Power – Raw Materials are abundantly available Cheap resources commodity items – Cheap labor on the East World. Buyer Power – Everything depends on Customer Preferences – Price sensitivity issues – Growing power of retail chains Substitutes * Other types of products from other brands * New brands that make the sport more ready to wear high-end (15 Serge Blanco, Eden Park … ) * Entertainment brand to substitute to sport activities (Reading, video games…) Explanation: 1. Internal Rivalry * Fierce competition: In effect in the sportswear industry, there are many competitors.

Two leaders have the most important share value on the market (Nike and Adidas). The competitors are smaller than the two big groups, which have much money to invest in marketing investment, and can develop easily than the smaller. * Mature industry: In this market, it’s difficult to innovate much more than today. The innovation exists for sure but it comes from details. It’s really hard to find for the company the perfect innovation. However companies works hard and try to find the best innovation possible to increase their share value. Mostly non-price competition: In this market, the price war doesn’t exist. In effect the competition between companies comes from the marketing, brand image and innovation (sometimes) but not on the price. All the brand are close and cannot compete on the price. * Differentiation strategy: A differentiation strategy will pursue a unique position among your competitors. The aim of the strategy is for the business to become unique in the minds of its customers. For this reason, a small business needs to create a product offering that is somehow unique.

Uniqueness can be achieved through different factors like design or brand image, technology, customer service or other attractive features. 2. Threat of new entrants * Capital intensive and strong brand: It is as very capital-intensive industry. Even though it would not be difficult for a new company to obtain the raw materials and the labor needed to produce shoes, there is almost no chance for them to gain popularity in such a mature industry with some of the strongest brand names in the world. Brand loyalty is extremely strong and it would be very hard for a new entrant to “steal” loyal customers from the already existent players. Economies of scales: Economies of scale play a huge role as well and the bigger players have an advantage of producing the products at a lower price than compared with newer entrants. As the output is bigger and the fixed costs of factories, machinery, marketing and R&D will be decreased per unit. Both marketing and R&D constitute high costs and since new entrants will not be able to take advantage of the economies of scale they will be less competitive. * High R&D costs: It means that it’s necessary to invest in R&D if they want to compete against others brands.

It’s a survival question in this market. * Industry in consolidation phase: The industry itself is in a consolidation phase and only the big ones will survive. The large companies are strategically and constantly acquiring smaller companies. Some of the most popular acquisitions include Reebok by Adidas, Converse by Nike. Small companies are bought before they become a threat to the bigger ones and before they have a chance to gain market share. In other words, it is impossible to grow in this industry because someone will take over your company. . Substitutes * Other types of product from other brands: Each company has the same product (shoes, tee-shirts, socks…). If the customer is not satisfied with one product, it’s easy for him to go in another brand and acquire something close to the first purchase. That’s why each company has to be aware of what it sells and what is the customer’s reaction. * New brand with different strategies: As said in the PORTER’s analysis, today there is some sport brand which are producing apparels but higher than the best known.

For example the brand Quinze of Serge Blanco, famous in the rugby world is producing clothes which are expensive than Nike for example but not with the same quality. This kind of brand products with another savoir-faire and the price are not the same but the customer can be attracting to try it. * Entertainment brand: To have fun today and doing something else than working, the customer has plenty of substitution products. The customer can read and there are many brands, which allow reading. Video games are product to entertain people (Sony, Nintendo…) . Supplier power * Raw materials and cheap resources: Typically apparels and shoes are manufactured using major raw materials cotton, rubber, and foam. All of these materials are commodity goods. In other words, the suppliers do not have the power to bargain the price of their product, since there are numerous suppliers. Hence the supplier power is low. However, there has been some standardization of production in the industry due to growing concerns of labor practices of the suppliers and manufacturers.

These practices have been damaging the image of some companies including Nike. Therefore, the big companies prefer to work only with approved manufacturers and suppliers that are known to follow these labor standards. Both Adidas and Nike have created a system to ensure that all the high quality of the product, the working conditions, and the distribution are at high standards. Therefore, suppliers are trying to establish themselves as reliable because once they gain Nike as a customer they know that they will request enormous volumes. However, to reach this level, the supplier needs to make investments in their facilities to improve working conditions and many suppliers cannot afford to do so. * Cheap labor: Many people works for “nothing” in the eastern countries, in Asia to be precise. Competition against the labor cost is impossible and many company delocalize the production abroad to reduce costs. 5. Buyer power: * Everything depends on customer’s preferences: The customer has the choice to buy product in retailing store with general brand or he could go to the special store, branding store as Nike store or Adidas store to get a product.

It’s a question of desire and where the customer lives too. * Price sensitivity issue: In the general retailer store, prices are lower than official store. That’s why some customer prefers to go in retailer store and purchase product for lower price and maybe get more compare to the official store. * Growing retailer store: More and more retailer store open and sell apparels and shoes from all sportswear brand. The customer has a lot of choice today and can choose whatever he wants and with his own criteria.

Free Essays

Sport Obermeyer Minimum

Wally Obermeyer is facing a challenge in accurately forecasting the market response and demand for the upcoming season. Historically, the company founder, Klaus Obermeyer, relied minimally on forecast data, and more on intuition and artistic tastes. In comparison, his son Wally prefers to make decisions based on analytical techniques and information gathering.

If Wally’s approach proves successful, it can change how Sport Obermeyer approaches its manufacturing processes, secure its position long-term as the middle- to high-end producer of skiwear, increase profits, and better meet the company’s objective of delivering matching collections to retailers at the same time and earlier in the season. Sport Obermeyer has many challenges to overcome. Forecasting is problematic since production commitments are required in November, but the bulk of the orders are not placed by retailers until the Las Vegas trade show in the following March.

Also, the market trends are seasonal, changing frequently, and adding to the difficulty in forecasting. The company cannot postpone production completion dates due to the quota limit on importation of goods from China, where a bulk of its production occurs. Adding further complications to the manufacturing decisions, the company has a new manufacturing facility coming online in Hong Kong, and must determine what products, and how much of those products should be manufactured in each of the facilities. Issues with vendors of raw materials must be addressed.

There are long lead times for some vendors, and because of that, excess inventory is maintained in the manufacturing facilities. The company must also maintain a competitive edge with the growing pressure from competitors, specifically Columbia. Sport Obermeyer has relied on a buying committee comprised of key manager to forecast production demands, and make decisions regarding production commitments. Historically, this committee has done fairly well in predicting which styles will be popular, and forecasting has been best for the styles on which agreement was greatest between the committee members.

In order to take the greatest advantage of this committee, Wally Obermeyer is utilizing the Delphi method. This method will give Wally the opportunity to determine which members of the committee have the greatest accuracy. While it may not pay off in the immediate decisions, over several years, he will be able to determine which members’ opinions should receive the greatest weight when making production decisions. In the meantime, a decision must be made regarding the upcoming season.

Wally should proceed with the minimum order necessary, one-half of the total expected demand for the season (10,000 units), to keep up with production demands. Since the minimum production quantity for a style is 600 units from the Hong Kong facility, Wally should initially only consider production of styles predicted to exceed this limit until the bulk of the order come in following the Las Vegas show. In doing so, the risk of overproducing a style, and being forced to sell it at a deficit will be mitigated. Past data indicates the buying committee’s forecast is accurate within two standard deviations.

Using these forecasts, Sport Obermeyer should delay production of the Isis, Teri, and Stephanie styles since they demand is forecasted to be low for them, and proceed with the remainder of the items in consideration (See Table 1 for quantities relating to each style). Forecasting also has difficulties due to the delay in information from retailers regarding which products are most popular. Long-term, and if financially feasible, Sport Obermeyer should consider providing retailers responsible for the majority of purchases of their good with software that will provide Sport Obermeyer with real-time data on sales of its product.

By doing so, the company will better be able to predict what items are desired for replenishment orders, and greatly reduce goods sold to South America at prices below manufacturing costs. Furthermore, Sports Obermeyer can approach retailers sooner regarding replenishment orders based upon the data it has collected. If replenishment orders are received sooner, then the cost of shipment is greatly reduced since fewer will require air shipment. Lastly, the company should take an active role in influencing the demand of products it forecasts as being most popular to ensure these items are in high demand.

Sport Obermeyer should pressure its sales force to promote these items by providing incentives, such as bonuses, to its personnel. If need be, the company can also provide discounts for large bulk orders to retailers. Lastly, the company should heavily promote these items via advertisements campaigns. Sport Obermeyer needs to be able to keep up with production demand, and in the case the company is overly successful in pushing the styles it predicts to be in highest demand, resulting in Sport Obermeyer needs to be able to meet the production demands generated.

The manufacturing facility in China can produce goods much more cheaply than the facility in Hong Kong, but the quality and startup time are inferior to the Hong Kong facility. Obersport, a joint venture of Sport Obermeyer, is responsible for monitoring quality of the raw materials, and coordinating production Sport Obermeyer products in the Far East. Obersport should implement and expand upon its current quality control and quality assurance practices.

Sport Obermeyer should pare down the variation in its products to reduce the frequency in changing manufacturing lines resulting in the facility in China being able to complete orders faster. Sport Obermeyer needs to reduce the planning time required for each season. Currently, planning for a season must start two years in advance. This is a hindrance to the company since forecasting data improves as the start of the season being planned for becomes closer. Reducing the number of vendors for raw materials, as well as the variety of styles available will shorten the time for planning.

Furthermore, Sport Obermeyer will be ordering more from a few vendors, giving them greater buyer power to negotiate discounts, resulting in increased profits. Reducing the variety in the raw materials used should increase quality in addition to speeding up production. Long-term, after lead time and vendor issues are resolved, Sport Obermeyer should consider spinning off another brand within the company to be marketed separately from its current line. As costs for manufacturing are reduced due to a more streamlined production process, Sport Obermeyer will be better able to compete at the same price point as Columbia.

By creating a new brand, the company will not risk reducing the reputation for quality associated with Sport Obermeyer, but will be able to compete directly with Columbia and take part of its market share. This move will increase sales for Sport Obermeyer, as well as limit the growth of Columbia. Furthermore, Sport Obermeyer should consider producing street wear for both the current high-end brand and the lower-end brand that will compete with Columbia. This will expand the markets to which Sport Obermeyer is competing in, and increase visibility of the brands since the clothing will be worn year round.

Sport Obermeyer places production orders three times each season. The first order is placed prior to the Las Vegas trade show, the second is placed the week following the trade show, and the third comes at the end of the season when replenishment orders are made. Short-term, until quality and vendor issues are resolved, Sport Obermeyer should place the first order with the Hong Kong manufacturing facility. The labor in the Hong Kong facility is significantly higher than the facility in China, but the quality is better in Hong Kong.

Also, the Hong Kong facility is able to produce goods faster. The second order should be placed with the facility in China to take advantage of the markedly reduced labor costs. The third order should be placed in Hong Kong since these orders need to be produced quickly to reduce the use of expensive air shipment in lieu of using an ocean carrier. Long-term, if Sport Obermeyer elects to pursue a spinoff brand, the lower quality product should be manufactured in China to take advantage of the reduced cost of production.

The Hong Kong labor force should have increased labor skills by this point, and production output should be optimized. The Hong Kong facility should continue to produce the high-end Sport Obermeyer lines. Even though the cost of production will be greater in the Hong Kong facility, the revenues generated by this facility should be greater since the high-end clothing can be offered at a higher price point. Sport Obermeyer has many problems to address, but with just a few adjustments, they can be rectified. By paring down the variety of options in the lines, quality will be increased.

Forecasting is improved by implementing the Delphi method in the Buying Committee, and adding a weighted accuracy measurement to the Committee members in future seasons. Reducing the number of vendors remedies the excessively long lead times, and provides Obersport with buyer power to negotiate discounts. Providing the primary purchasers of Sport Obermeyer products with free software for tracking sales allows Sport Obermeyer to better predict replenishment orders, and eliminates much of the use of air carriers, as well as eliminates overproduction of goods that are sold below manufacturing cost.

By creating a second brand, Sport Obermeyer can compete directly with Columbia, and not tarnish the image of quality associated with its current lines. Lastly, Sport Obermeyer can drive sales toward the items it predicts will be popular by offering incentives to sales personnel, large customers, and launching advertisement campaigns to also eliminate overproduction and lost revenues. Table 1: Recommendation of order quantity for each style of Parka considered by the Buying Committee.

Since orders had to be placed in Hong Kong where a 600 unit amount is needed, the styles of Isis, Teri, and Stephanie were ignored in the order placement for the first phase of production due to uncertainty of need. Style| Average Forecast| 2SD| k=1| k=0. 9675| Gail| 1017| 388| 629| 642| Isis| 1042| 646| 396*| –| Entice| 1358| 496| 862| 878| Assault| 2525| 680| 1845| 1867| Teri| 1100| 762| 338*| –| Electra| 2150| 807| 1343| 1369| Stephanie| 1113| 1048| 65*| –| Seduced| 4017| 1113| 2904| 2940| Anita| 3296| 2094| 1202| 1270| Daphne| 2383| 1394| 989| 1034| Total| | | 9774*| 10001| | I

Free Essays

Alcohol and Sports

When college students and adults drink irresponsibly, they often create negative associations with alcohol and its hindering effects. Alcohol is a constituent of various recreational and other events in the United States. It is available at a wide range of public sporting events and often is the central focus of celebrations of success and achievement. Unfortunately, as well as contributing to relaxation and conviviality, alcohol is also associated with verbal and physical abuse, arrests for aggressive behavior and violence and admissions to hospitals as a consequence of alcohol related assaults.

These concluding aspects have recently been raised in sport broadcasting and news nationwide. This initiates problems such as violence, public urination, or people collapsing as a consequence of excessive drinking. Facility management programs have made proper precautions regarding such events. These problems are not a new phenomena in the world of sports. In an attempt to contain violence, more facilities and leagues have taken action to control and remove the availability of alcohol at such events.

After considerable research, there seems to be a repetition of facility management aspects used in everyday sporting events, such as the TEAM and FAM organizational programs, specific “pre” and “post” game provisions, and actions regarding “in-game” incidents. There are many alcohol management strategies that facilities and programs have developed over the past two decades. Almost every professional sport team and facility follows the grand design of the non-profit organization called Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management.

TEAM begin back in the 1980’s in reaction to the “high number of traffic fatalities resulting from heavy drinking at sporting events and to increasing public awareness of the problem of alcohol-related driving (Stadium Alcohol Management). ” This program has two major goals regarding alcohol management: reduce drunk-driving and publicize responsible drinking services and consumption at sporting arenas. There main focus is on major sporting venues. TEAM also branches into another program called Facility Alcohol Management (FAM).

FAM further assists to public arenas in developing alcohol management. Furthermore, TEAM puts a strong emphasis on their 300 trainers who in turn train more than 30,000 sport facility employees. Training is a very important component involved in enhancing the awareness of staff. This regards factors that contribute to aggression and strategies to defuse potentially dangerous situations and legal issues regarding the proper management of venues. Hence, giving the staff an understanding of strategies to manage alcohol aggression on licensed premises.

Planning is one of the most important features of alcohol management within a facility. An appropriate location of an event should always be selected with easy access to transport to and from the venue. Many sport facilities have restrictions or bans on alcohol brought into the venue, as well as restrictions on the type of containers brought into the venue. Alcohol is a great source of revenue for sport leagues and arenas. Facility organizers may also be unwilling to set up alcohol-free events because it is such a main attraction during game-play.

More than 60% of professional sporting event revenues come from alcohol purchases (Class Video). Another important example of alcohol management planning is making sure to provide information before and during the event. This should include risks, regulations, requirements and controls. Sometimes the lack of information about strict alcohol polices can result in fans arriving unprepared, either not bringing enough money to purchase alcohol inside the venue or spending it before entry.

