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Copyrights law of television industry in different countries (U.K and India) and its fair use in media business.

Abstract

This report explores most of the criteria of Copyrights and its vast area which protect creativity, invention and artists’ originality by laws and regulations about intellectual properties. A large number of researches depict different kind of rules and their implementation for healthy business environment in media industry (Television) in different countries such as UK and India. Where appropriate information about Intellectual property and copyright gives full knowledge about report, as well as other side way of these properties’s fair use helps to understand media and its creative environment. Discussion and background research are influencing conclusion with their logical elements and issues. Key point such as definitions, area of law, types of intellectual property, differences between constitutions affect topic very well and discover a wide range of knowledge.

Introduction

Creativity is a major part of invention and every artist and inventor tries to save his/her invention. Every kind of intellectual property needs appropriate law for its protection by misuse and fair use. Wilson L. (2005, p.8) states that ‘‘Most people realize that copyright protects works of art like poems and short stories, photographs, paintings and drawings and musical compositions. It may be less obvious that copyright protects more mundane forms of expression, including such diverse materials as advertising copy, instruction manuals, broachers, logo designs, computer programmes, term papers, home movies, cartoon strips, and advertising jingles’’. In this quote writer clearly mentioned safety issues and area of creative work. In this report we will be discussing about this kind of intellectual properties which use in television industry. As well as according to this quote we understand that copyright is a unique way to protect creative works such as books, music and different kind of art and commercial work. Non commercial work and commercial work has categorised in intellectual property law according to there use, In simple words we can say that copyright laws prevent artistic work from unauthorised use. This report informed about different kind of copyright laws in different countries, behalf of this some important questions such as how to prevent creativityFair use of creative works on Television Industry, Which parts of television area comes in intellectual properties?

Television Industry always works on wide range of new inventions and creative ideas where intellectual property is a necessary part of this media industry. Although matter is about new T.V shows, concepts, technologies, music or advertisements every part of this industry reflect copyright and its law. Many inventors already had given brilliant creative, entertaining and profitable ideas to media industry which still works for other companies and television channel for their profit via fair use, so it is very important issue to protect this kind of art. A Television company have different facts such as it is a commercial industry, advertisement technique, democratic organisation or institution, a medium between government and organisation, cultural visualisation technique. It is bigger than a thinking of business. While its only a source of entertainment for viewers on the contrary it is a big system which belongs to monetary term

Copyright and media have a unique connection which makes a wonderful business environment. Journalism, media, cable and broadcasting industry, advertisement agencies and their software’s, videos, music etc. every part of television have a interesting fact about laws and terms and condition. Fisherman A. (2004, p.2) said that ‘‘The U.S. Constitution gives Congress the power to protect works of authorship by enacting copyright laws. But it is up to Congress to actually write the copyright laws and decide on the details of what should be protected and for how long’’. According to this statement we can understand that copyright and intellectual law system generated in U.S via Congress and copyright issues also have some eligible time period, every kind of intellectual property which relates to television and its factor have a different time ratio according to its type and sources.

Research

Rights and Power

Matsuura, Jeffrey H (2003, p.9) shows that ‘‘Copyright law provide ownership to the creators of the original works that are fixed in tangible form. It grants those creators several fundamentals right to use for the work they create. One of those right is the right to create copies of (duplicate) the work. Another of those rights is the right to distribute the work. Copyright law also grants the creator of an original work the right to perform or to exhibit the work publicity’’. Quote indicate that In television companies a producer or director have right of his copyright video to make copies for public display, video and soundtracks of video, distribution CD for profit by rent or sale as well as digital transmission etc. On the contrary Matasuura, Jefferey, H (2003. p.98) states that the video industry avoided many content right battles that confronted their print and music industry colleagues in the early days of the internet. In part, the delay in encountering those issues was caused by the relative scarcity of consumer access to broadband capacity adequate to support high-quality digital video content distribution. With time, however, that respite for the video content industry is ending and thus the relative good fortune of the digital video content industry is rapidly fading. The video industry now faces many of the same difficult rights management issues that the other media industries are already attempting to resolve. The same challenges as control over content in digital form that the print publishing and music industries have faced for several years are now confronting the television and motion picture industry’’

Collections

One of the valuable limitations according to television copyright is the fair use techniques and valuation, every subject have to know about the fully terms and conditions about copyrighted product such as video or programme theme. There is only one copy can be copy and distributed but only when they don’t use it for profit and make the copy available to the general public. On the other side it is not possible to get another copy from copyright holder.

Infringement and Strategy

CREEBER (2008, p.49) illustrate that ‘‘The USA, one of the biggest producers of media distributed – often illegally – around the world, passed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in 1998 in an attempt to control unauthorized downloading of intellectual property. In 2001 the European Union (EU) crafted the EU Copyright Directive along similar lines. Many other nations also adopted such legislation, but in some areas of the world, most notably China, digital piracy continues with abandon.’’ the site explains more about the concept of which procedures would be ideal to apply to a particular piece of research. Participant observation, direct observations about copyright implementation period in different countries. Its clearly shows that copyright system implementation had a very important issue which protect creative work by media people and stop the unfair use of intellectual property. Althought some countries have not participated in this mission but gradually after a period country realised that they need a particular law for this problem. According to a internet news on Indian television website writer said that ’’The Anti-Piracy Coordination Cell, constituted by Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) with the support of the HRD Ministry and the industry, will coordinate the efforts at combating the menace of piracy across sectors. Such a cross-sectoral initiative will lead to a synergized approach to a common and increasingly menacing problem’’ the statement informed that Indian government also participating gradually to remove piracy and unfair means in indian media. Any one who try to get profit by unfair means will be taken seriously by Indian judiciary.

Although every country implement laws and regulation to remove piracy from intellectual property but one question is still remaining that ‘‘ How others can fair use of creativity of genuine work and which kind of duration and laws they have to follow ?’’

Anything which use for social, cultural or political benefit and affect harm to copyright owner it comes to infringement. Specially when its not permitted. To avoid claims of piracy while we try to consider anyone else work we always beware that protect our self to become a piracy victim. We should aware and use a checklist before fair use of anyone work. For example we must research about the work and its background, we should get knowledge about works creator and his/her demands and authority belongs to work, some time if we use any kind of video or soundtrack we have to pay royalty amount regarding use of genuine work where on the contrary author or director of work provide NOC without any monetary terms. Media and television have a very complicated and deep amount of lawful information. Different catogry of fair use have different options such as if we want to use a broadcasted video or footage for public or social or culture related task we have to confirm its limitations and conditions for this statement Wilson L, (2005, p.71) believes that ‘‘ There is no definite boundaries between fair use and infringement, because no general rule defining infringement is possible – remember, the infringement evaluation must be made by weighing particular circumstances’’. It states that copyrights for intellectual properties specially in broadcasting system and cable tv is very strange. It is very necessary to get appropriate permission or license for fair use. Here the major point to understand is that difference between permission and license, use a particular stuff or work without monetary terms comes in permission and other side if we have to pay some amount for use works of someone else it comes in license section and similarity in both is that both depends on particular duration such as works area duration, time or date till then work can be use etc. One of the very good example is case study of international TV formats trading in the absence of IP protection where states that ‘‘The format is not necessarily reliant on legal protection. It certainly helps there is a degree of perceived legal protection but the industry at large is aware of how dubious that protection is’’ this statement basically describe about piracy and legal dimensions where a particular new invented TV show copied by different copycat producers. In this article there is a brief example has given about famous TV Show Pop Idols or American Idols which produced in different countries by various method such as Indian idol in India etc. Producer said that it is theft to make the same programme with few changes where concept and theme are quite same.

