Free Essays

An analysis of who makes a better teacher: native or non-native speakers in English Language Teaching context.


In the recent years, the increase in the number of non-native English speakers (NNS) in the world has led to the appearance of so many different varieties of English and has influenced some important issues related to English language teaching (ELT). The terms Native and Non-native have been used to refer to speakers of a language. Since about only one out of four users of English in the world is a native speaker (NS) of the language (Crystal, 2003), most interactions take place among non-native speakers (NNS) of English. According to Kachru’s three circles: inner (native English speaking countries), outer (counties where English is not the primary language but is widely spoken) and expanding (countries where learning of English is encouraged), the majority of English speakers are located in the outer or expanding circles, using English as lingua franca (EFL) (Quirk and Widdowson, 1985, p.11).

One of the main subjects running through discussions of ELF is the insignificance of native speakers, their ownership of English and their Englishes, confirmed by the fact that English is the language for international communication and is nowadays used by more non-native than native speakers. This leads to theoretical assertions such as ‘World English (WE) belongs to everyone who speaks it, but is nobody’s mother tongue’ (Rajagopalan, 2004, p.3) and how English develops in the world is of no relevance to native English speaking countries (Widdowson, 1994, p.385). Also a pedagogical claim, is that as long as English is learned as an international language, it should not be thought as an inner circle language and should not come from an inner circle country (Matsuda, 2003). What’s more, it is well-known that not all native speakeing teachers of English have the necessary qualifications to do so. However, it is often taken for granted that the only rightful speakers of a language are its native speakers (Cook, 1999). On the other hand, sometimes qualified non-native English speaking teachers are not considered good by administrators in order to get teaching jobs. In many cases they do not realise how much they can learn from non-native speaking teachers and they believe that the native speaker is the best.

In this paper, I will explore the topic of native speakers and the ownership of language. I will also discuss strengths and weaknesses of native and non-native language teachers and how they benefit them in ELT contexts. Also I will draw attention to which type of English we should teach and which language teacher is better: a native or non native English speaker.

Which type of model should we teach?

The general assumption of the purpose of teaching English is to develop student’s proficiency as closely as possible to that of native speakers. It is widely believed that Standard English can ensure the high quality of clear communication and standard of intelligibility. Therefore, both American English and British English are considered as the right choice for EFL/ESL learners in formal education. However, according to the up-going trend of world Englishes, EFL/ESL learners should be encouraged to learn different varieties of English to meet different needs, rather than only the Standard or standard variety of English.

Standard English is usually defined as a variety of English which is used in speaking and writing by ‘educated’ language users, and is concerned with lexis and grammar, but not pronunciation (Trudgill and Hannah, 1994).

Standard English is not a language, but only one minority of given English. Firstly, British English was regarded as Standard English because of the expansion of British colony power. Also, American English is commonly considered as Standard English due to the fact that U.S. grows to be a leading economic and military power. So, the next question is which variety of English will be the next Standard English in the futureIt is hard to predict the answer which country will dominate word economic and military power in the futureConsequently, from a historical perspective there is no fixed Standard English. Trudgil (1999, p.125) presumes, Standard English is the only dialect with great prestige that differs from other dialects of English and the difference in those varieties do not point out the linguistic superiority of the standard form.

Issues relying upon native speaker norms

Kachru suggests that if we classify Standard English dialects according to how closely they look like an original native speaker model, then we might also believe American English to be a fossilised interlanguage of its historically large immigrant population (Jenkins, 2002).

Jenkins (2002) tried to find a reasonable target for speakers of different first languages to be able to comprehend one another. Regardless of luck of available research on the subject, it is safe to say that specific characteristics of NSs pronunciation are likely to cause problems for NNs in both reception and production: one of this is the tendency of many native speakers to reduce unstressed vowels (Jenkins, 2002).

Another issue has been highlighted by Cook (1999) that to be a ‘native speaker’ of a language, you must have acquired that language from birth. She argues that, non-native English speakers can never assume the identity of a ‘native speaker’ no matter how hard they try… it is like expecting ducks to become swans (Cook, 1999, p.187-190). The study by Golobek and Jordan (2005) pointed out that some students see the native speaker ideal as unachievable: they feel that their English is never sufficient and that there are always new vocabularies and slang, thus they feel incompetent to speak English fluently (Golobek and Jordan, 2005, p.519-520).

Advantages of native and non-native English speakers in the EFL/ESL classroom

First indications regarding the differences between native and non-native speaking EFL/ ESL teachers appeared in the 80’s. For example Edge (1988) advocated the importance of giving ‘real’ models (native speakers of the EFL/ESL students’ languages) to the students. As supported by McKey (2003) these ‘real’ models speak the language of the students natively and have learned to speak English well, as opposed to ‘foreign’ models (NSs) who do not share the social, cultural and emotional experience of the students.

The first person to write an article comparing native and non-native English speaking teachers was Medgyes (1992, p.348). In the article he stated that the ideal NS teacher is the one who has attained a high degree of proficiency in the learners’ mother tongue and the ideal NNS teacher is the one who has atteined near-native proficiency in English.

Another ongoing debate is who makes a better teacher, native or non-native speakersAccording to Canagarajah NSs will be better teachers in EFL context because of their unique culture knowledge, while NNSs will be better teachers in ESL context because of their multicultural experience (Braine, 1999, p.77). This claim is not supported by Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages (TESOL) teachers, who seem to believe that NNS teachers would be better teachers in their own countries (Llurda, 2005). In contrast to this Medgyes (1994) has described the following positive features about NNS teachers, that they:

can provide more information about the language to their students
are a good learner model to their students
can teach language strategies effectively
understand the difficulties and
can use the students native language to their advantage in EFL settings

And then he explains that if the insufficient language of the NNS teachers is corrective they have equal chance to achieve professional success as the native English-speaking teachers.

Several studies were conducted that investigated the pedagogical and linguistic differences between non-native and native English-speaking teachers. For example McNeil (2005) noticed that trainee Chinese non-native teachers were very skilled at predicting which word would be difficult and easy to understand for Cantonese-speaking EFL students, while both expert and trainee native –speaking teachers were incapable of making accurate predictions. Another example is when it comes to finding and correcting errors NNSs were often less tolerant of errors than NSs when marking college-level ESL assignments (Sheorey, 1986). According to Barratt and Kontra (2000) regarding to language awareness, NSs are often unable to empathize with students going through the learning process. Additionally, NS teachers can also easily discourage their students since they are hardly even able to make useful contrasts and comparisons with the learners’ first language. Arva and Medgyes (2000) supported the above statement in their study which showed a unique advantage NNS English teachers have over NS teachers is that they can empathise very well with their students’ learning difficulties and understand what it is to be homesick and experience culture shock (in ESL context).

Lastly, NNS teachers can be very much admired by their students because they are successful role models and often very motivated (Lee, 2000, cited in Llurda, 2005, p.107). As Cook (Llurda, 2005, p.57) clarifies, NNS teachers provide examples of people who have become successful second language (L2) users and provide models of proficient (L2) users in action in the classroom. This example shows that NNS teachers demonstrate to their students what is possible with a second language, their appreciation for that language and its culture. To conclude, instead of looking at NSs and NNSs as a two separate groups (one being better or more qualified to be a teacher than the other), we should emphasise cooperation and help between NS and NNS teachers, since both groups have specific advantages and weaknesses ( Matsuda and Matsuda, 2001).

Some classroom implications

Classroom implications comprise what needs to be done to give all the necessary tools to NNSs and NSs teachers so that they are able to meet the expectations of EFL and ESL students. The presented issues discussed above show a distinct need for TESOL preparation programs by offering additional courses for future NNS and NS teachers (Golombek and Jordan, 2005). Such classes could help ensure future teachers to get ready pedagogically for their teaching assignment. Additionally, this could help NSs of English become aware of their strengths and weaknesses and learn to collaborate with NNSs to offer the best teaching to students. This preparation and collaboration of both groups (NSs and NNSs) is important when NSs will be teaching in countries where English is not the main language and where NNSs may be at a distinct advantage (Medgyes, 1994; Govowdhan et al. 1999). Furthermore, recognising and working with the multiple identities of non-native and native EFL/ESL trainee teachers would help establish their legitimacy as teachers (Golombek and Jordan, 2005). Another aspect is that youth plays an important role in today’s globalisation and the spread of English (Berns de Bot and Hasebrink, 2007), because English is strongly influencing the lives of children and young adults to where the politics, economy, educational changes, culture and societies are shaped by their knowledge (or lack of knowledge) of English. It is uncertain that this knowledge of English will be restricted to one single variety of the language, because new varieties of Englishes are evolving throughout the world (Kachru, 1985; Jenkins 2000; Berns at al. 2007) with accents, words and expressions.


Taking into consideration in the use of English today, it appears vital not to teach ESL/EFL students one single model or accent, but essential to present them with a large range of English varieties represented by teachers from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds (Jenkins, 2000). What’s more EFL/ESL students can make a choice and decide for themselves what is most relevant to their context and experience (Bentahaila and Davies, 1989). Research has proved that both native and non-native speakers of English have their own strengths and weaknesses. The main difference between both groups is that “NSs have the more extensive experience as language users whereas the NNSs have had experience as language learners” (Widdowson, 1992, p.338). As a growing number of people around the world want to learn English the number of NN English teachers is accordingly increasing and better attention has been given to what they bring to the language classroom (Moussu and Llurda, 2008, p.341). Regardless of the existing belief that, native speakers of a language make better teachers, the amount of research questioning this and providing evidence on how important it is to recognise the strengths in native and non-native teachers has been valuable and has sown that both can be equally good professionals, in spite their native and non-native status. As stated by Matsuda (2001) ‘language background is only one of many factors that define who we are as a professional’ and without a doubt, it is unreasonable to judge professionals in regards to their native language alone.


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Barratt, L. and Kontra, E. (2000) ‘Native English speaking teachers in cultures other than their own’, TESOL Journal, 9(3), pp.19-23.

Bentahaila, A. and Davies, E. (1989) ‘Culture and language use: A problem for foreign language teaching’, International Review of Applied Linguistics, 17(2), pp.99-112.

Berns, M. de Bot and Hasebrink, U. (2007) In the Presence of English: Media and European Youth. New York: Springer.

Braine, G. (1999) Non-Native Educators in English Language Teaching. New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cook, V. (1999) ’Going beyond the native speaker in language teaching’, TESOL Quarterly, 33(2), pp.185-208.

Crystal, D. (2003) English as a Global Language. 2 nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Edge, J. (1988) ‘Natives, speakers, and models’, Japan Association of Language Teachers Journal, 9(2), pp.153-157.

Golobek, P. And Jordan, S. (2005) Becoming ‘black lambs’ ant ‘parrots’: A poststructuralist orientation to intelligibility and identity. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), pp.513-533.

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Jenkins, J. (2002) ‘A sociolinguistically Based, Empirically Researched Pronunciation Syllabus for English as an International Language’, Applied Linguistics, 23(1), pp.83-103.

Lee, I. (2000) ‘Can a nonnative English Speaker be a good English teacher?’, TESOL Matters, 10(1), pp.19.

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Matsuda, A. (2003) ‘Incorporating world Englishes in teaching English as an International Language’, TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), pp. 719-729.

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Matsuda, A. and Matsuda, P. K. (2001) ‘Autonomy of collaboration in teacher education: Journal sharing among native and nonnative English-speaking teachers’, CATESOL Journal, 13(1), pp.109-121.

McKey, S. L. (2003) ‘Towards an appropriate EIL pedagogy: Re-examining common ELT assimptions’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 13(1), pp.1-22.

Medgyes, P. (1992) ‘Native or non-native: Who’s worth more?’, ELT Journal, 46(4), pp.340-349.

Medgyes, P. (1994) The non-native teacher. London: Macmillan Publishers.

Moussu, L. and Llurda, E. (2008) ‘Non-native English-speaking English language teachers: History and research’, Language Teaching, 41(3), pp.315-348.

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Widdowson, H. G. (1994) ‘The Ownership of English’, TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), pp.377-389.

Free Essays

What do you consider to be an effective teacher?


What is an effective teacherKyriacou (1998) states that ‘the essence of being an effective teacher lies in knowing what to do to foster pupils’ learning and being able to do it’, however Lemov (2010) sees teaching as ‘an art that relies on the mastery and application of foundational skills’. Others merely state that ‘for anyone to be said to be teaching, it must follow that someone else is learning’ (Aers and Inglis, 2008, p.189). From the research I have undertaken in preparation for this paper there are clearly lots of theories surrounding what it takes to become an effective teacher. Creemers, 1994; Kyriacou,1997; Sammons et al., 1995 say that to be an effective teacher you must be able to: establish an attractive learning environment, maximise learning time, deliver well-organised and well-structured lessons, convey high expectations and establish clear and fair discipline. Shulman, 1986; Bennett, 1989 highlight that in order for effective teaching to take place the teacher must possess the correct knowledge in order for others to learn. Freire, 1998; Kanpol, 1997; Bernstein, 1996 and Livingstone, 1987 argue that ‘true education is a natural process’ and should not treat children like ‘empty vessels’ that need to be filled with knowledge. Zyngier (2006) states that: effective teaching begins far before a teacher enters the classroom. Hayes (2004) argues that ‘the role of the teacher is complex and cannot be compressed into a set of standards’ (Hayes, 2004, p.vii) and I have to agree.

My philosophy that underpins my teaching goals and which I believe is allowing me to continue to develop myself as an effective teacher is that all teaching and learning should be child centred. Child-centred education was first recognised by Roussea and his concept of children ‘being allowed to develop naturally at their own pace without influence’ (Darling, 1994, p.102). Later, in 1967, when the Plowden Report was published they picked up on the ‘trend’ of child-centred learning and how this is managed in schools. Simon (1999) states that the idea of child-centred learning is that teachers; ‘should not interfere with the process of maturation, but act as a guide’ and that the child will learn when he/she is ready. There is, however, theory that argues the value of a child-centred learning environment with Darling (1994) highlighting that many children are reluctant to learn and teachers often resort to incentives to get them motivated to work. Child-centred learning must pay close attention to the ‘web of interacting issues as well as cognitive development’ (Darling, 1994, p.xiii). That said, I firmly believe that if you give children the opportunity to design their own learning they will encompass all the curriculum has to offer them and become lifelong learners.

My main principles that underpin my pedagogy and the ones which I am going to discuss within this assignment are; relationships and how I believe it is important to create a positive classroom environment as well as exciting and challenging learning activities. Effective planning and how this is essential to becoming an effective teacher and finally assessment for learning which is imperative within every classroom environment.

So where are we to beginCan teaching be put into a set of rules that are to be followedIf we are met with difficult situations, of which I was on my second year placement where I had very challenging classes that needed a lot of support and engaging lessons to keep them on the right track to achieving their potential, then the theory of having a set of ‘rules’ for being an effective teacher would not have applied to me in this instant. In order to be an effective teacher surely we must possess an array of skills that best suit the class in which we are teachingSo one of the main starting points to look at in this instance is building effective relationships and how these are essential in my quest for becoming an effective teacher.

Being able to build good relationships as well as having good behaviour management strategies in place to ensure learning is maximised is a key part of what I feel an effective teacher is. They are not just key ingredients of being an effective teacher but also create a lasting impression on the people with whom you work with. Throughout my placements I have made sure that I am approachable and a keen member of the team. This enabled me to build good relationships with staff, parents and pupils which, I feel, were reflected in my lessons and were noticed by other colleagues at my weekly planning meetings and also with my mentors (see appendices A, B, and C). Appendix A shows my final teaching report from my final placement and highlights my ability to build good relationships with all within the school setting. Appendix B is another final teaching report from my first year teaching placement which again highlights how I managed to build up good relationships. Appendix C is a letter from a teacher at a secondary school we did some work for during an English module in my second year of university. We only worked with the children for an hour a week incorporating Drama into their English lessons but this was long enough to establish a good relationship which then eased their understanding.

There is a substantial amount of research into how building good relationships with pupils helps build their confidence and improves their academic abilities. The government White Paper highlights this in their executive summary by stating ‘without good discipline teachers cannot teach and pupils cannot learn’ (Department for Education: The Schools White Paper, 2010, p.10.) Dowling (2001) argues that ‘the development of relationships has always been a fundamental part of early childhood education’ and I would have to agree. It is important for children to know they are respected and listened too within the classroom environment in order for ‘proper’ learning to take place. Before I left my final placement school I asked the children what they had most enjoyed about having me in their classroom. The response I got from the children was tremendously encouraging and gave me a real confidence boost. Most of the children said they had liked that they could talk to me about their problems and felt that I listened to what they wanted and made the lessons fun and enjoyable. Wise (2000) says that ‘the most effective teacher-pupil relationships are built by teachers who listen to their pupils and hear their voices’ and this was something they felt I had achieved in my short time at the school. This was then confirmed in my final teaching report by my mentor (see appendix A) and by other members of staff in the school.

Hopkins, West and Beresford (1998) state that one of the key qualities effective teachers posses is the ability to build ‘authentic and pedagogic’ relationships allowing for relationships to be built in and outside of the classroom environment and this coincides with my own pedagogy. In building these positive relationships, I was able to show the children how they could achieve their potential fully. I used different strategies to build up these relationships for example; using ‘star table’ to encourage the children to take responsibility for the cleanliness and organisation of their tables at the end of the day, ‘star sitter’ to encourage the children to sit appropriately on the carpet area during input sessions and a weekly ‘star of the week’ which rewarded children who had worked hard throughout the week. This was only possible because of the relationship I had built with the class. These behaviour management strategies also helped me in my first year placement, where I used a sticker chart that was put on the door of the classroom to reward children for their good behaviour. I think if I hadn’t of had a good relationship with the pupils, then some of these methods would not have worked because the pupils would not have seen the significance of being rewarded by someone they had not built a relationship with.

In 1990 Carl Rogers conducted some research and found that what most pupils want from their school environment is to be trusted and respected, part of a family, be given opportunities to be responsible, a place to go where people care and finally teachers who help them to succeed not fail (Rogers, 1994, p.5-7). This, I feel, is key to ensuring children meet their full potential and is the most important lesson I have learnt during my university life. Caring about the pupils in your class and their academic development allows a teacher to grow and learn in the same way. I learnt a lot from the pupils and colleagues I have taught and met during my placements since being at university, skills that would not be possible without understanding how to be an effective practitioner. Mosely and Grogan (2002) suggest that high morale is essential for a school community to prosper and during my final placement this certainly was the case. It felt like we were a family in the staff room and the children could sense the caring environment they were working within. I built up good relationships with the children and trusted them to work independently where necessary. Dowling (2001) states that ‘in order to learn, children must believe they are able to do so’ and this was an ethos I adopted very quickly when starting my teaching placements.

This then leads me on to my second principle which is effective planning. The national curriculum (NC) (1999) outlines that in order for pupils to learn, lessons must include these two main points: ‘setting suitable learning challenges, responding to pupil’s learning needs’. Kyriacou (1998); Pollard (2003); Bartlett and Burton (2003); Hayes (2004); Cowley (2001); Leach and Moon (2007) all state that planning needs to: clarify the learning aims to the pupils, has to take into account what the pupils already know, must challenge and stimulate, have knowledge of each learners needs, include appropriate resources and finally a place to assess the pupils progress. For my first year placement I was placed in an independent school that did not use the NC to plan lessons. As they were an independent school they could teach the lessons the way they felt to best teach them. At first this was a daunting process for me as I was used to knowing that there was a ‘back-up’ of knowledge and ideas within the NC and this made planning quite difficult. As my placement progressed I was able to think of new and creative ways of teaching the NC subjects and planning became an enjoyable process. For my second year placement, where I only had to plan for one subject, this was just as complicated as planning for the array of Primary subjects. There were a lot of elements involved in getting the right balance in the lessons and making it engaging so that the pupils would learn something. There are going to be times when some lessons, no matter how good your plan is, will just simply not go to plan. This happened to me on my final placement and instead of panicking, which I think I would have if I did not have the support of my individual support assistant, I asked the children what they thought would be a good way to learn about the topic we were covering at the time. After talking to the children we re-established where we needed to go with the lesson objective and the teaching and learning carried on as normal. After the lesson I sat and reflected on what had gone wrong with my planning and what I could have done to change things, and came to the conclusion that the children needed more clarification and more time to understand the topic, which of course I had not planned for.

In my third year placement I taught English as a foreign language in Holland and for this we had to plan a series of lessons that would enable the pupils to learn English in fun and creative ways. This was another challenge as we had not been given the levels or ability of the pupils in the class and so we presumed they knew very little English and decided to plan lessons that would teach them the basics. Before going into teach we sat down with the class teacher and went through what the children already knew and could understand and used this as a starting platform to challenge the pupils knowledge of the language and found ways to teach them new skills, which the class teacher found very useful and asked if he could keep them to continue teaching them after we had left. By the time my final placement came around, I found planning an easier process. Working with the other year group teachers was a great way to learn new and dynamic teaching strategies to enable effective planning. It also allowed me to participate in medium term planning and whole unit planning which will benefit me in my first year of teaching. Of course planning is not just a part of teaching but also in my studies at university. Planning how and what to write within my assignments was another added skill that I learnt. Knowing how to organise the information so that the words on the page flowed was a key ingredient in the learning process and one which I will continue to master as my lifelong learning continues. As I prepare to embark upon my first year in teaching I will endeavour to make sure that my planning reflects what the pupils want and need to know. Having the foundations of effective planning built I can now mould these strategies to suit the learners I will meet during my career and hope to maximise the learning process for them.