There has been precaution involving the amount of alcohol served at sporting and large public events. Severity of alcohol problems can be related to length of a game, whether or not it is a playoff game or even if the game is an exciting one or not (Class Discussion). Facility managers and staff must take into consideration those key features of a game in order to prepare for alcohol related incidents. Facilities set restricted times for serving alcohol, including set period before the end of the event, where alcohol is no longer served..

There have been proper preparations for regulating the sale of alcohol on premises within the grounds, particularly the times at which alcohol could be served. This allows for sobering up of patrons and reduced likelihood of drunk driving and other issues. This can be in between an inning, or at halftime. For example, most baseball games stop serving alcohol at the end of the 7th inning in order to maintain the crowd. Having a limited amount of alcohol served to each fan is another way a facility can avoid issues. Concession stands should only be serving 1 drink per customer.

Most sporting facilities have kept this under control but staff members working the beverage stands have let this slide and provided more than 1 drink per customer. Server staff selection and training is very important, although evidence shows that enforcement needs to accompany this in order to ensure its effectiveness. Security staff and police officers have been a vital part of alcohol facility management over the past decade. During preparation for games and large sporting events, security takes measures to properly secure a facility for intended alcohol related use.

Many facilities have implemented a range of strategies to reduce risks such as segregation of opposing fans or higher levels of policing. If there were safety concerns, security is granted authority to search public vehicles and individuals trying to enter an event with alcoholic beverages. It is important for the police force to try and maintain a crowd during the tailgating portion of an event. This is where the sot excessive drinking takes place. An example of a facility security measure involves video surveillance at the Milwaukee Brewers’ stadium.

In the article Drinking Games, it states that “most parks now include video surveillance equipment that can home in on specific seat locations, but beer hawkers, concessions-stand workers and ushers equipped only with their own eyes are also relied upon to recognize the tell-tale signs of intoxication, or in some cases the mere probability of intoxication. ” The security staff and police presence should be visible and have a clear view of the area around them. Also, they should have the authority to ban or remove fans for public displays of drunken behavior.

Facility managers take into consideration the importance of harm reduction. Some arenas have been setting up “dry areas” or family areas to reduce risk and nuisance, especially for families and young people. Also, alcohol served in a tempered glass or plastic and foam cups help reduce the likelihood of containers being used as weapons, and to prevent accidental or deliberate injury to staff and fans on the licensed premises. In Europe, they have “sobering-up” areas which act as a very valuable strategy (Study Abroad experience 2011).

There was minimal effectiveness but it may enable management of those who are overly intoxicated. Traffic management should be something planned before, during and after a sport game. After games, there are security checkpoints where drivers are checked for intoxication or any alcoholic beverages in their possession. This is where many people are arrested for DUI’s and drunkenly misconduct. When looking at the alcohol management regarding Madison Square Garden, there seem to be procedures and provisions similar to the ones listen previously in this research paper.

At most of the events at MSG, alcoholic beverages are available for purchase. They train their staff within the terms of the TEAM organization. Alcohol sales are limited to up to two alcoholic beverages per customer per transaction and must provide an ID with purchase. MSG makes sure that guests do not bring in alcoholic beverages from outside vendors, and cannot leave with beverages purchased inside the arena. The last part of their alcohol management statement deals with management reserving the right to refuse the sale of alcohol to any guest (MSG. com).

While there have been significant sport broadcasting about alcohol related harm at various professional and collegiate sporting events, there is little direct evidence to guide quality practice of such events. Nevertheless, there are a range of strategies that can be generalized from the mainstream research on reducing alcohol related incidents and strategies that have unpretentious biases. This relationship is a complex one, it arises from our interactions among various factors relating to the American culture, our drinking venues and the individual.

Free Essays

Successful Sportsman

An excellent sportsman incorporates many traits such as powerful physique, keen senses, discipline, calm and yet gregarious and outgoing. Unfortunately, teenagers lack tenacity resulting in the declining of numbers of sportsmen in our country. Little did they know, becoming a successful sportsman just requires integrity and perseverance. First of all, a successful sportsman consumes a balanced meal which consist all the necessary nutrients for enhancing their physique and metabolism. Besides that, more vegetables are included in the meal.

It is because vegetables contain important minerals and vitamins which are beneficial to sportsmen. Including nutritious food such as seafood, meat, eggs and others are also profitable to sportsmen. Sportsmen should strongly avert on eating fast food because fast food contains excess amount of fat and salt which is unfavourable and an obstacle to becoming a successful sportsman. Enough sleep and rest is also a major requisite for becoming a successful sportsman. Studies have shown that sleeping for 8 hours is the most suitable and healthy time.

Sleeping too much or too less could results in downright situation. Relax after training is too needed as to not over stress the sportsman. Over excessive training could results in tears and wears of your body and does not bring up the consequence that you anticipated. As the most important factor in becoming a successful sportsman, regular training is demanded. Continuous practice with suitable rest is best for a sportsman to prevent over stress. Having a discipline and determined heart is highly valued and necessary in training too. Rebellious behavior will only bring you to be unacceptable in the community.

As a good sportsman, a sublime sportsmanship is needed. Avoid from breaking the rules and be prepared to accept losses. You cannot win in every game that you participated even if you are the most excellent sportsman in the world. Finally, a good coach which is charismatic and motivated is a necessity for developing a successful sportsman. A good coach is needed to seek and tap on to a conceal talent buried in a person. A good coach is also important in arranging strategies to raise the winning factor of a sportsman without breaking barriers and rules.

Free Essays

Funding Hs Sports

State and Federal Aid Brian Alday, Moises Duran, Nuris Finkenthal, and Eric Rossi Grand Canyon University: EDA 535- Public School Finance November 28, 2012 In the last few years our nation has been faced with enormous budget constraints. Nearly every state has either reduced education funding or has maintained funding at a certain level due to the economic downturn of the nation. School districts have needed to find ways to do more with less, especially in the Sunnyside Unified School District. Most of the funding in our district goes toward technology.

Although technology is a big part of our 21st Century goals, over funding for one area has been detrimental for our athletic programs. This poses a problem because athletics can be an incentive for students and can encourage them to keep up academically to stay eligible to play. Another important aspect of sports is that it teaches valuable life skills such as adversity, teamwork, integrity, honesty, and responsibility. Sports also build school spirit for both athletes and non-athletes. For these reasons it is important that we keep high school athletics going for students and schools.

To improve athletic funding, as an administrator reaching out to local businesses, implementing fundraising campaigns, and organizing booster clubs would be best to financially support the athletic programs at the school. As an administrator it is important to be aware of the schools demographics as well as the school communities needs. The Sunnyside Unified School District has a large number of low-income families, single parent families, and families in which parents have to work two or three jobs to support their families.

Asking parents to pay more money for their children to participate in sports is out of the question (even though our district has the lowest participation fees in the state). An avenue that could help raise money for athletics would be to find local businesses around the community to help support athletic programs. “High schools and other educational institutes everywhere are seeking corporate sponsorship because of district budget cuts, program budgets cuts, and state funding cuts (King, 2006; Pennington, 2004). ” As administrator it would be behoove of them to arket their school and create partnerships with local businesses to fund athletic programs. Collaboration between corporate businesses and schools may help build newfound support within the community for its students, its schools, and its programs. With this type of partnership schools can focus on improving academics and athletics, while proving to be beneficial for the local business. Local business can use their donations as tax deductions and will demonstrate their invested philanthropic efforts in the community.

The daunting reality is that fundraising and schools alone can’t always support athletic programs, “so schools have turned to nontraditional sources, like sponsorship” (King, 2006; Lickteig, 2003). Support within our community is a must in order for our students to succeed. High schools can use corporate sponsorship to keep their athletic programs afloat and for growth. Although coaches are to develop students’ athletic abilities, they oftentimes turn to players to help them in fundraising efforts.

Coaches have to find different ways of fundraising, whether it’s through car washes, cookie dough sales or value cards, these fundraising endeavors help their teams pay for better equipment and gear that will give their team a winning edge. In a perfect world each program would be able to self-sustain expenses for their own equipment, but unfortunately that is not the case for the staff at Desert View. The traditional way of using capital funds is for each sport receives capital monies every 3 years.

This is not nearly enough to sustain yearly tournament fees, uniforms, equipment and out of town trips to play other elite teams in the state. Fundraising is not an easy task especially if the players and parents do not buy into what the coach is trying to do. As an administrator a plan would be proposed for all athletic teams to fundraise together, this would eliminate competition between athletic teams within one school site and there would be less conflict of teams selling the same items for their teams.

Also all monies would be deposited into one athletic account, which is then distributed evenly to all athletic programs. All athletic programs would be mandated to attend and participate in all fundraising events. To help plan and carry out these events, a Jag Booster club would be created and comprised of parents from each sports team. The booster club would meet once or twice a month to: go over budget plans, create new fundraising ideas, set schedules for different teams to host the snack bar for up-coming athletic events, etc.

The Jag Booster club would help alleviate all the pressures from the coach and athletic director by taking on these fundraising roles. The booster club would also oversee any special requests by coaches who ask for more funds for certain equipment and/or for trips. The ultimate decisions will be based upon the discretion of booster club to what will be in the best interest for the entire athletic program. Not only will it get more parental involvement within our schools, but it will also bring our sports programs together to build one common goal of raising funds for all of the athletics.

In conclusion, though our school district is facing many budgetary constraints, implementing local business sponsorships, creating fundraising campaigns, and building an overall team booster club, our athletic programs will be able to become more effective in the way we raise funds for not only one program, but all programs, thus allowing coaches to concentrate on coaching, students to concentrate on being student-athletes and achieving excellence

References Pennington, B. (2004, Oct. 18). Reading, writing and corporate Sponsorships. New York Times, p. 1 Lickteig, Melissa. (2003). Brand-name schools: The deceptive lure of corporate-school partnerships. The Educational Forum, 68, no. 1, p. 44-51. King, David. (2006, November 30). In hunt for revenue, high schools turn to advertising. San Antonio Express News, 2006. Retrieved February 22, 2007, from Lexis Nexis Academic Database.

Free Essays

Sociology of Sport

To start with, this essay cites Stan Goff(2008), a former Army Special Forces soldier, who asserted: “The military is a violent macho culture and so as are many sports. Warfare did much to shape the gender roles that now dominate our culture, even those aspects of the male script that are no longer recognizable as martial”. Indeed, the relationship between governments and sport has often been an integral part of the politics pursued by a certain contry. The power of sport articulated in rallying people round big events, has served as an intermediary between the society and the state.

According to Allison(1993) the essence of government involvement in sports vary from one community and society to the next, and government intervenes for one of the following reasons:Firstly, to safeguard the public order;Secondly, to maintain fitness and physical abilities among citizens;Thirdly, to promote prestige and power of group, community, or nation;Fourthly, to promote a sense of identity, belonging, and unity among citizens;Fifthly, to reproduce values consistent with the dominant ideology in a community or society;Sixthly, to increase support for political leaders and government;Lastly, to promote economic development in the community or society.

In modern days, the emerging power of terrorism and its organization has resulted in enhancement of activities incorporated into promoting militarism especially in powerful and wealthy nations as U. S. and Great Britain. What is more, with the help of media, “sport along with other popular cultural practices is being co-opted into a wider strategy that positions the military, government, media and citizens in a joint ceremony of supportive affirmation of militarism”(Kelly, 2010).

In particular, displays of nationalism in sport have been consolidated by usually government-controlled media, which influence the audience via spectacular productions of national cultural symbols, and hero-ficates so called “War on Terror” process. (Butterworth, 2008;Kelly, 2010). This essay suggests that the increasing propensity to promote militarism as part of important sports activities is rooted in the increasing commercialization and significance of sport for the citizens. In fact, the usage of sport as a tool to break a trail for militarism politics approval from the society is not an innovative approach at all. History shows a lot of examples that illustrate how authorities gain control on sport and use it as a source for disseminating a certain ideology.

For example, “In Franco’s Spain, particularly during the early years, football, just like other public institutions, was characterized by a high level of intervention by the authorities in its administration, organization, ownership and control, so the political regime of the country was reflected in the structures of the sport”(Duke;Crolley, 1996). Furthermore, Duke and Crolley(1996) reveals that administration of the football clubs at that time was in the hands of the military with presidents appointed by the regime. In the core of Franco’s actions towards sport, laid the promotion of a feeling of Spanish national identity and propagandizing Spanish nationalism.

Another example for utilization of sport for political and militaristic purposes in Spain in the last century is the Basque team that went on a tour in Eastern Europe and South America under the pretext that they were raising money and prestige(Duke;Crolley, 1996). Indeed, the real reason for these trips were the desire for spreading the political discourse of the Basque Country and gaining supporters, friends and sympathizers. To continue with the examples of sport being used as an instrument for militarism ideas in the past, the impact that communism had on sport in Eastern Europe took place in creating teams property of the military. An example for that are the clubs established in the former Soviet Union, Bulgaria and other countries from that part of Europe named with the initials “CSKA” standing for Central Sporting Club of the Army.

As reported by Sixsmith(2006) in Soviet Union those days, sport had been a real big deal of national prestige, so best players in regional leagues were all recruited and offered chance of playing for army instead of fighting for them. Likewise, CSKA Moscow were getting the best players who were to present the country on the field and by indirection the ideology of the government, which aimed to embed positive associations regarding the correlation of sport, military and the state in people’s minds. Now, CSKA Moscow football club is not a part of the military CSKA sports club, but still the Russian Ministry of Defense has shares in PFC CSKA Moscow. The militarization of the Bulgarian football club CSKA goes even more with naming the stadium “Stadium of the Bulgarian Army” manifesting for the importance of the army.

In addition, an interesting fact about CSKA Sofia is hat when the communism regime took over the power in Bulgaria in 1944, the official colour of the badge was changed from black to red emphasizing on the association that the red colour symbolizes aggression, red is the colour of the uniform of the Rome legions, The Red Planet is on the God of War and in socio-cultural context, red symbolizes communism. What is more, a five-pointed star was chosen to be placed on the badge, symbolizing the military power and the war. Equally significant example of a government’s use of sport to promote its own political ideology occurred in Nazi Germany in 1936(Coakley, 2001). According to Coakley(2001), Adolph Hitler was especially interested in using the games for reaffirming the ideology of “Nordic supremacy” and decided to devote considerable resources to the preparation of German athletes. Consequently, they won eighty-nine medals and literally outweighed the opposition in the face of U. S..

All presented examples from the past lead to the perception that popular cultural activities such as sport(Kelly, 2010) and organizations related to sport were supporting different dominant ideologies and directly as well as by indirection-militaristic actions. Nowadays, the relationship between sport and the military continue to be strong and following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, a system emerged in which sport culture moved beyond its customary role as an ideological support for the state(King, 2008). Above all, according to Stempel(2006:82) the so called “Bush doctrine” marked a new imperial doctrine that asserted the right of the U. S to attack nation-states that have not attacked, threatened to attack, or even secretly planned to attack the U. S. or its allies.

To clarify his position, Bush(2002) stated in one of his famous popular speeches regarding U. S. ilitary convictions that:”If we wait for threats to fully materialize, we will have waited too long. ” Respectively, the increasing military interference of U. S. in Iraq and Afghanistan after the terrorist attacks provoked some questions about the political correctness of these actions. , as reported by Manningham-Buller(2010), despite years of occupation an increasing realization of continued political instability is evident and even the threats of terrorism has increased than decreased towards the ally of U. S-Great Britain. Therefore, the righteousness of militarism had to be promoted not only by the fear factor, but also through involving the symbols of national militarism in people’s culture interests.

For that purpose, the president of U. S and its administration have decided to focus on sports activities, because sport is believed to be close to the heart of people all over. A significant tool for implementation of the Bush administration strategy in sport is considered to be the National Football League which is one of the strongest sports brands in U. S and attracts more people every week than a presidential election could draw no matter that it is once conducted in four years(King, 2008). King(2008) also stresses that professional football is a prominent feature of the American popular culture and well-established vehicle for the circulation of dominant norms and values.