Internet Television Rights

New age and digitalization is making new innovative ideas of entertain audience where television become the part of life everyone’s other side some digital companies was ready to adopt a new television technology ‘‘internet streaming television’’ which provide all visuals of live streaming and recorded programmes on internet. Although was really creative innovations but intellectual property law and their law also quite different for this kind of technologies. Kretschemer M (2007, p.101) illustrate that Broadcasters, cable TV operators, content programmers, and television set manufacturers all agree that even if the digital transmission and interoperability issues are settled, the quandary over internet piracy and the possible distribution of high-definition content on the internet still needs to be resolved. Every procedure has a different evaluation according to its process if genuine director or producer allow his /her work to copy on internet by other websites then might be it’s a extrea profitable for them because in this case they can get royallity or other kind of amount such as license fees for there work, but if they have any contract or sponsorship with any company or label then contract paper decide the laws value for original creator.

REFERRENCES :

Wilson L (2005). fair use and use by permission. 1st ed.10 east 23rd street New York: Allworth Press.8

Wilson L (2005). Fair use free use and use by permission. 10 east 23rd street New York: Allworth Press. 71.

Attorney Stephen Fishman (2004). The Public Domain. 2nd ed. CA Nolo,: Berkeley. 2.

Matsuura, Jeffrey H (2003). Managing intellectual assets in the digital age . Boston: Artech House. 9.

Matsuura, Jeffrey H (2003). Managing Intellectual Assets in the Digital Age . Boston, MA : Artech House. 98.

CREEBER (2008). DigitalCulture: Understanding New Media. ENGLAND: Open University Press. 49.

n/a. (2010). Govt aims to align Indian Copyright Laws with global standards. Available: http://www.indiantelevision.com/headlines/y2k10/oct/oct118.php. Last accessed 14th march 2011.

Kretschemer M & Singh S. (2010). Exploting Idols. A Case study of international TV format trading in the absence of IP Protection. 1 (1), 15.

Castaned M. (2007). Television & New Media. The Complicated Transition to Broadcast Digital Television in the United states. 8 (1),

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Television advertising: how does it affect children?

Introduction

It is just about nearly impossible to go anywhere in today’s world without seeing some kind of ad, whether it be a billboard for McDonalds, or a television commercial for Fisher Price toys. It is estimated that each American is exposed to well over 2,500 advertising messages per day, and that children see over 50,000 television commercials a year. This means that marketing agencies have approximately 137 times in a day to target and influence young children. Research has shown that young children –younger than 8 years– are cognitively and psychologically defenseless against advertising. They do not understand the notion of intent to sell and frequently accept advertising claims at face value (Strasburger, MD). Therefore further attention should be paid to the amount of advertising that is projected at young children. In this essay I will discuss the affects adverting has on youth, explore why children are targeted and evaluate what alterations need to take place in the advertising industry with regards to children.

What does the commercial do It creates a subconscious decision about what the brand is and makes it seem so true. Television commercials do this by relating people to other people. Take for instance a toy commercial, the producer does not have the parent playing with and enjoying the toy, they have young kids playing with the toy looking happy and that is where your trouble lies with young children – because they are unfairly influenced to think the way the manufacturer wants you to think rather than to rationalize what really is going on and how good or not good that product actually is or whether it is truly something you must have and can’t live without so you fixate on it and do all you can to get it – but at what cost!

Children are affected by advertising whether it be purposely aimed at and fabricated for them or indirectly. A television commercial and subliminal promoting in children shows promotes brand-name awareness in a number of product categories and also helps to create a possible opinion about them. Children acquire approximately 85 percent of their Games, Toys and Hobby interest due to ad exposure and children’s shows. Several children as young as three years old can recognize brand named products and clothing. When children spend a great deal of time watching television they cannot help but be influenced by it and want what they see.Children become obsessed with having what they see on television that they continuously hassle their parents until they get it. These children that are watching more television are going to want more toys seen in advertisements and eat more advertised food than children who do not watch as much television (Strasburger, MD. 2006). Marketers have long since realized that the economical future of marketing rests within the youth and it has taken decades for the advertising companies to hone in their unique marketing techniques to advertise successfully to kids.

Since advertising to children, especially those who are between the ages of 8 and 12, 67% of all products and brands purchased by parents are heavily influenced by their kids (Lindstrom and Seybold, 2003). In the past years it has been recorded that children aged 2 to 17 influenced parental spending to an astounding $1.18 trillion across the world. One of the most lucrative industries in the world today is the advertising industry. Last year alone the advertising industry spent over 150 billion dollars in the United States (TNS Media Intelligence). That amount of money would be enough to give everyone in the world 20 dollars and still have enough left over to buy a 150,000 dollar sports car or a nice little get away home. About $1.6 billion, of the $150 billion, was spent on advertising directed at children ages 2 to 17, representing 17 percent of the total annual marketing budgets for the reporting companies’ brands. Companies spent 46 percent of marketing budgets on television advertising as it has managed to maintain its dominance as the most popular way to reach consumers (Kendra Marr, 2008). “The public health implications of early television and video viewing are potentially large. There are both theoretical and empirical reasons to believe that the effects of media exposure on children’s development are more likely to be adverse before the age of about 30 months than afterward” (JAMA and Archives Journals). Television advertising is not the only form of advertising but it still remains as the most successful and influential media that reaches out to young children. Children in the United States on average watch television commercials for approximately five hours per week, having access to as many as 20,000 – 40,000 commercials in a single year. This means that by the time they graduate from high school, children may have been exposed to upwards of 360,000 television ads (Federal Trade Commission). In 2003 studies revealed that children, who were between the ages of about 10 – 12 years old, or tweens, watched the most television and referenced it as their single most essential source for information (Lindstrom and Seybold, 2003).

Children in today’s world are being exposed to more advertising in several different media forms, each with its own strengths as a tool for persuasion. The biggest influential advertising coming from television followed closely by the internet then magazines, radio, billboard, and even in-store advertising. In the United States, there are currently few policies and standards for food advertising and marketing aimed at children. The advertising industry maintains self-regulatory policies put in place by the Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) of the National Council of Better Business Bureaus (BBB). CARU’s guidelines apply to all forms of children’s advertising, but it has no legal authority over advertisers and can only request for voluntary compliance from the marketing companies. If voluntary compliance by the marketing companies is not met, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) share authority for regulating advertising; each agency play’s a different role. The FCC has the responsibility of establishing public interest obligations for television broadcasters, while FTC’s responsibility is to regulate advertising deemed unfair or deceptive.