With effective planning should follow a good use of assessment. Using a range of approaches to assessment means that you can monitor every pupil’s progress and therefore know where they are in their learning journey. There are many different types of assessment you can use when teaching. For example; Formative assessment is the way in which a teacher assesses students using different methods other than tests and exams. It is assessment for learning. Black et al (2004) state that: ‘Assessment for learning is any assessment for which the first priority in its design and practice is to serve the purpose of promoting students’ learning’ (Black, P. Harrison, C. Lee, C. Et al 2004 p.10). When on my final placement I used formative assessment to plan the following sequence of lessons for a particular unit. I usually used this by marking their work, asking open questions at the end of lessons when the children were on the carpet and talking to the pupils about their work and asking them for their next steps. This was a useful tool when it came to planning with the other year group teachers as I could adapt my plans to suit my class. It also encouraged the children to respond to their feedback left in their books and enhanced my relationships with them. Summative assessment is the process of tests and exams students take in order to monitor their progress throughout modules and topics. The data is then collected and used to show teachers, parent and carers the progress each child has made over a certain period of time. At the end of key stages exams are taken by pupils to determine what they have learnt over that key stage. This data is then collected and formed into a league table which the government use to monitor the progression of schools. It is assessment of learning. During my final placement I gave the children an end of unit test after each maths unit was taught. This was a test paper that allowed me to review their progress throughout the unit and helped me to understand what the children were finding hard and therefore allowed me to plan more effective lessons. There is a lot of theory surrounding summative assessment and the negative impact it has on pupils in schools. Pollard (2002) states that: ‘the introduction of summative assessment procedures tends to cause anxiety to pupils’ (Pollard, 2002, p.322) with Jaques and Hyland (2007) agreeing by saying ‘The biggest failing with summative assessment is that it doesn’t really tell students what they are doing wrong or how they can improve’ (Jacques and Hyland, 2007, p.50-5) and ‘it doesn’t actually provide much information about how well a student has mastered a subject as it can only test in a simplistic way’ (Jaques and Hyland, 2007, p.50-5). Gardner (1993) then continues this argument by stating that summative assessment has a negative impact on pupil’s self-esteem and reduces the use of self-assessment. Of course there are other types of assessment that you use every day in the classroom. I used a lot of self and peer assessment in my third year placement in Holland. Giving the children the opportunity to talk to each other about what they have understood or not can, more often than not, help children understand better. Hayes (2004) highlights this point by sharing his view on peer assessment ‘pupils learn more effectively when they are given the opportunity to talk about their wok’ (Hayes, 2004, p.150) and this is something I try to encourage when teaching. The need for children to discuss their findings, learning and queries is great and something I will continue to include within my pedagogy.

Another key ingredient of being an effective teacher is the need to make the curriculum as creative as possible to encourage independent learning. In the new government white paper they highlight the need for the curriculum to be changed by stating that ‘we need a new approach to the National Curriculum’ (Department for Education: The schools White Paper, 2010, p.10). They go on to comment that at the moment ‘the curriculum contains too much that is non-essential’ and that teachers are ‘constrained and burdened, required to teach the same limited diet’ (Department for Education, 2010, p.8) which means that the curriculum will change for future and current teaching professionals. When starting my degree, and entering my first placement, it became apparent to me that children learn best when the material they are subject to is creative, engaging and above all relevant to what they are learning. In 1989 Gill Barratt conducted some research into why children were dissatisfied with school and she drew on the conclusion that children ‘can be turned against school by a curriculum that does not take into account their interests’. Dowling (2001) then concurs with this by saying ‘children are only likely to be well inclined to learning if the curriculum intrigues them and provides them with the opportunities to learn more’ (Dowling, 2001, p.74-5). ). During my final placement I created opportunities for the children to be responsible for their own learning by allowing them the freedom to create a curriculum that suited them. In January 2011 my final placement school moved into a creative curricular approach and as a team, we gave the children the title of the topic and asked them what they wanted to learn. Using the information we gathered we were able to plan a creative approach to a topic that has been covered many times before. Put simply, we fitted the learning around our pupils and made it relevant to them. This is something that, I feel, makes an effective teacher. Using materials from the curriculum and suiting them to the needs of pupils in your class means that the pupils get the information they need and feel comfortable learning in that environment. It is also important to make the curriculum as interactive and cross-curricular as possible so that pupils benefit from the wider arena of education. I feel that as a teacher, I shouldn’t just deliver the information the children will need but make it as engaging and stimulating as possible and this is now one of my educational principles. Having the courage to try new and creative teaching strategies to tackle the NC is something I hope to continue to do as my career progresses.

So where to go from hereThroughout this assignment I have highlighted the key principles that theorists think make an effective teacher. I have also commented on how these features have impacted on my placements and how they have shaped me into the teacher I am becoming. I understand what it means to be an effective teacher and hope to continue to grow throughout my career and adapt these principles to suit every pupil I encounter. With the current government reviewing education, it is clear that there is a long road ahead of me to reach my goal of becoming an effective teacher but one in which I am excited about pursuing. As I grow as a professional I hope that the values that underpin my pedagogical approach to teaching will too and become wider as education develops. As highlighted by Hayes (2004), educations main focus should be ‘to create a civilised, moral and contended society’ in which teachers and pupils learn from each other and make for a more effective society. With the new governments White Paper they too want ‘every school to shape its own character, frame its own ethos and develop its own specialism’s’ (Department for Education: The Schools White Paper, 2010, p.11) which means that I am entering a new and exciting stage in education. Hopefully by incorporating good behaviour management strategies, effective planning, a good use of assessment strategies, engaging lessons and an ethos that all children can achieve, I feel that I will succeed in becoming an effective teacher whatever path my career finds me on.


Aers, L. and Inglis, F. (2008) Key concepts in Edcuation. Sage publications Limited: London. [Online] Available at > [Accessed on 13th April 2011]

Bartlett, S. and Burton, D. (2003) Education Studies: Essential Issues. Sage Publications: London.

Bennett, N. (1987) The search for the Effective Primary School Teacher. Cited in: Bourne, J. and Pollard, A. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the Primary School. RouteledgeFalmer: London.

Bernstein, B. (1996) Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory, Research and Critique. Taylor Francis: London.

Black. P, Harrison. C, Lee. C Et al (2004): Working Inside the Black Box: Assessment for learning in the Classroom. GL Assessment: London.

Cowley, S. (2001) Getting the Buggers to Behave. Continuum: London.

Creemers, B.P.M (1994). The Effective Classroom. Cassell: London.

Darling, J. (1994). Child-centred Education and its Critics. Paul Chapman Publishing: London.

Department for Education (2010) The Importance of Teaching: The Schools White Paper. The Stationary Office Limited: London.

Department For Education (2011) National Curriculum: Including all Learners. [Online] Available at > [Accessed on 9th April 2011].

Dowling, M. (2001). Young Children’s Personal, Social and Emotional development. Paul Chapman Publishing: London.

Freire, P. (1998) Pedagogy of the Heart. Continuing Publishing Company: New York.

Gardner, H. (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. BasicBooks: United States of America

Hayes, D. (2004) Foundations of Primary Teaching. David Fulton Publishers: Oxon.

Hopkins, D. and West, M. and Beresford, J. (1998). Conditions for schools and classroom development. Cited in: Day, C. (1999) Developing teachers: The challenges of lifelong learning. RouteledgeFalmer: London.

Jacques, K. and Hyland, R. (2007) Achieving QTS: Professional Studies: Primary and Early Years. Learning Matters: Exeter.

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Available at > (Accessed on 26th April 2011)

Free Essays

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards: Website Lesson Plans Edwina Schweitzer Grand Canyon University: EED 364 November 25, 2012 The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) is a council that has set in place standards that are to be followed and adhered to when creating mathematical lesson plans. These standards are national and require a lot of the teachers as far as what and how they teach math. While there are many choices of lesson plans that support the standards set by the NCTM regarding number sense and operations, only four will be used to fulfill the following criteria. . Four lesson plans were chosen to illustrate the support of the NCTM standards: A. Problem-solving: Math, episode 1, (Discovery Education, n. d. ) is a lesson plan that helps students understand the importance of numbers. In this lesson the objectives are to show the students the importance of numbers in math, and show examples of how they are used in everyday life. The students start out by watching the video, Problem-solving: Math, episode 1, and then talking about all of the numbers that they see in the classroom, such as the numbers on a clock or how many paint brushes or windows there are.

The students are then asked to imagine a world without numbers and give ideas of how things would be different. They are then asked to write down examples of how they have used numbers, such as dividing candy among friends, being first in line, or being measured at the doctor. They are then asked to share these examples with the class and post them as a reminder of the importance of numbers in their everyday lives. B.

Activity 3: Exploring the effect of operations on decimals, (Illuminations, 2000-2012) is a lesson plan that gives students the opportunity to “explore the effects of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on decimal numbers. ” This lesson provides a Maze Playing Board sheet that allows students to play a game while making their way through the maze. The object of the maze is to finish the maze with the highest decimal number. Examples of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimal numbers are shown on an overhead projector for the students to see as a visual aid.

This activity requires the use of the calculator, which provides practice using a calculator while having fun with a maze. The students are then put into groups of three to discuss their results. C. I’ll halve s’more please!! (Jackson, n. d. ) is a lesson plan that uses fractions to solve riddles provided in a PBS episode of Cyberchase, entitled Zeus on the Loose. The students watch the episode and then use fractions to solve the riddles while learning the parts of the fractions and their importance in everyday life.

There is a handout that is included with the lesson plan and a list of materials, including s’mores ingredients, large numbers and a bar of paper cut out for fractional use. D. Life is Full of Problems, (Young, n. d. ) is a lesson plan that helps students learn how to read, interpret, and devise a solution to math problems. This lesson requires the use of mental solving, paper and pencil, and calculator usage. The students learn to double check their answers for correct procedures and solutions. There are several ideas listed in this lesson plan that may fit into any diverse classroom.

This is a lesson plan that is particularly good for encouraging mental solving of mathematic equations. While the mental solving is attempted first, they may check their mental answers by working the problem out on paper, then double checking themselves with the calculator. This incorporates three different means of problem solving, and not only teaches the importance of mental capabilities, it enables the students to finish with the use of calculators. 2. The methodology of number sense is used in each of the lesson plans in various ways. Problem-solving: Math, episode 1, (Discovery Education, n. . ) includes a vocabulary list that the others do not. “Vocabulary is an integral part of developing the skills and concepts necessary to explain solutions to problems,” (Camelot Learning, n. d. ). All of the lessons use number importance and provide activities to enhance this importance. Even though some of these activities may not have vocabulary words to accompany the lesson, they could be incorporated into them. If the higher grades already know the vocabulary words for the lessons being taught, they could be a refresher so that the students did not forget them. 3.

The activities that were included in these lesson plans include mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of decimals and fractions. Calculators are used in two of the activities, and the importance of the use of numbers is emphasized in all activities. Problem solving techniques are given as examples and the students are encouraged to improve on them through the completion of the activities. One lesson plan even includes a S’mores snack in the activity. Students would not only get to work with S’mores, but eat them afterwards! 4.

These websites are appropriate for K-5th grade students, depending upon the lesson being taught and the extent to which the teacher would like to instruct it. All of the lesson plans are adaptable for students, but grades 3-6 seemed to be the best to benefit from them as they are listed. A couple of the lesson plans included variations that could be made simpler or more difficult, depending upon the grade and needed difficulty level. This variation in difficulty is also good for the differentiation of the students. 5. The lesson plans all provided ideas for differentiated instruction.

These were also ideas that could be used for different grade levels, depending upon how in-depth the teacher wanted to go. Small groups were assigned to discuss the results of some of the activities. This could be helpful with those students that have greater challenges and may struggle with their activities. Some of these activities could be made partner activities to help ELL students or those that may tend to be slower academically. 6. These lesson plans are important to the student’s understanding of mathematics because all of the lesson plans contained vital knowledge of the importance of numbers in everyday life.

The students need to learn the components of these lessons to be successful at anything in life, as they are basic but important components. All of these lessons show the students how numbers surround them and that without numbers their world would not be the same at all. They constantly use numbers on a daily basis, right down to their phone number, address, age, size of clothes, and how tall they are. By providing the examples of this and then providing the opportunity for hands on activities to illustrate this importance, the students may be less likely to make the comments, “Why do I have to learn this? I will never use this! 7. The activities within the lesson plans could improve student achievement by providing the visual, hands on activities necessary for student understanding and growth. By allowing the students to participate in the activities and have fun, they will remember the concept being taught better because they have witnessed how important it is and have learned by the fun activities provided. The success of the students can be far greater when they are allowed to participate in hands on activities as opposed to simply being lectured on a particular concept. It is always easier to remember something when you had fun doing it.

This principle is the same with lessons. The more opportunities for the students to do activities or games that pertain to the lesson, the better chance the students have to remember the concept being taught. This is only a success builder in academics. 8. Manipulatives were used in all of these lessons to some extent. The Problem-solving: Math, Episode 1 lesson plan could use a few more ideas for manipulative use. Where the students were asked to look around the classroom and find things that contained numbers, they could choose items from the classroom to total one to ten items.

This could be done by counting out one book, two sheets of paper, three markers, four crayons, etc. Manipulatives may be changed or increased in any of the lesson plans, depending upon the teacher and how he/she chooses to provide them. The four lesson plans that were chosen and described all adhere to the standards set in place by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Each lesson plan had the NCTM link or listed standards included in the body of the lesson plans. These standards are important for teachers to be aware of and use when creating lesson plans for mathematic instruction.

By having these standards set in place and using them, all of the students will have the same emphasis and importance put on number sense and operations, regardless of grade level or school. Reference Camelot Learning. (n. d. ). Camelot learning math intervention curriculum. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www. camelotlearning. com/why-camelot/methodology. Discovery Education. (n. d. ). Problem-solving: Math, episode 1. Discovery education. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www. discoveryeducation. com/teachers/free-lesson-plans/problem-solving-math-episode-1. cfm

Illuminations. (2000-2012). Activity 3: Exploring the effect of operations on decimals. Illuminations. Retrieved November 24, 2012 from http://illuminations. nctm. org/LessonDetail. aspx? id=L252. Jackson, C. (n. d. ). I’ll halve s’more please!! National teacher training institute. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www. thirteen. org/edonline/ntti/resources/lessons/m_half/index. html Young, K. (n. d. ). Life is full of problems. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www. learningpt. org/pdfs/mscLessonPlans/young. pdf ———————– National Council of Teachers Page 2

Free Essays

The Career Cycle of Teachers: A Review of Mr. Holland’s Opus

In the 1995 film Mr. Holland’s Opus, we watch as the protagonist Glen Holland goes from a near novice to a distinguished teacher. Although the film ends at his (forced) retirement, judging by his past involvement I would imagine he will continue, in the teacher emeritus tradition, to mentor students and teachers and possibly as an advocate for arts education (Steffy & Wolfe, 16). There are two specific incidents I wish to compare to illustrate the career development of Glen Holland.

One is in the development of a senior revue that he devotes much of his time to during the later part of his career, and the other is his decision to incorporate methods into his teaching and conducting that offer ways for the deaf community to ‘hear’ music. These two incidents follow directly on the heels of each other, proving that the process of “reflection, renewal, and growth” (17) which Steffy and Wolfe discuss in their article on the career cycle of teachers is a constant, and constantly changing, process.

During the years previous, we are able to see many career-altering moments for Glen Holland, from learning his wife is pregnant to teaching a young man to “find the rhythm” (Herek). It is during his final decade of teaching when he helps to create and produce a senior revue in place of the senior play. His involvement in the school revue shows he has a broad influence across departments within the school.

Compared to his initial lack of involvement, to the extent that he would literally run to his car as soon as the bell rang at the end of the day, the amount of time and energy he puts into a non-academic activity shows his progression as a well-rounded teacher. At the same time, he has chosen to put energy into teaching that should perhaps be going into his family life, and particularly his deaf son, who he has never learned to communicate with properly.

Following this production, in which he encourages a young woman to follow her talent to New York instead of working at her family’s restaurant, he has a revelation about his family and son. His son, Coltrane, confronts him about his thinking that Cole, as a deaf person, can’t appreciate music.

This spurred Glen to learn ways he could incorporate new methods (specifically using lights to ‘play’ movements during a concert) into his teaching and performing. In an interview with Frank McCourt on PBS, he said that his turning point in teaching led him to discover that he “was the big learner out of this teaching experience” (Only). This experience seemed to light a new love of teaching in him, perhaps because, like Frank McCourt talks about, he has rediscovered his own love of learning.

These two points in Glen’s career demonstrate the unique career development process of teachers. As Pam Grossman points out in her article about the profession of teaching and the challenges facing it, there has been a flood of under-qualified teachers into schools (par. 2). However, as Mr. Holland proves, it is not just knowledge of methods that makes one a great teacher, but an intimate and profound knowledge of the subject matter.

Early in the movie, he tells a young woman who can’t seem to learn the clarinet that “Playing music is supposed to be fun. It’s about heart, it’s about feelings, moving people, and something beautiful, and it’s not about notes on a page. I can teach you notes on a page, I can’t teach you that other stuff” (Herek). On the contrary, his skill appears to be in teaching exactly that – how to love music instead of merely playing notes on a page. Throughout his career development, he shows that it is this love of his subject matter combined with his love of teaching itself that has touched so many young lives. Teaching may not always lead to monetary riches, but in Mr. Holland’s life it has led to a multitude of personal and professional riches.


Grossman, P. (2003, January/February). Teaching: From A Nation at Risk to a profession

at risk? Harvard Education Letter. Retrieved April 14, 2008

Herek, S. (Director). (1995). Mr. Holland’s Opus [DVD]. Hollywood: Buena Vista Home

Entertainment/Hollywood Pictures.

Only a Teacher: Interview with Frank McCourt. (2003). Retrieved April 18, 2008, from

Steffy, B. & Wolfe, M. (2001, fall). A life cycle model for career teachers. Kappa Delta Pi

Record, 38(1), 16-19.


Free Essays

Professional Teachers

Reflections on Beliefs “The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires” (William Arthur War). Teaching is more than a profession; it is about being full time parents to the students. Students spend most of their hours with teachers, thus when you are a teacher, you don’t just teach the basics; teachers are expected to go the extra mile for their students and ensure all the necessary requirements are met.

On the other hand, learning can be defined as gaining knowledge or skills that can be useful or beneficial (www. cidde. pit. edu). Beliefs about teaching and learning strategies do not always help one to become a good teacher. Beliefs can be defined as “ the mental act, condition or habit of placing trust or confidence in something or someone” (www. thefreedictionary. com), therefore as you can see if a teacher believe in using a wrong strategy for learning or teaching is the correct application this may cause devastating results for students.

Good teaching is an act of generosity, a whim of the wanton muse, a craft that may grow with practice, and always risky business (www. couragerenewal. org). I believe that teaching, if done wholeheartedly and effectively can make a profound impact on students. The impact would not just be restricted to the transfer of knowledge but understanding and guidance. Teachers should develop a bond with their students and a relationship so that students can feel safe and protected by teachers.

They should be able to have the same sense of feeling they have towards their parents or guardians. They can serve as effective caregivers — loving and respecting their students, helping them succeed at the work of school, building their self-esteem by treating each student as having worth and dignity, and enabling students to gain a first-hand appreciation of the meaning of morality by being treated in a moral way (www2. cortland. edu). After participating in this course I understood that these small factors make up the bigger picture.

I learned that by having these qualities would make you a memorable teacher and would impact on the children in a positive way. Being a patient teacher is also an essential factor that leads to good teaching. As a teacher, you encounter a variety of situations and it is your responsibility to be patient and understanding in all events. A good teacher must remain patient with his or her students at all times. However, that doesn’t mean the teacher should let the students get away with whatever they want to. Discipline and fairness must be used as well.

A teacher with these qualities is able to understand his or her students and know how to help them succeed. A teacher with little or no patience can easily give up on a troublesome student as a way to avoid the problem (sithpenguin. hubpages. com). My in class session showed me that some teachers are not patient because of troublesome children and they give up on the students to make their lives easier, but this should not be so. Meanwhile I also learnt that as teachers we should try our best with the students to help them become better people.

If their home is not stable, we should help them as much as possible in school and do not turn them down. We should give them the guidance and comfort they are not getting at home. It is our job to be affectionate with students because teachers are like the second parents/guardians for students. Different children adapt to different learning methods, therefore learning can be universal and can be accessed via multiple avenues to facilitate all learners. I believe that learning should be an engaging and rewarding experience.

When children attempt to do something instead of criticizing them, I think they should be applaud when they are right and corrected if they are wrong. When they achieve something, they should be rewarded and motivated to do better. If they do not understand something, teachers should correct them in a positive way and make it an engaging and interactive experience. According to Professor Michele Clarke of the School of Geography, learning should be fun; an engaging, challenging and rewarding experience both for student and teacher.

Of course, making complex ideas fun for all participants is a far from easy task but if you can enable students to use their own imagination and creativity in an interactive manner which develops critical thought and deep understanding, the academic achievements can be impressive, the task memorable and the benefits for the individual long-lasting (www. nottingham. ac. uk). My Practicum course showed me that learning is supposed to be an engaging and rewarding experience for students.