The relationship between NFL and the city of New York, where the terrorist attacks were made perpetrated, included multimillion dollar commitment to enourage tourism, donating money to the city’s September 11 commemoration, the creation of the NFL Disaster Relief Fund and culminated in 2002 when the in the augural Kickoff Live a spectacular festival with the participation of a lot of stars was held in Times Square(King, 2008). The same author argues(2008) that in time, the orientation of NFL projects towards helping the victims and the city itself changed to explicitly patriotic and militaristic projects carried out in collaboration with the Government. To clarify, the projects contained charitable activities implemented by NFL, for example, professional football players from the league were supposed to go visit injured warriors, official football equipment was to be delivered to the military and all of that was based on the Bush’s programme for associating militarism with sport.

Similar is the situation in UK, where in 2009-10 season, the Football League announced its season-long official partner to be “Help for Heroes” and also it celebrated a “helping heroes” week which took place in March, 2010(Kelly, 2010). Furthermore, during the Remembrance Day weekend, all English and Scottish League Football clubs were asked to wear a special Earl Haig red poppy on their shirts(Kelly, 2010). Subsequently, opponents of this discourse who were fans of Celtic raised banners against the red poppy and its symbolism, what later on was to be hugely criticized by the media.

The small minority of fans that dared to stand against the discourse were presented as traitors and in certain scale as criminals. In fact, the protest of the fans was istorted by media and presented in the light of the violation of the Remembrance Day which indeed was not the aim of the Celtic supporters. In general, every attempt for swerving from the discourse of militarism have been sharply stigmatized by the government and its instrument- the media. Truly, the popularizing of militarism in sport encompasses another major component, namely media. As reported by Coakley(2001:395):”Global media coverage has intensified and added new dimensions to the connection between sports and politics. ”. What is more, the same author(2001) suggests that U. S. viewers prefer nationalistic themes that underpinned U. S. values and that claimed U. S. global superiority.

Based on the assumption “us versus them” or “hero” versus “extremists”(Kelly, 2010) media in U. S. tries to create positive image of militarism through presenting it in the context of sport. Equally significant is what Stempel(2006:82) asserts:”Involvement in televised masculinist sports is robustly correlated with support for invading Iraq, the doctrine of preventive attacks, and strong patriotic feelings of the United States. The tie up with Fox TV for popularizing the ideology of “War on Terror” using Super Bowl and the Olympics, aimed to create awareness about “Operation Tribute to Freedom” which was the official name of the U. S. military campaign.

In particular, the pregame, halftime and postgame broadcastings took as a theme “Heroes, Hope and Homeland” , which emphasized on the rejuvenation on the national patriotitism, associating the necessity of the current “positive” discourse with some past military moments like the Cold War and the War in Vietnam. In highlighting the SuperBowl XXXVI broadcasting, McCartney(2008) admin of foxsports, announced:”In what is expected to be the most stirring, patriotic and emotionally charged Super Bowl broadcast ever, reflecting on the atrocities perpetrated on September 11 and the aftermath, FOX’ presentation will weave a compelling, cerebral and visceral mix of music and pageantry with down home football”.

The cultural producers at Fox Sports were focused on to follow the discursive construction and reproduction of national identity implementing two strategies:Firstly, dissimilation, by outlining the threatening and abject other, depending on the enemy, in 2002 for example was Afghanistan);Secondly, assimilation, which points out the selective remembering of the past presented by the broadcast(Silk, Falcous, 2005). Silk and Falcous(2005) continue with the analyzation of the Super Bowl XXXVI with taking into consideration the pregame show beginning, that started by showing two points on the screen-Afghanistan and Lousiana Superdome(the venue of Super Bowl 2002). Afterward, though the the main event was the game, numerous visits to Kandahar were made were Fox representatives along with the American Forces Network had gathered troops on active duty to watch the game in the desert.

Also soldiers from the troops were sending TV “postcards” to their family and friends which contributed to the inspiration of the national spirit and by indirection to the implantation of hatred towards the enemies. What is more, a retrospection of American soldiers lost in Vietnam was made to reiterate the effect of hero-ization of military forces, hence this image was juxtaposed with the image of footballers which created symbolic equalization between players and warriors. The remembering process, according to Bilig(1995), concurrently involves a process of collective forgetting in order to allow a nation celebrate its historical recency. Another example of the discourse of remembering the heroes is provided by Kelly(2010) who comments on the inter-dependent relationship between hero and extremist.

He(2010) suggests that if the term “hero” is used in connection to the military, it acts as a collocation and becomes synonymous with UK soldier, which results in indoctrinating the idea of “our boys” in the national psyche. On the contrary, the opponents of the war are classified as “extremist”, “unpatriotic” or “insurgents”. As Stempel(2006) asserts, sports are amongst the most explicit and mythologized public spectacles of competition, power and domination and consequently they become important sites where Americans are registering, managing, and shaping the complex feelings regarding their power position in the post terrorist attacks on 9/11 world. There are different ways in which a cultural institution as the TV can contribute to the promotion of a certain discourse and dominant ideology.

The justification and modification of war to be seen as righteous and necessary, finds place in Fox’s broadcastings. A major factor that articulated the connection between pride, legacy and sport in the pregame Super Bowl broadcast was the retelling of the “Declaration of Independence”. Fox used numerous famous personalities such as footballers, Hollywood stars and political officers, namely Donald Rumsfeld who was Secretary of state at that time, to announce that United States was united more than ever(Slik, M. and Falcous, M. , 2005). Fox’s presentation of the “Declaration of Independence” is stressed to be representative of the deployment of patriotic themes(Butterworth, 2008) and as Stempel(2006) defines “masculinist moral capital”.

In a critical discussion, Butterworth asserts that the usage of the Declaration, which is considered to be a cornerstone of the American civil religion, serves to renew American’s faith in that religion and exploits patriotism and militarism in ways that justify the mission of the “war on terror” and undermine the democratic values that this war pledges to defend. To continue with the selective recollection of past events from the archives of collective historical memories, Fox retold parts of of Abraham Lincoln speeches, through former Presidents of the U. S. such as Nancy Reagan standing in for her husband, Ronald Reagan. All these actions undertaken by the co-operation between the Government of U. S. and media reflected on the dissemination of nationalistic feelings amongst citizens.

In this line of thoughts, Stempel(2006) decided to use data form a nationally representative survey of 1048 Americans to show that in the summer of 2003, level of involvement in televised masculinist sports was correlated with support for the Iraq war and with strong patriotic feelings for the U. S.. In attempt to provide more clarity of the relationship between mass-mediated sports, gender, and militaristic nationalism, Stempel(2006) divided the analysis of this case into two main theories-critical feminism and figurational sociology mostly related with Norbert Elias. As an illustration of the concept of “critical feminism”, Burstyn(1999) argues that the erosion of and challenges to the systems of man domination have led to amplifying the presentation of masculine power in the popular culture, especially in televised sports.

Accordingly, the hypermasculine culture subsequently has been used for the purpose of building support for war. The second theory, originates from and has been an object of broad analyze of Norbert Elias(1897-1990), who defined a figuration as “a structure of mutually oriented and dependent people”(1978a:261). As reported by Murphy, Sheard and Waddington(2000), Elias criticized the separation of the individual from the society and therefore for him these two concepts refer to interconnected levels of the same human world. To clarify, the same authors(2000) suggest that the concept of figurations was developed to instill the idea that sociology focuses on people bonded together in dynamic constellation.

Like critical feminists, figurationalist, expect that those who are involved in the most masculinist and battlelike sports will be more likely to support the “war on terror” ideology and response to threats to national security(Stempel, 2006). In this line of thoughts, the alliance between U. S. Government and NFL ,as a representative of purely male and aggressive sport, is vital for the symbolic interpretation of war and sport in the United States. From all presented cases, it can be assumed that the involvement in televised masculinist sports powerfully interacts with the support for the military campaigns of certain countries, the doctrine of preventive attacks and strong patriotic feelings(Stempel, 2006).

By executing spectacular productions of national symbols as the national anthem, military flyovers and frequent calls to support the troops during games, media embeds in peoples’ minds the heroic image of the military and its soldiers(Butterworth, 2008). Based on the notion that both masculinity spot and military training are perceived by many as an example of what the real man should be, the similiraties between masculinist sport and militarism appear to be substantial. From this point of view, the Government involvement in sport regarding militarism tends to increase as long as the authorities are interested in propaganding dominant ideologies such as the righteousness of certain military actions. Besides, the increasing number of negative reactions against the “war on terror” recently have resulted in governments’ need of higher levels of support among public.

With this in mind, Edwards and Cromwell(2009:55) stressed:”Sport, popular culture and the media are such powerful voices in the construction of discursive formations, and as any good student of public relations knows, “controlling what we think is not solely a matter of controlling what we know-it is also about influencing who we respect and who we find ridiculous. ” Taking into consideration the popularity of sport worldwide, it seems that the intervention of the nation-state is more likely to continue to occur. Furthermore, sports are connected with power relations in society as a whole and for that reason sports and politics cannot be separated which in the light of this essay’s theme can be translated as- the relationship between sports and militarism will last(Coakley, 2001).

Free Essays

Contact Sports

Introduction: According to the oxford dictionary a “Contact sport” is a sport in which participants necessarily come into bodily contact with one another, this includes football, rugby, hockey and la cross. Children and parents must be warned of the mental, physical and social risk factors that are associated with contact sports before being able to participate in them, doing so will lead to less children taking unnecessary risk. One factor that parents should be aware of is the increased risk and occurrence of injuries in children at such a young age.

Many injuries such as concussions go unnoticed therefore prolonging and escalating the severity of injuries, in some cases leading to death. For example, second impact syndrome occurs when an athlete returns to a sport too early after suffering from an initial concussion and obtains another concussion shortly after. This often causes fatal effects. Several concussions go undetected because of the difficulty in diagnosing whether one is present or has fully healed.

Although death from a sports injury is rare, the leading cause of death from a sports-related injury is a brain injury. According to stats Canada about 4. 27 million Canadian aged 12 or older suffered an injury sever enough to limit their usual activities in 2009-2010. (MAYBE CHANGE IT TO A CONTACT SPORT STAT) In more recent years there has been a discovery associated with multiple concussions known as CTE. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) caused by cumulative, long term neurological consequences of repetitive concussions and hits to the brain.

This causes cognitive and neuropsychiatric impairment which include depression, suicide attempts, insomnia, paranoia, and impaired memory. Another issue that parents needs to be aware of is the increase in violence and aggression that is common in contact sports. Children are often rewarded for being aggressive which can lead to aggression and violence off the playing field. It makes it difficult for children to draw the line between what is acceptable aggression and unacceptable and may lead to violent behavior.

According to a study found results strongly suggest that participation in powered sports actually leads to an increase of enhancement of anti social involvement in the form of elevated level of violence(Participation in power sports and antisocial involvement in preadolescent and adolescent boys. Research Center for Health Promotion (HEMIL), University of Bergen, Norway) . So not only does this lead to children being violent in day to day life but also being dangerously violent in sports adding to an increase in injuries.

The glorification of violence and aggression in sports leads to kids focusing more to use their bodies rather than skill in the game, In a Dutch population-based study on 1818 school children aged 8 to 17 years showed that Over a period of 7 months, 399 sports injuries were reported in 324 youngsters. The most common types of injuries were contusions (43%) and sprains (21 %). Medical attention was needed in 25% of all cases. This is problematic because it puts children at an unfair playing field and reduces enjoyment of the game for smaller and non athletic children.

In addition coaches may unknowingly promote stereotypes such as homophobia and gender roles. It seems to be more amplified in contact sports where aggression is considered to be a more masculine trait. This can severely affect the child’s ideas and concepts during the prime learning age. Discourse surrounding contact sports coming from coaches, even parents and fan tends to encourage the common stereotypes and leads violent behavior this view is supported by an article called (THE SPORT BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN PARENTS AND COACHES THE GOOD THE BAD THE UGLY by david light shields uni of missouri , st. ouis ). Overall there are several factors that children are exposed to during contact sports that can lead to mental, physical and social risk factors. Many of these issues are unknown and unclear to parents and its our job to warn them. These factors not only harm the children themselves, it can also be detrimental to their growing process and even friends and families associated with them

Free Essays

Sport Development Plan

As a newly joined member of the committee for the new multi-sports club which focuses on cycling, swimming and running I have come up with a 5 year development plan, which I am confident can give the club a vision and direction to go down in order to achieve an outcome of produce a number of good athletes and be successful in the future. The report will discuss possible funding sources, and identifying where and how much will be spent to progress the club and get it moving forward by hiring/buying facilities and equipment. The club has a variety of users ranging in ability level, gender, age and also sporting activity and the club has everything it needs to be successful in future. Therefore by coming together now and producing this report with future recommendations, the hope is that the club will continue to grow and develop sport and sportspeople in the local community.

Sports Development Overview Sports development is explains by Colchester borough council (march 2010) as “an increase in the number of high-quality opportunities for people to take part in sport or activity” meaning that sports development is to ensure that all people have the opportunity to participate in sport, and that this opportunity will help and encourage the participant to take part again in future sporting activities.

The most recognised and key model of sports development is the sports development continuum (Governing Bodies, 2007). The continuum highlights the four main stages of development where a performer could be placed. They are the foundation, participation, performance and excellence stages.

The foundation stage of the pyramid incorporates grass roots level of sports, beginners and young children, and it is the stage where the whole emphasis is on participation and the enjoyment of sporting activities. It is where the performer is taught the basics skills and this normally takes place in an environment such as a P.E lesson at school.

The participation stage is the next natural progression on the pyramid and it is when the performer actually makes a choice to be involved in sport because they enjoy taking part or would like to keep a healthy lifestyle. This can range from anything such as going to the local fitness club, or joining the local Sunday football side, and is normally a result of a positive enjoyment or social benefit at the participation stage.

The performance stage is where the performer feels a strong desire to improve their technical ability further and that is one of the main reasons that they actually participate, and these performers tend to take part and represent at county level for example.

The final and smallest stage on the continuum is the excellence stage, which is where small percentages of people that take part in physical activity reach but always strive to reach; this is at the standard of the professionals either at a national or world standard. The two main reasons for the development of sport today are “sport for sports sake” and “sport as a social tool”. Recently the government has taken a massive interest in sport as they believe that it can help to eliminate some of the problems in today’s society such as high crime levels and the obesity epidemic.

This rising of sport on the government’s agenda has made for a massive evolution in sports development and it has progressed from a little known area to a massive and expanding profession. In 2002 they published the Game Plan report, it was constructed after a large amount of research, and the report shows how the government intend to achieve their sport and physical activity objectives in the future. They have backed this up with large sums of funding and (Game Plan 2002, paragraph 5) states that “over £2 billion from the government and lottery will be going into sport over the next three years” which highlights the commitment to sport that has been made. The Government have also set a national target to expand the base and increase participation in England by 1% annually. (Single system for sport 2002)

Various organisations that receive large amounts of funding promote and help sport progress in many different ways. For example there are organisations that operate such as Sport England whose main aim is to ensure that “ A substantial and growing number of people from across the community play sport” (Sport England, 2008) whilst organisations like UK Sport are more interested in “leading sport in the UK to worldwide success” (UK Sport, 2009). Therefore by UK sport focusing on the excellence stage and Sport England concentrating on developing sport from the bottom of the continuum up to performance level it shows that different organisations are constantly trying to improve each section which will help to go about achieving further success in the future.