In recent years, the advertising industry has viewed children and teenagers as the leading market strength, as a result, children and adolescents are targeted aggressively by these companies. The primary goal of advertising and marketing intended for children are to influence brand preference, brand awareness, and brand loyalty. It can be disputed that children, particularly juveniles, are a vulnerable and should be protected from marketable influences that may adversely have an impact on their health, and as a society that values its children, there should be greater social responsibility for their present and future health.

References

Holt, Debra J., Pauline M. Ippolito, Debra M. Desrochers, and Christopher R. Kelley. “Children’s Exposure to TV Advertising in 1977 and 2004 Information for the Obesity Debate.” Federal Trade Commission Bureau of Economics Staff Report, 1 June 2007. Web. 23 Apr. 2011.

Howard, Theresa. “USATODAY.com – Advertisers forced to think way outside the box.” News, Travel, Weather, Entertainment, Sports, Technology, U.S. & World – USATODAY.com. 20 June 2005. 02 Apr. 2011 .

JAMA and Archives Journals. “Many Children Younger Than Two Watch TV Regularly, But Content Varies.” ScienceDaily, 8 May 2007. Web. 28 Apr. 2011

Lindstrom, Martin, and Patricia Seybold. “BRAND Child.” Patricia Seybold Group. 1 Mar. 2003. Kogan Page. 05 Apr. 2011 .

Marr, Kendra. “Children Targets of $1.6 Billion in Food Ads – Washingtonpost.com.” The Washington Post: National, World & D.C. Area News and Headlines – The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 30 July 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2011. .

Moore, Elizabeth S. “Children and the Changing World of Advertising | PhilPapers.” PhilPapers: Online Research in Philosophy. 2004. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 02 Apr. 2011 .

Strasburger, MD, Victor C. “Children, Adolescents, and Advertising — Committee on Communications 118 (6): 2563 — Pediatrics.” Pediatrics | Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics, 1 Dec. 2006. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. .

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Compare and contrast how realism through television influences the audience

Introduction
The analysis which will follow will look at the British television drama, in particular looking at the different codes of realism and how it uses different techniques to draw upon this. The comparing and contrasting of how realism through television influences the audience will also be discussed. In addition to this, a brief overview of the analysis will be discussed using the examples; Coronation Street (1960) and Shameless (2004), considering the class and gender issues thoroughly.“…for, in my view, television is from its very nature, more suitable for the dissemination of all kinds of information than for entertainment as such, since it can scarcely be expected to complete successfully with films in that respect. Nevertheless, the lighter forms of entertainment will certainly have their place.”(Gerald Cock, 1936, pg. 7)

The view of television that emerges from Cock (1936) shows the assumptions that have been made in the early decades about the function of television. When television is first apparent, what is noticed the most is the assertion of immediacy; being a continuing theory appearing throughout the analysis of television. According to Cock (1936), the effect that this theory has is one of the factors that gives British television drama its iconic form; individualising this genre of television from cinema and the drama programmes that were scheduled in the United States of America.

One factor of realism to consider is social realism. This is the struggle of socialism, influenced by the level of social development surrounding the subject in hand. This is in comparison to critical realism. According to Lukacs (1963), social realism differs from critical realism. Socialist society is seen as an independent one, not simply there to be as a support for capitalist society.

An example that effectively shows realism through television drama is Shameless (2004). This hybrid television programme has aspects of a soap drama; in the mixture of social realism that is consistently displayed throughout the different storylines. This popular television programme is surrounding family life and the dramas which occur on a day-to-day life, within challenging conditions. The drama is set in the outer suburbs of Manchester on a disadvantaged estate; showing real situations through a fictional narrative, in a comedic way. In terms of the drama, Nelson (2007) suggests that Shameless (2004) resembles a sitcom type television programme to a serial drama. This can be apparent through many continuing narratives throughout the programme. An example of this can be that all of the episodes throughout the series begin in the exact same way by hearing Frank Gallagher’s voice-over that introduces his family and their life on Chatsworth Estate; the sense of a sitcom being that Frank never changes throughout. This factor brings comedy to the television programme as it carries a significant comic irony, as the name of the estate is the same as the stately home of that name. This portrays to the audience that Frank Gallagher is one of the main protagonists in Shameless (2004).

When referring back to realism throughout television, Shameless (2004) has many issues that are addressed through the narrative. One of the ways this television programme is effective in portraying realism is that the writer, Paul Abbott draws upon his own experiences of growing up in a chaotic household; giving the material and narratives written a huge sense of realism. This is also because Abbott writes from an insider on the social experiences, rather than an observer looking on from the outside.

“The deserting parents, the teenage pregnancies, the lack of legitimate income, the criminal sentences…Chaos became the norm and our threshold for tolerating up-heaval was tested to the nth degree…Bits of that life were unmissable.”

(Paul Abbott, http://www.channel4.com/programmes/shameless, 2005)

A code is a sign or signal which gives a sense of meaning to communication. According to Bernadette Casey (2008), the codes that are made up are used as a set of rules, according to the context and the culture it is within. Examples of codes that everyone can relate to can be simple codes like traffic lights on the roads to more complex codes like different languages from around the world. Within television studies, the term ‘code’ means to seek ‘unexplored audio-visual systems which have the capacity to construct and organise meaning in media texts’ (Casey, 2008, pg. 38). John Fiske (1987) also attempts to discuss media and television codes, beginning to argue that reality is already encoded culturally; therefore aspects like dress and behaviour are influenced by culture. He also states that technical codes influence that camera to manipulate how different characters on camera are represented to the audience.

The concept of representation is closely influenced by the aspect of reality when linked to television. Richard Dyer (1985) outlined an approach on representation. When the audience watch a television programme, they become absorbed in the context of the narrative. For example: a character’s role or position on the camera. He also argues that in order for the audience to engage their interest in a particular television programme, then the media representations of that programme must provide some sort of pleasure from it. However, a criticism to this argument is that the assumption is made that the audience watching shares the enjoyment equally, which is not always accurately the case. Many social differences shown on television make certain that each viewer will experience a different level of pleasure. Some of these social differences that influence viewer’s pleasure levels are ethnicity, class, gender, age and sexual orientation. This therefore links onto one social aspect of television that is being discussed, with the support of examples.