It must be this way in order for learning to take place, especially in primary schools because they consist of small chidden at a tender age who works well when learning is fun, rewarding, engaging and motivating. During our in class group discussions I also understood that when learning is rewarding, it actually makes the children want to come to school and be enthusiastic about doing the work. Children learn best in a secure and supportive environment where provision is made for discovery, challenge and choice.

Inviting surroundings enhance children’s positive disposition towards learning and a sense of belonging. Creating environments for learning is more than just a simple classroom arrangement (www. education. gov. sk. ca)The indoor environment receives the most attention from educators, children and other adults, therefore as teachers we should create an environment where colours, graphs, charts, pictures and arts and crafts are seen in abundance.

This way the children would be excited about learning and they would find themselves enjoying their class sessions while, using graphs, pictures and charts as references when the teacher is teaching. Apart from the indoor environment, the outdoor environment is important. The indoor environment communicates the values and beliefs that underpin the living and learning that takes place in that space (www. education. gov. sk. ca). Learning should felicitate guide play, exploration and discovery also. Outdoor activities also lead to effective learning.

Doing this course, I got a further understanding of how the environment impacts on a child’s learning. I understood as a teacher it is my job to ensure that I develop a proper learning environment for my students. During our Practicum Seminar when one of our speakers; a teacher from San Fernando Boys RC school came and introduced us to her classroom, I was amazed with the environment she provided for her students. Her classroom was like a resource centre with millions of materials to enhance learning in the classroom.

My beliefs on teaching changed in that the traditional method of teaching by role does not do the job anymore and guarantees that any teacher using methods of lecture, copy what’s on the board and memorization will lose the student’s attention and kill the desire of students to learn (www. themommydaddy. com). Teachers must now evaluate themselves and move forward from these “old school” ways and norms and bring new and innovative ways of bringing across the lecturers/ lessons across to the class in a more interesting and interacting way.

They should develop new and innovative learning strategies for the students. Groups are composed of individuals who may share some of the same knowledge and skills, however, oftentimes, members come from different educational backgrounds and have different work and volunteer experiences, which uncovers strengths that one group member may have, while others are lacking. (ehow. com) During my form three days at school, my Technology Education teacher would often divide us into groups of four to five to do projects. These projects would not be just any plain portfolio hand up.

Mr Awesome would instruct us to actually brainstorm, think critically and creative and build innovative objects and/or create our own piece of work. By doing this our teacher encouraged us to exchange ideas and know how creative our peers could be. Group work along with brain storming also taught me to look at a problem from different angles and understand that it could be solved via a wide range of solutions by my peers. This would encourage effective learning by students. During the Practicum course, I even further understood the importance of group work among students, because as a student myself, I do not like group work.

My teacher went on to explain that group work also helps students look at how their friends look at problems and how it encourages the child to feel comfortable if he/she does not understand something, so they can ask for help as a group and not individually. Working in a group can help individuals build long-lasting relationships based on trust and loyalty. As group members, people learn about the commonalities they share and differences, which lead them to seek group members they can build relationships with even outside of the group (ehow. com; Esquith, R. 2007).

As a teacher, you should do your homework also. I learned this from my lower six teacher who was always prepared for a class. She would never reach to class and question the class where in the syllabus she are supposed to teach or she would never come to class and start organizing her lesson for the day, she would always come prepared and she would always make the extra time to go the extra mile for the class. For effective teaching to take place teachers should always be organized and their class must always be well planned. Lesson plans is always the best method to be organized.

When using lesson plans, teachers do not have to think on their feet, they are clear on the procedure to follow and they build on previous teaching and prepare for coming lessons (myenglishpages. com). I always admire my teacher for always including activities in her lesson plan rather than just reading and writing. Including activities in your lesson plan develop strategies to obtain feedback on student learning. A successful lesson plan addresses and integrates these three key components: Objectives for student learning, teaching/learning activities, strategies to check student understanding(www. rlt. umich. edu) With the Practicum course, ,my views on lesson planning did not change , because during class, I would often remember my teacher stressing on doing a lesson plans accurately and do it for all areas of teaching. She also explained the importance and benefits of lesson planning so I held my beliefs on lesson planning to a high standard. Without students teaching is nothing and without teachers learning is nothing. All students have had hundreds of teachers in their lifetimes. A very few of these teachers they remember as being exceptionally good.

Good teaching is as much about passion as it is about reason. It’s about motivating students not only to learn, but teaching them how to learn, and doing so in a manner that is relevant, meaningful and memorable. It’s about caring for your craft, having a passion for it and conveying that passion to everyone, but mostly importantly to your students (www. facultyfocus. com) “Demonstrating that you know it. Teaching is reminding others that they know just as well as you. You are all learners, doers and teachers”-Richard Bach.

Free Essays

Letter to Headteacher

Wednesday 11th January 2012 Dear Mr. Headteacher, While I appreciate the many benefits of our school, I think there are still some problems. A big, the bigger, the biggest problem is school uniform. I will like to present you my case for abolishing school uniform and explain to you why ,as a pupil, I feel school uniform should not be mandatory. Statistics show school uniform is not liked by the majority of the students. Think about those poor children that make the clothes of the uniform.

I’m going to make a list with the main points of my letter: 1. We all have the right to individuality, to make personal choices and to express our personality. This right of free expression includes the way we choose to dress. Making everyone wear the same school uniform infringes on our rights and is a misuse of authority. We should have the right to choose what to wear, to express our personalities and ,as a way of learning, to make choices about our lives. 2. In my opinion the uniform costs too much.

Even though you need money to come to this school, this doesn’t mean that we have to waste money for clothes we can only wear at school because they have the school emblem. 3. Our systems of law and regulation typically punish everyone for the actions of a few. We should take the time needed to solve the problem of the trouble-makers that don’t dress decently rather than apply a general rule. 4. There are plenty reasons to avoid uniforms. One of these is that the idea of “one size fits all” is totally wrong. If our uniform fits to a boy, it doesn’t mean it fits even to a girl.

We have a different-shaped body so the unisex uniform is useless. 5. What is more, uniforms should be abolished from schools because it only causes more conflict between teachers and students, and why do students only wear uniform? The only differences between a teacher and a student are the age and the spelling. We all have the same rights so ,even though teachers have more authority, we should respect each other and don’t abuse of power. 6. Another point is that I find unfair the fact that only we have to wear uniform while bigger boys and girls are free to dress as they like.

Would you like it? 7. Finally, wearing a school uniform is not good preparation for our future working lives. Only a few jobs require uniforms. After all, our main role-models at school -the teachers- don’t have to wear a uniform, do they? The definitions of school are : 1. a place (institute) where children go to be educated 2. the process of learning in a school 3. the time during the day when children are working in a school Notice the definitions don’t include the word “uniform” anywhere. It clearly states that school is an “institution for learning”.

The only thing we learn from having uniforms is that we are so dumb that we can’t choose the clothes for ourselves. To sum up, school uniform is not the perfect solution if you want to avoid people making gangs. There is a better solution: a dress code. While uniforms force all us to wear the same clothes, a dress code give pupils a lot of choice on what to wear. unsuitable dresses can be banned-for example, shirts with vulgar signs, very short skirts, crop tops, bare shoulders… The school in this way could be greatly improved. Thank you for taking the time to read my letter, Yours sincerely, name

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Teacher in America

Final Paper My Call To Action More than ever, I believe that my place is in the classroom. I have now completed two and a half years of teaching and have had a lot of emotions and questions running through me. Sometimes they made me question whether I should be in the classroom or not. I mean, how can I be a teacher and have all these negative thoughts and feelings about how our school system works. I thought I was alone in feeling this way. However, from the readings, reflections and discussions during the course of this class, I have now realized I am not alone in feeling this way.

In fact, most teachers have the same apprehensions that I share. One major thing I have noticed since becoming a teacher is how my views on education have changed. Before I became a teacher I assumed things about teaching that are not at all correct. I thought that when I became a teacher, it would be really easy. After all, my teachers (and mother) made it seem fairly easy. I was completely wrong. I thought I would be able to stand up there, teach and every single student would understand what I would be teaching. I thought all the students would do their work, behave and listen to me.

Boy was I mistaken. There are so many different learning styles that I have to accommodate for, different activities I have to come up with in order to spark the students’ interests, and behaviors I never dreamed I would have to deal with. I am only into my third year of teaching I have been teaching for only three years, and each year I have had to make changes to accommodate the types of students I have. Some teachers assume the students will be the same every year and do not make changes at all. The learning process for each individual student is different.

For some, it comes easier, for others it can be might be a little more difficult. ‘Teachers who develop classroom plans based solely on beliefs and expectations born of their own life experiences are likely to be ineffective (Hinchey Pg. 23). ’ Most of us became teachers because somewhere in our past we had a really good experience with school and our teachers. Just because what we experienced was good does not necessarily mean that the same exact thing would work with our students today. I know that I catch myself looking back to when I was the same age as my students.

I am often trying to do things with my students that my teachers did with me. Not surprisingly, a lot of them are not working as I thought they would. Before my first day of teaching, I had certain expectations for my students. Starting off with the same expectations that my teachers had for me is not feasible where I teach. ‘Most public school teachers come from significantly different cultures than their students (Hinchey pg. 27). ’ I know I have had to completely adjust my way of thinking in the classroom because my educational experience is the complete opposite of what I teach.

When I was a student, my friends and I had complete support from adults in our lives. Today, my students hardly have any adults around them outside of school guiding them in the right direction. When I was in high school, there was no question about receiving your high school diploma and going to college. In my community, a high school diploma alone was not good enough, you needed to get that college degree. In the district I work in, the atmosphere is different. In Waukegan, people act like earning the high school diploma is golden.

One big assumption of mine that has changed in my short three years of teaching is thinking all students are the same outside of school. When I was growing up, it seemed that my life and my friends’ lives where all the same. Consequently, I grew up assuming that everyone lives where a mirrored image of mine. Teaching opened my eyes up to see how wrong I was. I have some students who come from a loving home with two working parents, and then I also have some students who are homeless because both parents are in prison.

As teachers, we are told to treat every student the same, but that is completely impossible. Every student has his or her own story and each of those stories needs to be treated differently. I have also questioned my own judgment on what it means to be well educated. Being well education should not only relate to what is learned inside of a school building, but also what is learned outside of the school walls. I have a lot of students who are educated about topics that are not covered be a school curriculum, so should I consider that knowledge to be worthless because they did not learn it in a classroom?

Is your education measured on what you are taught or what you remember? If it is based on what you remember, then most of American can fall into the category of being uneducated. The brain forgets what it does not use. In fact, it is impossible to remember everything you have been taught. There is not enough space in the brain to retain all those facts. Lastly, ‘Students from poor communities often have their own very strong evidence that schooling is not likely to make a significant difference in their own lives (Hinchey pg. 24). ’ I hear students talk like this everyday in my classroom.

I constantly hear ‘how is this going to apply to my life, it’s not like I am going to college anyway. ’ These students think there is no hope for them. As a teacher, how am I supposed to change the minds of 15 and 16 years olds when this is what they have been told their whole lives? This is a battle that those of us who teach in urban schools fight everyday. Yes, I believe it is important to educate our students on academics, but I believe it is more important teach our students how to set realistic goals for themselves. Goals they are truly able to obtain.

One major drawback of school is the way it is structured. School has a “one size fit all” curriculum, which doesn’t work. There are so many different learning styles with students. Schools need to come up with a unique way to be able to aid each student in his or her own learning style. Schools also function like factories, which isn’t a surprise because they were founded when the country moved more towards an industrialized economy. Students, just like factory workers, have learned the process of lining up, walking in straight lines and staying quiet for long periods of time.

Is this how schools should be? Schools have been functioning this way for decades. If we made changes, would it benefit or harm schools? ‘If all it takes to succeed is hard work, then poor people must be lazy. ‘ Everyday I tell my students that if they want to be successful in life they need to work hard. However, this does not mean that people are poor just because they never worked hard. In fact, poor people work harder than most rich people. Most poor people work several part time jobs averaging 50-60 hours a week at a minimum wage rate.

They work more hours than a middle class person, but still make a lot less money. Next time you go out to eat, pay attention to who is working hard, for minimum wage, in the kitchen. ‘Rather than believing economic success comes from hard work, and failure from laziness, students must ask what besides laziness might explain why so many families are living in poverty and why the widening chasm between our wealthiest and poorest citizens. ‘ It is my job to get my students to believe that they can meet their goals, if they are willing to put the effort into it.

However, because of the struggles seen at home, many of them cannot see their future in a positive way. My students liven in a poor community and that know a lot of people who have earned their high school diploma but cannot find a decent job close by to where they live. If they want a decent job they have to travel far. Sadly, many of them do not have a car and their only means of transportation is the city bus. As a result, it may take over an hour for them to get to work; so many of them do not take the job. As someone who has had a car since I turned 16, I do not know what it is like to struggle without a car.

Twenty miles does not seem far to me, but to someone who doesn’t have his or her own means of transportation, it could be too much of a hassle than what the job is worth. I know understand why people do not take job offers that are a certain distance from their home. This trickles down to the teenagers. Its no wonder they think it doesn’t matter if they work hard, they wont find a decent job anyway. I never considered myself ‘privileged’ just because I was white. However, since reading Hinchey, I now realize how much easier my life is just because of my skin color.

Before I started teaching I was mostly around Caucasian people; people who are just like me. I was able to go shopping without being harassed. I was able to take any job I wanted without having people think I got the job only because of my skin color. Basically, I never had to worry about anything. Now that I work (and live) in a city where a majority of the population is either Hispanic or African American, my eyes have been opened to how people of color are mistreated. My students see and experience this in their everyday lives. I am struggling on how to teach my students how to overcome this.

As of now, I have not figured out a way. One thing that my students have pointed out to me, as well as Hinchey, is that white people hold most of the power in our country. A majority of CEOs, politicians and even every president, until President Obama, has been white. No wonder my students think they will always come second to the ‘white man,’ they have only known white people to be in charge. This class has been very beneficial in my teaching practices. As a new teacher I feel I am still naive about certain things that relate to school. I have always tried to teach my students to the best f their abilities. Sometimes I would be frustrated because they went grasping certain basic concepts. I now view learning, teaching, school and society in a completely different way than I did before starting this class. I am now less frustrated with my students since learning more about their history and thoughts towards education. My whole thought on how schools are operated has also changed. The current ways that schools function is not conducive to help the students in urban schools in any way. It is actually harming them. As teachers, we need to take a stand and fight for what is best for our students.

As an educator, I am teaching for each and every one of my students. I am educating them not only on academics, but life issues. They are #1 and everyone or everything else comes second to that. As teachers, we have every and any obstacle to overcome that one could imagine. We actually do not have the world behind is pushing us forward; we have it in front of us pushing us backwards. Right now, I would like to challenge myself that, no matter what hurdles I may come across in my practice, that I always fight for my students to put them first and always have what’s best for them in mind.

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Ghandi vs Jesus

Jesus Christ, who is the founder for Christianity, and Mahatma Gandhi, who is the teacher for Hindu, is two teachers that have similarities in their ways of teaching. These two religions are totally different, but they Gandhi was considered a modern day of Jesus, since they share same ideas about what they teach and practice.

One major similarity in teaching between these two religions, are that they are both based on non-violence. Gandhi and Jesus both believe that, non-violence is the greatest force that human must maintain and use to achieve in any struggles. They also teach that non-violence should be use as a means to bring about changes within a society, which can be social or even political. This brings about also another similarity in their teaching, which is the teaching of being compassion. Jesus teaches his followers to love their enemies as thyself (Matthew 5:44), instead of showing them hatred and anger. Gandhi teaches the same to his followers, showing compassion to everyone including the enemies, instead of fighting against each other who might be the enemies. Gandhi believes that this will assist with easing the anger and violence that they might have for each other, which will then allows individual’s reactions towards them become compassionate.

The “Sermon on the Mount” is what is said to attach Gandhi towards Jesus teaching. Gandhi states that this part of the bible made him become more aware of not only of non-violence, but also the “Law of Love”. They both believe and teach that individuals should have endless love and should not retaliate no matter of the situation. The good shall be embrace and the evil should not be thought about in order to live a life without issue and which is good.

Forgiveness was another common similarity in Jesus and Gandhi teachings. Jesus state that one should forgive and forget, also one should turn the other cheek instead of hitting back an abuser. This also incorporates the teaching of non-violence, they both teaches that violence will bring about more wrongs instead of rights. Jesus sacrifices himself for his people which were also showing love to his followers. While this was being done, he asks God to forgive the people conducting the sacrifice since they do not know what they are doing. Gandhi teaches that forgiveness truly show the truth and also the love in man. They both teach that one should forgive in order to continue living with compassion for each other.

In conclusion, while examining the teachings of Jesus Christ and Mahatma Gandhi, there are a few common traits which are similar in their ways of teaching. Teaching their followers to be compassion, showing forgiveness and also teaching the followers to always behave in a non-violence way is some similarities between these two teachers. They both taught people to follow the right path in life, through having peace with each other, showing compassion and also loving each other. The main aim was to allow the followers to live a good life.

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The Teacher That Taught Me the Most

What Teacher Got Me Hooked on Learning? I’ve gone through a bunch of teachers that have helped me learn. There is only one though, that woman has gone through so much stress in her life. Her name is Mrs. Jackson. She was my Eighth Grade Advanced Language Arts teacher. She really made me want to learn. Mrs. Jackson really tried hard to get kids to learn but she would not make any kid do a thing. She taught me how to be more independent on my work and that I have to take things like my class work and not just be handed things already done.

Mrs. Jackson made me take things into my own hands with my learning. She made things to where you had to do thing son your own, and showed me the way of doing independent work. Like giving us an essay project, telling us to do it then just giving us a prompt and just letting our creative minds roam free. Her criticism let there still have room for our idea to still be there but nevertheless have it portrayed in a professional way. I remember that if there was a fragment in my essay she would give it back and say there’s a fragment fix it.

I loved that she would tell me where it is but didn’t tell me how to fix it, giving me room to learn and grow from my mistake. If you asked her if we had to do something she would say no but if you want to pass my class I suggest you do. Her humor was there but she was still stern. I think she is didactic; she gave me that vibe of that already known respect that she didn’t have to ask for it was just already there. It was a given in her class what she wanted and that made me feel more respect for her, he leadership made me respect her more. She would only respect you if you respected her that was just how it was.

I always had the utmost respect for her and that is still there even though I don’t have her class anymore. To be totally honest I’m using some of her techniques to write this essay at the moment. She taught things that stuck for me. She always reminded us to not repeat so many words in our essay, sometimes it is really noticeable. She really helped with my whole view on English, my reading and everything in that area. Everything was so much easier after her class. The books we read in her class were marvelous. I loved her class and she really got me into learning.

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The Contract Between Chinese Teacher and Foreign Teacher

When I search on the Internet, there are a lot of news comes to my eyes; among them many of the news are about the Chinese education system or even the teachers. Around us, we always heard a lot of different comments of the Chinese teacher, and some of people like to make comparison between the Chinese and foreigner teachers. Now I am a student in the cooperated school, I have experienced the foreign teaching style, and learned from some teachers from America, I found there are really many differences between the Chinese teacher and the foreign teachers.

To contract those teachers who come from China and abroad, I will describe on three aspects: what is the teaching style of them, how the attitude to the students and the last one is how they care about their students. The first difference is about the teaching style. That is also the biggest one in my mind, one is like a whip, and the other is like a road sign. As we know, almost all the Chinese teachers just give the lecture when they are teaching some knowledge to the students.

If you walk around in some classrooms when the students having classes, you will see very similar scene that the teachers are standing on the teaching ground and talking, the students are just writing the notes as quickly as they can. Although they feel tiered, they cannot stop because of the anxiousness that they cannot follow the teachers. And for the Chinese students, after the class they have so much homework to do that the teacher left to them. On the contrary, the atmosphere of the foreign teachers’ classes is more easily. You always can hear that the students are discussing in the class.

Because the teachers prefer to guide the students to find out the answer or learn the knowledge by themselves or within a team. Obviously, they do not like to leave so much homework to force the students to remember and repeat what they learn in the class, they are willing to take a self-help study. So the Chinese teachers like to be a whip and they want to force the students to study in their designed way, however, the foreign teachers act as a road sign that they can lead the students in a right direction and let them learn by themselves.

Secondly, one of the differences between Chinese teachers and foreign teachers is how they care about the students. In my opinion, the Chinese teachers care about the students’ study achievements. But for the foreign teachers, they concern more about the students’ life and personality not only the study record. When I was in the middle school, I found what the most important thing the teacher concerned is only study. If a student feel upsad, the teacher always said make yourself better soon, do not affect your study.

That seems like all the starting points for the teacher is good to study. However, the foreign teachers do not only care about the students’ study, in their mind, study is not so important, they care more about the students’ growth and personalities. They pay much attention to the development of students’ positive life attitude and good personalities. if a foreign teacher sees a worried student, this teacher is probably afraid whether the longtime bad mood can bring terrible impact on the student’s growth.

Therefore, the foreign teacher care more about the students’ growth verses the Chinese teachers who just concern the study too much. The last one is the different attitude to the students who make some mistakes. The strictness is a very outstanding attribute for the Chinese teachers which is known by people. Especially when the students make some mistakes, they always treat them very strictly, even punish them. They think only the strict punishment and critic can let the students remember this lesson.