Clubs Facilities A majority of the clubs participants train in swimming, running and cycling and we also have a participant they does all three and is an Olympic hopeful. Currently the club is hiring out the swimming pool at Sir Charles Arts College, the club is based here as they also have a gymnasium were they have exercise bikes where we run our fitness bike class. For the running the club uses the running track on the garrison in Colchester which is a rubber based competition running track. The swimming and running facilities the club use are of a good standard and all private for who is hiring it, however the cycling is not ideal as exercise bike are not the same as cycling on a real bike, this is the main point of the club that should be improved.

Key Objectives & Proposals

In order for the multi sports club to be successful it is essential that we capture the imagination of the local community through being diverse and offering them a variety of new activities to try, whilst also offering them regular sessions in as wide a range of activities as possible. As a result of this I have come up with 5 main objectives that must be met if this club is to be successful. They are • Increasing the level of participation.

• Form strong links with other clubs, organisations and businesses in the community to help with sponsorships and funding. • Improving the facilities that the club uses. • Widen the range of available activities. • Bring in and develop high quality coaches.

Raising participation is the first key objective that I will aim for. We need people to attend the activities that we currently have and through the use of advertisement in and around the local town and papers we hope to raise awareness of the club and in turn raise the level of participation. Having regular paying clients will enable us as a centre to get back some of the costs of the improvements that will be made therefore it is very important that we raise the number of people through the door.

I realise that bringing in coaches to replace the staff we already have will have an effect on the staff we do keep so if we give our current staff opportunities to learn and better themselves then their morale will rise, whilst it will also have a positive impact in the delivery/coaching standard of their sessions. This will provide us with a win/win situation as we will be getting better and higher qualified coaches providing more efficient sessions, which will give us as a centre a better reputation and make the club more attractive to the public. Also we intend to bring in highly qualified and vastly experienced coaches to help train our current staff to get them to a higher standard. This is important to the Olympic triathlon hopeful and to the club if we intend to produce more Olympic standard athletes.

Improving the current facilities they we use would also be of a major benefit to the club. The current facilities could do with upgrading and the three sports that have the highest number of participants, swimming, cycling and running, we will get better facilities and new equipment especially cycling we need to get some bicycles so the club can train properly which will help to maintain our client base and make them feel part of the club and feel that they can improve further.

The success of the sport club is dependent on the interest from the local community and for this reason I have highlighted it as a massive objective to interact with the local businesses, sports clubs and organisations to develop strong links were we can all gain something from each other because we all have a lot to offer. The sharing of facilities is something that we hope to gain through possible future links and we could also get some sponsorship from businesses that need promoting.

By offering a wider range of activities I believe that we will be able to attract different target markets and again raise the level of people that attend the club. With the club being new we need to show as many people as possible what activities we have to offer, the wider the range of activities the more people we can reach out to.


To help with the aims and further developments that will be made to the sports centre, it is vital that we can source some funding and revenue from one of the leading sports organisations or from local sponsorship deals. There are many options that are available to us and the opportunities for funding are out there, however there is not an endless pot of money and we as a club must show that we would put the money to good use in order to stand any chance of investment.

Sport coach UK is an example of an organisation that we would qualify for funding from. Our ideas fit in nicely with theirs and our objective to improve the level of our coaching staff would enable us to receive a sum of money. £1000 would be enough to significantly improve the standard of coaching of our staff and give them a chance to gain a higher qualification which could help in their future careers.

The club currently has one Olympic hopeful and we need to do everything possible to maximise their training and give them the best chance possible to succeed. To help the athlete we would bring in specialised high level coaches to train the athlete and also dieticians to provide the athlete with the necessary dietary needs in order to perform to the top level. UK sport deal with elite athletes and by hiring these specific staff to help our talented athletes we would qualify for funding. This funding would go towards the plans for the new equipment that our facility is badly in need of and also towards the payments for the top level coaches

Also through our main objectives and our will to improve participation in sport we may even qualify for funding from Sport England who share the same objectives. With this also being a government initiative we would qualify for funding The club will apply to Sports England small grant scheme for the sum of £10,000 to fund new equipment, facility hire and expansion of activities to increase participation to get the local community exercising and maybe get some participant up in the excellence section on the continuum like our triathlon Olympic hopefully.

Also additional methods of raising funds could be through business sponsorship and other fundraising events in the local community. We would be holding regular fundraising sporting activities where all the local community is welcome, and any additional funds would be pumped straight back into the sports centre.


This report has suggested a series of future developments that should be implemented in order to maximise the potential of the multi sports club and the future needs have been outlined clearly. Possible funding opportunities have been thoroughly discussed and obtaining this funding will prove vital in achieving our key aims. I believe that the five year plan and also the fact that the Olympics will be local will help to make the centre a massive success and raise the participation levels greatly in the community. Also all of the staff must be well aware of the relevant sports development theory and continuums and the guidelines must be followed to ensure that we can all achieve success in the future.

Free Essays

Marketing A Sports Organization

When watching football on television, we get so sidetracked in the game and in the players that we forget about another part of the team. The marketing team is a large part of the sports team. Without the group of people who help get the recognition, sales, promotions, the football team would have a more difficult time surviving.

The marketing mix is one of the most often used phrases in marketing. The four marketing tactics, also known as the four “P’s,” are price, product, place, and promotion. compares the marketing mix to that of a cake mix. All of the ingredients are essential to having the positive outcome that is desired.  If the cake needs more sugar, you can add more sugar, if it needs more milk, you can add more milk. The same thing applies to the marketing mix.  Perhaps the price needs to be altered for that positive outcome. Any of the tactics can be altered to suit the product and to get the outcome that is desired.

When applying the marketing mix, the kind of organization that we are dealing with has to be considered. There is a difference between an amateur sports organization and a professional sports organization.

In order to properly assess the commonalties and differences among the marketing mix developed for Diving Canada (Amateur Sport Organization) and the Toronto Blue Jays (Professional Sport Organization), it is imperative that one has a true understanding of the four elements that drives the marketing mix. The marketing mix was developed as a means to provide marketers with a strategy that would allow them to blend together various factors in order to achieve an organization’s objectives.

To successfully implement this strategy, marketers must address the four specific tactics, or “ingredients” that will make the strategy work.

Price is the factor that allows marketers to add value (a numerical representation) on the goods and services they are offering based on their ability to stimulate demand. Product on the other hand, refers to the tangible (good) physical aspect or service that encompasses such things as; brand name, functionality or packaging.

Conversely, place relates to the specific geographical location that marketers feel is most appropriate to distribute their product/service to the general public. In order to engage in a successful deliverance, marketers must properly plan tactful promotional strategies that will inform their targeted market with the necessary information to make a purchase. If the aforementioned is utilized effectively, marketers will be able to achieve their organization’s goal in an efficient and productive manner

According to, Juan Manuel de Toro, a professor at the IESE business school said that marketing for a sport’s organization should be, “Orientated toward consumers. It’s about thinking, deciding and acting in terms of the final consumer.”  He said that as a result to this, “you have to know who your consumers are, and what they want and need. As much as possible, you have to tailor your offer to their needs, so you can get to know them and provide them with a worthwhile benefit. The orientation is toward the market, not to the product.”

For instance, diving is growing to be very popular in Canada. According to, Canada is the number one diving nation in the world.

Emphasizing that Canada is known for its diving is important.  This will appeal to the emotional aspect of the marketing. It gives a sense of pride. When it comes to sports, pride sells.

There are many organizations that would like to partner with one of the sports that Canada is known for. Sponsorship can make or break a sports marketing plan. Because the team is not necessarily a business and has different purposes than a business does, the marketing for a sports team is different.

People watch sports for entertainment, and largely for the emotional aspect of it. There is some emotional reason why each person becomes passionate for sports. Whether it was a family sport for some, or whether they were athletes in the sport when younger, the customer has a reason. To successfully market, the marketing team must get into the heads of their customers and find out what that reason is.

According to, Toro said, “You are dealing with more than just a service; the sports consumer is looking for entertainment, diversion, passion, emotion; you have to consider his complete emotional dedication.”

Sandro Rosell, who is the vice-president the Futbal Club Barcelona, argued, “In sports marketing, it is very hard to bring business needs and emotional needs together.”

Although Rosell is right, it is hard to do, it is possible. For an amateur organization, the price can be a big problem.  There will be less money for marketing when the organization is amateur. What is used has to be used wisely.

When seeking a partnership, there are a couple of options. Public or private organizations or state and local partnerships are often considered. One organization that would most likely be used for Diving Canada would be FINA, the world’s largest organization for aquatic sports.

The sponsorship covers part of the price aspect. To gain a good idea of the price, penetration pricing could be considered. Penetration pricing is when the price is set low, on purpose, until interest is gained and then the price is raised higher. This would probably be a good idea for Diving Canada.

Because it is an amateur sport, some customers might be a little leery of supporting it; however, because it is a sport that Canada is known for, they will most likely support it if the price is right. Once they begin supporting it and see how positive it is for them, the price can be raised and they will not refuse.

Promotion for an amateur sports organization can be somewhat tricky. Sponsorship is found in promotion as well as the price. Without the sponsors supporting the team, it is difficult to have the promotion that is necessary. Since Diving Canada’s organization is more about achievement than money, they are not as well known as the Blue Jays.

According to, one way to promote a team like the Diving Canada is to have a website devoted to them where they would gain large exposure. While this does cost extra money, the website believes that the price would be worth it in the end.

A professional sport organization such as the Toronto Blue Jays is an association that is part of a much larger family that stretches across North America. These organizations are limited in the amount of teams that are able to compete and encompass a huge consumer database consisting of fans, spectators, participants, employees, sponsorship companies and much more.

The Toronto Blue Jays, a Toronto based baseball team, is one of the thirty members of this professional sport organization. Diving Canada on the other hand is considered to be a non for profit amateur sport that was created to facilitate the growth and development of diving as a sport in Canada. Although not as large or consumer driven, Diving Canada represents nine provincial diving associations consisting of sixty seven local diving clubs with over 4,000 performing athletes.

The main goal of diving Canada is to “become the number one diving nation in the world.” Unlike the Toronto Blue Jays Association who are profit driven, Diving Canada’s mission is to “provide all divers, from entry level participants to Olympic and World champions, with the programs and services required to achieve personal excellence and self fulfillment.”

Before distinguishing the differences and commonalities of their respective marketing mixes, it is important to understand the underlying differences between a professional and an amateur.

Professionals, who participate in sports organizations such as the Toronto Blue Jays are usually required to encompass a large array of knowledge achieved through intensive training and practicing.  These individuals often have a large affect on society and are required to exploit their independence both in society and in the workplace. Furthermore, the single largest distinction between an amateur and a professional is the funding for the sport. Professionals are paid individuals who are part of a large organization, and are paid based on their active participation Amateurs, on the other hand usually refers to individuals who are not performing for money, but instead are doing so for self interest usually through an academic setting.

Now that the differences between a paid professional and a working amateur, have been distinguished we discussion of the differences and similarities among the marketing mix can be continued.

Sports “products” is the first part of the marketing mix that will be analyzed and discussed in relation to both The Toronto Blue Jays and Diving Canada.

A sport product consists of a good or a service that is created for the purpose of providing a benefit to its many existing users (participants, sponsorship companies, spectators etc…). It can provide physical benefits which can be seen through its; its quality design, features, packaging, variety or it can provide intangible benefits, such as the excitement and thrill participants acquire when watching or attending their favorite sport game.

Although Diving Canada is an amateur sport they share many of the same existing users. Both organizations have many participants providing entertainment for their fans (their consumers), while following specific rules and guidelines governed by officials, instructors, coaches, etc. Furthermore, both engage in acquiring sponsorships as a means to provide excess cash to run a successful event.

Regarding the intangible benefits, there are many similarities as both organizations are proving entertainment for their spectators. However, one of the main differences is that participants in Diving Canada are competing for self-fulfillment (not getting paid), opposed to many of the players on the Toronto Blue Jays who participate for the swollen salary.

Although both organizations are very competitive in nature, Diving Canada places a much larger emphasis on achieving personal excellence and self-satisfaction (individually) while the Toronto Blue Jays place a large emphasis on winning a championship as a whole rather than individual participation.

Regarding the tangible aspects, there are many differences among the two organizations. There is much more variety offered by the Toronto Blue Jays seen through; the different field positions played (short stop, centre field, catcher, pitcher), equipment (bats, helmets, uniforms, gloves), demographics and viewing capabilities (radio, TV). Although, there is variety in Diving Canada, participants have limited equipment such as bathing suits or goggles, they differ by having much less exposure. TV and radio promotions are limited.

The quality of entertainment is usually higher in professional sports, but can is too complex to judge as entertainment can only be judged in the eye of the beholder.

Although both organizations design their sport wear to embody company logos, the Toronto Blue Jays place a much larger emphasis on its uniqueness as a way to drive sales and attract consumer purchases of uniforms, hats, gloves, etc…One of the biggest differences recognized among the two organizations is the brand name which is perceived through their logos.

The Toronto Blue Jays have a much more distinguished and recognized logo compared to Diving Canada. Although Diving Canada does have a signature logo, recognized as widely as the Toronto Blue Jays due to the limited exposure, demand and publicity for the event.

The largest difference between the Blue Jays and Diving Canada is money. However, in the words of Shaquille O’Neal, “I’m tired of hearing about money, money, money, money, money. I just want to play the game, drink Pepsi, [and] wear Reebok.”

Though the two sports are extremely different in marketing, it is interesting to see how the same formula — price, place, promotion, and product, can be tailored to work successfully for both.

Works Cited

Dunn, Paige, and Patty Deutsche. “Sports Marketing Devision.” E-Agency. 2006. 6 Dec.


“Diving Plongeon Canada.” Diving. 2006. 6 Dec. 2006 ;;.

“Marketing Mix.” Marketing Teacher. 2006. 6 Dec. 2006 ;;.

O’neal, Shaquille. “The Sports Quote … the Best of the Best.” Famous Quotes and Quotations. 2006. 6 Dec. 2006 <>.

“Sports Marketing: the Motor That Drives the Sports Business.” Marketing. 18 May 2005. 6 Dec. 2006 <>.

Free Essays

Sports vs Video Games

To reduce the growing population of obese children in the world the parents need to encourage sports and outside play over video games. Kids in the world today know little about sports and the rules. But spend more time playing video games then outside being active. What happened to neighborhood hide and seek, or pick-up basketball games with other neighborhood kids. Today children are more interested in video games, computers and television, and parents are afraid of letting their children run around the streets because of kidnappings.

When I was a kid I had video games but I spent most of my time outside playing. Being outside with the fresh air and the sunshine was the best thing for me. In this year today there are a lot of kids who don’t know how to play sports or are too obese to play sports. Take basketball for instants I personally think it’s one of the easiest sports besides football. The rules are simple in basketball, dribble the ball one hand at a time, and don’t carry the ball. Also in basketball it’s up to you and your team to score as many points as you can.

But in the game of basketball like any other sport you have to work as a team. One of the major benefits you get from playing sports is understanding how to work really good with other people. In my mind TEAM means Together Everyone Achieves More, which means if you try to do everything by yourself you won’t get very far. Video games don’t teach you how to work with others. Also most of the video games today prompt violence and use profanity. (Gump, 3) The majority of kids are no longer interested in physical activity.

There are a certain percentage of kids today that are addicted to video games. I believe that at a youth age kids shouldn’t be addicted to anything. Video games in today’s society have a negative influence on kids because it separates them from reality. Besides working together basketball also benefits you in other ways like it will keep you healthy and moving like other kids. I played basketball for 7 years. I maintained a body weight of 145 lbs. With my body being and looking the way it did, it made me feel extremely good and confident.

There is so much that comes with playing basketball the constant practicing and working out in the weight room. From all the extra running and lifting weights that you have to do keeps the body healthy and muscular. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and lungs. Not only does exercise help the internal organs but it also increases strength and stamina. Sports do not only help you physically but mentally as well. There is no match to the happiness that sports bring. Playing sports is energy put to good use.