Class can be understood through television in two ways; first by analysing the history of the concept and the theories that surrounds it and secondly, the way in which the different classes have been represented throughout television. According to Karl Marx (1983), the term ‘class’ has a number of complex meanings; referring first and foremost to economic and social position, and the power and status that is gained as a result from this. He also argued that society is split into two large sections; those who own the means of production (capitalists) and those who work for the production (proletariats). With Marx’s theory in support, the ‘base/superstructure’ model was invented, resting on the ideas that the class structure or economy (the base) determined all other aspects of what we may call culture (the superstructure). Even though Karl Marx’s research was before the time of television, more recent researchers link Marx’s theories to more recent television theories relating to class structures. When audiences are offered television, it is linked to supporting capitalism and ruling-class ideology. For example: most news channels on television focus on subjects surrounding international finance, world markets and domestic industrial conflict. This therefore showing a more upper-class agenda. The notion of economic class has been made additional to the ideas surrounding social class; being used as a significant way in enhancing market research tasks for advertising purposes and throughout television industries. This is to determine and profile specific audiences. Social class groups are based on lifestyle choices, spending power and income. In the United States of America, class went through a transition of being unaware for audiences within television. This was partly influenced by the anti-communist fever of the Cold War period. This according to Casey (2008) marginalised class. Wilson (1980) also supported this notion by stating that the absence of working-class characters on television had received less attention than other issues portrayed on television programmes. Some of these include: gender and race. There is some previous research that supports the class representation throughout television programmes. Butsch (1995) conducted a survey of prime-time television in the United States of America. The findings were that over four decades analysed, there was a consistent under-representation of working-class occupations and an over-representation on more highly professional and managerial occupations. This shows that audiences prefer wealth and glamour, and that lower-class representations have a negative connotation on television programmes.

One example that will be used to analyse the way the representation of class is highlighted throughout is the British television drama Shameless (2004). This popular television programme, as explained above is surrounding family life and the dramas which occur on a day-to-day life, within challenging conditions. The drama is set in the outer suburbs of Manchester on a disadvantaged estate; showing real situations through a fictional narrative, in a comedic way. The television drama is seen as somewhat of a tradition, as the writer Paul Abbott aimed to expose the more disadvantaged estates in contemporary Britain; succeeding extremely well, with the audience often laughing rather than being sympathetic or feeling concerned for the different characters within Shameless (2004). However, for some viewers watching the working-class origins, they feel some discomfort as they feel that they are being made to laugh at their own life. This is because they think that there is a increasing level of social realism throughout as there is a sense of mockery in the social problems of challenging circumstances in the narrative that are raised.

“…traditional social realism takes the colour out of working-class life, Abbott restores it in a new hybrid of styles…questioning whether the hybridisation and upbeat treatment typical of contemporary television dilutes any potential political impact. Patently, the anarchic comedy of Shameless differs from the ‘serious’ docu-drama treatments of earlier examples of social issues television.” (Nelson, 2007, pg. 50)

Another example that successfully displays the issues of class and social differences is the iconic British soap opera; Coronation Street (1960). With the support of Geraghty (1991), this soap opera concentrates on the working-class characters in order for them to be recognisable towards the audiences; through accents, the costume that they wear, and even their lifestyle choices. The class differences throughout a soap opera like Coronation Street (1960) allow the audience watching to make their own judgments on the individual characters throughout. Over the years, the class structures on Coronation Street (1960) has changed dramatically, although when the process was taking place, it seemed only a slight transition. Examples of this are the accents of the different characters changing and becoming less regional and broader. Another example of the social changes that happen throughout the narrative is when the factory got demolished and replaced with houses to accommodate the changes in the narrative and with that, the new characters that may join the soap and the storylines. Characters such as the iconic and well known Ken Barlow, achieving the middle-class role when he aspired to be a student also shows the shift in the class structure as society moved on throughout the different decades.

Another code of representation that is often used through narratives of many television programmes is the ideas surrounding gender. Gender is similar to representation, in that there have been many theories and debates surrounding this subject. The terms ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ are used on many occasions when referring to cultural and social aspects of gender. This is compared to the terms ‘male’ and ‘female’ being used to describe biological sex. When referring to gender representation within television, scholars state that starting from the 1970’s, gender through television was focused on the representation of femininity. This was through audiences seeing images of female characters or feminine personalities in either fictional programmes or news programmes. However, there are some researchers that argue against the above statement; stating that gender is not defined through characters and television personalities alone. According to Allen and Hill (2004), in order for gender to be analysed successfully throughout television, it needs to be considered through all genres. Some examples that are mentioned are talk shows, melodramas and soap operas. This links onto the example soap opera that is being analysed for using gender issues consistently throughout the narratives; Coronation Street (1960).

One of the most famous, yet controversial storylines that was to be shown in this soap during the late 1990’s is the Hayley storyline of being a transsexual; questioning her sexuality and indeed her gender, where the progression in the storyline sees Hayley fulfil her dream at having a sex-change operation and gender readjustment. Granada successfully portrayed this sensitive subject as they allowed the audience to get to know the character Hayley before allowing the storyline to progress. This was seen as being a controversial storyline of its time as it was before the watershed, therefore setting itself up for audience complaints. However, they shown this story by representing a man who has gender corrective surgery to become a woman, by the character being actually played by a woman; adding a sense of realism to the narrative. By introducing the character of Hayley first for the audience to get to know and recognise, they reached a happy ending with the audience by experiencing the gender change with Hayley.

What we can therefore conclude from the analysis that has been made is that throughout the television drama history, there has been many issues that are consistently highlighted throughout different narratives of the different television programmes, that television audiences can relate to; therefore making some television aspects more popular than others. This has been successfully portrayed through the representing codes of gender and class and how through different storylines and characters, can sustain realism; being the popularity aspect that allows the audience watching to relate to what is being shown. As well as previous literature being compared and contrasted for support, the uses of examples such as television drama Shameless (2004) and the iconic British soap opera Coronation Street (1960) shows just how these codes of representation are used throughout, being a successful technique in ensuring their popularity amongst audiences is kept to a consistently high standard throughout each episode and each series.

Word count: 2,539

References

Allen, R. and Hill, A. (Eds) The Television Studies Reader. (London: Routledge, 2004).

Bignell, J. and Lacey, S. (Eds) Popular Television Drama: Critical Perspectives. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005).

Bignell, J. and Lacey, S. and Macmurraugh-Kavanagh, M. (Eds) British Television Drama: Past, Present and Future. (New York: Palgrave Publishers, 2000).

Caughie, J. (Ed) Television Drama: Realism, Modernism, and British Culture. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

Casey, B. and Calvert, B. (Eds) Television Studies: The Key Concepts. (Oxon: Routledge, 2008).

Corner, J. (Ed) Popular Television In Britain. (London: British Film Institute, 1991).

Geraghty, C. (Ed) Women and Soap Opera: A Study of Prime Time Soaps. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd, 1991).

Hobson, D. (Ed) Soap Opera. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2003).

Levine, G. (Ed) Realism and Representation: Essays on the Problem of Realism in Relation to Science, Literature, and Culture. (London: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1993).