On the contrary, few of the foreign teachers punish the students who make mistakes. They are more patient and try to let students know how serious the consequence is when they take such wrong action. To their opinion, everyone has the antagonistic mentality, too much punishment and critic only can stir up the hostility. That just makes the result more terrible or even has a bad influence on the students. Obviously the attitudes toward the students who make the mistakes are so different; the Chinese teachers prefer to choose a strict method to avoid the students to try it again.

But for the foreign teachers, they are more friendly to get the permission that the students will not repeat this mistake. In the conclusion, the Chinese teachers are so different from the foreign teachers, such as different teaching style, different attitudes to the students and different treatment to the students’ study record. As a result, those make different characteristics of the students from different region, Chinese students always have strong basement in the academy, and however the foreign students are more creative.

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Recomendation of an English Teacher

ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND036 ADVANCED PLA CEMENT COMPOSITION 5 CREDITS GRADE 11 Prerequisites: Recommendation of an English teacher and a timed writing sample. Upon commitment to the course, students will complete an intensive summer AP preparation project. It is mandatory to take the AP Language and Composition Examination when it is offered in order to receive AP course credit for work done during this academic year.

Students who do not take the AP examination will receive level 1 credit. This course takes the place of a regularly scheduled grade 11 English course. The following is a portion of the official course description for English Language and Composition effective 2010, found in the Acorn Booklet and on the AP Central Website [http://apcentral. collegeboard. com/apc/public/repository/ap-english-course-description. pdf]:

An AP course in English Language and Composition engages students in becoming skilled readers of prose written in a variety of rhetorical contexts, and in becoming skilled writers who compose for a variety of purposes. Both their writing and their reading should make students aware of the interactions among a writer’s purposes, audience expectations, and subjects, as well as the way genre conventions and the resources of language contribute to effectiveness in writing.

The goals of an AP English Language and Composition course are diverse because the college composition course is one of the most varied in the curriculum. Although the college course provides students with opportunities to write about a variety of subjects from a variety of disciplines and to demonstrate an awareness of audience and purpose, the overarching objective in most first-year writing courses is to enable students to write effectively and confidently in their college courses across the curriculum and in their professional and personal lives.

Most composition courses emphasize the expository, analytical and argumentative writing that forms the basis of academic and professional communication, as well as the personal and reflective writing that fosters the development of writing facility in any context. In addition, most composition courses teach students that the expository, analytical and argumentative writing they must do in college is based on reading as well as on personal experience and observation.

Composition courses, therefore, teach students to read primary and secondary sources carefully, to synthesize material from these texts in their own compositions, and to cite sources using conventions recommended by professional organizations such as the Modern Language Association (MLA), the University of Chicago Press (The Chicago Manual of Style), the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Council of Biology Editors (CBE).

As in the college course, the purpose of the AP English Language and Composition course is to enable students to read complex texts with understanding and to write prose of sufficient richness and complexity to communicate effectively with mature readers. An AP English Language and Composition course should help students move beyond such programmatic responses as the five-paragraph essay that provides an introduction with a thesis and three reasons, body paragraphs on each reason, and a conclusion that restates the thesis.

Although such formulaic approaches may provide minimal organization, they often encourage unnecessary repetition and fail to engage the reader. Students should be encouraged to place their emphasis on content, purpose and audience and to allow this focus to guide the organization of their writing, (The College Board, p. 7). Textbooks: Texts will be supplied by AHS. Shea, Renee H. , Lawrence Scanlon, and Robin Dissin Aufses. The Language of Composition. Bedford/ St. Martin’s, Boston, 2008. Marking Period |Part One |Part Two | |Quarter One |Orwell, G. Animal Farm (1946) |Salinger, J. D. Catcher in the Rye (1946) | | |Thoreau, H. D. Civil Disobedience (1849) |Thoreau, H. D. Where I Lived, and What I Lived For” (1854) | |Quarter Two |Steinbeck, J. Winter of Our Discontent (1961) |Miller, A. The Crucible (1952) | | | |Hawthorne, N. The Scarlet Letter (1850) | |Quarter Three |Shelly, M. Frankenstein (1831) |Fitzgerald, F.

S. Great Gatsby | | |Huxley, A. Brave New World (1932) |Selected Memoirs | |Quarter Four |Student Speeches |Student Speeches |

On-line materials: Students will read newspaper and magazine features regularly to apply course concepts in discussion, reader’s log, and writing assignments. Since all columns are available free on line, school will provide access to materials on computers in the school library, computer labs and classrooms during and after school. The sites include: On-line materials will be |Feature/Column |URL |Purpose and Practice | |discussed weekly, | | | | |on Tuesday, | | | | |using notes and/or print | | | | |copies | | | | | |The Writer’s Almanac |www. thewritersalmanac. publicradio. org |Develop writerly knowledge base | | |Headlinespot |www. headlinespot. om |State news | | |A Word a Day |www. wordsmith. org/awad/ |Vocabulary and etymology | | |Daily Infographic |www. dailyinfographic. com |Analysis of complex graphics | Grading policy: Grades will be determined by on-demand & multiple draft compositions, blog entries, teacher observations, and student self-evaluations. Rubrics and scoring guides are posted on the teacher webpage. Academic Topics and Expectations = 90% |Performance Topics | | |and Expectations = 10% | |Terminology |Appropriate use of literary terms in analytical writing |Preparation for class performance | |Thesis |Precise identification of thesis in reading/ |Participation in class activities | | |Logical development of thesis in writing | | |Detail |Location of essential detail in reading/ Prompt submission of homework | | |Inclusion of organization of essential detail in writing | | |Style |Recognition and explication of writers’ choices |Cooperation in group work | | |Making effective choices as a writer | | |Response |Efficient, explicit and insightful response to all writing prompts |Sustained writing improvement | |to Prompt | | | |Grammar |Consistent application of rules for punctuation, spelling, syntax and usage. Sophistication of spoken vocabulary | |Mechanics | | | |Revision |Aggressive and responsible approach to improvement of writing over multiple drafts and within on-demand tasks |Sophistication of written vocabulary | |Editing | | | ? Regularly save all word-processed work to a CD or flash drive and student account on the network. ? Multiple draft compositions may be submitted via email attachment. ? Multiple draft compositions may be scored using track changes, archived and returned to the student. Timed writing will be kept in a classroom folder as source material for reflective evaluation each marking period. ? Classes will be conducted according to the policies in English Department Handbook and the Student Handbook; both are available on the network. Suggested Materials: Students will bring notes, handouts, and texts distributed within a marking period as well as note-taking materials. Assignment Posting: Assignments and handouts will be posted on the teacher webpage and/or the class blog. Writing Opportunities: Students’ Write to Be Heard, Voice of Democracy, Kids’ Philosophy Slam, Letters about Literature, Greenwave Gazette, Student Arts Magazine, Very Open Mic Nights, and Wordmaster’s competition will be announced during the academic year. AP Language |Assignment |Purpose |Summer tasks |School Year Tasks |Point Value | |Summer Projects | | | | | | |[pic] |Sign up for a Gmail account. |Promote communication |Check your email at least once a |Email assignments via |None—having the email is | | |Address should be a combination of first initial, last | |week for updates |attachment |necessary for participating in| | |name and AP | | | |the class blog. |[pic] |Subscribe to |Develop vocabulary |Select the best word week of the |Bring your essay to the first | | | |Wordsmith. org/awad/subscribe. html | |summer. Write a brief expository |class. |Pass/ Fail: 100 Pts. | | | | |essay using those words. |Please word process and save |Participation | | | | | |your document | | |[pic] |Visit headlinespot. om and follow the news of your |Develop an American perspective|Browse the state’s news and learn|Post to the class blog sharing | | | |assigned state through its news publications. |other than Abington, MA |what is important to people who |your sense of what is important|Pass/Fail: 100 Pts. | | | | |live there. |in this state. |Participation | | |Email Dr. G. your state ASAP! | | | | | | |See Randy Pausch’s lecture, “Realizing My Childhood |Be inspired! Write a first draft of your first|Bring your lecture to the first|Pass/Fail: 100 Pts. | |[pic] |Dreams” also called “The Last Lecture. ” |Then, use his lecture as a |lecture, to be edited all year |class. |Participation | | | |model for your first lecture |long, and delivered as your final|Please word process and save |Revised in Sept. for a writing| | | | |exam. |your document at home. grade | | | | | | |MCAS | | | | | | |Rubric: 100 pts. | |[pic] |Begin a reader’s log or response journal |Practice interacting with a |As often as you read, respond. |Bring to first class. |Pass/Fail: 100 points | | |text | |Use on in-class writing |Participation | | | | | |assessments. | | |[pic] |Read The Dark Tide (Puleo) |Read non-fiction as an |Look up new words. |Consider: |In class writing during the | | | |argument. |Post on the class blog. |Should anyone be held |first marking period. | | | |Use reader’s log. | |accountable when accidents |AP Rubric:100 pts. | | | | |happen? | | |[pic] |Read Flyboys (Bradley) |Read non-fiction as an |Look up new words. |Consider: |In class discussion and | | | |argument. |Post on the class blog. |How is keeping secrets |writing during the first | | | |Use reader’s log. | |justified during war time? |marking period. | | | | | |AP Rubric:100 pts. | Typical Day: The usual class period is 47 minutes long. Usage of class time may vary, but most often follows these sections: |1-8 minutes |Writers’ Almanac, Word of the Day, Daily Infographic | | |Individual review and preparation of notes, readings or assignments for class and/or | | |Small group review of notes, readings, topics for discussion or assignments. |9-42 minutes |Lectures, individual practice, small group work, discussion, or Q&A to process readings or practice skill application. | | |Peer editing and revision may occur here. This section expanded for all on-demand writing practice. | |43-47 minutes |Summarizing class, homework announcements: teacher webpage and/or class blog. | | |Be the Change Daily Challenge or AWAD Thought of the Day | Typical Week: Although our schedule may flex around holidays and special school events, the typical weekly plan is: |Monday |Review, in-class writing, on demand writing, peer review, teacher conferencing, in class editing & revision. |Tuesday |On-line feature discussion days, focused on topics closest to instructional topics OR most provocative topics. | |Wednesday |Text reading due date, introduction to new topics, processing readings in small groups or through lecture Q&A. | |Thursday |Practice and processing texts or reading in whole class, small group jigsaw or independent exercises. | |Friday |Continued practice and processing, discussions, presentations of individual or group work to class. | Typical Marking Period: Academic year is divided into 4 quarters, each halfway point marked by a formal report: Quarter, Part One |Quarter, Part Two | |Argument /Language topic |Language/ Argument topic | |Literature connection, model analysis |Researched Argument or Multi-Draft Essay | |Synthesizing weekly news/magazine features |Synthesizing weekly news/magazine features | |Researched Argument or Multi-draft Essay, directed revision activities |On Demand Writing/ Multiple Choice practice | |On Demand Writing/Multiple Choice practice |Final Speech revision | |Self evaluation, class participation |Self evaluation, writing portfolio | |Progress report |Report card | Exams: Midterm and final exams will be given and are 90 minutes in length. |Midterm Exam |Final exam | |Exam practice; one multiple-choice section and two essays given in an AP format. Grade will be a |Presentation of speeches written for summer reading assignment and revised during the course of the year. |combination of scores weighted similarly to the AP exam. |Grade will represent revision of the text of the speech as well as delivery. | Quarter One, Part One: Reading to appreciate writers’ choices: Genre, organization, and diction |Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How can we use Language of Composition to |Shea et al. |Independent reading |Summer Reading Assessments listed on table, p. 4 | |approach to reading and writing? |Ch. An Introduction to Rhetoric |Small group discussion |syllabus | | | |Applying summer reading and readers’ logs in discussion | | | |Rhetorical Model |Note-taking templates |And | | |Ethos, Pathos, and Logos |SOAP Acronym |Timed Writing Baseline Samples | | |Patterns of Development | | | |Assign Orwell, “Politics and the English Language” ( 529-538) and Thoreau, “ On the Duty of Civil Disobedience”(939-956) | |How do readers and writers use a common |Shea et al. |Shea et al. |Word Study Presentation | |vocabulary? |Ch. 2 Close reading |Orwell (539-40) |Individual/Group Options | | |Style |Questions for Discussion |Each selects a word from a passage or a favorite | |What does it mean to appreciate “word choice”? Note Taking& Annotation |Questions on Rhetoric & Style |word; | | |Glossary |Thoreau (956) |Identify related forms and synonyms; | |How can a writer use denotation and connotation |Orwell, “Politics and the English Language,” |Exploring the Text |Explain denotation, etymology and connotation. | |to communicate clearly? |(529-538) |Exploration of language resources. | | |Thoreau, “ On the Duty of Civil Disobedience,” |Tone Vocabulary Handout | | | |(939-56) | | | | | | | | |Assign Orwell, Animal Farm | |How does synthesizing various viewpoints bring |Shea et al. |Analysis of point of view/bias in |Multi-draft synthesis essay/ teacher conference | |us to a personal statement about an issue? |Ch. Synthesizing Sources |Katrina Op-Eds: NYT 2007 | | | |Ch. 1Princess Diana, 28-34 | |How should we respond to communities who suffer | | | |Rice, A. “What it means to lose New Orleans” |disasters? | | |Puleo, The Dark Tide |Geraghty, J. “We failed you? Try again. | | | |Bradley, Flyboys |Sebold, A. “Living with the Dead” | | | | | | | | | |Timed Writing Item : Synthesis Based Question | | |How is a speech different from other texts? |Lunsford et al. Analysis of text for evidence of subject, occasion, audience, |Speech Revision | | |Ch. 17 Spoken Arguments |purpose and elements of oratory and signal Words | | | |Speeches from Summer reading |Compare and contrast written and spoken texts. |Include specific oratorical strategies in your | | |Speeches by Dr. Randy Pausch | |speech. | | |Lou Gehrig and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. | | Quarter One, Part Two: Reading between the lines (and into pictures) for implicit theses |Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How does satire work as a strategy in social |New Yorker “Shouts and Murmurs” essays |Discuss satire as a strategy, distinguishing distortion of |Timed Writing Practice | |commentary? |Shea et al. 924-920) |message, importance of tone | | | |Swift, “The Modest Proposal” |Swift (920-1) |Analysis of rhetorical strategies in satirical | | |Questions for Discussion |Analyze for subject, occasion, audience, purpose, style and |writing | | |Questions on Rhetoric & Style |tone | | | | |SOAPSTONE | | |How does a reader decode allegory? |Orwell, G. Animal Farm |Discuss representation in allegory, examining use of indirect |Creative Writing: Group option | | |Twain War Prayer |appeal. |Select an issue or event of personal, local, national| | | |Review language of political systems. |or global importance. | | |View Animal Farm (TV 1999) |“Shouts and Murmurs” essay | | | | |Satirical editorial or | | | | |Allegory | |Assign Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye; Thoreau, Where I

Lived, and What I Lived For | |How can we describe a speaker by analyzing |Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye |Analysis of diction for effect in creating character and voice,|Multi-draft essay/ peer edit | |language patterns? | |especially, age, education, income, geographical location and |Identify the language pattern of Holden Caulfield; | | |Student selected passages from first person |tone |compare and contrast with the language of another | | |young adult short stories and novels | |literary character. | | |Review of model student papers |Option: Write chapter 27 or an “inter-chapter” in | | | | |Holden’s voice | |How can a visual become an argument? |Shea et al. (49-50) |Find 3-5 editorial cartoons on one subject OR ads on a product,|Speech Revision: | |How can a visual assist or confuse the reader of|Reading at Risk (147-9) |service or message; |Create a visual illustration or summary of your | |an argument? |Visual Rhetoric (891-893) |Compare and contrast how artists portray ideas. |argument. | | |Editorial Cartoons from Headlinespot. om |Discuss how a visual assists or confuses the reader of an | | | |Print advertising |argument. | | | |Daily Infographic | | | |Assign King, “Letter from Birmingham Jail” (260-274) and Assign Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter | |How does a writer explain the belief that |Shea et al. |Close reading and annotation |Timed Writing Practice | |motivates action? Thoreau, “Where I Lived…” |Analyze anticipation of criticism and concession |Excerpt (Swift, Orwell, Thoreau or MLK) | | |MLK “Letter from Birmingham Jail” |Focus on SOAPSTONE |Defend/Challenge /Qualify | Quarter Two, Part One: Exploring issues of academic and personal integrity |Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How do readers recognize stereotypes? |Shea et al. Discuss stereotypes of gender, language or culture in the |Mock Trial | | |Readings will be selected from one of the |media: in television: reality shows, sitcoms, and crime shows |Discuss claims made by the author about characters | |How do writers employ stereotypes? |following chapters: |Select a single media segment and identify its dependence on |and claims characters make about each other. | |How does a reader evaluate the judgment of the |Ch. 7 Gender (347) |stereotypes or rebellion against stereotypes by showing a |Which character in Scarlet Letter is the greatest | |community? |Ch. Language (507) |clip(s), OR |sinner? | | |Ch. 11 Popular Culture (707) |Select a stereotype and present clips from multiple media |Hester, Dimmesdale, Chillingworth or the community | | | |outlets | | |Assign Steinbeck, Winter of Our Discontent | |To Wikipedia or Not . . . that is the Question. |Shea et al. |In groups, select a topic. One Draft/ self-edit | | |Ch. 3 Synthesizing Sources (61) |Compare and contrast all features of Wikipedia and other |Use what you know about assessing and using sources | | |Ch. 6 Synthesis: Incorporating sources into a |available sources. |to develop a personal statement about Wikipedia | | |revision (335) | |usage. | | |www. wikipedia. rg | | | |How does a reader use citations to understand a |Lunsford et al. |Review the necessity of crediting completely all sources by |One Draft/ In class | |text? |Ch. 20 Intellectual Property, Academic |using a citation system: MLA, APA, Chicago, etc. |Select an actual or literary dilemma involving | |How does a writer document sources [MLA, APA, |Integrity, and Avoiding Plagiarism; |Discuss academic integrity issues in our school and the Code of|academic or personal integrity. |Chicago] ? |Ch. 22 Documenting Sources; |Conduct policy. |Explore the options for action. | |How does a community of readers and writers |Gibson Primetime report: Cheating in America’s |Research a scandal involving cheating, plagiarism or other |Compare and contrast your response with that of the | |preserve academic integrity and protect |schools (2004); |academic integrity issues. |actor in the situation | |intellectual property? |Steinbeck, J. Winter of Our Discontent |Evaluate integrity and plagiarism issues in Steinbeck’s novel. | | | | |SPEECH REVISION: | | | | |Evaluate and document all sources in your speech or | | | | |visuals. |Assign Miller, The Crucible | |How does a reviewer persuade the reader to see |Film Review Archive |Analyze of reviews to identify New Yorker film reviews as a |Multi-draft essay/ peer edit | |(or avoid) a film? |New Yorker On-Line |genre. |Read several reviews of The Crucible (1996). | | |Critics Corner |Distinguish between the styles Denby and Lane reviews, esp. |Review The Crucible. | | | |diction and syntax. Employ strategies and style to persuade an audience | | | | |to accept or reject your judgment of the film. | | | |View The Crucible (1996) | | Quarter Two, Part Two: Where science and argument intersect (at logos, pathos and ethos) |Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How does a reader identify and understand Logos |Shea et al. Review newspapers for features and editorials in science. |Multi-draft/peer edit | |in science and technology writing? |Huxley The Method of Scientific investigation ( |How do various cities and states respond to a science issue? |Identify science issues in your state. | | |609) |Review logical appeals and fallacies. |Compare and contrast the state view on a science | |How does a writer employ appeals to Logos? |Pinker The Blank Slate (630) | |issue with your view and the national view. | |Sagan The Cosmic Calendar (671) | | | | |Gould Women’s Brains (349) | | | |Assign Shelley, Frankenstein | |How does a reader identify and understand |Shea et al. |Analysis of slogans, public service announcement [PSAs], sales |Ad analysis | |appeals to Pathos in science and technology |Eiseley The Bird and the Machine (601) |pitches and maxims |Contribute a full-page to the classroom Gallery of | |writing? |Bronoski The Reach of Imagination (616) | |Emotional Appeals. | |How does a writer employ appeals to Pathos? Csikszentmihalyi The Future of Happiness (623) | |Identify the elements of the appeal. | |How does a reader identify and understand |Shea et al. |Examination of the thesis as a call to action, whether implicit|Speech Writing: The Introduction | |appeals to Ethos in science and technology |Royte Transsexual Frogs (655) |or explicit. |Read a science article on a controversy or debate. | |writing? |Carson from Silent Spring (798) |Discussion: What should we do as a result of reading science |Write an introduction for the advocate of a | |How does a writer employ appeals to Ethos? |Various, Focus on Climate Change (862) |writing? particular point of view that prepares an audience | |Assign Huxley, Brave New World | |How does a reader identify and understand |Shea et al. |Investigate the current status of genetic technology |On Demand Writing Practice | |complex appeals in science writing? |Various, The Ethics of Genetic Technology (678) | |Synthesis based science question | |How does a writer employ complex appeals in | |Note how science writers are introduced in texts | | |science? | | | | | | |SPEECH REVISION | | | | |Fact check your speech | | | | |Write an introduction: classmate. |How do science fiction writers employ complex |Shelley Frankenstein |Identify theme and supporting appeals in a science fiction |Multi-draft/teacher conference | |appeals to persuade an audience to think, feel, |Huxley Brave New World |film, TV, short story or novel. |Science (dystopic) Fiction | |or act? |Bradbury Fahrenheit 451 |Focus on predictions and projections. |Review an imaginative text and its success as an | | |Aldiss “Super-toys Last All Summer Long” (665) |Discuss impact on audience. |appeal on an issue. | |Vonnegut “Harrison Bergeron” | |Support with evidence from text and context. | Quarter Three, Part One: Defining roles and responsibilities in the world of work |Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How do writers use language to define work and |Ehrenreich From Serving in Florida (179) |Investigate current and future job trends. One Draft/self-edit | |careers? |Dillard The Writing Life (212) |Read newspapers for employment trends in your state. |Describe your dream job. | | |Friedman, From The World is Flat |Discuss the words of work: career, vocation, job, retail, |Visit Bureau of Labor Statistics for Job descriptions| | |Terkel, From Working |profession, minimum wage, salary, commission, union, resume, |and requirements. | | | |class etc. Visit job listings in print and on-line. | | | | | | |Assign Miller, Death of a Salesman | |What is the purpose of work? |Goodman, In Praise of a Snail’s Pace (221) |What obligation does one have to provide for oneself and one’s |On Demand Writing | |How does work define a person? |Olsen I Stand Here Ironing (224) |family? Goodman, “Company Man” | | |Auden,“The Unknown Citizen” | | | | |Conversations: Focus on Working Parents (235) | | | | | | |Editorial/ One draft | | | | |Should one parent stay at home to be the primary | | | | |caregiver for children? | |Assign Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby | |How do writers employ complex appeals to |Minimum wage |Read newspapers for positions on workplace issues in your |Panel Discussion | |advocate for workers and/or employers? Workplace safety |states. |As a group, identify an American workplace issue. | | |Gender equity |Discuss the role of the government in the workplace. |Describe the range of positions on this issue. | |How do writers define the role of the government|Illegal/Undocumented workers |In your state, how many people are employed by the government? |Should the government intervene? If so, how? If not, | |in the workplace? | | |why not? | | | |Present to the class. | | |Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby |Discuss class conflict and work as a way to move between and |Multi-draft/ peer edit | |How do writers define social class? |Miller Death of a Salesman |among classes. |Select a literary text that deals with class | |How do writers portray class conflict? | | |conflict. | |Miller Tragedy and the Common Man | |Identify the author’s attitude toward work or social | | | | |class as the defining element of identity. | | |Steinbeck, Winter of Our Discontent | |Support with evidence from the text and context. | | | | | |

Quarter Three, Part Two: Becoming an advocate for schools and self |Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How do writers define education and the role of |Shea et al. |Learn what a mission statement is |One Draft | |schools in our society or community? |Emerson, From Education (103) | |Select a school and locate its mission statement. | | Baldwin, A Talk to Teachers (123) |Visit websites |Analyze the language for what it reveals about the | | |Mori, School (130) |The Common Core |attitude of the institution toward its students, | | | |US Dept. of Education |employees, families and community. | | | |MA Dept.