Sports are a form of exercise which generates happiness in your body, thus restoring your mental health. Video games don’t help lose weight it helps gain weight. Also video games can mess up a kid mentally instead of making you happy it makes you violent or sad. Sports improve you physical and psychological health; physical because sports involve exercise and psychological because playing is something you enjoy, it’s something that relaxes your mind. The lack of encouragement from parents when it comes to sports needs to be cut down. As many parents there are in this world that have played sports.

There should be twice as many kids playing these sports. I believe if parents get more involved in their child’s physical life there will be less obese children. What these kids need most is love and supporting parents teaching them the benefits of sports and a healthy life. So by parents being active with their children this would also cut down on the violence in the world today. Work Cited http://www. tribtoday. com/page/content. detail/id/565582/BOYS–VIDEO-GAMES-VS–STUDYING. html? nav=5059-By LAUREN GUMP – Warren G. Harding High School

Free Essays

Major Games in Amateur Sport Essay

“The world of major sports events is a dynamic, evolving and growing industry (like the business of sport itself), with an increasing number of major world events… broadcasting rights and cut throat competition to be the host.” (Gratton et al, 2001, 63)  The Deaflympics program will present 20 different competitive events in the following summer disciplines:

• Athletics – Track and Field:

• Badminton: Team competition/Men’s and Women’s singles /Men’s and Women’s doubles /Mixed doubles

• Basketball – Team tournament for men and women.

• Beach Volleyball – Team tournament for men and women.

• Bowling – Singles – Six games /Doubles – Six games /Trios – Six games /Team (5 players)

• Cycling Road – Sprint /Individual Time Trial /Road Race /Points Race

• Football – Team tournament for men and women.

• Handball – Team tournament for men and women.

• Judo • Karate • Taekwondo – Men Women

• Orienteering – Long Event /Relay Event /Sprint Event

• Shooting – Free Rifle prone /Free Rifle three positions /Air Rifle /Free Pistol /Rapid Fire Pistol

• Swimming – Freestyle / Backstroke/Breaststroke /Butterfly Individual Medley Team relay

• Table Tennis – Men’s and Women’s singles /Men’s and Women’s doubles /Men’s and Women’s teams /Mixed doubles/

• Tennis – Men’s and Women’s singles /Men’s and Women’s doubles /Mixed doubles

• Volleyball – Team tournament for men and women.

• Water Polo- Team tournament for men only.

• Wrestling Freestyle -The wrestling competitions will consist of the following events (men only):

• Wrestling Greco-Roman men only

The “bid to host” process involves two critical steps.  The Initial applications must be submitted to the International Olympic Committee.  Procedural contact via the IOC will be made with the International Committee of Sports for the Deaf. However, protocol indicates that final decision remains with the oversight sanctioning body of The Summer and Winter Deaflympics, the International Olympic Committee.

“The increasing complexity of the relationship between a greater number of public and private actors has challenged the political and institutional capacity of the state to steer the policy choices affecting society and the economy.”  (Budd et al, 2004, 12)

The national and local level participation requires an official application from the “Applicant City.”   Known as the candidature acceptance procedure, a questionnaire in Phase One of the bid process is submitted to the IOC. The collaboration between the local sponsors, city officials and bid committee benefit from a complete overview of organizing the Deaflympics and of what will be expected from them should they be selected as Candidate Cities and reach Phase Two of the procedure.

Venue selection for each sport must meet the following general criteria. However the most important and over whelming factor is broadcast access.  “The struggle for control over Olympic communication is centered on television, the medium largely responsible for transforming the modern Olympic movement.” (Larson et al, 1993, 65)

On a secondary yet vital level, the type and condition of the competition surface or field of play, seating capacity and format, number of locker rooms, training amenities, equipment storage, sports shops, concession stands, public address and multi media system, box office, press facilities, communications, parking/handicap access, scheduling, medical facilities and advertising.

Upon selection, a second standard specific to the sport will be evaluated. Ever more policy makers view telecommunications as a strategic resource hence the financial foundation of the bid is paramount to success of the games. (Read et al, 1996, 9)

To ensure the security of athletes, coaches, and fans the need for professional security support, trained staff and volunteers, communication equipment, local, national and international media, accreditation, VIP room and services.  Most importantly liability and cancellation insurance, physician(s) on-site, first aid facilities on-site, emergency medical services, strategies for injuries and an emergency evacuation strategy must be in place.

Critical to the planning and implementation to the plan require participation from local communities by actively attending the games and using their purchasing power. All local and state wide sport organizations will provide professional help with the operational aspects of the events.

Regarding sports issues, “it is necessary to have some appreciation of the structure of government, the development and organization of sport and the dominant pattern of policy-making.”  (Houlihan, 1997, 22)

The Municipal Government, local and state wide business community together with state wide corporate sponsors must provide the fund raising mechanism to initiate the application process, maintain operational support thru to the completion of the games.

Gratton, Chris Sport in the City: The Role of Sport in Economic and Social Regeneration.Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 63.

Budd, Adrian, Sport and International Relations: An Emerging Relationship. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2004. Page Number: 112.

Larson, James F., Global Television and the Politics of the Seoul Olympics. Publisher: Westview Press. Place of Publication: Boulder, CO. Publication Year: 1993. Page Number: 65.

Houlihan, Barrie Sport, Policy, and Politics: A Comparative Analysis. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. Publication Year: 1997. Page Number: 22.

Read, William H. Telecommunications Strategy for Economic Development. Publisher: Praeger Publishers. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. Publication Year: 1996. Page Number: 9.



Free Essays

References in This Document to Finale Sports Bar & Grill

finale sportsbar and grill that will deffenitely swit your needs. its deffenetely your plan – helpful and genious. pleasem enter more descriptive title Business Plan For Finale Sports Bar & Grille Executive Summary References in this document to “Finale Sports Bar & Grill,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to the business of Finale Sports Bar & Grill. Finale Sports Bar is a growing restaurant featuring a variety of boldly flavored, made-to-order menu items. Our restaurants create an inviting neighborhood atmosphere that includes an extensive multi-media system, a full bar and an open layout, which appeals to sports fans and families alike.

Our concept offers elements of the quick casual and casual dining restaurant concepts featuring a flexible service model that allows our guests to choose among convenient dining options such as quick casual counter service, casual dining table service or take-out. Our award-winning food and inviting atmosphere, combined with our guests’ ability to customize their dining experience, drives guest visits and loyalty. We want to establish our brand through coordinated marketing and operational execution that ensures brand recognition and the quality and consistency of our concept.

These efforts include marketing programs, award-winning advertising to support our restaurant. Our concept is further strengthened by our emphasis on operational excellence supported by stringent operating guidelines and comprehensive employee training. Our business goal is to continue to grow and develop the Finale Sports Bar & Grill. To do so, we plan to execute the following • Offer a boldly flavored menu with broad appeal. • Create an inviting, neighborhood atmosphere. • Enable our guests to customize their dining experience. Continue to strengthen the Finale Sports Bar & Grill name. • Focus on operational excellence. • Increase same-store sales and average unit volumes. Introduction Finale Sports Bar and Grill will strive to be the premier sports theme restaurant in the Sunny County region. This will be the first sports bar in this region. At this sports bar we want our customers to have more fun during their leisure and dining time. The sports bar will provide more televisions with more sporting events than anywhere else in the region.

The sports bar will provide state-of-the-art table-top audio control at each table so the customer can listen to the selected program of his or her choice without interference from background noise. The sports bar will combine menu selection, atmosphere, lighting, and service to create a sense of excitement in order to reach our goal of over-all value in a dining and entertainment experience. Finale Sports Bar and Grill will be held privately by a LLC company which will be owned by Jack Johnson to financially back the new business venture.

I will still be the principal owner of the bar. In order to start the company I will have to get a loan of an undisclosed amount (not known at this time). This loan will provide start up capital, financing for a building and supplies, pay for permits and licensing, employee training, and anything else that should arise. The expected open date for this bar and grill will be December 10th, 2006. This will give us the opportunity to serve customers for New Year’s and the Super Bowl. Industry Analysis This restaurant industry is very large and sometimes hard to get exact numbers.

There are many categories of restaurants so I outlined Services sector and the restaurant industry according to Yahoo finance. “The nation’s 900,000 restaurants should hit $476 billion in sales in 2005, according to the National Restaurant Association’s 2005 Restaurant Industry Forecast”. Restaurants employ12. 2 million, this is 9% of the workforce in the United States, and the industry is the largest employer besides government. These numbers include single owner restaurants to the largest franchises in the world. The growth trends for the restaurant industry are forecast to advance 4. 9% in 2005.

Analyst predict that the U. S. Restaurant Industry which created, on average, about 270,000 new jobs per year during the last 10 years is on track to add 1. 8 million new jobs during the next 10 years. On a typical day, the industry will post average sales of $1. 3 billion. The industry trends to watch: • Greater use of technology and worker training as a means to boost productivity and efficiency. • Continued increased focus on healthy lifestyles and restaurants providing customers with choices and customization. • Increased upgrades and improvements in decor and becoming environmentally friendly.

The sports bar & grill will have to serve several market sectors. We will have a family atmosphere as well as cater to the sports enthusiast. The restaurant will have to serve multiple uses; for example workday lunch, dinner with the family, watching the big game, late-night cravings, and take-out. There will be eating and drink and sports being watched but I plan to have different sections for different dining experiences. There is a wall that divides the bar area from the family (I say family area but this is just a little quieter) area. No matter where you sit there will still be TV’s so you can watch sporting events.

The regulatory issues I’ll have to look more closely into are the liqueur licenses, wages for employees, building permits, and any local ordinances that may affect my business. Organization Finale Sports Bar and Grill will be held privately by a LLC company owned by Jack Johnson. The restaurant will be located in the town of Car. Car is great for tourism so a local restaurant should prove to be a good business venture. The restaurant will need to serve several market sectors. It will have a family atmosphere as well as to cater to the sports enthusiast. The restaurant will have a lunch menu, dinner menu, and the bar menu.

The restaurant will also have weekly happy hour drink specials along with lunch and dinner specials. To help save on insurance cost and claims top management will stress safety, stress safety, and stress more safety. Safety starts with the hiring process. The company will be thorough in efforts to screen employees and will consider pre-employment drug tests. This should reduce on the job accidents that lead to insurance claims. The insurances for the restaurant will need to acquire will be workman’s compensation, property & liability, liquor liability, and health insurance.

Workman’s compensation covers employees in case of harm attributed to the workplace. The property and liability insurance protects the building from theft, fire, natural disasters, and being sued by a third party. Liquor liability insurance provides coverage for bodily injury or property damage for which the insured may be held liable for contributing intoxication to any person. The company will need liquor liability insurance before liquor licenses is granted. Employee health insurance will be provided for the full time employee and will probably be the most expensive.

I could not find any actual prices for insurance cost so I went through an online insurance company. So I’m waiting on the price quote for complete insurance cost; I should have it by the end of the day. The restaurant will need to get numerous licenses to operate. They include: • A food service license is required with your local health department. • A sales tax license is required through the Michigan Department of Treasury. • A liquor licenses filed through the Liquor Control Commission. Restaurants and bars pay $600 a year for a liquor license. An entertainment permit is required with the Liquor Control Commission in addition to the liquor license. • If cigarettes are sold by a vending machine, the restaurant will have to contact the Department of Treasury After sales top $100,000 the restaurant will higher an outside accounting firm to handle the books. We will forecast a sales growth of 10% per year. The company will gain market share because the quality of the meals and the friendly experience. Management/Human Resources At the present time Jack Johnson will run all operations for Finale Sports Bar & Grill.

Other key personnel are the assistant management positions, bartenders/hostesses, waiters/waitresses and cooks. There is not expected to be any shortage of qualified and available staff and management from local labor pools in each market area. Benefit plan for full time employees • Health insurance will be provided for all full-time personal. • One paid vacation week after a year of employment. • Three sick days will be provided • 401k option if employee desires • Dental will be on a 60/40 pay program • Education reimbursement will be provided on books only Jack Johnson will be the owner and manger of Finale Sports Bar & Grill.

His general duties will be to oversee the daily operations of restaurants, inventory and ordering of food, equipment, and supplies and arrange for the routine maintenance and upkeep of the restaurant, its equipment, and facilities. The manager will take a monthly drawl of $2,500 per month. There will be two assistant managers for the restaurant and their duties will be to oversee the personal when the manager is not available. One of the managers will deal mainly with the cooks and the other with the wait staff and bartenders. Each assistant manager will be paid $12. 50 per hour and get the benefit plan.

There will be four cooks and each scheduled to work at least forty hours a week. They will have eight hour shifts and get paid $10 per hour. The benefit plan is also provided. The will be three hostess/bartenders, they will be able to do both duties. They will be able to get forty plus hours a week if they desire. They will get paid $6. 00 per hour and also receive the benefit plan. There will be seven to ten waiters/waitresses on staff. The will also have to clean the table as well as wait on customers. There will be some part time positions and full time positions. They will get paid $2. 5 per hour and whatever there gratuity is. Manage Team Structure Top Manager | | Assistant managers | | | || Cooks Hostess/Bartender Waiters/Waitresses As soon as the restaurant gets past $300,000 in sales an outside accountant will be brought in and will be in charge of the books. Employees will be trained not only in their specific operational duties but in the philosophy and applications of our concept. They will receive extensive information from the managers and be kept informed of the latest information on healthy eating.

For process and benchmarking a big emphasis is being placed on extensive research into the quality and integrity of our products. They will constantly be tested for our own high standards of freshness and purity. Food costs and inventory control will be handled by our computer system and checked daily by management. Operations The key food suppliers for the business will be Sysco Foods or Gordon Food Service. These two suppliers supply the same goods so the restaurant manager will choose which vendor to do business with. The restaurant will select with the supplier that provides us a store credit, has exceptional elivery times, and has the best overall prices. We will get the office supplies from Office Max or Staples. The rest of the restaurant supplies (pots, pans, silverware, cooking utensils) will come from Atlas Restaurant Supply. The inventory management and order taking and processing will all be done on touch screen monitors placed throughout the restaurant and bar area. We will have to buy the touch monitors and maybe even a couple hand held order entry units. The software the business will use is from Digital Dining, which is the premiere restaurant software. This software can be altered to the businesses needs.

The software will include a point of sale menu, inventory control analysis, credit card sales, bar and quick serve menu, office management, and much more. With this software there are so many applications it could do I could write the paper on this alone. We will provide ongoing training programs to assist with customer service and quality control. The training will include preparation of menu items, quality and food portion control, beverage and inventory management, using the software, cleanliness, organization and sanitation standards, marketing and public relations.

The facility size the business is looking for is building with a seating capacity of around 100 to 150 people or 25,000 sq. feet. This may sound big but if there is a big sports event we want to pack them in, or people just don’t want to sit next to other people this would give them space to spread out. The business will need to get all the kitchen hardware needed to run a restaurant of this size; this includes stoves, refrigerators, freezers, microwaves, deep fryers, and many other items. We will also have to buy the big screens televisions, audio equipment, arcade games, and the table top monitors with there own audio control.

When benchmarking we will compare our business to a larger business in a larger geographic area, mainly Buffalo Wild Wing’s or Applebee’s. The business will measure and compare the number of guest per day, number of meals and drinks served, cost of supplies, and the waste percentage. With all these we should be able to be the premiere bar and grill in Sunny County. Competitive Analysis Finale Sports Bar and Grill is a casual dining restaurant. The geographic area that Finale Bar and Grill will cover is mostly Car and surrounding smaller towns.