Lukacs, G. (Ed) The Meaning of Contemporary Realism. (Great Britain: Whitstable Litho Ltd, 1963).

Munt, S. (Ed) Queer Attachments: The Cultural Politics of Shame. (Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2007).

Nelson, R. (Ed) State Of Play: Contemporary “High-End” TV Drama. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007).

Coronation Street. 1960 [DVD] United Kingdom: ITV.

Shameless. 2004 [DVD] United Kingdom: Channel 4.

Websites

CHANNEL 4. (2011) Shameless (2004) [online]. (no date) [cited on 10th May 2011]

< http://www.channel4.com/programmes/shameless >

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Free Essays

Television in the UAE & Saudi Arabia: An analysis of women’s representation

Introduction

This research analyzes the ways in which women are represented on television in Arabic countries; through social programs in the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia.

Since graduation in 2007, I have been employed at Dubai Media Incorporated (DMI). This has awarded me seven years of experience as a news reporter and presenter; which has helped me to understand more about common traits in Arabic television as well as its depiction of women. As a result of this background, the connection between the Arabic women of the television and the country’s government will be the primary subject that this report will explore.

The rationale (epistemological, substantive, and practical) for undertaking this project stems from personal interest towards the research; as workplace experience at DMI included conducting analysis about current affairs and relations between Arabic-Gulf countries and Arabic women. This background raised a personal and moral obligation: to discover whether Arabic women are represented on TV in a negative way and what can be done to support them. This project surrounds a universal matter of gender in-equality and should be addressed as such. Arabic women (like all women around the world) should be able to work and have a proper education instead of being fated to live the life of a housewife. What makes matters more significant is the strategy the government has put in place to deliver on this mandate – manipulating the public through propaganda on common media platforms.

This report will discuss more precisely what can be done if the research concludes that women’s representation is negative on Arabic television (by analyzing the source of the problem). For instance; are religious reasons, customs and traditions, different cultural backgrounds and governmental differences to blame for female representation in the mediaOr are there other factors worth considering?

Secondary research into the topic will aid the report. This research will help reach a logical conclusion of the matter and also vicariously un-cover a niche in this area of study – (there was barely any information directly comparing between these two Arabic countries). So although this means the project will be a more difficult subject to research, it will be thoroughly completed in order to shed light upon the topic. For this reason, a mixed methodology application of quantitative and qualitative methods will be used to conduct my research. Moreover, the UAE and Saudi Arabia have been chosen for research because they advocate different rules in TV programming than other Arabic countries even though they all follow the same religion – Islam. Furthermore, women in these two countries have different cultural backgrounds and government.

The role of television as a media platform in the Arab world has been highlighted repeatedly. Arabic TV’s image and perception must therefore be the first thing to be addressed in the process of identifying whether the representation of women is a positive or negative one. In light of this, the project addresses the following questions:
How does Arabic TV present women in a positive or negative way?
What are (and why are there) differences between women’s representation in these two countries, even though they share a common religion?

Women’s experiences of social Arabic TV- harmful or helpful?

Literature Review

Literature dealing directly with the relationship between the Arabic woman and her problems with representation on Arabic TV is virtually non-existent. However, with the continuous development of worldwide media, it is hardly surprising that the Middle East’s opinion of Arabic media has become more sophisticated and modern in many aspects. In light of this, many Arabic television channels have become much more well known and influential than ever before. For example, “Al-Jazeera TV” in Qatar has noticeably developed a stronger base of viewers around the world from its wide-spread signal – something that hasn’t happened to a global Arabic news station before. As a result, the middle-east now has access to a new brand of “universalized” news (Waxman, N.D.).

Consequently, these channels have become more interesting in many aspects. It could even be argued that Arabic women are presented in an equal light to men on their native TV because of the positive attributes it shows women possessing. For example, channels depict women as intelligent and wise on worldwide TV stations in the Middle East; by implying they have the right to be educated, to be independent and to have their own business. Conversely, there are some local Arabic TV channels that do present women negatively. What makes this more significant is how the television stations do nothing to remedy this negative (and purposeful) representation.

References to renowned academic literature will also be included that argues each side of the debate; which for all intents and purposes was substantially difficult to find. Whereas a selection of these studies focus on the positive way Arabic television depicts women, other research is focused only on the differences between Arabic women in the East and the West. On the other hand, other works have sought to discuss merely the negative image Arabic stations impose on their native females. The results and critical opinions within this collected research (as well as primary research) will subsequently form the main body of my essay.

An extensive amount of the work collected on the matter emphasizes dominance over Arabic women; particularly Saudi Arabian women. One of the main books to demonstrate this belief is Paul Danahar’s The New Middle East. Published in 2013, the BBC’s Middle East bureau chief (Danahar) revealed that a new era shaped the Middle East during the Arabic Spring of 2011 which lead to clearer insights of media representatives; thereby changing traditional opinions in some Arabic countries such as Egypt, Libya, Syria and Tunisia. As a result of this, the general consensus of Arabic people (specifically women) within the international community also changed; creating a knock-on effect on the role Islam played in the Middle East during the Arabic Spring as well. Perhaps the most interesting point in this book is that the writer mentions that people (men and women) of the Arabic community can finally speak more openly for the first time. This book is a strong reference with regards to describing women’s cases during the Arabic Spring, but it is perhaps too eager to include such divine constructs as fate, destiny and pre-destination. The outcome of the Arabic Spring revolution will be considered first.

The work of Goetz (1997) asserts that women have developed remarkably for almost three decades now in numerous Muslim countries, and points out organizations must be recognized as being deeply gendered in their structure towards women’s interests in the media. However, Goetz’s results were based upon data from over 30 years ago, and it is unclear if these differences still persist; as it can be clearly seen that many Muslim-Arabic countries have changed a lot during those thirty years. For example, the amount of women appearing in Saudi Arabian media has seen a significant decrease during the last thirty years.