Of Education | | | | |Our School Mission | | | | |College Mission Statement | | |How do writers employ complex appeals to |Shea et al. |In your states, identify issues in education. On Demand writing/SBQ | |advocate for stakeholders in school |Conversations: |In particular, look for graduation rates, drop-out rates, |What is the role of the public school in American | |communities–students, families, teachers and |Focus on the American High School (150) |bullying, standardized testing, English Language Learning, |society? | |communities? | | | | | | | |What is the responsibility of a community to its | |How do writers define the role of the government| | |public schools? | |in schools? | | | | | | |What is the future of public education in America? | |How does writing identify one as a candidate |College essays |Visit college websites |Multi-draft | |worthy of admission to college? | |Locate college applications, including the common application. |Write a college essay. |How does one employ rhetorical strategies in a | |Discuss the role of writer as significant to college | | |college essay? | |application. | | | | |Analyze the college essay prompts; what do they have in common? | | |How does a speechwriter use claims and evidence |Presidential speeches on education |Analyze education speeches for claims and evidence |SPEECH REVISION | |to advocate effectively for public education? Commencement addresses |Focus on subject, occasion, audience, purpose and tone |Multi-draft synthesis essay/ teacher conference: | | |Convocation speeches | |Revise speech to make clear claims supported by | | |Convention speeches from professional education | |evidence. | | |conferences | |Identify the connection of your topic to formal or | | |College Board 2010 | |informal education. |

Quarter Four, Part One: Presenting an argument personally |Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How does a writer explore and develop an |Shea et al. |Discuss the concerns of the communities to which|Panel discussion | |informed position on issues of local, national |Hedges From The Destruction of Culture (922) |you belong. |Form groups based on common community concerns. | |and international importance? Goldsmith National Prejudices (933) |How are they similar to and different from other|Identify the most pressing concerns of that community. | | |Woolf Thoughts on Peace in an Air Raid (935) |communities |State your group’s position on those issues. | | |Picasso Guernica (975) | |Present to the class. | |Assign memoir, blog or collection of personal essays | |How does a writer make and present a proposal |Lunsford et al. Brainstorm proposals for action within the |Multi-draft essay/ teacher conference | |for a community? |Ch. 12 Making a Proposal |school community. |As an individual or group, write a proposal for some aspect of the | | |Previous action research proposals | |school community. | | | |Research what other school communities have done| | | | |to address similar issues. |Develop an action plan. | | | | | | | | |Select or develop a feedback form | |Why does a writer choose the personal essay over|Lives essays, NYT archive |Identify personal essays / memoir as genres. |On Demand Practice | |the expository essay? |In podcast format: |Discuss how memoir can function as argument. |Alexander, M. “Fault Lines | |How can a writer use personal experience |NPR, This American Life |Analyze the implied argument in individual |Mairs, N. “ On Being a Cripple” | |persuasively? | |experience. | | | |SOAPSTONE | | | | | |Multi-draft essay/self-edit | | | | |Write a Lives Essay or record a segment in the format of This | | | | |American Life | |Assign search for video/transcript of speeches | |How does a writer educate an audience through |Kingston Woman Warrior |Analyze the implied argument in the individual |Multi-draft essay/peer edit | |memoir? |Mathabane Kaffir Boy |experience |Read and analyze a memoir or collection of personal essays. | |How can a reader gain perspective on an issue |Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings |Explore issues of immigration, bilingualism, |Respond to the text as an argument, evaluating its claims and taking| |through memoir? |Wiesel Night |feminism, apartheid, poverty, abuse of power |a position on one of its issues. | |Various memoirs such as | | | | |McCourt, Angela’s Ashes | | | | |MacDonald, All Souls | | | | |Beah, A Long Way Home | | | Quarter Four, Part Two: Presenting an argument to the community Concept/Skill |Content |Practice |Assignment/Assessment | |How does a writer prepare for a presentation? |Final Exam Speeches |Discussion of speeches for performance |SPEECH REVISION | | | |strategies |Dress rehearsal for your final speech. | | |Video of famous speeches |Practice use of various visuals: handouts, |Incorporate required visuals. | |(to be determined) |charts, overheads, PowerPoints, props and |Develop a feedback form for your audience. | | | |gestures. |Revise speech by incorporating peer and teacher feedback. | | | |SOAPSTONE | | | | |Review evaluative rubrics for feedback. | | | | |Multiple drafts/self-edit: | | |

Free Essays

Teacher Tribute

I would like to tribute this to one of my favorite teachers throughout my years at Lawrence Middle School, Mr. Hughes. The most important teacher in my life I would have to say would be my 8th grade history teacher Mr. Hughes my 8th grade history teacher. The way he taught was perfect it was easy to intake all the information’s because he would make learning the lesson fun. For example I remember we were learning about slavery and how north and south had fought, he divided the class into two one was the south and the other the north.

We had to argue and battle why we each side wanted what they want and we would have to back it up and the winning team would get money or some kid of reward. He made me look at school from a whole another perspective. If it wasn’t for him I would probably not doing so good in school an not caring about graduating. If it wasn’t for his teaching and his lectures he gave me I would not be the person I am now, nor would I have been close to graduating because before him I did not really care for school and learning. He told me so many things that you needed in life and how to become successful and the things you need to do to accomplish it.

I remember we were selling chocolate for a school fundraiser an he bought a whole box of me just to show he cared. He was an amazing teacher who i will never forget. He was the only teacher who i liked listening lectures from because he just made them so much interesting changing his voice or the tone whatever it was he needed to do to make the class stay awake an learn he did. Mr. Hughes has past way he was sick an got injured and never got better he was a very wise man. I would just like to say R. I. P Mr. Hughes the teacher who made a difference in not my life but in many more others lives and just the way life is looked upon.

He lived his life to the fullest I believe he did everything he wanted to he would always have these crazy stories he would tell us give us life lessons on what to do an the wise things. Their isn’t a day that goes by an I don’t think of him. His sense of humor which made learning so much fun. His Aphorism’s he would speak of an compare them to life. That’s why I wanted to do a tribute to him because of him being one of my favorite teachers throughout my years learning. Mr. Hughes is the most important teacher that i have had in my life.

Free Essays

Favorite Teacher

Hi! My name is Ameha Tsegai. My favorite teacher is Mrs. Magnusen. She is my favorite teacher because she has done a lot for me. She always makes teaching fun and easy. The students in her class learn faster because the way she teaches. I learn fast too because I am also in her class. She is a special teacher, and she is very nice and kind. She is a good teacher because she always makes sure everybody learned the lesson. If one student does not understand the lesson, she carefully teaches them until they understand it before moving on.

She does that because she is trying to make sure every body in our class passes the CRCT. She is a really awesome teacher. She is my math and science teacher. I love those two subjects for two reasons. The first reason I like those two subjects is because their real interesting and fun; the second reason is because she teaches it! Another reason Mrs. Magnusen is my favorite teacher is because she knows my family and culture really well. She has also tried the cultural food that the people in the country that my parents were born make.

Anyway, she is a one of a kind teacher. She is because she actually cares about if the students completely understand the lesson. Some teachers just teach the lesson and let the book teach them. Mrs. Magnusen goes beyond that point and does most of it on the board, while she’s explaining it. Mrs. Magnusen likes giving extra help to students. When a lot of students need extra help she goes on the computer, finds something that explains our lesson, and pulls it up on the promethean board.

That actually helps the students in our class because it explains the lesson step-by-step. The students can take notes on what the board is saying and study it for the next test. That way more students could pass the tests. Mrs. Magnusen also makes the class laugh. That is another good reason for her to be your favorite teacher. Sometimes in the classroom she makes jokes while no one expects it. I have one more favorite teacher. Her name is Mrs. Goff. She is also generous and kind. Her and Mrs. Magnusen are a lot alike.

Free Essays

Best Teacher

1. If my memory serves my correct, “The Best Teacher” I remember is my 5th grade teacher, Mrs. Hawthorne. She taught at Stamford Middle School in Stamford, CT. Mrs. Hawthorne was tough, patient, caring, and didn’t mind going that extra mile for any of her students education. Whether it was staying afterschool, coming to your house for parent-teacher conferences, or even buying school materials for students that couldn’t afford them. Mrs. Hawthorne, to me, was the definition of a GREAT teacher.

2. I think when I teach my philosophy of education will be more of a behaviorist. Behaviorist puts emphasis on accountability, believes in practice, practices reinenforcement, and having objectives. All of these characteristics are what I think are important in helping a student learning and successed. This is also the philosophy I think most of my past good teachers followed.

3. My “life-changing” moment that involved my education was when I first met this Bronx native Geoffrey Canada. He came to our 8th grade class to talk to us, Ive never knew of Mr. Canada before that day. His speech was so heart-felt, almost like President Obama speeches. He talked about stereotypes, the importance of studying and practice, never giving up, and never settling for just getting by. Mr. Canada was a social activist, author, educator, and now is CEO of the Harlem Children’s Zone. Harlem Children’s Zone is a group of charter schools in Harlem that focuses on combating effects of poverty and improving child/parent education. Mr. Canada has showed me that you can come from anywhere and succeed, but when you succeed you she help others strive to succeed.

Free Essays

The secret of great teachers

Long ago, famous teachers did not go to monthly seminars before they can teach. They did not prepare lesson plans every night or prepare visual aids and powerpoint presentations and sophisticated audiovisual materials to accompany their talk. Yet they were regarded as great and influential teachers of our time. Why, you want to ask. Were they simply lucky to be good at public speaking?

I’m talking about how Confucius teach, just one of the many teachers who made their names in our history not just for their teachings but for the way they reach to their audiences. All of these teachers used instructional method so that their followers can better understand and thus follow their teachings.

Confucius, in particular, used presentation (or lecture) and demonstration when he teaches. Even today, these modes of instructions are still used. Confucius believes that for his disciples and followers to understand and adopt his teachings, he must live them and be an example. Demonstration is teaching by example, and this was what Confucius did.

He also gave lectures, as this was the commonly used instructional method even before. Lectures serve well in sharing information to the audience, relaying history, theories and backgrounds and experiences. A lecture reaches a large number of people at one time.

Although lectures are usually a one-way mode of communication, Confucius allows his followers to ask him questions. Through this answer-and-question portion, which Jesus also used when teaching, the followers can gain more insight and feedback from the teacher.

Moreover, Confucius believes that through discussion he can reach to every individual he teaches. Aside from this, he knows that each person calls for different instructional approach to learn. Due to this, he used the educational approach in leading his followers towards the good life.

Confucius, Jesus and Socrates, just to name a few, saw the importance of these methods for many reasons. Socrates believed in involving his students in a dialogue to argue a point. Jesus engaged his followers in question-and-answer sessions to give and share information. They used demonstration and presentation because they are very effective, evidenced by the many people who accepted their beliefs. These people further grasped their teachings by establishing churches and religions and keeping beliefs to honor their teachers. Just the number of their followers is enough evidence to show that they have maximized the potential of the instructional method they used.

As for me, I think demonstration and presentation are very effective, whether in a classroom or domestic setting. Parents lecture their children about many things so that they learn, and they live as examples to their children by living what they preach. Even at school, these methods prove useful because students learn by what they see from their teachers.

A survey of the most effective methods for instruction to address academic differences was conducted among teachers. The majority thinks that small group/cooperative learning is the most effective method. Modeling (demonstration) is ranked second, and question and answer, group discussion, individual instruction and lecture are ranked third.

The teachers cited reasons why they think the methods are effective. First, learners have the chance to help and learn from each other throughout. This method refers to group discussions, experiments or projects. Then, teachers provide support and provide learning in different and multiple ways. They have the opportunity to share important ideas, give feedback and remediation, and help students to be on track by reinforcing structure and organization.


Treat, Alena R., Ying Wang, Rajat Chadha and Michael Hart Dixon. (2006). Major Development in Instructional Technology: Prior to the 20th Century.

Free Essays

A Worst Teacher

I have a terrible teacher in my middle school life, his name is Jian Yang. Mr. Yang was my Chinese teacher, he has model stature, but every time I bethink his face, I feel nausea. I had dreamed about him several times, his face was clearly emerging in my mind, I will never forget his pair of fierce eyes and that wicked mouth. Mr. Yang was the worst teacher in my middle school, although most my middle school’s teachers are not very good. My middle school is a private school. When I was sophomore, Mr. Yang and our Music teacher had been espousal at same year.

We all think they will have a ceremonious wedding soon. But the fact is not what we think. In Chinese school, every teacher has an assistant in each class, those assistants help teacher pick up papers and books, or take homework from us and edit then. My friend Yu was Mr. Yang’s assistant. Yu was a cute girl, she have nice voice and smooth long hair. But I detected a strange thing; every time she back to classroom from Mr. Yang’s office, her emotion had been changed, sometimes glad, sometimes displeased.

“Mr. Yang must did something to her,” I thought, anyway it’s not my business. Five years later, once all my middle school’s friends and I went to my birthday party, I began to ask our middle school career’s mysteries of the unknown. Yu began to crying, I understand why, and ask her “you cry because Mr. Yang, right? ” “Yes. ” She answered. Then I took her to side. She said as she cried “He is my boyfriend. ” I been shocked, doesn’t he have fiancee? Is this the reason why Mr. Yang and our music teacher haven’t done their wedding yet?

I have a thousand questions to ask Yu, but it isn’t right timing. Yu kept telling me, and my eyes being opened more and more large. “Wait; did you just say you went to hotel with him? ” I ask her. “Um… He also asks me some excessive demands. About…” At same time, I can’t inhibit my dander. I tried to call my friend and go find him, but Yu stopped me. “Let him go, we were just break, I believe that he won’t have a blest wedding. ” Right, I thought, he did once, and then he will do twice, until he die, he will never find true love.

Whenever I bethink of this event, I can’t stop to think and image Mr. Yang’s lousy eyes. I remember once my classmate Henry and I got a fight in second floor of our school’s hostel. This event becomes a legend in my middle school. The source of the story is, one day afternoon, my friend Bob and I were playing soccer in ours room. After 30 minute Bob has accidentally kicked our roommate Henry’s kettle. We looked at each other’s face and slackened about ten seconds, and then he hastily said, “Hide it! And never mention this kettle, or… stay it, anyway no one knows.

I nod immediately because I felt like I am an ant on a hot pan, but after half hour, this guilty feeling has gradually disappeared. “I didn’t break anything,” I thought, “but I won’t tell anyone Bob did it. ” Until to evening, we were all going to class, suddenly, a loud voice came “Who did it! Who break my kettle!? ” “No one break your kettle! Go to your sit and sit! ” our math teacher stand behind Henry and said; Henry have got to do so. After evening class, Henry walked to me and asked about his broken kettle. I pretend to do my homework and said “Don’t know.

Then I were peeping him once when he walked away. Second evening class was Mr. Yang’s Chinese class, After this period, every student began to walk back to school’s hostel; I followed people until to second floor of the hostel, a soft and cold voice came to my right ear, even I can felt that breath, “I know is you, swindler. ” “What did you just said?! ” I yelled. And then he yelled back “I know is you broke my kettle, Bob told everything to me. ” Suddenly, I felt I been insult, I lost my mind, clenched my fist and gave his nose a full power punch, and he punched back of course.

The result of this fight was disastrous, Henry’s nose bone been broke by me, and my right calf been cut and the wound is about three inches. That’s why this event becomes a legend in my middle school. We two have been taken to hospital then, two hours later we two back to our room. Henry’s bad is below mine, a kind of heavy atmosphere around this room for whole night.

At 12 o’clock Mr. Yang came to our room, he punched my right calf and yelled “you! Get up! ” And this punch such as rubbing salt in my wound. I groan out “what are you doing?! ” “What did you do,” he asked back to me, “You just broke a nose bone, don’t you know it? “I know, but he cut my leg also,” I watched his angry eyes and keep groan out; “you even don’t realize the fact and conclude it my fault? ” “The fact is you hurt Henry,” he said. I hesitate two second, it’s really my fault? Henry didn’t hurt me? I know the fact is Henry cut my calf, and Mr. Yang punched at same wound just 10 second ago. I was hardly getting up and trying to debate with Mr. Yang, “He was…” Mr. Yang interrupts my speech and yelled “You have nothing to argue, school will expel you! ” Then he shut the door hardly. I can’t believe it, he such a dictator and gave me a conviction.

While I’m thinking, Henry laughed. Then he said “deserved nemesis, you know who am I? My dad and our president are old friend. I can even call the president dad. ” I was silenced. At that time, I understood everything. I understood why Mr. Yang says that, but why does he punch my calf, will he get his wage growth up? By this point, I classify Mr. Yang is a lackey. A teacher teaches student a lot of things; include morality, not just education. You may never meet a teacher such like Mr. Yang. Something that cannot be publicity, but I must write about it. I will never meet a teacher “great” then Mr. Yang.

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Strict Teachers Produce Outstanding Students?

When coming to the discussion whether strict teachers can produce outstanding students, most of us must have our thumbs up and find it absurd and ludicrous if one claimed the famous Chinese saying is wrong. Undoubtedly, strict teachers have high expectation on their students and always demand them to do their best. Under such a strict confinement, students would become more obedient and disciplined. As a result, to a certain extent, students may have a better academic result since they follow what their teachers asked them to do.

However, what is the true meaning of “outstanding”? From my point of view, an outstanding student should not only has good academic result or discipline, but more importantly, balanced development of a student should never be neglected. Therefore, based on the above definition, I cling to the view that strict teachers do not necessarily produce outstanding students. My views will be expressed as follows. First, strict teachers always constrict students’ daily activities.

Students are requested to spend most of their time studying or doing a host of homework which are assigned by their teachers. Thus, they will have fewer chances to participate in extra-curricular activities or engage in other learning experience. This includes doing exercise or voluntary works, which are vital parts in all-round education. Students’ personal development would then be hindered and obviously, they cannot be outstanding on a social dimension. Another standpoint to be put forward is that students’ thoughts will be restricted.

Nowadays, it is not difficult to notice the significance of critical thinking among students. That’s why the latest educational reform stresses on the importance of liberal studies because the previous educational system is too exam-oriented. Yet, strict teachers would ask their students to follow what they have said and refuse all the ideas from students. In this way, students may just follow suit as they are afraid of being punished by their teachers. Hence, they cannot learn how to think critically.

This certainly violates the principle of education, let alone producing outstanding students. What is more, the harsh training methods of strict teachers, indisputably, are not suitable for all students. For students who cannot keep abreast of the progess under the harsh training, they may not be able to study efficiently and effectively. In worst case scenario, they might even give up their studies. Being too strict, therefore, cannot guarantee students to be outstanding.