According to Dun & Bradstreet analysis of businesses located in Sunny County they are classified under SIC code 58, eating and drinking places. With this bar and grill, I hope to move in on the customers traveling to bigger cities for their eating and entertainment needs and in return increasing my market share. There are many small restaurants in the area but none with the sports bar and grill theme (shown in the appendix). The sales for the restaurants in this area range from under $200,000 up to $2. 4 million. The closest sports bar is in Ridges, which is a forty minute drive away.

The current restaurants located in Car offer a casual dining experience but with no sports watching entertainment. The top competitor is BW3’s which is in Ridges. BW3’s is a sports bar that offers an extensive menu with chicken products, full bar service, and sporting events on many TV’s. BW3’s has the same target market that I’m trying to furnish to. They have a casual family dining experience and sports bar theme one in one restaurant. I will differentiate myself from BW3’s by offering a full menu selection, close to home atmosphere, and a dining experience free from stress.

BW3’s SWOT analysis will help me to better understand my business, determine my target market, and develop a marketing plan. Strengths • Has name recognition • Offers a chicken filled menu and full bar selection. • Target market is anyone that would like to watch sports in a bar or restaurant atmosphere. • Uses TV and radio commercials to communicate to their markets. • Offer high quality audio and video equipment for their customer viewing and listening pleasures. • Location • Staff Weaknesses • Location is a long driving distance from Car • Offer mainly chicken products, some shrimp, and maybe a couple burgers.

Opportunities (for Finale Sports Bar) • Finale Sports Bar could offer a full restaurant menu. • Could take market share away from nightclubs. • Entertainment for children • Family friendly atmosphere • Close location Threats (for Finale Sports Bar) • Another sports bar could move into this area. • Fast food chains, people could get their food and watch sports at home. • Increase food prices • Inflation affecting operations for food, labor, and restaurant operating costs. • Keeping trained efficient staff. • Economy- people getting laid off and spending less money eating out.

Other competitors of Finale Sports Bar and Grill are fast food chains such as McDonalds, Subway, Burger King, Taco Bell, KFC and Wendy’s. While these are not direct competitors of Finale Sports Bar and Grill because of the different market niche that they operate in, these companies still compete for the same market share of individuals dinning out. And all the fast food companies are within the same geographic area. Marketing Finale Sports Bar & Grill target market is based on serving the sports enthusiast, the business entertainer/owner, tourism, and the local night crowd, as well as families dining out.

We want a variety of customers and will make sure everybody can enjoy Finale Sports Bar & Grill experience. Finale Sports Bar & Grill is planning on opening on December 10th and having a grand opening on January 10th. The opening date will be a couple weeks before the grand opening and this will allow the employees to become familiar with the operations and customer interaction. The grand opening will be advertised in the local papers and on the radio. Once the newness of the restaurant has subsided, Finale Sports Bar & Grill will pursue an ongoing marketing campaign targeted at the local market. Pricing

All menu items are moderately priced. An average customer bill is between $5 and $15 including food and drink. Bills will be considerably larger for game day visitors. Our goal is to keep the customer happy and in the end they will spend more. At Finale Sports Bar & Grill we tend to believe that this is due to us creating an atmosphere that encourages longer stays and more spending but still allows adequate table vacancies due to extended hours of business. Promotional Tools • Advertising o Wall posters advertising specials and menu items o V. I. P. parties available o In-store tour given to every new customer Outdoor message board changed weekly or daily o Grand Opening celebration o Yearly store birthday parties to celebrate the success of each year o Telephone book the business will a large advertisement in the local phone book • Local Store Marketing / Public Relations o School programs – perfect attendance, honor roll, management internships o Local charity carwash site or clothes donation site o Customer raffle for sports jersey’s or gift certificates o Sponsor local softball teams, these will be jersey’s with Finale Sports Bar & Grills name on it. Local Media o Direct mail – containing interior pictures of our restaurant, our prices, “Theme Nights,” and an explanation of our concept o Radio campaign – complete with live remotes in our parking lot. We will pick the three top local stations with which to place our short and catchy ads. We will also sponsor radio call-in contests with free meal coupons to Finale Sports Bar and Grill as the prize. We will also make “live on the air” presentations of our food products to the disk jockeys, hoping to get the promotions broadcasted to the listening audience. Newspaper campaign – placing several large ads throughout the month to explain our concept to the local area o Cable TV – will be a possibility if we can secure favorable rates with enough frequency. o Restaurant web page – this will give the internet users access to menus, daily specials, weekly promotions, and even placing pick up orders Finale Sports Bar & Grill marketing budget will be a flexible five thousand per quarter. Being flexible in the marketing budget will let the advertisers adjust for different sporting events such as the Super Bowl, Stanley Cup, NBA finals, NASCAR events and the World Series.

The marketing budget can be allocated in any way that best suits the time of year as long as there is always a flyer being distributed to the local papers. To monitor how well Finale Sports Bar & Grill is doing we will measure how well the advertising campaign is working. We will take random survey’s of the customer that or in the restaurant. What we would like to know is how the heard of the restaurant and how they like it. In order to get responses to the surveys their will be discounts given to their order.

Sample marketing budget (per quarter) Newspaper flyer – $1250 Radio advertisement – $1000 Web Page – $500 Customer raffle – $250 Direct mail – $750 Cable TV – $1250 $5000 The Sales plan for Finale Sports Bar & Grill is train the wait staff to have extra’s added onto the order. The wait staff will be trained on when to ask the customer if they would like appetizers, deserts or additional menu items. Few things are more important in any business then positive training of staff that leads to productive and profitable results.

Simply put – the better the training, the better the service. And in the end the better the service the employees have, the greater the returns on every aspect of your business. Finale Sports Bar and Grill will be committed to maximizing our purchasing power by building lasting relationships with local vendors and companies that will benefit all areas of our business. We will work directly and closely with all related industry contacts to ensure our restaurant the highest quality products and merchandise at best available prices.

This will cover all aspects of our business from food & bar purchases to retail and merchandise items, fixtures and equipment. Assumption Page • Organization The cost for insurance FICA = 6. 2%, MCARE = 1. 45%, MESA = 2. 7%, FUTA = 0. 8%. This will equal a payroll tax about 11%. • Management / Human Resources Finale Sports Bar & Grill plans to employee 10 to 20 employees. The hours are 11:00 AM till Midnight, seven days per week. 4 Cooks @ $10/hr, 7 Waitress @ $2. 65/hr, 3 Hostess/Bartender (they can also do other job duties) @ $6. 00/hr, 2 assistant managers @ $12. 0/hr. Open 360 days / year. • Operations The operating expense for each month will include bank payment, supplier payment, utilities and insurance. The bank payment will include cost of the new facility, all equipment, and other operating expenses. The business owner will contribute $25,000. • Marketing There will be a marketing budget of $5000 per quarter. There will be extra marketing money for the grand opening celebration. The amount of the financing needed from the bank will be approximately $300,000. This will be repaid over the next 10 years at $3,350 per month.

Free Essays

Adidas Is One of the Largest Companies in the Sporting

ADIDAS MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS EFFECTIENESS ADIDAS MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS EFFECTIVENESS TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Executive summary………………………………………… 3 2. Introduction 2. 1 Adidas Overview……………………………………………………… 3 2. 2 Europe sports equipment market overview……………………… 4, 5, 6 3. Situtational Analysis 3. 1 PESTEL Analysis………………………………………………….. 7, 8 3. 2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis………………………………………… 9 3. 3 SWOT Analysis…………………………………………………. 10, 11 4. Consumer Analysis……………………………………12, 13 5. Marketing Objectives…………………………………….. 14 6. Communications Mix 6. 1 Sports sponsorship………………………………………………. 15, 16 . 2 Celebrity endorsement…………………………………………… 16, 17 6. 3 Product placements…………………………………………………. 17 7. Recommendations………………………………………… 18 8. Conclusion………………………………………………… 18 9. Bibliography………………………………………………19 1. Executive summary| This report will measure the effectiveness of Adidas’s advertising campaign. To achieve this goal this report will go through the French market analyse and the target consumers. Moreover, SWOT, PESTEL and Porter’s Five Forces analysis demonstrate the different opportunities in future for Adidas and the multiple factors influencing the sports equipment industry.

Adidas is one the leading company in the sports equipment industry (with Nike, Reebok…), recognizable with its three bands, and since few years he is launching very effective campaigns. This effectiveness it’s due to the celebrity endorsement. This report will be introduced by the introduction of the overview of Adidas’s market and secondly the sport equipment market in general. 2. Introduction| 2. 1 Adidas Overview Adidas is one of the largest companies in the sporting goods industry. The group has divided its operating activities by major brand into three divisions: Adidas, Reebok and TaylorMade-Adidas Golf.

The group operates through more than 170 subsidiaries in Europe, the US and Asia, each focusing on a particular market or part of the manufacturing process. After the financial crisis of 2008 and economic difficulties of 2009, Adidas came back strongly in 2010 and can show an excellent year. The Group generated a record € 12 billion in sales, a growth of 9%, clearly outpacing his major competitors. 2. 2 Europe sports equipment market overview Adidas offers sports equipment for all sports. It provides footwear and apparel for each sport (cricket, football, running etc)

England cricket team, sponsor Adidas R. Madrid football team, sponsor Adidas As we can see in the table 1, in Europe the sports equipment market grew by 2. 1% in 2011 to reach a value of €13. 9 billion (Marketline 2012). And according to recent figures this growth will continue to increase, for more than 10% between 2011 and 2016 (Marketline, 2012). Table 1: EUROPE SPORT EQUIPMENT MARKET FIGURES| Year| € Billion| % Growth| 2007| 12. 7| | 2008| 13. 1| 3. 1| 2009| 13. 3| 1. 9| 2010| 13. 6| 2. 0| 2012| 13. 9| 2. 1| Source: Marketline

The graph above clearly demonstrates that the French market is the most important as far as the sport equipment market is concerned, with a total value of €3. 7 billion in 2011. The German and UK market, with respectively 18% (€3. 5 billion) and 18. 3% (€ 3. 5 billion) of the market share, follow it. And then comes the Italian and Spanish market (Marketline, 2012). These five markets cover more than 72% of the European sports equipment market. Source: Marketline The most valuable segment in this industry it’s clearly the ball sport equipment segment.

Adidas is well present, as they make footballs for the World Cup, UEFA Euro and the Champions League. These three competitions are the most watched all around the world (715 millions people watched the 2006 World Cup Final). FIFA World Cup 2010 UEFA Euro 2012 Champions League 12/13 According to the graph the less valuables segments are racket sport equipment (9. 5%) and golf equipment (13. 6%). By adding both figures they are still inferior comparing to the ball sport equipment (25. 5%). 3. Situtational Analysis|

As mentioned above this report will analyse the leading sports equipment market, in this case the French market. 3. 1 PESTEL Analysis Through this PESTEL analysis we will analyse which factors any company has to consider, while entering the French sports industry. POLITICAL: France is a highly centralized country; an elite group is dominating in the state and the corporation sectors. This situation persists despite attempts to decentralize power in last few years. Furthermore, according to the recent report “corruption is perceived to be widespread in French politics”. Datamonitor, 2011) ECONOMICAL: From 1999 to 2007 France’s exports share in eurozone felled by 16%, and French exports were of a value of $595 billion in 2010 (declined by 4. 6%). This will affect the prospects of the French economy in the near future. (Datamonitor, 2011) For a company like Adidas, which exports a lot to Asia with a total market of €2, 972 million in China and other Asian markets, it can effects their sales. (Marketline, 2012) SOCIAL: The French population is becoming aged. Indeed, more than 17% of the population have more than 65 years (Insee, 2012).

The Government is expecting to allow 4% of the GDP to healthcare, pensions and dependency care related to the aged people. (Datamonitor, 2011) TECHNOLOGICAL: After the industrial age France is moving towards technological age. Indeed, we can see it by the number of patents deposited at the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the figure reached 124,723 in 2010. (Datamonitor, 2011) In the other hand, the Government will withdraw the concept of Young Innovative Company, it will have is impact on the industrial growth and may reduce investments in the country. (Datamonitor, 2011) ENVIRONMENTAL:

France was very active to prepare agreements on environmental protection and sustainable development and in the strengthening of international governance. In addition, with Norway, France initiated the Global Forest Partnership in 2010. (Datamonitor, 2011) But as the technological factors, the country is not encouraging and fulfilling his agreements. Indeed, last year France was assigned to the EU Court of Justice by the European Commission for its lack of attention in the industrial emissions regulations. The European Commission was telling that France has more than 60 factories that have not got environmental authorization of the EU. Datamonitor, 2011) LEGAL: Foreign investments increased by more than 20% couple of years ago, 782 projects lead to nearly 32,000 job. Most of these projects were related to the renewable energy sector. In 2010, non-national companies based in France created two million jobs. Many of the government’s tax and labour reforms have been met with cynicism and public protests. The government may increase weekly working hours from 35 to 39 and abolish the wealth tax l’impot de solidarite sur la fortune. However, these moves will face public outrage and demonstration. 3. 2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

We aim to measure an industry’s attractiveness and long-term profitability through Porter’s Five Forces analysis. Adidas and his competitor, as Nike, have reach to branch out in to retail after the industry of sports equipment has seen in recent years a great development of forward integration (as sportswear manufacturers). Despite the presence of major groups, in the French market of sports equipment, the market is still fragmented. Buyer power is becoming very strong, as there is a wide range of products available, and the existence of numbers of retailers and also the fact that some large firms have integrated forwards into retail.

The expenses in sports equipment and apparel vary following the emergence of trends for particular sports. Another factor that influence purchases is the weather. It’s still possible to enter the French market by producing for example small quantities of custom-made golf and to have some economies of scales such as bulk buying. But, as seen in recent years the uninspiring revenue growth makes entry a less attractive for new entrants. The reliance on sales of sports equipment is reduced as many firms sell sports footwear and apparel in the French market. Rivalry is weakened as many large companies outsource their manufacturing. Marketline, 2012) Source: Marketline 3. 3 SWOT Analysis SWOT ANALYSIS| Strengths| Weaknesses| * Strong portfolio * Continuous research and development * Strong performance after 2010 FIFA World Cup * Worldwide presence | * Dependence on third party manufacturing * Unfunded postretirement obligations will impact cash flows adversely| Opportunities| Threats| * Reorganization to improve efficiency * Sponsoring major sports events * Global footwear market is growing| * Counterfeit products * Competition * Fluctuations of foreign currencies |

Adidas has in his portfolio three brands, as follows: Adidas, Reebok and TaylorMade-adidas Golf. Adidas is well present all around the world, Reebok is improving day by day (for instance Thierry Henry is sponsored by Reebok), and TaylorMade-adidas Golf is the less known brand of his portfolio. Because of their policy to encourage research and development allows Adidas to come out with new and better products to face competition of Nike. As mentioned above Adidas makes football for major football competition and it benefits of the success of these competitions.

After the establishment in the European and American markets, Adidas is targeting Asian market (total market of €2, 972 million in China and other Asian markets). (Marketline, 2012) As Adidas outsource 95% of his production to Asian country (32% of his suppliers are Chinese) it cannot control the quality of his product. Indeed, several products made in China have been recall by many US companies after the publication of the Consumer Product Safety Commission report. The company cannot tolerate a lack of quality in front of Nike, in order to keep market shares.