While Goetz’s research may therefore not be as historically relevant as others (her analysis was not based on empirical research, and she does not focus on Saudi Arabia), it is evident that the way television and media is constructed in the Middle East is fundamentally different from other countries (namely those in the West). For example, Saudi women cannot wear what they truly want to wear on the TV screen, or drive a car, and have to face a patriarchal culture every day. This is why Saudi Arabia was specifically chosen for this report.
Keddie (2007 p. 149- 150) feels that it is remarkably interesting to see the difference between Middle Eastern women in the past and the present. She focuses on tracing the development of Middle Eastern women’s history since the rise of Islam, and notes that there have been significant improvements in the Middle East’s women’s suffrage movement. Moreover, the appearance of women in public places reflects this discovery, as well as the fact that females seem to have taken up the pre-dominant role in advertising. However, she argues that women in Saudi Arabia were more open to change in the 1960s and 1970s than they were in the 1980s and 1990s; also that they were more educated, including a higher amount of people studying abroad, had more job opportunities, their own marital choices and better health. But, this all changed because of “the Islamist takeover of the main Saudi mosque in 1979” (Keddie, 2007, p.150).
It seems this reason remains unclear because Saudi Arabia had already been an Islamic country for centuries before; it was the change of the role of the government that lessened women’s rights – an after-effect of the Islamist takeover.
Strong & Hareb (2012) indicate how the amount of digitally competent young females in the UAE who use social media programs is rapidly increasing. Additionally, Strong & Hareb (2012, p. 3) point out that “The UAE is made up of seven emirates, which were separate authorities until the country was formed in 1971. Each emirate is governed by a ruling family; with some services (like education) to be funded and administered by the overall federal government”. Therefore, the UAE has a different television channel for all seven emirates. Moreover, the WAGL (Women as Global Leaders) claim that “Although Emirati females make up only about 5% of the total population, the spotlight recently has been on them as potential future leaders” (WAGL, 2012). Strong & Hareb (2012, p. 3) suggest this means that the UAE government is showing us through television that it is supporting Emirati females to be leaders. Moreover, the government’s media website said that “the UAE has become a model for Arab women in all fields” (WAM, 2009). For the UAE, the situation is more hopeful – there is perhaps more openness felt towards women, whereas in Saudi Arabia, there is no freedom. Females cannot wear what they really want to wear on a TV screen, and usually have to wear traditional, religious clothing.
Mellor, et al (2011) found that some Arabic countries have a new challenge in the media because globalization has brought new opportunities to them. For example, “the United Arab Emirates (UAE) now profile themselves globally as the perfect hybrid link between east and west” (Mellor, et al, 2011, P. 25). Clearly, it can be seen reflected in women’s current affairs in the UAE. This paper agrees with Mellor, because it can clearly be seen that Emirati women have many more opportunities now; whether it be working as a TV presenter or reporter. This study directly correlates to the main analysis of this report: by showing us that Emirati women are represented in a positive way on UAE television.
A similar view to this essay was found in a report by The Dubai School of Government (2011, p1). This report states that “Arab women in particular have become more engaged in political and civic actions; playing a critical leading role in the rapid and historic changes that have swept the region”. This article focuses on women within media and social terms, in a way that implies they are active in their society and that UAE television does help them feel more independent. It seems that UAE TV urges women to be intelligent, to be something more than just a housewife or mother at home, to work or own a business and finally be equal with Emirati men.
Lastly, the work of Saker (2004) reveals that the image of Middle Eastern women in a media landscape often presents them as changed, empowered and advanced. This article will be useful for my research.

Methodology/ Research Method:

As previously mentioned; this project is difficult to research. For this reason a variety of data by using mixed methodology – qualitative and quantitative methods. Additionally, both types of data will be collected in the two countries during the summer.
This study encompasses two different types of research to explore if Arabic TV helps women or harms them. The first type of research theory is qualitative (questionnaires, interviews, etc.). For example, respondents will be shown clips of Arabic TV shows and create a survey that will ask them which Arabic television programs support women and which do not support women, and why (as well as asking demographic information such as nationality, age, gender, and education level). The second type of research theory is a quantitative content analysis – case studies, statistics or percentages to compare with two social Arabic programs from two Arabic countries that have women presenters from the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. The programs are Kalam Nawaiem from MBC channel – Saudi Arabia, and Zahrat Al-Khaleej from Abu Dhabi channel – United Arab Emirates.
These methods lead to answering the overall research questions: How does Arabic TV show women in a positive way or negative waySecondly, what are the differences between women’s representation in the two countries (the UAE and Saudi Arabia)Thirdly, what are women’s experiences of Arabic TV – harmful or helpful?

Conclusion

The United Arab Emirates & Saudi Arabia have been chosen because on the surface it appears that one country supports women (UAE) and the second country does not support women (Saudi Arabia) on TV stations. This will make for a very conclusive and judicial paper – one that will be written with passion. Firstly, the paper’s aim and rationale for the research will be discussed. Secondly, the relative strengths and weaknesses of the literature written on this topic will be analyzed, as well as the research methods and studies chosen. It is interesting to see the differences between Islamic Arabic cultures and Western cultures; and then to compare women’s representation on TV programs. Moreover, it cannot be denied that we should support and respect women around the world, and is clear that it is not fair or equal to abandon Arabic women in this belief. The most intriguing point is that it is not all Arabic countries that do not support women; even though the Islamic religion connects them all. This research then, will help us understand in more detail the reasons of these differences – whether religious or government or cultural.

However, there will be some problems that most likely will be encountered (especially in Saudi Arabia) due to ethical issues. The research collected may or may not be allowed to be considered outside of the country. To resolve this, alternative ways will be considered so that the project can be investigated freely.

It is clear that this research needs to go ahead because it asks an important question – Are there positive ways Arabic women on TV are presented or negative waysSecondly, there has been little research done before on this topic. There was not much information that has compared two countries, justified research and then remained objective at the conclusion. Thirdly, the research seeks to understand in more depth how these differences have occurred in two Arabic countries even though there is a religion that binds them together; bringing cultural and historical significance to the paper. Lastly, this is a topic that affects everyone universally, and is something that everyone can understand. It does not matter whether the reader is a woman or a man, for it will bring attention and focus to the problem regardless. Thus, this topic can be investigated after the description of its main characteristics.

Bibliography:

Danahar, P. (2013) The New Middle East: The World after the Arab Spring. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.

Dubai School of Government, UAE (2011) The role of social media in Arab women’s empowerment. Arab social media report, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1.

Goetz, A. M. (1997) Getting institutions right for women in development. London: Zed Books Ltd.

Keddie, N. R. (2007) Women in the Middle East: Past and Present. Oxfordshire: Princeton University Press.

Mellor, N. et al. (2011) Arab Media: Globalization and Emerging Media Industries. The United Kingdom: Polity Press.

Saker, N. (2004) Women and media in the Middle East: Power through self-expression. America: Published by I.B Tauris & Co Ltd.

Strong, C & Hareb, H. (2012) Social Media Fashion among Digitally Fluent Young Arabic Women in the UAE. Social Media Fashion. Vol. 8, Issue 1. Dubai, Zayed University.

WAGL. (2012) About WAGL. Women as Global Leaders Conference. Available at: http://www.zu.ac.ae/main/en/wagl2012/about.aspx. Last accessed 5 February 2014.

WAM. (2009). Foreign Media Delegation Visits. WAM Online. 24th, November, 2009. Available at: http://uaeinteract.com/docs/Foreign_media_delegation_visits_GWU/38528. Last accessed 5 February 2014.

Waxman, S. (n.d) Arab TV’s strong signal the Al-Jazeera network offers news the Mideast never had before, and views that are all too common. Al Jazeera Online. http://www.allied-media.com/aljazeera/washpost.htm. Last accessed 11 February 2014.