It really depends on whether students themselves can accept such kind of teaching methods or not. The teaching methods of strict teachers sound powerful but dreadful at the same time. Strict teachers do not infallibly produce outstanding students. It is essential for them to strike a balance between strict and lenient so diversified development of students can be fostered. I believe that when balanced development can be achieved, an “outstanding” student would be produced.

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What makes a good teacher

Teachers play a crucial role in the continues growth of society. The goal of every teacher is to pass his/her teachings to his/her students for their personal benefit. As a student I was assigned the task of analyzing and defining the differences of a teacher and a good one, comparing the virtues of a good teacher with many others things, and making clear what a good teacher is not. In order to understand what a good teacher is, first we need to analyze what is a teacher. A teacher is an individual who can be either male or female.

A teacher is an adult who has mental ability. Teachers are individuals who have educated and prepared themselves such as going through a university degree, plus two years teachers college. Now, who is a great teacher? Being a good teacher does not ensure his or her to be a good one. Good teachers need to be wise people with enough experience and knowledge. Also, good teachers are patients and humorous with the main purpose that their teachings are easily understood by their students.

Good teachers are sociable individuals who can interact with all their students in order to understand and respect their students` opinion. Good teachers could be compared with many things in this world. Good teachers are physiologists, as they are able to deduce their students’ problems. Good teachers are similar to parents given that they play a role model for students to become very successful in their future life. Good teachers are a great source of knowledge and experience.

Good teachers are as coaches given that they encourage their students to achieve what they really want. In addition, good teachers can be considered as an encyclopedia because they have a broad knowledge, which they transmit to their students. By defining, what a good teacher is not, improve the understanding of a good teacher. Good teachers are not individuals who are only interested in making money because their commitment is to play an important role model for students.

Good teachers are not magician; they cannot do miracles to incentive the students to study as the result depends on how eager the students have to meet their goals. In addition, good teachers are not robots because they also can get tired and have problems as students do. In conclusion, there are many differences between a teacher and a good one. However, the major task of a good teacher is to guide their students through the right path in order to make the students become successful in their future life.

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Why Do I Want to Become a Teacher

All of my experience for the past 10 years since I have been in USA led me to realizing that I am passionate about teaching and working with children. I migrated to this country from Slovak Republic right after graduating from Comenius University with the major in Biochemistry. Being only 22 years old I wanted to experience some adventure before getting the regular 9-5 job at some Research Laboratory. I signed up for a Summer Program with YMCA and came to Poland, Maine as a summer camp counselor. The environment was just beautiful.

These little wooden cabins located on a beautiful Lake Sebago. That’s where my passion for working with children began. I was spending that summer with kids who were coming from broken and low income families from outside of Boston. I was responsible for a group of young girls, 7-10 years old. I and the girls bonded really quickly. Every day was different. Different fun, different drama, different atmosphere. And I loved every minute of it. I loved being creative with all kinds of activities, I loved being a leader who the girls looked up to and we had tremendous fun.

I felt like I was making a difference in those children’s lives. At least for those few summer months those girls felt safe, nurtured and cared for. And I felt fulfilled and useful. After few years working in customer service I returned back to working with children. This time I took on a nanny job. I again experienced creating a strong bond with the boys I was taking care of. Their parents were divorced and the boys were switching between the two households each week. I felt that I brought a sense of calm and peacefulness to their lives.

I lead them through their homework, different projects, we did all kinds of activities but most importantly we were having good and memorable time. Once they got older and got busier with their school and afterschool activities I had more time on my hands so I took it a step further and started tutoring chemistry and science. That`s where I felt the strongest fulfillment. To see my students succeed was the biggest satisfaction and I immediately knew that I wanted to become a teacher.

I think teaching is adventurous, challenging, exciting job and personally very rewarding career. Working with students, every day is different; there is no room for routine or boredom. I am passionate about science and I want to share my knowledge with students. I have to say that I came a long way. It took me little longer than it takes other people to figure out “what do I want to be” but I feel positive and happy about my decision and cannot wait to step into a real classroom as a new teacher one day.

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What Disciplinary Sanctions Should Teachers Be Allowed to Use?

In earlier centuries, physical punishment was a common thing. Teachers would use a cane to hurt their students when they misbehaved, even more extremely teachers would have their children kneel on the ground with their hands in the air for an hour to cause them considerable pain in places such as Africa. However, now these types of punishments are seen as immoral and unthinkable by parents and teachers. Students are now punished with detentions and notes to their parents which although less severe is arguably a better and more popular policy for schools.

Firstly, hitting as a disciplinary sanction should not be allowed by teachers because it does not teach children anything. School is designed to teach children the skills they will need as a grown up which includes knowing right from wrong. Hitting as a punishment does not teach this lesson because the child will only fear pain the next time, instead of understanding that what they did was unacceptable, and this means that they can not advance intellectually. Furthermore, hitting is wrong because it is hurting children. A lot of the time, naughty behaviour stems from problems at home which children usually cannot prevent from happening.

So hitting leave children feeling more despondent and confused when they should be getting help from their school. Teachers can also so easily go to far when they are hitting children, and even if guidelines are put for how long or for what reason a child should be hit, there is no way we can monitor the teachers. Therefore hitting can not be a long term or safe way to bring up school children well. However, some argue that hitting as a disciplinary action should be brought back because detentions and other types of modern day punishments are just not good enough.

Surely making them feel fear before doing a naughty thing, will eventually condition them to realise that doing certain things are bad because you will be severely punished? Moreover there are some students who are too naughty for other less severe punishments and therefore hitting is the only way to get them to behave. The more modern disciplinary sanction of detentions are an arguably much better form of punishment for all students because it forces them to stay in school one hour longer than usual. Most children can not wait to get out of school so that they can go out with their friends.

Therefore staying behind at school makes children feel left out and this will arguably stop them from doing a naughty thing because they would not want to stay in school when they could be with having fun with their friends. Furthermore, other methods such as being hit by your teacher can not be made aware to the parents as easily as getting detention after school can. In most cases a letter is sent home, but even if one isn’t, the parents would notice the lateness of the student and would eventually find out.

Students would have to deal with their parent’s punishment for getting a detention coupled with the school punishment and this all means that a repeat offence should be much less likely. However this is not practically the case because detentions simply are not severe enough to stop exceptionally naught children from misbehaving. Children are easily able to fabricate lies for their parents and never have them no about the hour they had to spend at school doing homework or even being with their friends who got detention as well.

Detention, nowadays, is more of an annoying chore than anything to really avoid by students. Recently there have been studies showing a huge increase in the amount of swearing and abusive behaviour in classrooms in poorer areas of Greater London. It is imperative that we have proper sanctions for these students because without it a naughty student will continue his or her bad behaviour onto the street and this could result in terrible consequences.

So, arguably the method of detention is a weak way of punishment because it is not harsh enough to stop children being naughty but at the moment there seems to be no other relatively effective way to punish children. In conclusion, hitting is seen mainly by all as inhumane and unnecessary for the development of children and simply too severe. Detention similarly is seen as a waste of time, ineffective and just not severe enough. Therefore, it is crucial that schools come up with a new modern disciplinary sanction that has the right amount of severity to be able to combat the raising number of naughty children in certain schools.

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Lack of Qualified Teachers Can Impede the Educational Progress

This paper provides information about the requirement of qualified teachers for minorities. The issue of the distribution of knowledgeable and highly skilled teachers is also discussed in this paper. The emphasis is made on the need of highly qualified teachers for minor students to get the equal educational opportunity.

Highly qualified teachers are essential for the academic growth of students. Unfortunately, minorities are not receiving high quality education. For example, in California, there are several schools in which number of minor students is very high. These schools are low-income schools. It is also found that approximately 40,000 teachers go to their respective classrooms without doing necessary lecture preparation (Shields et al. 2001).

As already known that highly qualified teachers are essential for student learning, there is a major threat towards to access of high quality education and thus the minor students are at greater risk to have equality educational opportunity (Wright, Horn, & Sanders, 1997)

California is the state in which the number of students is the maximum among all the states but it is ranked 38th when California is considered in terms of expenditures per student. It is also found that several under qualified teachers were employed in California in schools populated with minorities in 1990s because funding was very less for those schools. The California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) found out in 1998 that

The gap in expenditures for education between the high-spending and low-spending school districts in our state . . . has risen to $4,480. . . . Perhaps the most disturbing part of this statewide picture is that many of the disparities noted above are consistently and pervasively related to the socioeconomic and racial-ethnic composition of the student bodies in school as well as the geographical location of schools.

That is, schools in our low socioeconomic communities as well as our neighborhoods with a predominance of Black and Latino families often have dilapidated facilities, few or inadequate science laboratories, teachers in secondary schools providing instruction in classes for which they have no credential, curriculum that is unimaginative and boring, and teachers who change schools yearly and lack the professional development to complement their teaching with new instructional strategies and materials. (CPEC, 1998, p. 29)

Distinct inequality in progressing in education can be seen in schools populated with majority of minor students. This is due to the employment of under qualified teachers. Minor students are at greater risk to grow. It is also found that most of the schools populated with high-density of minor students have under qualified teachers. In other words, under qualified teachers are employed most to the schools with high density of minor students (Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2000)

Whereas affluent schools do not possess a high number of under qualified teachers. Students with low socioeconomic status are more likely to have under qualified teachers and thus their academic achievements are also low. Pace (2000) did an analysis of this situation and stated: ‘‘Over the past six years, this relationship (between socio-economic measures and achievement scores) has strengthened, not diminished.’’


The United States is in great need of highly qualified teachers for minor students too to bring them forward in all the fields of life.


California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC). (1998, December). Toward a greater understanding of the state’s educational equity policies, programs, and practices (Commission Report 98-5). Sacramento: Author.

Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE). (2000). Crucial issues in California education 2000: Are the reform pieces fitting together? Berkeley: Author.

Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2000). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement (Working paper No. 6691). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Shields, P. M., Humphrey, D. C., Wechsler, M. E., Riel, L. M., Tiffany-Morales, J., Woodworth, K., Youg, V. M., & Price, T. (2001). The status of the teaching profession 2001. Santa Cruz, CA: The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning.

Wright, S. P., Horn, S. P., & Sanders, W. L. (1997). Teacher and classroom context effects on student achievement: Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 11, 57–67.



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Teachers Responsibility Should Be Replaced by Robots

TEACHERS’ RESPONSIBILITIES SHOULD BE REPLACED BY ROBOTS For ages, human beings learn from teachers over the world to live their life. They learn how to read, to count and even to speak. However, certain parties have recently proposed that the teachers responsibilities should be replaced by robots; the fully programmed machines. People with sound mind and wise thinking would strongly believe that the proposal is ridiculous. They are totally opposed this issue in terms of reducing the quality of human touch, increasing number of unemployment and wasting money.

Naturally, robots cannot replace human beings as teachers because they do not have what human have; feeling, passion, love and determination. So, let us turn back to the purpose of school in the first place. It is not only about passing the examination or obtaining good grades, but it is about becoming a good Samaritan as whole. If we pull out the presence of teachers in class, the spiritual and emotional quotient of the students would be disturbed by this action. It is a big waste to produce human capital without human value that can distinguish them from the machines.

Equally important, increasing number of the unemployment will also take place. In the country itself, we are facing with the situation where a lot of people are unemployed. By replacing the teachers with robots, it will exacerbate the condition. The principle of utilitarianism should be applied as to reduce the problem of unemployment. Presently, if the government were to purchase the robots, and to replace the teachers, the compensation money that should be paid to the teachers is too costly for the government.

Even after purchasing all the robots, the government will still need to pay for the monthly maintenance of those robots. Isn’t that consumed more money? Many would say that by having robots as teachers in school, the education system would be standardized. No more good and bad teachers. However, this misconception should be tied off quickly. The system that is programmed to the robots, is not sufficient to cater all types of student as in reality we have excellent, average and weak students in our schools.

This is a very serious issue that will need an extra attention from the government before accepting the proposal. All in all, it is strongly believed that teachers responsibility should not be replaced by the robots because they are lack of human touch, exacerbate the matter of unemployment plus it will be a waste of money. Thus, in order to have a better education system, we should have a good quality teacher that owns the x-factor to teach the students to become a perfect human beings as whole.

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Teacher Descriptive Essay

Lily Campbell Block 3 Mr. Watrous 18 September 2012 Who is Mr. Watrous? When we initially meet someone, we immediately tend to judge by physical appearance. This is somewhat of a natural instinct, although the way someone looks does not necessarily reflect the individual’s true self. When I first strolled into Mr. Watrous’s classroom, my first impression was that he’d be a stern, serious teacher. Soon after I heard him speak to our class, and even more after having him for a few blocks, I found that he is an amiable and whimsical man.

My first impression of Mr. Watrous is nothing at all as his true personality. He’s actually quite an interesting teacher and very different from the majority. Mr. Watrous appears to be middle aged, as his dark brown, short hair is filling in with gray. He doesn’t seem to have wrinkles. Instead he has a clear, healthy looking face, impressive green eyes, and dark stubble from his beard. He’s about medium height for an adult man and has a thin, yet muscular frame. Mr. Watrous dresses different than most teachers at Central West.

His most stylish outfits consist of “tablecloth” print, button up shirts, green pants, and two-inch heeled shoes. But what he regularly wears are collared or button up shirts, jeans, and dress shoes. In my opinion, Mr. Watrous’s appearance makes him appear as a strong, harsh kind of guy. But in reality, he’s far from that. In class Mr. Watrous is a mixture of both formal and informal. When lecturing, or directly asking questions he speaks and behaves quite formal. However, when he casually speaks with a student he’s more informal.

Outside of the classroom Mr. Watrous’s speech is Campbell 2 more informal with the use of a lot of slang. For example, he refers to the people he’s speaking to as “man” often, despite their gender, as part of his normal vocabulary. In our class Mr. Watrous acts as he wants the best possible out of us. He seems really focused on preparing us for the future. He talks to us about college and our future constantly. He also teaches us the importance of speaking in formal and informal manner, and indirectly teaches us life lessons.

One example I’ll never forget was that on the first day of school he assigned an almost impossible task of answering about 40 questions in 15 minutes, in attempt to teach us that we need to speak up and recognize ridiculous tasks requested of us. It seems that Mr. Watrous’s thoughts are really clever and strategic. Yet, when one asks him to describe how he thinks he says little of it is based on logic and he usually just ends up going with his gut. This is consistent with how Mr.

Watrous teaches, he presents himself as a really smart, all-knowing guy, but as he’s teaching he is thinking of new things to say. In our classroom Mr. Watrous thinks a lot about his students and how to help them succeed, but outside of school he has more important priorities. He owns an art gallery and ranch, plus he has a family. Mr. Watrous probably thinks about his ranch very often since it needs maintenance. Since he is an artist, he is very creative, I’m sure he is constantly thinking of new things to paint. Just like any other husband/father Mr.

Watrous is going to constantly think about his family. Students look up to Mr. Watrous and treat him very respectfully. He is appreciated by his students who trust him, and want to learn from him. Students will joke around with Mr. Watrous since he’ll joke around with us often also. Mr. Watrous treats his student in a respectful manner. Although he will be honest, and tell someone what is exactly on his mind. He holds our class up to high standards and wants us to be the best possible. If a student says “Um” he’ll mock them Campbell 3 very single time, hoping that we will eventually stop being unsure of ourselves and think before we talk. He does this so we will think before we speak and not be unsure or ourselves. Mr. Watrous is a different kind of teacher, but in a good way. His appearance is deceiving since he looks scary and mean. He’s really actually super nice and a laid back teacher. He acts different in his classroom and home settings. As a teacher his interest is in what’s best for his students. His students realize that so they respect and appreciate him very much.

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Teacher Work Sample Part 7

Teacher work Sample: Standard 7 Lauren M. Evins EED/495 May 13, 2012 Professor Mark McCall Teacher Work Sample: Standard 7 Standard 7: Reflections and Self-Evaluation In the education profession, it is necessary for teachers to create lesson plans that adhere to national, state, and district learning standards. The ability to successfully create and implement these lessons that have goals and specific learning objectives is the responsibility of the teacher. A way to evaluate the success of your instructional skills is through reflection and self-evaluation. Reflecting on your own teaching, shortcomings as well as successes, is a way to make sense of your own experiences and to gain perspective on the day-to-day workings of your own classroom. ” A reflection and self-evaluation will be listed for this Teacher Work Sample. , which will include an analysis of instructional and student learning, and the effectiveness of teacher instruction. Throughout the implementation of my lessons from the Teacher Work Sample the lessons that contributed the most to student learning were the activities that required students to apply their knowledge in activities.

These activities include the vocabulary words used in a sentence, the group discussion that allowed students to build on each other’s responses and knowledge, and the group projects that were a collaboration of student creativity. Some of the greatest barriers to achieving the desired learning results were overcoming the additional background knowledge that was needed to teach the unit lessons, which would consequentially be a need for improvement in the pre-assessment and the analysis of the pre-assessment.

One factor that would be done to improve the acquisition of the desired learning results and improving student learning would be to spend more time reviewing supplemental and background information for the unit prior to introducing the unit, and creating a more detailed rubric that analyzed students’ prior knowledge. The repeated interruptions and deviations that were taken during lessons required additional modifications in instructional time management and steering the lesson back on path of the learning goals and objectives.

Reviewing the seven standards listed in this Teacher Work Sample emphasized key areas of strengths and weaknesses. The strengths of the work sample included Contextual Factors, Learning Goals and Objectives, and Design for Instruction. These strengths allowed a successful creation of goals and objectives that were aligned with Florida State Standards and were achieved with the majority of the student population, as seen in the Analysis of Learning Results.

The ability to properly gather data and information in the Contextual Factors helped understand why some students had prior knowledge of Native Americans and why other students has less prior knowledge. The Design for Instruction was implemented with little to no problems; however, the flaws in instruction did not occur from the design they occurred from the Assessment Plan, which was a weakness and needed additional improvement.

The Instructional Decision-Making was also a weakness in that student learning responses were not as anticipated regarding Native American background information and an additional need for improvement would include reacting and modifying lessons without deviating greatly from the original goals and objectives. My professional knowledge and skills were adequate to teach this unit, but my performance would have been enhanced if I had better analyzed the pre-assessment that was given at the beginning of the unit.

As a professional, I would need to improve my ability to read and analyze assessment results, which could be the difference in student achievement and failure. The most significant learning insight achieved from this unit would be the understanding that despite detailed planning and instructional preparation, modifications in instruction will always arise and it is the teachers responsibility to make the necessary deviations but maintain the unit’s goals and objectives.

In general, my analysis and self-reflection would e considered a success with minor weaknesses that would need improvement through workshops, training seminars, and/or with an experienced teacher’s help. Reference Module 6: Assessing teaching and learning. (2006). Retrieved May 12, 2012 from http://www. league. org/gettingresults/web/module6/teaching/teacher_reflections. html

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Teacher and Lesson Plan

Write a Lesson Plan Guide How to Develop a Lesson Plan We have received several questions regarding how to write a good lesson plan. We went ahead and asked our experts, did some research, and have included some tips and guidelines below. To begin, ask yourself three basic questions: Where are your students going? How are they going to get there? How will you know when they’ve arrived? Then begin to think about each of the following categories which form the organization of the plan. While planning, use the questions below to guide you during each stage.

Goals Goals determine purpose, aim, and rationale for what you and your students will engage in during class time. Use this section to express the intermediate lesson goals that draw upon previous plans and activities and set the stage by preparing students for future activities and further knowledge acquisition. The goals are typically written as broad educational or unit goals adhering to State or National curriculum standards. What are the broader objectives, aims, or goals of the unit plan/curriculum? What are your goals for this unit?

What do you expect students to be able to do by the end of this unit? Objectives This section focuses on what your students will do to acquire further knowledge and skills. The objectives for the daily lesson plan are drawn from the broader aims of the unit plan but are achieved over a well defined time period. What will students be able to do during this lesson? Under what conditions will students’ performance be accomplished? What is the degree or criterion on the basis of which satisfactory attainment of the objectives will be judged?

How will students demonstrate that they have learned and understood the objectives of the lesson? Prerequisites Prerequisites can be useful when considering the readiness state of your students. Prerequisites allow you, and other teachers replicating your lesson plan, to factor in necessary prep activities to make sure that students can meet the lesson objectives. What must students already be able to do before this lesson? What concepts have to be mastered in advance to accomplish the lesson objectives? Materials

This section has two functions: it helps other teachers quickly determine a) how much preparation time, resources, and management will be involved in carrying out this plan and b) what materials, books, equipment, and resources they will need to have ready. A complete list of materials, including full citations of textbooks or story books used, worksheets, and any other special considerations are most useful. What materials will be needed? What textbooks or story books are needed? (please include full bibliographic citations) What needs to be prepared in advance? (typical for science classes and cooking or baking activities)

Lesson Description This section provides an opportunity for the author of the lesson to share some thoughts, experience, and advice with other teachers. It also provides a general overview of the lesson in terms of topic focus, activities, and purpose. What is unique about this lesson? How did your students like it? What level of learning is covered by this lesson plan? (Think of Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation. ) Lesson Procedure This section provides a detailed, step-by-step description of how to replicate the lesson and achieve lesson plan objectives.