The company provides retirements benefits to most of their employees. According to a recent report, the company planned pensions of €67 million but they reached €74 million, so an unfunded status of €7 million. (Marketline, 2012) In order to enhance its efficiency Adidas undertook reorganization. Indeed, the company moved to a function-related structure from a vertically integrated brand structure. Adidas has many agreements for sports events: * Australia Olympic Committee until 2016 * Japan Football Association until 2015 * Spanish Football Federation until 2018 * Argentine Football Association until 2022 FIFA World Cup 2014 * UEFA EURO 2016 * UEFA Champions League * 11 year global agreements with the NBA (official sponsor NBA, Women’s NBA and the NBA Development League) These events will help the company to en enhance its brand image and awareness among customers and also to strength its profitability. The global footwear market, not only the European market, has shown a growth in recent years. According to Datamonitor, the global footwear market grew by 2. 6% in 2009 to reach a value of $196. 3 billion. Footwear, clothing, accessories and sportswear are the largest segments, accounting for 67. % of the market’s total value. Market’s forecast will reach the value of $230. 8 billion by 2014, representing an increase of 17. 6% from 2009. (Marketline, 2012) With the development of Asian countries, and the outsourcing of manufacturing of western companies in these countries, the counterfeit has increased and it’s a reel threat for companies. Adidas his facing competition of big companies, we identify as Adidas main competitors Nike, Puma, Callaway Golf Company and New Balance. As last threat we see the fluctuations of foreign currencies.

For instance, in India a brand like Adidas is for the high-class society otherwise they cannot afford a football shirt, which cost about 60?. (Marketline, 2012) 4. Consumer Analysis| CONSUMER SEGMENTATION BASES| Behavioural| Demographic| * User status * Usage rate * Usage occasion * Brand loyalty * Benefits sought | * Income * Age * Sex * Race * Family| Psychographic| Geographic | * Values * Opinions * Attitudes Activities * Lifestyle| * International * Regional| This table shows the consumer segmentation bases that any company can use.

They are usually the same regardless of the sector. Companies use segmentation in order to divid into groups’ consumers that have some characteristics and needs in common (Doole et al. , 2005). Hence, the company can attract easily those groups with specifics products. As his main competitor, Nike, Adidas target particularly young and middle age that practice sport. Another category of Adidas’s consumers has made by teams’ supporters (Real Madrid sold 1. 4 million shirts, Goal. com). Furthermore, there is a turnover of €1. 2 billion in goods related to football (Reuters 2012).

Because of is large portfolio the company attract different customer markets with each brand, for instance golf interested consumers with TaylorMade-adidas Golf. The following perceptual map shows the positioning of Adidas as a company offering high quality products for a High price. Foot Locker and K-Swiss try to attract people with a lower income, whereas Nike and Puma apply the same price-quality strategy than Adidas. The competitive advantage of Adidas in comparison to those two companies, however, is its positive brand image. At least, in the decision-making units (D. M.

U) we may be influence by friends, the press or by the company’s advertising. The person who buys, decides and uses is usually the same. 5. Marketing Objectives| As any company, which is not the leader in his sector, Adidas has as objective to try to extend his market shares and in long terms strategy to be the leader by a continuous research and development of innovation. Through these innovations steps Adidas can provide comprehensive solutions to his customers (Kotlet and Keller, 2009). One of the reasons of Adidas’s campaigns effectiveness is his brand awareness with his three bands logo.

And also is slogan “Impossible is nothing”, outpace our limits; make the impossible possible. In a survey reported by SportsOne (2010), 98. 8% of the respondent pool aged 13 and up that purchased athletic footwear or apparel could associate at each one of the brand elements to the company name. And another key factor is the role of celebrity endorsement. Through this marketing tool fans can associate themselves to the celebrity and to the brand. 6. Communications Mix| In order to target a wide audience and to build its brand equity, Adidas uses several marketing communications tools.

According to Duncan and Moriarty the brand delivers impressions, that can strengthen or weaken customers views of a company, on each contact it has with his customers. Kotler and Keller reinforce this as they said the shape and colour of the package, the product’s style and price, the store decor, the salesperson’s (dress and manner) communicates to buyers. 6. 1 Sports sponsorship Because they benefits of a large coverage, sports activities are more attractive to sponsors (Fill, 2011). Indeed, sport events are the most sponsored because: * They attract large audience * Simplistic measure of segmentation Events duration permits to be more visible As shown above Adidas’s main segment is football with a market share of 34% (Chazouilleres, 2010). Therefore, Adidas’s sponsorship with major football teams has been motivated because of “the attraction of large and specific target audiences with whom a degree of fit is considered to exist” (Fill, 2011). Amongst football teams we can mention clubs like Real Madrid (2nd largest fans group in world), Chelsea (6th); national teams as Argentina, Spain; and of course the sponsorships of major football competition for years (FIFA World Cup, Olympics…). |

Sponsorship is one of the important parts of the communications mix because it allows companies to communicate without the clutter of advertising. Of all types of sponsorship sport has captioned most attention and money (Fill, 2011). 6. 2 Celebrity endorsement In particular, a celebrity endorser should have a high level of visibility and a rich set of potentially useful associations, judgements and feelings (McCracken, 1989). Therefore, celebrities can play a more strategic role for their brands, not only by endorsing a product but also helping to design, position and sell merchandise and services.

In these last years Adidas has sponsored many famous football players as Zinedine Zidane, David Beckham. Nowadays the main celebrity endorsed by Adidas is definitely Lionel Messi. They aim to attract football fans, and Adidas launched couple of weeks ago special football shoes for Lionel Messi (AdiZero F50, with a computer chip inside). 6. 3 Product placements Another tool of the communications mix is the product placement. This tool consists of putting his products, usually, in movies. Adidas uses this media because it’s a “billion dollar market” (Scevak, 2001).

But since a decade product placement is not only made in movies but in all types of TV shows (Steinberg and Vranica, 2004). Since the release of “Blades of Glory”, we know that figure skating without Adidas is simply not the truth. The main characters guide you through the whole movie. In 2007 Adidas was already present in “Norbit,” “Stomp the Yard” and “The Messengers”. 7. Recommendations| For the future Adidas should be more aware about his brand image. Outsourcing 98% of his production in Asian country can affect his brand image because of the poor quality these manufacturers offer.

By outsourcing his production can damage is research and development, which cost a lot. These two things, innovation and lack of quality, don’t match. Adidas should handle it as soon as possible in order to extend his market shares and face the competition. The company should continue to sign celebrities as they currently do. The celebrity endorsement is the main key of the marketing campaigns. But Adidas should not only focus on football market (even if is reliable market). It shows that company depends a lot on it. If in the future the market goes down, Adidas can be heavily affects by this.

An ultimate recommendation can be to reinforce his presence on social networks as its use is growing amongst the youth market. 8. Conclusion| In this report we gave an overview of Adidas and the European sports equipment market. And we remarked that Adidas is the leading group in football industry, and the 2nd in sports equipment industry (after Nike). Then the report focused on the French sports equipment market. We analysed the market through two analyses, as follows: PESTEL, Porter’s five forces; and we made the SWOT analysis for Adidas. Targeted consumer are analysed nd marketing objectives are given to know how Adidas approach these consumers. We choose three different tools – sports sponsorship, celebrity endorsement and product placement – in order to explain the communication strategy used by Adidas. Finally, recommendations are done on how, in future, Adidas can maintain his leading position in the football industry and how to extend market shares and how face the competition. 9. Bibliography| Marketline (2012) Industry Profile – Europe Sports Equipment Marketline (2012) Industry Profile – France Sports Equipment Datamonitor (2011) Country Analysis Report France

Datamonitor (2011) Company Profile adidas AG Institut national de la statistique et des etudes economiques –Insee (2012) Bilan demographique SportsOne (2010) Doole, I. , Lancaster, P. and Lowe, R. (2005) Understanding and managing customers, Essex: FT Prentice Hall Kotler, P. and Keller, K. L. (2009) Marketing Management, 13th Edition, Pearson International Edition Duncan, T. and Moriarty, S. (2006) “How Integrated Marketing Communication’s ‘Touch Points’ can operationalize the service-dominant logic”, The Service-Dominant Logic of Marketing: Dialog, Debate, and Directions

Fill, C. (2011) Essentials of marketing communications, 1st Edition, Prentice Hall Steinberg, B. and Vranica, S. (2004) “Prime-Time TV’s New Guest Stars: Products”, Wall Street Journal, January 13, 2004 McCracken, G. (1989) “Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement process”, Journal of Consumer Research, December 1989, 16 Scevak, N. (2001) “The Evolution of Product Placement” Available URL: http://www. internetnews. com/bus-news/article. php/785431/The+Evolution+of +Product+Placement. htm

Free Essays

Equality in Women Sports

Equality in Women Sports Gender equality in sports is something women have been trying to pursue over and over again. As in professional publicity of sports, men vs. women is no competition, men blow women out of the park on this issue. Men are more dominant in the sports world, and women just live in the shadows. Women are not given the chance they deserve to prove that they are just as good, so as of now, the media presumes them to be inferior to men. The myth many people believe for this reason, is the simple answer that women are not as strong as men.

Others say that women’s sports are not as popular because they are not as entertaining to watch. Many people have different reasons for why women do not get the equality that they deserve, but there are more reasons for why women should be just as successful in professional sports as men. Women in sports began with very few opportunities, until a few pioneers paved a way for the future of women sports. Such female athletes that paved the way for other females were Babe Didrikson and Wilma Rudolph.

Babe competed in the 1932 Olympics and qualified for five events, but at the time, women were only allowed to complete in three. Babe also took up golfing and won 55 tournaments in all, with 13 consecutive in 1946. Wilma Rudolph was another admirable female athlete, whose forte was in track. Rudolph was the first women to win three gold medals in the 1960 Olympics. Her winnings allowed for more women to take part in what was previously, all male track and field events. Both of these remarkable female athletes are recognized among ESPN’S Sports Century Greatest Athletes, ranked 10th and 41st (Elyachar and Moag, n. . ). During the Olympics, at the time of Babe Didrikson and Wilma Rudolph, women were allowed to compete in various events, such as swimming diving, tennis, and short distance sprints, but were not allowed to compete in the marathons. This is because experts said women could damage their organs from all the destructive bouncing and long endurance that the marathon required. It was not until 1984, when women were allowed to run the marathon in the Olympics, that a woman by the name of Benoit Samuelson ran the first marathon.

Benoit ran 26 miles in competitive time, proving that the female body could handle just as much as the men’s (“Joan Benoit Samuelson,” 2007. ) The universal myth that everyone assumes is the reason for why men are so much more dominant in sports than women is that they are stronger. It is commonly believed that women are not as skilled as men in sports because they lack muscle strength. According to the GenneX Heathcare Technologies, Inc. (1999), in recent studies, this myth was proven fiction.

Up until this study, doctors would beg their female patients not to perform in any sports activities because they said their bodies were too weak to handle such pressures. Since women have been out of the sports scene for so long because of this myth of weakness, men have been dominating because they have had so much more time to perfect their skills. Women now have a lot of ground to cover since they have been so inactive for so many years. The best women’s marathon time was recorded at only 10 minutes behind men’s, proving that women are catching up to men and their bodies can handle anything a man’s can.

The woman who set the women’s world record marathon time in an incredible 2:15:25 was Paula Radcliffe (Msn, 2007). But there’s a catch to this recording. Since male sports have been around for so much longer, they have been recording for that much longer as well. Women; however, have only been recording since 1964, which means that since they just starting running these marathons they can easily pass the male record. According to Kevin Drum (2001), “Women might even complete evenly with men in the 100 meter dash by around 2010 or 2020, and the marathon by 2050. As of more recently, women are starting to participate in sports that were only meant for men, such as ice hockey and boxing. These extreme sports require skill and physical endurance, which if a woman can play this kind of sport, means that she is capable of playing any sport, just as good as any man. The only reason that women are lagging behind men thus far is because men have had so much more time to improve on their sports. Men have been practicing and perfecting sports ever since they were first created, women, in comparison, have had no chance to do this.

If women started off at the same time as men, they would easily have the same performance and same skill level. In 1972, Title IX was passed to make women participate in sports more. Title IX was brought to the public’s attention with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s and 60s. This law states, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education programs or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. ” (Elyachar and Moag, n. d. ).

This law gave women the right to be athletes. It opened new opportunities to women as more colleges and high school were forced to have a certain number to sports teams. This new law paved a way for new female athletes. Men at this time were starting to form leagues of their own, while women were first starting to participate in sports. When basketball was first in existence, men were allowed to play by the rules however they liked, but women were supposed to maintain proper decorum, so female basketball players were not allowed to snatch or dribble the ball more than three times.

Women basketball players also started off played three and three rather than five on five, and on half a court. Many people believed that women could not handle the pressure and strength to play like men. Females were not considered strong enough to play a full court game until 1971 (Rick Torbett 2007. ) Five year later in 1976, the first professional basketball league for women was formed. This league consisted of eight teams, but was not very successful. In 1997, the Woman’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) was founded with 12 teams, six from the Eastern Conference and six from the Western Conference.

The first year running attendance reach nearly one million and it had 65 million viewers, and is currently still running today. The WNBA had shed some light on women’s ability to be equal. This league has also opened opportunities for girls, as most of them look up to them as idols. Women’s basketball really sprung into popularity within the end of the 21st century. Basketball instructor Rick Torbett (2007) states, “I saw Nancy Lierbman grab, not touch, but grab the rim at 5″9! I was 6″3 and only jumping a little higher than her! Those girls could play, and were actually flat out better than some of the boys. Rick Torbett, an expert at studying the tactics of basketball, states that from his studies, women show the same skill level as men. This proves that women can perform just as well as me do in this sport. At the end of his report, Tobett concluded with, “Oh yeah, there is one definite difference between boys and girls basketball, to quote my friend, Hall of Famer Rick Barry… “They’re a lot prettier. ” If there is absolutely no difference with men vs. women in basketball, why can’t the rest of the world notice women’s basketball more? It is just as exciting as men and involves the same exact game.

As more time passes, and once more people start to realize the skill level of women, the WNBA will be just as popular as men’s. The first extremely successful women’s league was in 1943 and was called the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. This league was the most successful women’s league ever, and the major reason behind this league’s popularity is the fact that it was played during the Second World War. While America’s men were on the battlefield, America’s women were giving the rest of the country entertainment for their favorite pastime.

Even during this league, women were still not given equality. These women were chosen to compete in the league had to attend charm school before to ensure the natural style of a women’s grace despite vigorous play (JSW 1999). Even then, most people were against this league because they strongly believed that this much stress and endurance would harm the female reproductive system. The movie, A League of Their Own, was based around this league, and it showed the dramatic sexist experiences these women had to go through just to play. In the end, the fans loved it, and just as much as they loved men’s.

This league ended when the war did, as all the men came back to claim their sport, the women were sent back to their roles as housewives (Riverdeep Interactive Learning 2007). This league was at one point, the most successful and popular sport. Because a majority of the men were fighting in the Second World War, only women were left to compete in sports. The only barrier causing the problem of no women’s baseball league is the fact that no one would watch it. If the country loved this sport played by women as much as they did in the 1940s, then they can still love it today.

Women should be allowed to have their own league again, and be able to build on form what they started in the 1940s. By far the most successful women’s sport is tennis. This women’s sport has gained so much popularity to viewers because women have been catching up to men. In 1973 when women’s tennis was not as prominent as men’s, Bobby Riggs challenged Billie Jean King to tennis match that became widely known as the “Battle of the Sexes. ” Bobby Riggs was the world champion tennis player in 1939, at the age of 16. Billie Jean King was the women’s lib leader at the age of 29, and had won 20 titles at Wimbledon, aking her the richest tennis player, with an income of $100,000 a year. Bobby, now at the age of 55 wanted to prove to the world that men were better athletes so he challenged a match against Billie boasting that a woman was no match for him. Bobby even went as far as wearing a men’s liberation t-shirt to the match to make matters even worse. On top of that, he even rode into the tennis courts in a carriage pulled by women. In the end Billie Jean beat Bobby in three straight sets of tennis by simply wearing him out with long rallies. The final scores were 6-4, 6-3, and 6-3. After the match Bobby stated, “She was too good, too fast.

She returned all my passing shots and made a great plays off of them. ” (Essortment 2002) This proves that women can out beat men, and that men do not give them enough creditability. Even though there was an immense age difference between the two, the winnings of Billie Jean gave women confidence that women are just as good as men. This winning set a new era for women, an era of strength and determination to be just as good. Also women did not get paid as much as men did, until now. Women are finally being recognized as equal athletes to males, and this is the first sport that women have practically gained their equality (Sportingo 2007).