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Television: the Undiscovered Drug

Television has brain-washed the majority of our youth. The first thing I hear as I get home are TV mumbles. I open the door and to no surprise there is my younger brother in full motion on the coach, hand in remote, flipping through channels. My brother could not be any more of a coach potato. He watches TV all day and night. I refer to him as the human TV guide. So much endless television can dull our minds, take away time from completing important activities, and has exposed us to a world of violence. First off, Television has dulled the mind of our youth easily.

Youths today are used to having their information passed to them on a silver platter. Not as many teens like to read anymore because it involves too much work. My brother hates to read, not only because there are words involved in that activity, but also because it is now impossible for him to visualize the world presented within the book. It is also impossible for him to focus on a book because of the short attention span he has developed, and reading books just takes too much time for him. Television presents the world to him, a different world every thirty minutes, which holds his attention.

Similar article: Teenagers’ Leisure Time

This now leaves him no mental work to do, except to decide which channel he would like to watch. Because watching television requires no mental work, the brains of the adolescents that watch television are not stimulated enough. This may lead to a slower learning process, which would then explain my brother’s inability to memorize the multiplication table. Second, Television consumes time youths should be dedicating to more important and more essential things in their lives. Television takes away time that should be devoted to homework.

When my brother gets home from school, he will immediately flip the television on, leaving his homework for later. When he finally decides to do his homework, the television will remain on, and he will sit on the couch with his books propped up in front of him, giving it only half of his attention. Homework takes longer to complete, and it probably will not be his best work since only half of his concentration was focused on it. Television also takes time away from quality family time. Most adolescents do not have a strong family connection.

Families whose only time together is at the dinner table will waste precious quality time with their heads turned towards the television. The youth of today lose the strong morals and values they can get when spending time with their family. Television can even take away time from friends. When I spend time with my friends, I like to talk with them or go out. When my brother spends time with his friends, they spend the whole day watching the television. Their conversation revolves around what they are watching on the television. Most teens have the majority of their day devoted to the television. Lastly,

Television has exposed a world of violence towards our youth causing them to be apathetic towards situations. Many television shows make at least one of the three aspects, violence, drugs, and sexual immorality, a normalcy. Adolescents of today model their behavior after characters who live in world of violence, and they do not realize that what they are doing is wrong because to our youth, whatever they see and hear on television is right. For example, my brother has become a lot less sensitive towards all his friends at school. He thinks its okay to laugh if somebody gets hurt accidentally even if it could be serious.

Or abruptly scream nonsense! He also believes its okay to manipulate people as long as he gets his way. Violence on television is glamorised and styled, and watching it does not hurt. So maybe this contributes to my brothers way of thinking their is no consequences. It is pretty short sided to blame everything on television because my brother should know what is “right” and what is “not” but how can he be really sure when television glorifies all sorts of violence? In Conclusion, When television was first invented, its purpose was to bring the family together and perhaps present a way in which we could receive information faster.

In modern times, the television has managed to affect our youth in various ways we would not have imagined. The family gathering concept has disappeared. We have accomplished a faster way to transmit information, but it was a little too much information a little too fast for the wrong audience. I suppose my brother chooses to react this way because he is already too accustomed to being a coach potato. Television has taken over our way of life and we must stop the effects it has had on our youths and our society before it is too late.

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Reality TV and the Effects on Youth

Reality television has come to dominate the television industry. There are educational reality shows and noneducational reality shows. They both have their entertainment values. The difference? One is productive television, and one is counterproductive. There is good and bad in everything, and everything is good in moderation, but counterproductive TV is taking over productive TV.

The time slots to watch educational reality shows are generally later in the evening. It is almost as if TV is trying to “dumb down” America.

Non-educational Reality Television “Noneducational” reality TV includes shows like Keeping Up With The Kardashians, Teen Pregnancy, and My Sweet Sixteen. These prime time shows target youth, but they do not teach lessons. In fact, they do the opposite, since many young people think it okay to emulate these reality show stars.

All these shows are scripted. For instance, Jersey Shore is actually filmed on a set 80% of the time. Yet these shows are passed off as reality. These shows promote drinking and heavy sexual content. Nonetheless they air in the time slot that targets youth. Kids seem to be growing up faster than just 20 years ago; perhaps disrespect and aggression can be blamed on the influence of the shows they are watching.

Instead of fighting and being rude to each other, it would be nice if the characters in these shows could, for example, reflect how ten ordinary people come into a house and work together to make the quality of life better for everyone. They could show the reality of working together to pay the bills and keep food on the table. They could teach how to step in when something bad happens to someone else and help them get back on their feet in one way or another.

Instead they have gone in the direction of survival of the fittest. Is this really the image that should be shown and taught to our future leaders? If where America has been heading in the past 20 years, it is apparent that survival of the fittest is not working. Perhaps if prime time television were to promote working together, it might help ensure a productive future.

Educational Reality Television Reality TV does have positive things to offer. Some educational reality shows are Dirty Jobs, Cake Boss, and Do You know Who You Are. These types of shows depict the reality of America. They show what truly makes America run, and teach true morals and genuine respect towards others.

True, these shows are scripted as well, but they are geared toward education and not violence, or the promotion of teen pregnancy, and spousal abuse. These shows do not promote alcohol abuse or speculate who is having sex with whom. However, these shows are targeted toward adults, as they are on at a later time slot, and much of our youth is not interested in watching real life.

Prime Time Television Prime time television is aiming for ratings rather than the promotion of morals. But I think they could produce productive TV and get better ratings. Viewers must take some responsibility, though, since we can control what our kids watch. If most people ban shows that deliver negative messages from our homes, ratings will plummet and I would imagine TV executives would completely restructure their programming very quickly.

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Effect Of Violence On Children’s Television Programs

The last decade has generated enormous momentum regarding the effect of violence in media targeted at individuals in the young age bracket. But even as awareness increases the problem seems to increase in magnitude. Experts argue that unless the demand does not reduce the supply will not match down and this might just be true. In reality the stem of the problem is still lack of awareness. An average educated American family might know not to expose their children to violence on television but may not really gauge the fact that the program their toddler watches on screen has its share of violence in a well fed and nourished capsule. This is largely the problem.

Of course, other social factors can increase the likelihood of violence by youth: lack of interaction with parents, brutality in home life, exposure to violence in neighborhoods, and easy access to guns. Here we are talking about an entire generation of our children who shall be victims to aggression and violence and who shall with increased likelihood grow up to be less productive individuals. Let us not forget that we are talking about the future of any given nation when we speak of its children. Take a look.

Significance of the problem at hand:

So just why is it so important that we try to understand something that happens in childhood? And that too something as trivial as a few stunts in your child’s daily program, some might ask. Don’t most children grow out of such things when they grow up and begin to exhibit normal acceptable adult behavior? The truth is that during early childhood, the foundation is laid for future social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development.