This is usually intended for the teacher and provides suggestions on how to proceed with implementation of the lesson plan. It also focuses on what the teacher should have students do during the lesson. This section is basically divided into several components: an introduction, a main activity, and closure. There are several elaborations on this. We have linked to some sample lesson plans to guide you through this stage of planning. ! Introduction How will you introduce the ideas and objectives of this lesson? How will you get students’ attention and motivate them in order to hold their attention?

How can you tie lesson objectives with student interests and past classroom activities? What will be expected of students? ! Main Activity What is the focus of the lesson? How would you describe the flow of the lesson to another teacher who will replicate it? What does the teacher do to facilitate learning and manage the various activities? What are some good and bad examples to illustrate what you are presenting to students? How can this material be presented to ensure each student will benefit from the learning experience? Rule of Thumb # 1: Take into consideration what students are learning (a ew skill, a rule or formula, a concept/fact/idea, an attitude, or a value). Choose one of the following techniques to plan the lesson content based on what your objectives are: Demonstration ==> list in detail and sequence of the steps to be performed Explanation explained Discussion discussion ! ==> outline the information to be ==> list of key questions to guide the Closure/Conclusion What will you use to draw the ideas together for students at the end? How will you provide feedback to students to correct their misunderstandings and reinforce their learning? ! Follow up Lessons/Activities

What activities might you suggest for enrichment and remediation? What lessons might follow as a result of this lesson? Assessment/Evaluation This section focuses on ensuring that your students have arrived at their intended destination. You will need to gather some evidence that they did. This usually is done by gathering students’ work and assessing this work using some kind of grading rubric that is based on lesson objectives. You could also replicate some of the activities practiced as part of the lesson, without providing the same level of guidance as during the lesson.

You could always quiz students on various concepts and problems as well. How will you evaluate the objectives that were identified? Have students practiced what you are asking them to do for evaluation? Rule of Thumb # 2: Be sure to provide students with the opportunity to practice what you will be assessing them on. You should never introduce new material during this activity. Also, avoid asking higher level thinking questions if students have not yet engaged in such practice during the lesson. For example, if you expect students to apply knowledge and skills, they should first be provided with the opportunity to practice pplication. Sample Lesson Plans from the Educator’s Reference Desk Collection Subject Sample Lesson Plan from the Educator’s Reference Desk Collection Arts A Line is a Dot That Went For a Walk Computer Science SimCity and PowerPoint Foreign Language Minimal Pairs Bingo! Health SunSmart Information Literacy Teaching Internet Library Instruction Sessions in the Electronic Classroom: The Adult Learner, the Internet, and Training Skills & Teaching Styles Interdisciplinary Who am I? Language Arts The Sounds of “EA” Mathematics Find a Pattern with “One Grain of Rice” Philosophy Plato’s Allegory of the Cave Physical Education

Basketball Golf Science The Notion of Motion Social Studies Crisis in the Balkans Vocational Education Theme Meal Please note that there are many other exemplary lesson plans that could not be included here due to space limitations. However, you may access them at the Educator’s Reference Desk home page. General Rule of Thumb: Your plan should be detailed and complete enough so that another teacher knowledgeable in your subject matter could deliver the lesson without needing to contact you for further clarifications. Please do not forget to edit and spell check your work before submission to the Educator’s Reference Desk Collection.

Resources for Lesson Plan Ideas The GatewaySM Collections List http://www. thegateway. org/collections. html PBS TeacherSource A large collection of lesson plans, teacher guides, and online student activities correlated to 90 sets of state and national curriculum standards. http://www. pbs. org/teachersource/ Discovery Channel School http://school. discovery. com/ Best of Education World® 2002 http://www. education-world. com/best_of/2002/ Education World® – Lesson Planning Center http://www. education-world. com/a_lesson/ Education World® – National Standards http://www. education-world. com/standards/national/index. html This guide was written by Manal El-Tigi, Ph. D. , Department of Instructional Design, Development, and Evaluation – Syracuse University. She was one of the principal editors and reviewers of the AskERIC Lesson Plan Collection from 1996 – 2000. References Teacher Education Module Series. Develop a Lesson Plan, Module B-4 of Category B–Instructional Planning (1977). Ohio State Univ. , Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education. ED149062 – An ERIC Document Created December 1, 1999; Last Updated December 20, 2003 Created December 1, 1999; Last Updated December 20, 2003

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Teacher Motivation and Its Effect on the Academic Achievement

Fall 2011 Gender differences on Intrinsic Motivation in Hong Kong Higher Education Hon Keung Yau Man Shan Kan City University of Hong Kong Alison Lai Fong Cheng Abstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate if there are different levels of intrinsic motivation towards study, curiosity and external regulation among males and females. This study focuses are attained by conducting a survey (137 students) among a local university in Hong Kong. Results show that among all students, no matter males or females, their levels of intrinsic motivation towards study, curiosity and external are the same.

Burger, Dahlgren, and MacDonald (2006) found that male have higher intrinsic motivation to gamble when compared with female. Another study shows that masculine students have higher intrinsic motivation than feminine students when responding to competition (Conti, Collins, & Picariello, 2001). However, when talking about intrinsic motivation to study, will the result of comparing males and females still be the same? Most Hong Kong people spend more than twenty years to learn as much knowledge as they can to get high academic qualifications.

Among all students, there is a question of how students can gain more than others when learning in the same learning environment, and whether either one gender has higher intrinsic motivation towards learning. Motivation is an essential element to directly affect students’ learning and performances. Some students may feel that they are not active but under obligation to learn. It is due to lack of motivation in learning, which would not result in good performance. According to Olsson (2008, p. 7), motivation is a reason or set or reasons for engaging in a specific activity, especially human behavior.

The reasons can be basic needs, an object or a goal. Self-determination theory (SDT) by Deci and Ryan (1985, 1991) is currently the most comprehensive theories of motivation with empirical support. According to SDT, intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence (Xie, Debacker, & Ferguson, 2006). It is the degree to which an individual chooses to accomplish an activity for pleasure and enjoyment (Olsson, 2008, p. 2). e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 3 Fall 2011 This type of motivation is known as the most optimal kind of motivation as being entirely autonomous (Noel, Clement, & Pelletier, 2001; Remedios, & Lieberman, 2008; Gao, 2008). Students with intrinsic motivation complete tasks for fun or challenge instead of external stimuli, pressures, or rewards. They often have more interest, confidence and excitement in doing the task. According to Brophy (2010), intrinsic motivation emphasizes on motivation as selfdetermination of goals and self-regulation of actions rather than motivation as response to felt pressures.

In view of this emphasis of intrinsic motivation, this project tries to investigate different aspects affecting students’ learning so that their self-regulation of actions can be improved and learn without pressure. With this improvement, their academic performance can be enhanced at the same time. As few studies have focus of gender difference on intrinsic motivation for Hong Kong students, this study conducted in a local university in Hong Kong tries to investigate if either one gender possesses higher level of intrinsic motivation.

According to Narayanan, Rajasekaran, and Iyyappan (2007), females have higher intrinsic motivation in learning English than males among engineering university students. Meanwhile, another research by Shang (1998), it was found that females have lower intrinsic motivation in physical education classes than males. A study by Schatt in 2011 focusing on subject of music found that female students have higher instrumental musical practice rate than males while the amount of time spent on practice correlated significantly with intrinsic motivational beliefs.

It raises a question whether females possess higher intrinsic motivation, which is investigated in this paper. In view that Ning and Downing (2010) have conducted a research study among 581 university students in Hong Kong and found that student motivation is the strongest predictor to their academic performance while few attempts to investigate more specific factors such as curiosity and external regulation that whether they affect intrinsic motivation among university students in Hong Kong, the relationship between these factors and intrinsic motivation are deeply investigated so as to improve student intrinsic motivation.

Also, whether males or females would have higher level of intrinsic motivation is also studied. These serve as the purpose of this paper. We attempt to fill the research gap by asking the following research questions: 64 e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 Fall 2011 (1) Is there any difference in the level of intrinsic motivation towards learning between males and females for Hong Kong university students? (2) Is there any difference in the level of curiosity between males and females for Hong Kong university students? 3) Is there any difference in the level of external regulation between males and females for Hong Kong university students? These questions are answered by conducting a quantitative survey among a local university in Hong Kong. The result indicates that there is no difference in the level of curiosity, external regulation or intrinsic motivation towards learning between males and females. The result implies that students, no matter males or females, their likeliness to be motivated to work tend to be the same.

Theory Background and Hypothesis Gender affects the skills or traits people find fascinating or personally relevant (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2003). It implies that different genders tend to have different perception and thoughts. Different gender may thus be destined to have different level of intrinsic motivation. In this fast-paced society, people need to have high competitiveness, wide range of knowledge and high capabilities in order to achieve eminent performance. Students having good academic performance were found to have higher intrinsic motivation.

In this research, the focus is to find out if there is any difference regarding the level of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation between males and females. Students in a local Hong Kong university are the targeted group. Differences in Gender Most of the previous researches are apt to suggest that female have higher motivation and more desirable learning than male students. Narayanan, Rajasekaran, & Iyyappan (2007) found that female university students studying Engineering or Technology have higher motivation in learning English than males.

It was concluded that female students studying learn English better than male students (Narayanan, Rajasekaran, & Iyyappan, 2007). Further to the explanation provided by Narayanan, Rajasekaran, and Iyyappan (2007), female have better listening skills, more concerned with input, i. e. listening, and tend to have better attitudes towards learning. Contrarily, male are less sensitive, more concerned with output, i. e. talking, and think in a more analytical way than female.

These may be reasons explaining e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 65 Fall 2011 why females perform better in learning. It should be noted that the above research is for university students learning English. There is a research focusing on another subject, music, conducted by Schatt (2011). The study showed that female students have higher instrumental musical practice rate than males while the amount of time spent on practice correlated significantly with intrinsic motivational beliefs.

Motivational beliefs are guides of students’ thinking, feelings and actions in learning some subject areas and they can lead to success in learning (Boekaerts, 2002; Clayton, Blumberg & Auld, 2010). Another research focusing on subject of physical education, the result is different. One study by Shang (1998) in Taiwan focusing on physical education classes in high and also junior high school, it was found that female students have lower intrinsic motivation which is relevant to their interest or enjoyment and perceived competence than male students in most of the sub-scale of the study, but have higher effort put into the learning tasks.

It not only proves that learning environment is different for male and female students, but it also emphasizes that males perceive the learning environment as more challenging and competitive while females perceive higher threat than males in physical education classes (Shang, 1998). From several researchers investigating the levels of intrinsic motivation of students on different subjects, it resulted in different genders having higher intrinsic motivation towards various subjects. Therefore, it should not have any conclusion saying that a particular gender is inclined to have higher motivation on all subjects.

Based on the above evidence, the study hypothesized: Hypothesis 1 (H1): There should have no difference between males and females on the level of intrinsic motivation. Curiosity Curiosity is defined as the intrinsic desire to know, to see, or to experience that motivates information seeking behavior (Zelick, 2007, p. 147). Acquiring knowledge out of curiosity is considered to be intrinsically rewarding and highly pleasurable since it eliminates states of ignorance and uncertainty (Litman, 2005). There are not so many literature reviews regarding gender difference in the level of curiosity.

In a previous study, it was found that males possess higher level of curiosity than females. This study was conducted among Israeli college students while there is no significant e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 66 Fall 2011 difference for the level of curiosity among American college student (Ben-Zur, & Zeidner, 1988). According to another study by Engelhard and Monsaas (1988), it shows that no significant gender difference was found among the urban elementary school students.

It was also discovered by Sanders, Driscoll, Dixon, Pendergrass and Scales (2004) that there is no significant gender difference among middle school students either. From the above evidence, it is believed that there should be no gender difference in the level of curiosity among the Hong Kong university students. As a result of the literature review elaborated above, the second hypothesis was: Hypothesis 2 (H2): Both genders possess equal level of curiosity. External Regulation External regulation is the most pressured and controlled type of motivation (Vansteenkiste, Sierens, Soenens, Luyckx, & Lens, 2009; Olsson, 2008, p. 47). Externally regulated students study for avoiding punishment, to obtain rewards or to meet external expectations (Vansteenkiste, Sierens, Soenens, Luyckx, & Lens, 2009; Xie, Debacker, & Ferguson, 2006; Olsson, 2008, p. 147). They feel that they are obliged to study. With the external pressured contingencies, they are mentally pushed to put effort into their studies. It is also indicated by Bowman (2007) that rewards and incentives provided by teachers can be used as tools to motivate students in their learning and achieve their goals.

For the wording of external to describe the external regulation, its source can still be internal. For instance, students can push themselves by studying with feelings of guilt, shame and anxiety. It can also be positive feelings of pride and ego enhancement. When students are externally regulated through some internal sources, this type of external regulation is labeled to be introjected regulation. Another research by Olsson (2008) stated that externally regulated people carry out internalization and integration of their behavior. It will form introjected regulation.

He also agreed that their behavior is related to or enforced by the expectations of self-approval or avoiding guilt and anxiety. This type of behavior has external locus of causality. With the internalization and integration of behavior becoming more advanced, it will shift to identified regulation and people will have perception of internal locus of causality. There is limited literature reviews regarding the gender difference on the level of external e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 67 Fall 2011 regulation.

One study by Agina, Kommers, Steehouder (2011) discovered that gender has no effect on the level of external regulation one possesses. That means there is no particular gender possessing higher level of external regulation. Another study by Balaguer, Castillo and Duda (2007) focusing on sport motivation found that female athletes have lower level of external regulation. Since the latter one pertains to learning and doing sport while the former one pertains to the targeted students’ external regulation in learning, it is believed that there is no gender difference in the level of external regulation among Hong Kong university students.

Based on the above evidence, the third proposed hypothesis was: Hypothesis 3 (H3): Both genders possess equal level of external regulation. In this study, three elements were analyzed. They are curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation. Their levels within both genders are investigated. Hong Kong Learning Environment and Education System Students in Hong Kong need to study with intense academic competition owing to the commercialization of education and rapid expansion of tertiary education (Gao, 2008).

Although the increased number of universities may ease the academic competition for higher education places. The number of unemployed university graduate is also increased. Students in Hong Kong learn in a highly competitive, examination oriented and large classes with excessive amount of homework (Moneta & Siu, 2002). Moreover, English is widely regularly promoted to be essential for individuals’ social and career development (Gao, 2008; Davison & Lai, 2007). English is the medium of instruction among all universities in Hong Kong.

These are the characteristics of Hong Kong education system, which tends to requires students remembering all knowledge and apply all the knowledge on the paper for the examination. Hong Kong Students may always have surface learning that they will engage in the shortcuts allowed in some courses and attain till the end without deeper understanding (Moneta, & Siu, 2002). There are eight universities in Hong Kong governed by the University Grants Council (UGC), which has an international membership.

UGC has been assigned to ensure all standards and maintain the independence of Hong Kong universities after the handover to China (Kember & Leung, 2011). All universities were founded while Hong Kong was a British colony. They e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 68 Fall 2011 are consistent with UK standards and practices. Also, owing to the importance of globalization and student exchange among the education, some top Hong Kong universities have been highly international in the outlook and can be compared with any other good universities in other countries.

For Hong Kong education system, most university students are Chinese and aged from 18 to 22. Positive Relationship between Intrinsic motivation and Academic Performance According to a study conducted by Ning and Downing (2010) in Hong Kong focusing on investigating the relationship between intrinsic motivation and academic performance among university students, it was found that the relationship is positive. Also, another research by Afzal, Ali, Khan, and Hamid (2010) among 342 university students in Pakistan generates the same findings that intrinsic motivation can promote more optimal learning and better academic performance.

In view of these result, intrinsic motivation should be promoted for the sake of student academic performance. Research Methods Survey research among university students is used in this study to test the hypotheses stated above since questionnaire as an instrument for studying research problems is a survey tool for collecting data from people about themselves such as attitudes, thoughts, behaviors; or concerning a social unit such as a school (Lanthier, 2002; Siniscalco, & Auriat, 2005). The research was completed in three universities in Hong Kong.

Before the survey is mass produced and used to gather real data, pilot study was carried out to disclose problems and refine the wording, ordering, etc (Litwin, 1995; Hoinville, Jowell & Associates, 1978). Ten of my friends are asked to complete the questionnaires and give feedback independently about the questionnaires. The survey was then conducted by distributing questionnaires with covering letter explaining the purpose of the research to the university students individually. The questionnaire was averagely completed within 10 minutes.

Subsequently, 200 questionnaires were given out to undergraduates from various universities in Hong Kong. A total of 137 responses (with a return rate of 68. 5 per cent) were achieved, and the usability rate was 100 per cent since no incomplete questionnaires were found. There are nine statements (Table 1) for three variables: curiosity (Mot_3, Mot_5, Mot_6, e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 69 Fall 2011 Mot_7 and Mot_8), external regulation (Mot_1 and Mot_2) and intrinsic motivation (Motivator_3 and Motivator_4).

Those statements were taken from three questionnaires from three journals (Albrecht, Haapanen, Hall, & Mantonya, 2009; Vansteenkiste, Sierens, Soenens, Luyckx, & Lens, 2009; Lepper, Corpus, & Iyengar, 2005). 4-point Likert-type scale which is common rating format especially for educational survey research was assigned to all statements (Siniscalco, & Auriat, 2005; Allen, & Seaman, 2007). Removing mid-point category from Likert scale can reduce social desirability bias arising from respondents (Garland, 1991). Statements in questionnaire were ranked at (1) Very True, (2) Sort of True, (3) Not Very True and (4) Not At All True.

Table 1. Statements for Three Variables Variables Curiosity Statements Mot_3 – I work hard in some courses because this represents a meaning choice for me. Mot_5 – I work hard in some courses because I think I can apply what I learn to my future career. Mot_6 – I work hard in some courses because I want to learn new things. Mot_7 – I work hard in some courses because good results in school can help me get a better career. Mot_8 – I work hard in some courses because this is an important life goal for me. Mot_1 – I work hard in some courses because that’s what others (parents, friends, etc. expect me to do. Mot_2 – I work hard in some courses because that’s what others (parents, friends, etc. ) force me to do. Motivator_3 – I work harder when I like the teacher. Motivator_4 – I work harder when the subject is interesting and useful. Data Analysis The purpose of this study is to test the gender difference on level of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation. SPSS Version 17 is used to analyze the data in this study. This is sophisticated software for many scientists and other professionals to analyze statistics.

Data analysis including frequency distribution is used to analyze the personal data of respondents. After that, mean and standard deviation are used to study the perception of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation different genders possess. Independente-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 70 External Regulation Intrinsic Motivation Fall 2011 samples t test is then used to test all three hypotheses to see if there is any difference between males and females on the level of the three elements.

Before the analysis, the collected data was examined to ensure that it is valid and reliable. It involves checking the usability and the validity of the responses on the questionnaires collected. Subsequently, reliability analysis using Cronbach alpha, which is a measure of internal consistency about how close elements are related to each other, is carried out to test the reliability of the variables (Nunnally, 1978; Prater and Ghosh, 2006). The test means the freedom from random error (Alreck, & Settle, 1985). The Cronbach alpha values (Table 2) of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation are 0. 57, 0. 622 and 0. 685 respectively. A value of 0. 60 is also used as the practical lower bound (Narasimhan & Jayaram, 1998). Therefore, reliability figures in this study, which exceed the value of 0. 60, can be perceived as acceptable. This study can be considered as reliable. Apart from reliability testing, factor analysis was also utilized to establish construct validity. Results of factor analysis can be used to ensure that questionnaire used in this study is valid (Field, 2005). Factor loading is used to analyze the validity of measurement scales with general value of acceptance as 0. 0 (Anderson, & Gerbing, 1998; Fornell, & Larcker, 1981). The variable of curiosity includes five items. A factor analysis for those items was conducted for the five items. Factor loadings ranged from 0. 542 to 0. 783. The variable of external regulation includes two items. Factor loadings are 0. 852 for both items in the factor analysis. The variable of intrinsic motivation includes two items. Both factor loadings are 0. 872. All values of factor loadings in the questionnaire are greater than 0. 3. Hence, this scale is retained.

As a result, it can be concluded that the measurement scale is valid and reliable. Table 2. Mean, Standard Deviation, and Cronbach Alphas of Three Variables Items Curiosity External Regulation Intrinsic Motivation Note: n = 137 Mean 2. 0569 2. 8139 2. 0255 Standard Deviation . 51732 . 62722 . 61334 Cronbach alpha 0. 757 0. 622 0. 685 71 Findings The demographic statistics of the respondents were analyzed. Table 3 shows the background e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 Fall 2011 of totally 137 respondents, in which 65. % are males. 99. 3% are between 21 and 25 years old. All of them are studying Engineering in a local university in Hong Kong. More than half of them are year 2 university students. With 56. 9% promote to university through Joint University Programmes Admissions System (JUPAS), it indicated that they have been studying and encountering different level of motivation in learning for at least 18 years for education system in Hong Kong. Table 3. Descriptive Statistics of Personal Data of Respondents Minimu Std. N m Maximum Deviation 13 1. 00 2. 0 . 47648 7 Cumulative Frequency Percent 72 Gender Male Female Age Below 21 Between 21 and 25 Above 25 Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Promotion JUPAS NON-JUPAS 90 47 13 7 1. 00 3. 00 . 50523 55 81 1 13 7 1. 00 5. 00 . 61495 14 79 44 13 7 1. 00 2. 00 . 49699 78 59 65. 7 100 40. 1 99. 3 100 10. 2 67. 9 100 56. 9 100 Valid N (listwise) 13 7 All respondents completed a questionnaire asking their reasons of study in terms of whether they perceive the specific statement as “Very True” (1), “Sort of True” (2), “Not Very True” (3) or “Not at all True” (4).