Besides the physical strength behind athletics that makes people think that women are not as serious in sports as men, there is the reason behind the advertisement. Women athletes are not known for their talent, they are known for their appearance. In mostly all women sport ad’s the women are beautiful, making people believe that women athletics is a joke (Carty, V 2005) For example, Nike recently came out with an ad that’s focus was to reshape the ideal female image from a fragile figure to a strong, toned build. In the ad, there is a woman who has an oversized, muscular backside, wearing boyshort underwear.

On the side, the text reads, “My butt is big, but that’s fine, those who scorn it are invited to kiss it. ” (Youngblood 2007) The main purpose of this ad is to prove that women are strong and tough, but the message that it really sends out is sexualized. This ad asks the question, how should women athletes be portrayed, with strength or with femininity that sometimes pushes in exploitation of the female body? Mary Jo Kane, director of Tucker Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport stated, “Media should represent the reality of sports, combining beauty, strength and power; showing a female athlete when she fails and when she is ictorious; and accurately depicting what and who women are in sports. ” (Youngblood 2007) An extreme example of female athletes putting themselves out there in the media in a non- athletes kind of way, was when German Olympic gold medalist Katarina Witt posed nude in Playboy in 1998, a decade after she won her Olympic medals. (2007) This ad in no way is going to make people recognize her for her winnings in the Olympics; instead she is going to be known as a nude model posing for the human interest. The media is a major reason that women are not taken seriously in sports.

In ads for male athletes they are fully clothed and are trying to show off their skill level and achievement within the sports industry. This is not the case for women, some of the time they are showing off their skills, but most of the time they are showing off their looks and sexuality. Once females are seen for their skill, then the world will take them seriously and they can pursue their careers as professional athletes and can complete evenly with men. Women in sports have come a long way since the early 1900s. From barely competing in the Olympics to dominating in tennis, women’s sports are slowly increasing.

Many people still refuse to accept that women’s sports are serious and successful, because of all the bumps in the road, like the media. Once the world can see a female athlete for the talented person she is, then women’s sports will be just as successful as men’s. Women have come so far in pursuing their athletic ability in comparison to men. They have done this by increasing their endurance and strength, internally and externally, and one day very soon a woman is going to break that record marathon time held by a man.

Sources Eylachar, R. , & Moag, L. (n. d. ) The Growth of Women’s Sports. Retrieved September 24, 2007 from http://www. moagandcompany. com/i_a/Dec_02_womens_sports. pdf No author. (2007. ) Joan Benoit Samuelson – A Born Athlete. Retrieved October 3, 2007, from http://sports. jrank. org/pages/418/Benoit-Samuelson-Joan-Born-Athlete. html GenneX Healthcare Technologies, Inc. (1999). Men vs. Women in Sports. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from http://www. womenshealth. org/a/women_men_sports. htm MSN. (2007). Are Women

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Team Sports Economis Assignment

Name: James Sumner Student ID: 33255189 Question: Critically evaluate the approaches and policies to achieve competitive balance in North American Sports and European sports through an examination of competitive balance philosophy and policy in North American and European professional sports organisations. Illustrate your analysis with examples from both the European and North American professional sports leagues. Tutor: John Embery Statement of Authenticity: I confirm that this submission is all my own work. Any quotations are properly referenced using the Harvard referencing method.

All errors and omission are my responsibility alone. Word Count: 1744 There is a lot of distinction today between the North American and the European model for sport in order to achieve what each seems to perceive as the right competitive balance. This can be defined as ‘the actual performance of a league to the performance that would have occurred if the league had the maximum degree of competitive balance in the sense that all teams were equal in playing strengths. The less the deviation of actual league performance from that ideal league, the greater is the degree of competitive balance’ (1).

This essay will outline what policies and approaches both the American and European sports models have in order to achieve competitive balance by looking at each continents system of competition, the extensive system of team and player restraints in America such as salary caps compared to the relaxed system Europe has and also amateur and professional sports in both models. It is important to note that not all sports adhere to their so called ‘model’. Sports in America such as football, baseball, hockey and basketball are very diversified in terms of rules, scheduling, commercialization etc.

The European model is largely based on one sport, football/soccer which we know is not what other sports follow. In North America there is a closed system of competition meaning no promotion or relegation from a league. This means that the same teams compete in the same league every year. From this we can conclude that the North American model supports equality and fairness not competitiveness, which could then be perceived as good for achieving competitive balance in the sense that teams do not have to worry about being relegated to a lower division.

This would also mean that teams get to know their counterparts very well which would also add to the competitive balance aspect of sport. However no promotion or relegation may also be deemed as uncompetitive and unbalanced because teams know each year they will still be competing in the same league the season after. This could lead to clubs getting complacent and happy to be in mid-table of their respective leagues as the amount of money all teams earn is astronomical. In NFL the Dallas Cowboys were valued in 2012 at $2. billion (2. ) yet didn’t even finish in the top 6 of their respected league (3). In Europe teams can fluctuate up and down divisions therefore making our sports more based on competitiveness and the will to win which could also be interpreted as competitively balanced or unbalanced. It could achieve higher competitive balance because it allows better teams to move up and play against other better teams but it could also be unbalanced because teams moving up may not have the same resources as other teams in that league.

For example Barnsley does not have the same amount of resources Manchester United has if they were promoted. An extensive system of team and player restraints in America certainly improves the goal of competitive balance. There is a salary cap on not just players but also clubs as well. Since most leagues compute their caps on the basis of revenues for the preceding season, the cap is actually a fixed sum. In North America the NBA, NFL, NHL and Canadian football league have all installed salary caps (4).

For example in 2006 the NFL had a salary cap of approximately $102 million. If a team breaches the league’s salary cap for the season then the fines and penalties incurred are then shared between the rest of the teams in that league (5). These salary caps were put into place to achieve two main objectives: increasing competitive balance and for clubs to be financially stable. To say this has been a success is an understatement as many clubs not just in the NFL but also the NHL and NBA are now worth more than half a billion dollars.

Competitive balance is also extremely high as 13 different clubs have won the NFL in the last 21 years compared to that of only 5 in the English Premier League (6). Salary caps have prevented large clubs becoming too dominant in America which is exactly what has occurred in Europe, in Spain there is only Barcelona or Real Madrid, in England there is Manchester United, Manchester City and Chelsea competing for the titles. This is partly due to player’s demands for wage rises and bonuses. Most clubs simply cannot offer a player ? 80,000 per week.

To give an example in terms the amount big clubs spend on wages to compared to smaller ones in 2009 Manchester United spent ? 123. 1 million while West Bromwich Albion spent ? 30. 0 million (7). This is the main reason why competitive balance in the EFL has drifted further apart in recent years. The media, other big organisations from different industries and even governments have heavily criticised the way European football clubs are run because of this and also because clubs can then not afford to pay off their debts. There is one sport that is an exception in Europe and that is rugby union.

They have imposed salary caps on players since 1999 and it has been largely successful for them as well. No clubs have fallen into financial meltdown since the measure was introduced and players have been happy to comply with the cap (8). As previously outlined there are also lots of player restraints that come with playing sport in America. For example clubs have the power not the players. The players are owned by the league not the clubs and must go as a group/union to the league if an issue arises. The ‘draft’ is a system where players are chosen from the colleges/universities by the clubs.

The picking order for this is determined by the clubs previous season’s finish in the league with the clubs occupying the lower league positions getting the first pick. This hugely increases competitive balance as obviously they will pick the best players which in theory would bring the teams closer together in terms of quality for the next season. Therefore before the start of each season each team has just as good a chance of winning the league as the others. With the NFL having 13 different champions in 21 years it shows that that the system works and is a lot more competitive than football in Europe. 9) The policy or approach that ties these team and player restraints together in North America is called ‘the collective bargaining system’. These are largely labour agreements between the league, clubs and players where issues such as minimum and maximum salary caps are agreed. This system has been described as the ‘very essential difference compared with Europe, where the sports industry concept and player unions have been relatively weaker and not equipped with the necessary bargaining powers’ (10).

According to Fort there are also 3 other major differences between the American and European models that affect competitive balance. The fans, sports organisations and team objectives are all different. There is evidence to support this assumption as studies have shown that both sets of fans want different things. America does have better policies to keep the competitive balance fair but in terms of the rules of the games the balance is a lot closer in Europe. For example in Europe we have draws in football making the balance higher, Americans have overtime in the NFL until one of the teams score.

Also in Europe we have lower scoring games such as 1-0 or 1-1, in America this is considered boring and teams regularly score over 30 points in a game. Therefore some aspects of European sports do have a higher competitive balance than some American sports. There are also major differences between amateur and professional sports. In America there is a sharp distinction between the two levels each with its own integrated structures. Athletes that compete in Amateur sports in America are unpaid whereas quite a lot of amateur players in Europe are.

These athletes are also governed by more than one organisation. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the Amateur Sports Alliance of North America (ASANA) are just two of these. This is a more horizontal system rather than the vertically integrated system Europe has which means that professionals and amateurs do not compete against each other. This could be seen as a good approach to achieve competitive balance as there are amateur and professional levels for a reason, mainly because the level of skill required in professional sports is a lot higher.

Therefore by keeping them separate each athlete knows where they stand. You are either a professional and get paid or you’re an amateur, not a mixture of both like we have in Europe. The pyramid structure of European sports organisations such as UEFA and the FA for example brings together amateur and professional sports into a vertical system governed for the common good by integrated associations and federations. In this vertical system there is not such a sharp distinction between amateur and professional sports.

For example Bath City, an amateur team, beat Grimsby Town, a professional team in the 2009 FA Cup first round (12). Therefore the two different levels of sport in Europe can compete against each other. This approach to achieving competitive balance could be seen as both positive and negative in terms of achieving competitive balance. The positive side is the fact that with our promotion and relegation system amateur teams can develop into professional ones. AFC Wimbledon set up after Wimbledon FC was liquidated by the supporters and had amateurs playing.

They had five promotions in nine years propelling them into the football league making them a professional club (13). The negative side to having little distinction between the two levels is that big professional teams can play small amateur teams which would not be good in terms of achieving competitive balance as the gap in skill level would be too much for the smaller teams. It has been shown therefore that the North American and European sports models are very different in their policies and approaches to achieving competitive balance.

Salary caps for players and limiting the amount sports teams can spend in America has proved positive for achieving competitive balance. Thirteen different champions in 21years proves it has been a success. The closed system and promotion and relegation system both have aspects that bring competitive balance closer but also aspects which take it further away. References/Bibliography 1) Noll 1991 2) Mike Ozanian. (2012). Dallas Cowboys Lead NFL With $2. 1 Billion Valuation. Available: http://www. forbes. com/sites/mikeozanian/2012/09/05/dallas-cowboys-lead-nfl-with-2-1-billion-valuation/. 3)

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Basketball Sports Editorial

The Stanford Cardinals men’s basketball team won, 82-69 over visitng Arizona State on Thursday night. With the win, the Cardinals ended a two-game losing streak and continued their ninth straight win at home. This was an important game for the Pac-10 Conference teams. After the game, Stanford (9-4,13-9) remained a game behind co-leaders UCLA and California. Stanford senior, Matt Haryasz, who scored 22 points, said: “Right now we just need to win. We’re only a game out of first and we think we got robbed out of one at U of A.

We’re going to be pumped up to play. ” Haryasz, who has dealt with vision problems stemming from a poke to the eye two weeks ago at Oregon State, became the 35th player in school history to reach 1,000 points, following Hernandez, who reached the milestone earlier this season. Haryasz also became the 13th player to record 1,000 points and 600 rebounds. “This injury has put things in perspective for me,” Haryasz said. “Sometimes you take things for granted like always being able to see perfectly. To go down with the eye injury was tough.

It’s nice to see again. ” Stanford’s Chris Hernandez scored 12 points and extended his consecutive free throw streak to 34. Hernandez is now seven shy of Todd Lichti’s 41 straight, and 15 short of the school record held by Ryan Mendez. Also a senior at Stanford, Dan Grunfeld, scored a career-high 31 points against Arizona on Thursday. He made 9 of 11 shots from the field and all 11 of his free throws. He now has a total of 914 career points for Stanford. Grunfeld, a first-team all-conference pick last year, injured his knee last Feb. 2 and had surgery on Feb. 23. He missed the final nine games of the season, but his shooting and scoring have both been off from last year. “The fact that we won is more important, but it is special for me as far as coming back from an injury. ” Grinfeld said. “I’m wearing a lighter brace now, and it’s nice to be able to do things I wasn’t able to do before. ” Grunfeld began wearing the new brace in Saturday’s loss at Gonzaga. Cardinal coach Treant Johnson said of Grunfeld and his new brace, “He’s had a lot of bounce the last week.

I thought at Gonzaga he looked real good. It’s nice to have Danny back. ” Haryas said, “You can tell he’s moving more fluid, and that’s good for the team. It’s good to know he’s able to do so much more. A bunch of times I hit him (with passes), he was wide open. He got a couple of easy buckets, went to the foul line and started rolling. ” Stanford’s Antwi Atuahene, who scored 10 points, stole the ball and went all the way in for a layin to draw Arizona State within 49-43 with 13:37 to play.

He was called for a foul 17 seconds later, and a technical foul assessed on Sun Devil assistant coach Tony Benford moments later. Stanford made all four free throws on the play, and Hernandez added two more foul shots on the ensuing possession to push its lead back to double digits. Also on Thursday, Cal sent the University of Arizona Wildcats to their sixth conference loss. The Wildcats are coming to Stanford Maples Pavilion on Sunday at 12:30 p. m. for a key game.

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Team Sports and Individual Sports

Learning to play team sports is an important part o f a child’s education. Do you agree or disagree? Practicing sports provides athletes with opportunities to develop their social skills during the academic portion of their life. Nowadays, the effect of practicing on children is very significant in a way they practice individual sport or joining a team. But is learning to play team sports an important part of a child’s academic portion? I personally agree and think that team sports are a much better option for the following reasons:

First, there is no better alternative than learning how to be peer helper in your community, especially in a friendly environment. Practicing with a team will create an important relationship between the teammates that will know you and can direct your learning and adapt the pace of the practicing in a way that is more suitable to your capacities. Individual sports don’t generally offer this type of flexibility as you don’t really interact physically with the others. What you basically have is a set of instructions, by your supervisor, that you have to follow alone.

For example, if you have an exercise with a given discipline, when you are being in individual sport all you can do is to do it again and again alone and try to understand. You can maybe make it to succeed during the training but still that doesn’t guarantee that you will get it in an official competition. But when you are with a group at your disposal, you can easily ask your mates and they would provide more information on the desired task from other perspectives that would definitely help you to understand better and get the idea.

Another reason is that team sport, as opposed to individual sport, fosters the development and sustainability of social relationships between teammates. This is a very important point because learning after all is not only about acquiring information, but it is also about learning to interact with peers, forming social relationships, being socially apt to live in a society of different individuals. Teamwork role is to prepare the members for an outer world, a society where having social skills and being able to form relationships is very critical.

Individual sports contribute very little to the development of such a skill, as young athletes will be practicing alone in a very limited context while such skills are acquired through the physical interaction with other peers. If we take the example of a kid who practices with a team and another one who practices alone, we would clearly see differences in their personalities: The “team” boy would have a more extravert personality while the “alone” boy would be more introvert.

There are no doubts cast on which one of the two boys will perform better in society. For these reasons, I believe that team sports are very important for the academic development of children, rather than individual sports. Even if the academic experience, the amount of information could be the same but team sports teach skills that cannot be guaranteed during a training of an individual sport, skills that are essential in the development of the individual later on in the society.