The reasons in the questionnaire pertain to the three variables (curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation) investigated in this study. e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 Fall 2011 Mean and standard deviation were used to examine the level of their perception of the variables. The values of mean, standard deviation and Cronbach alpha are shown in Table II. Results show that university students have slight perception towards having curiosity and intrinsic motivation, but not external regulation. It is indicated by the mean score of 2. 569 for curiosity, 2. 8139 for external regulation and 2. 0255 for intrinsic motivation. Independent sample t-test was used subsequently to test if there is any different in the level of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation between males and females. H1: This hypothesis predicting that there is no significant difference on the level of intrinsic motivation between males and females was supported since the t value is 0. 498 and the significant value is 0. 620, which is higher than 0. 05. With the mean difference of only 0. 05508, it shows no significant difference between both genders.

H2: This hypothesis predicting that there is no significant difference on the level of curiosity between males and females was supported since the t value is -0. 112 and the significant value is 0. 911, which is higher than 0. 05. With the mean difference of only 0. 01050, it shows no significant difference between both genders. H3: This hypothesis predicting that there is no significant difference on the level of external regulation between males and females was supported since the t value is 1. 222 and the significant value is 0. 224, which is higher than 0. 05. With the mean difference of only 0. 3771, it shows no significant difference between both genders. To conclude, all three hypotheses are supported via the above results. It shows that both genders possess equal level of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation. Discussion and Implications Results indicate that the levels of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation for university students in Hong Kong are nearly the same among different genders. It can be interpreted by the same education environment for both genders. Students in Hong Kong receive education under the same educational systems and approaches among different genders.

Therefore, it contributes to both genders having the same level of characteristics affecting their learning and also intrinsic motivation. Moreover, there is a part of university students in Hong Kong, no matter males or females, studying subjects that they are not interested in owing to the emphasis of education e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 73 Fall 2011 qualification for students’ future careers in Hong Kong society. As a consequence, the education they are receiving cannot make a difference of various perspectives affecting learning on different genders.

That is why there is no difference for males and females on the three factors that is supposed to students’ learning. Difference on Level of Intrinsic Motivation between Males and Females Supported by several researchers with this result, Narayanan, Rajasekaran, & Iyyappan (2007) concluded that female students studying Engineering or Technology learn English better than male students. Meanwhile, from a research of Shang (1998) in Taiwan focusing on physical education classes, it was found that female have lower intrinsic motivation than males but with higher effort put into the learning tasks.

Another research conducting by Schatt (2011) focusing on subject of music found that female students have higher instrumental musical practice rate than males while the amount of time spent on practice correlated significantly with intrinsic motivational beliefs. Therefore, it should not have any conclusion saying that a particular gender is inclined to have higher motivation on all subjects since university students always involves studying English, Chinese culture and their major altogether.

The result of this research study showing that there is no difference between males and females on the level of intrinsic motivation support the hypothesis 1 (H1). Difference on Level of Curiosity between Males and Females Supported by several researchers with this result, Engelhard and Monsaas (1988) concluded that there is no significant gender difference on the level of curiosity among urban elementary school students. Moreover, same study outcome was resulted in a study by Ben-Zur and Zeidner (1988) focusing on American college students.

Therefore, there should be no significant gender difference on the level of curiosity among university students in Hong Kong. The result of this research study showing that there is no difference between males and females on the level of curiosity support the hypothesis 2 (H2). Difference on Level of External Regulation between Males and Females Supported by several researchers with this result, Agina, Kommers, Steehouder (2011) found that gender has no effect on the level of external regulation one possesses.

Although Balaguer, Castillo and Duda (2007) focusing on sport motivation found that female athletes have lower e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 74 Fall 2011 level of external regulation, this study concentrated on students’ sport motivation and the study of 2011 as mentioned pertains to students’ learning. As a consequence, there should be no significant gender difference on the level of external regulation among university students in Hong Kong.

The result of this research study showing that there is no difference between males and females on the level of external regulation support the hypothesis 3 (H3). Implication for Practice The implication for practice in this study is to let universities identify if one of the genders possess higher level of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation so as to bring the awareness of universities and students about their ways of teaching and it offers more information for lecturers and professors to implement different practical methods to improve students’ learning performance.

Furthermore, this study can let universities know if they need to focus on one particular gender when teaching due to the different level of learning characteristics or intrinsic motivation. It can help schools develop deeper understanding among students. Limitations and future opportunities There are mainly two limitations in this project. Firstly, the sample size of some subgroups is not even. The sample size of males is 90 while that of females is 47. The significant level may be influenced owing to unbalanced distribution of sample size.

Also, the investigated school is only one local university in Hong Kong, the survey result may not be representative to the general situations of university students in Hong Kong. The second limitation of this study is that the sample size is not large. Less than 200 samples were collected. It may make the survey result not representative enough to show the general learning environment for university students in Hong Kong. Apart from the limitations, there are several future research opportunities from this study.

The first is to extend this current study to a larger sample size among Hong Kong university students to get a more representative result. Secondly, since there is limited literature review investigating the gender difference in curiosity, external regulation and also intrinsic motivation, which is what this project focuses e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 75 Fall 2011 on, it is suggested to apply this type of research to similar research study in primary schools, secondary schools, overseas schools, or among students studying associate degree in Hong Kong.

The result may be different. This research study also lacks deep investigation. This study is empirical that involves only quantitative research. The survey was conducted in form of questionnaires and without faceto-face interview. The focus of the investigations in this study is on the existence of the relationships. Further research can be done concentrating on deeply investigating why there is no significant gender difference on the level of intrinsic motivation, external regulation and curiosity. Thereby, all these can be a further research for future development of education.

Conclusion Throughout the study, there is investigation of the existence of gender difference on the level of curiosity, external regulation and intrinsic motivation among the targeted group of university students in Hong Kong. This study was conducted in a local university in Hong Kong. The survey result supports all three hypotheses defined in this research study. It shows that there is no significant gender difference on the level of intrinsic motivation, curiosity and external regulation (H1, H2 and H3 respectively). References Afzal, H. , Ali, I. , Khan, M. A. , & Hamid, K. (2010).

A Study of University Students’ Motivation and Its Relationship with Their Academic Performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(4), 80-88. Agina, A. M. , Kommers, P. A. M. , Steehouder, M. M. (2011). The effect of nonhuman’s versus human’s external regulation on children’s speech use, manifested self-regulation, and satisfaction during learning tasks. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1129-1142. Albrecht, E. , Haapanen, R. , Hall, E. , & Mantonya, M. (2009). Improving secondary school students’ achievement using intrinsic motivation. Unpublished master’s thesis, Saint Xavier University: Chicago, IL. Alreck, P.

L. , Settle, R. B. (1985). The Survey Research Handbook. San Diego: Richard D. Irwin, Inc. e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 76 Fall 2011 77 Allen, I. E. , Seaman, C. A. (2007). Likert Scales and Data Analyses. Quality Progress, 40(7), 64-65. Anderson, J. C. , & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach, Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411 – 423. Balaguer, I. , Castillo, I. , & Duda, J. L. (2007). Propiedades psicometricas de la escala de motivacion deportiva en deportistas Espanoles. Revista Mexicana de Psicologia, 24(2), 197207.

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Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (2nd ed. ). Sage: London. e-Journal of Organizational Learning and Leadership Volume 9, Number 2 Fall 2011 Fornell, C. , & Larcker, D. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing research, 15, 282-388. Gao, X. (2008). Shifting motivational discourses among mainland Chinese students in an English medium tertiary institution in Hong Kong: a longitudinal Inquiry. Studies in Higher Education, 33(5), 599–614. Garland, R. (1991). The Mid-Point on a Rating Scale: Is it Desirable?.

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Roles and Responsibilities of Teacher

Unit 008 :Roles ,Responsibility and relationship in lifelong learning. This assignment is about the role and responsibility of teachers in lifelong learning. In order to teach in lifelong learning, a teacher will need different tools, support, understanding and above all a good knowledge of teaching codes of practice. As with all professions, teaching has to be done within the boundaries of the law to achieve a safe learning environment for the student. The legislations are very important to safeguard the teacher, student and adult learners.

For example the Health and Safety at work act (1974) (Gravells, 2008, p. 19)is about the safety of the student and teacher. It is crucial for the teacher to ensure all learners are aware of their safety procedures at the beginning of any course. Furthermore, a risk assessment is carried out by the teacher, to reduce any risk on the premise. For example, when a teacher is carrying an experiment which includes heating, the teacher ensures students are wearing safety goggles. ’The Disability Discrimination Act(1995 and onwards), which has been enforce to ensure nobody is discriminated against irrespective of disability(physical or mental ), gender, religion ,age, ethnicity, sexual orientation or social (domestic circumstances)’’ (Wilson, 2008, p. 20) In order to implement the above legislation, a teacher needs to assess what the requirements of his/her learners’ are, and how they could be supported. A teacher has to make sure that every learner has equal opportunities to access the learning experience.

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For example someone who lip reads, the teacher needs to speaks very clearly and avoids standing in darker area which will make it difficult for that particular learner to lip read. For example a learner who uses wheelchair, prior to the course, the teacher ensures the learner has access to all facilities without any problem e. g. a ramp is installed outside the room. At this point the teacher would require internal support services to install the ramp. Data Protection Act (1988) (Wilson, 2008, p. 20), each learner has their own file which holds personal and confidential information (address, contact details and medical history).

These files are kept in a safe and secure place in a filing cabinet, which restricts sharing of data. The teacher should be a good team player to encourage and welcome people’s differences and use these qualities to broaden the learning experience. Teaching in a simple language helps the learners to understand the concept easily as for most learners’ English is not their first language. The teacher needs to ensure that learning tools like handouts are unbiased and exclude inappropriate comments from the classroom. It is important for a teacher to practise equality and diversity effectively so as to have a maximum impact on the learners.

A good teacher needs to tailor their lessons according to learners’ needs and requirements; this is known as inclusive learning. ’’By inclusive learning we mean the greatest degree of match or fit between how learn best, what they need and what is required from the sector, a college and teachers for successful learning to take place’’ (Tomlinson, 1996, p. 200) . These qualities should be within a teacher, which is gain by using the teaching training cycle. The training cycle has five stages which are identifying needs, planning and designing, delivering, assessing and evaluating.

A teacher must be certain of his/her role, responsibilities and boundaries within these stages. During the initial stage of identifying needs and planning, the teacher will identify the needs of his/her learners (Yvonne Hillier,, 2005, p. 61). Firstly, by assessing any physical needs like wheelchair users. A questionnaire can also be used, to find out learners aim, previous experience, learner background, preferred learning style. The teacher would keep the questionnaire in a safe place and ensure no details are left on desks. Also make sure this confidential information is not available to anybody.

Some learners’ needs may exceed what the teacher can offer; at this point the teacher will refer the student to another professional. For example, someone who has literacy needs, the teacher would refer the learner a literacy teacher to address his/her needs. During designing phase of the lessons, a teacher’s responsibility is to provide high quality materials example handouts, tutorial and games which will motivate and increase concentration in learners and facilitate learning. Thus, resources should be relevant and easy to access within the premises. The next stage is the delivery of the session.

The teacher will ensure that the learners’ are equally involved and engaged in all the activities in order to facilitate the learning by using different learning tools and style . The lessons should be well-structured, clear aims established to ensure that lessons run on time. It is a teacher’s responsibility to establish a good professional relationship with the learners, so that they are comfortable asking any help for learning. Stay within boundaries so that the teacher should not be over friendly, and should always maintain a professional relationship.

Avoid touching / leaning across learner during an explanation. In the assessing phases, the teacher ensures the lessons objectives are clear to the learners and check their progression. For example, quizzes can be organised to check the learner’s achievement and development feedback from learners will identify the development areas. However, the teacher should not set task which is not link directly to learning objectives. Among the duties of a teacher in the Lifelong Learning sector, the teacher also has to undertake responsibilities towards the other professionals in the organisation.

One of the principal responsibilities as a teacher is to remain within the teaching code of practice. The collaboration between teachers and other professionals is important to maintain smooth running of the organisation. Good communication between professionals ensures that learners are getting the most efficient and effective support. The teacher will need to consult other professionals when needs exceeds his/her boundaries. For example, if a learner has not been able to finish his assignment on time and the reason could be financial problem.

The role of the teacher should also include maintaining a safe and appropriate learning environment to facilitate the learners. For example, before the start of the lesson, the teacher needs to ensure that the classroom layout is safe and accessible to all learners. To implement a safe environment, ground rules are set. Ground rules within a class, is a mutual agreement by the tutor and learners who attend the class. There are three ways of setting ground rules: teacher imposes, learner imposes or through negotiation. The ground rules can be promoted by displaying on the wall of the classroom, video or even by using pictures.

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Literature Review: the Teacher as a Researcher

Literature review Teacher and pupil understanding of ICT and e-safety in schools is an issue that is current and topical due to its increasing presence in primary education. The Byron Review (2008) has drawn attention to this with its extensive assessment of the internet and video games and how they affect children. This Byron Review supports the key issues in Internet safety and ICT use by identifying just how integral these technologies are to children’s lives.

The review makes explicit recommendations to needed protect internet users whilst highlighting the importance of furthering our understanding of the risks and then educating ourselves on the benefits and dangers of e-safety and ICT. This highlights the vital role teacher play in safeguarding pupils to ensure they can use the internet and other technologies safely (Woollarda et al 2009). Cox and Marshall (2007) carried out a review of ICT posing the question ‘Effects of ICT; Do we know what we should know? ’ (p. 9) both authors of this paper have a prolific reputation in the area of ICT and education over the past decade and their paper addresses the importance of increasing our understanding ICT, and its long and short term impact on students learning and how it affects learning (p. 59). The importance of ensuring not only our knowledge of the impact of ICT on students learning but also how it impacts students thinking and acting (p. 68). This has direct implications on the use of ICT technologies in the many methods and settings now available to students such of the internet.

By ensuring teaching professionals understand the true extent to which ICT affects students learning, attitudes, values and beliefs is essential to all individuals involved in education and the future of ICT in education. Across research into ICT and its implementation the central role of teachers in ensuring these technologies are used safely and effectively across the curriculum is acknowledged (Woollard et al 2009. Cox 1997; Sunderland et al 2004; Tondeuret al 2007; Loveless, 2003; Pearson and Naylor 2006).

This role of teachers is in pivotal in ICT and its future in education and has a direct impact on students experiences and understanding of e-safety. Woolard et al (2009) Carrier out a study focusing on identifying the training needs of teachers with regards to ICT communications in schools and e-safety (p. 188). This began with an evaluation of current e-safety resources and then a study of how trainees responded to these resources and PGCE based training. This study confirms the need for training teachers adequately to ensure they have the confidence, knowledge and adaptability necessary (Jones 2004).

These skills are essential to all teaching professionals to safeguard pupils whilst ensuring ICT technologies are implements effectively in the classroom to reap the rewards on pupils learning and motivation that have been identified (Liao 1999; Cox and Abbott 2004; Cox 1997; Hennessy et al. 2005; Goodinson 2002a; Goodinson 2002b). (415 words) Bibliography Byron, T (2008) Safer Children in a Digital World. The Report of the Byron Review. DCSF Publications ; Nottingham UK. Woollarda, J,. Wickensb, C.

Powellc, K and Russell, T (2009) Evaluation of e-safety materials for initial teacher training: can ‘Jenny’s Story’ make a difference? Technology, Pedagogy and Education. Vol. 18, pp. 187–200. Routledge: UK Cox, M. Marshall, G (2007) Effects of ICT: Do we Know what we should? Education and Information Technologies. 12: 50 – 70. Springer. Cox, M. J. (1997). The effects of information technology on students’ motivation. Final report. National Council for Educational Technology, Coventry. Cox, M. J. , & Abbott, C. (2004).

ICT and attainment: A review of the research literature, Coventry and London, British Educational Communications and Technology Agency/Department for Education and Skills. Goodison, T (2002) Enhancing learning with ICT at primary level. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, 215 -228. Goodison, T (2002) ICT and attainment at primary level. British Journal of Educational Technology. Vol 33, 202 -211. Hennessy, S. , Ruthven, K. , & Brindley, S. (2005). Teacher perspectives on integrating ICT into subject teaching: Commitment, constraints, caution and change.

Journal of Curriculum Studies, 37, 155–192. Jones, A. (2004). A review of the research literature on barriers to the uptake of ICT by teachers. Coventry: Becta Liao, Y. K. C. (1999). Effects of hypermedia on students’ achievement: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 8(3), 255–277. Loveless, A (2003) The role of ICT. Continuum. London Tondeur, J. van Braak, J and Valcke, M (2007) Curricula and the use of ICT in education: Two worlds apart? British Journal of Educational Technology. P. 962–976

Dwyer, J (2007) Computer-based Learning in a Primary School: Differences between the early and later years of primary schooling. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. Vol 35. pp. 89 – 103. Sutherland, R. , Armstrong, V. , Barnes, S. , Brawn, R. , Breeze, N. , Gall, M. , et al (2004) Transforming teaching and learning: Embedding ICT into everyday classroom practices. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 413-425. Pearson, M. , & Naylor, S. (2006). Changing contexts: Teacher professional development and ICT pedagogy. Education and Information Technologies, 11, 283–291.

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Prophet Muhammad as Role Model for Religious Teachers

ENGLISH ESSAY: PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH) AS A ROLE MODEL FOR RELIGIOUS TEACHERS Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the example par excellence for his ummah, especially for religious teachers with his good example and noble personality. His behavior in all cases is the behavior that is not contrary with the Qur’an, in fact his behavior reflects the contents of the Qur’an such as his patient, sincere and forgiving character. In education, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has provided many lessons especially for religious teachers which can be applied on students.

Firstly, as religious teachers we must always be patient as was done by Prophet Muhammad when he was performing prayers and Uqbah bin Abi Muit threw waste on him where he did not get angry instead He continued His prayer. Therefore, accept the students behaviour in whatever manner they are. Secondly, teaching sincerely is very important for religious teachers in which we should not hope for any rewards, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, “Verily Allah will not accept charity unless the charity is exercised in good faith and done solely to please Allah. ” Even Prophet Muhammad did not hope for any material rewards when delivering knowledge.

Lastly, we must emulate the forgiving character of Prophet Muhammad where He was tested by a Jewish woman who tried to poison Him and He forgave her instead of having a grudge against the her. So as religious teachers, we have to forgive our students for whatever mistakes they make to guide them to seek Allah’s pleasure and Grace. In conclusion, religious education would be pointless if the teachers themselves behave badly. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) exemplary conduct is the one and only to emulate to help us perform our duties as religious teachers effectively in order to get Allah’s Blessings. (281 words)

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A Barred Owl and the History Teacher Essay

 “A Barred Owl” vs. “The History Teacher” Essay and analysis

“A Barred Owl” by Richard Wilbur and “The History Teacher” by Billy Collins both have adults lying to children. A childish tone is given off in “A Barred Owl” that helps the reader relate to the child’s fear while an ironic and sarcastic tone is given off in “The History Teacher” to show how the teacher’s attempt to keep the kids innocent quickly turns the kids’ thoughts from innocent to ignorance. Literary devices used by the authors guide the reader into seeing the effects of the adults’ lies, despite their good intentions.

The childish tone of “A Barred Owl” is kept through the constant rhyming in the poem like “boom…room” and “heard…bird”. The rhyming combined with the childish tone helps put the reader in the frame of mind of the child and how the child thinks. When the owl makes noise, the parents say it’s the owl asking “Who cooks for you? ” The child will think of her parents each time the owl makes noise, hereby deterring the child’s immense fear of the owl outside her window. The lies given off accommodate with the childish tone and help the reader look at the fear from the child’s point of view. The History Teacher” has the ironic and sarcastic tone that shows the teacher’s lack of an actual lesson. Each lesson the teacher gives, he wants to “protect his students’ innocence”. The lessons, which are presented as metaphors, contribute to the ironic and sarcastic due to the fact that the serious lessons are compared to trivial things that in no way relate to the actual topic. Even the teacher is affected by the irony and sarcasm as he walks home and sees the “flower beds and white picket fences” as confirmation that everything is perfect in the world.

Again, the teacher compares something small to something bigger that he assumes. Danger presents itself in “A Barred Owl” and adds a darker/dangerous tone. The combination of the dangerous tone and the childish tone, which is continued through the rhyming, shows the child’s point of view of the outside night. Although the child was comforted by her parents, she is still frighten she is and shows that she needs to be protected. In “The History Teacher”, after the lessons taught by the teacher, the children “leave his classroom for the playground to torment the weak and the smart”.

This shows how the teacher isn’t teaching any real lessons for the children to learn from and use in life and shows the continuity of the ironic and sarcastic tone. The poems “A Barred Owl” by Richard Wilbur and “The History Teacher” by Billy Collins each show adults lying to children. Using different literary devices in each poem, both authors demonstrate the effects of the children being lied to. “A Barred Owl” relates the author to the child’s fear in the childish tone given off while “The History Teacher” gives an ironic and sarcastic tone to show the children’s innocence turn to ignorance.