During this formative period, young children are particularly vulnerable to negative influences. In most instances, children have no control over the environmental messages they receive. Up until age seven or eight, children have great difficulty distinguishing fantasy from reality, and their ability to comprehend nuances of behavior, motivation, or moral complexity is limited. This special vulnerability of children necessitates increased vigilance to protect them from potentially negative influences.

EFFECTS OF VIEWING VIOLENCE.

The nation’s first major study on the effects of TV violence was a 1972 U.S. surgeon general’s report that confirmed that televised violence, indeed, does have an adverse effect on certain members of our society.

MAJOR and Direct

-Children may become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others (‘desensitization’ to violence)

-Children become fearful of the world around them

-Children may be more likely to behave in aggressive or harmful ways toward others

–Media violence can be especially damaging to children under age 8 and their families because they cannot readily tell the difference between real life and fantasy and stresses the caregivers.

-Direct anti social behavior as a result of simulating the acts seen on television.

-Immediate phobias due to what is seen on screen which makes them fearful  of the world around them.

– In their play, children imitate those characters reinforced for their aggressive behavior and rehearse the characters’ scripts without creative or reflective thought. And it has to be well understood that creativity and reflective thought are part of the criteria for assessment of children in school as part of their national curriculum and these provide them chances to score higher. Thus there are chances that the childs school results drop.

MINOR and Indirect

-Children who watch a lot of TV are less aroused by violent scenes than are those who only watch a little; in other words, they’re less bothered by violence in general, and less likely to do anything wrong with it. One example: in several studies, those who watched a violent program instead of a nonviolent one were slower to intervene or to call for help when, a little later, they saw younger children fighting or playing destructively.

-More likely to think that the world is a mean and dangerous place( feelings of phobia and discontent which are generally unusual at an early age)

– ‘Children who watch the violent shows, even ‘just funny’ cartoons, were more likely to hit out at their playmates, argue, disobey class rules, leave tasks unfinished, and were less willing to wait for things than those who watched the nonviolent programs,’ says Aletha Huston, Ph.D., now at the University of Kansas.

-Research also indicates that TV consistently reinforces gender-role and racial stereotypes.

-Children will view violence as an acceptable way to settle conflicts

– Research has shown that children who consistently spend more than 4 hours per day watching TV are more likely to be overweight.

-Young individuals become comfortable with physical aggression and even arousing them to violent action, it can make others increasingly fearful of being victims.

-Lack of interaction with family members or peers who in turn would provide mediating influences in the child’s development.

– Direct antisocial behavior in children which indirectly causes violent and criminal behavior when older.

– Children may become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others

– Long term Exposure to media violence leads children to see violence as a normal response to stress and as an acceptable means for resolving conflict in the years to come and this behavior it is reported can continue into adulthood.

– In these situations. children’s creative and imaginative play is undermined, thus robbing children of the benefits of play for their long term development.

Conclusion

The prevalence of violence in American society is a complex social problem that will not be easily solved. Violence in the media is only one manifestation of the larger society’s fascination with violence. However, media violence is not just a reflection of violent society, it is also a contributor. If our nation wishes to produce future generations of productive adults who reject violence as a means of problem solving, we must reassert the vital role of government in protecting its most vulnerable citizens and, together, work to make media part of the solution. .

 

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Pop Culture in Todays Society Team Assigment

Popular culture changes frequently and occurs exceptionally in place and time. It forms currents and represents a complex of mutually interdependent perspectives and values that influence society and its institutions in a various amount of ways. Today, we rarely see the representation of television shows that embrace settings that set positive images for our children today, it is more towards exploiting the fact that times have changed and so should we as people. There was a time when families gathered together and listened to programs being broadcast over the radio.

During this time, that was considered a special bonding family moment. Further more families at one time would allow their children to watch programs that created positive messages between each other. The physical connections among families have altogether been replaced by modern technology such as televisions, cell phones, and computers. The intimate relationship between Americans and their families has changed so that people do not indulge in an open conversation with each other; it has certainly been replaced by modern amenities.

There was a time when programs such as The Brady Bunch, The Cosby Show, and The Partridge Family were number one hits with families of that particular generation, now those choices have been replaced by reality TV, what is now considered family shows, such as American Idol, Big Brother, and Survivor. Among other television shows, Bart Simpson of the Simpson’s and Stewie Griffin of Family Guy, which should be targeted as an adult program, surprisingly are viewed by American children.

Most of what is known about the world comes from figurative rather than experienced reality, particularly in advanced media-saturated societies like the United States. Youth today tend to be more influenced by pop culture and are more likely to take information from media sources into their worldview than older people. Children and adolescents largely rely on popular culture rather than draw from symbolic reality to form their cognitive scripts.

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Understand the Impact of Gender and Culture

An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of a paper (American Psychological Association, 2001) that runs a maximum of 120 words. It should contain a synopsis of the points in the paper, but also be readable and well organized. To use this page of the template, simply delete this paragraph and start typing. The formatting should stay the same.

Negative Effects of Reality TV In today’s society many television Reality Shows have been geared for total entertainment purposes only, unlike many shows of the past that displayed family values, ethics and morals. For instance, Reality Shows are supposed to be based on real life situations and experiences. Reality Shows are built upon showing and exposing human emotions. In this aspect reality television has successfully portrayed an image that many viewers can now relate to. In reality the characters of reality television are somewhat like celebrities.

There is no doubt, that reality television provides viewers with such entertainment that does not exemplify family values. In fact, reality television has influenced our society in different ways by showing loud and rambunctious behavior. These types of shows exhibit plenty of profanity, sexual content, violence and drugs. In today’s age, nearly every home has at least one television, it is easy imagine how the idea of what is real and what is fiction can become misinterpreted.

The cultivation theory essentially holds that television viewing is a primary factor in cultivating a particular culture’s beliefs about the everyday world (Infante, Rancer, & Womack, 1997). George Gerbner knew that television was becoming an important part of the average citizen’s life and suspected that it was quickly replacing the importance institutions like family, school, and church in the enculturation process (Gerbner & Gross, 1976).

In 1973 PBS released the first reality television show: an unintentionally breathtaking series called An American Family. The show promoted a family, the Louds, who volunteered to let PBS film their lives for seven months. During the time the show was aired the Louds, faced marital breakup of the parents, Bill and Pat and the confession of their son Lance’s sexuality. Many American viewers enjoyed viewing this reality show, in spite of the family falling apart.

Reference

http://www.uky.edu/~drlane/capstone/mass/cultivation.htm

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Real vs Reality TV

Television has become a “member” of almost every single family on our planet. And not just an ordinary member, but a very important one, because the time spent next to it exceeds the amount of time spent together with any other family member. You do not have to apply any efforts to talk or listen to complaints while “communicating” with it. You do not have to play with your little son after a hard working day. You are SO tired! Can anybody respect that? You can simply turn the TV on and everything is done.

The kids are quiet, your significant other is not complaining. It is so simple that it has become an integral part of the culture of every family. It is the only time, when a person can forget about all the family troubles and the failures of the day. The sofa opposite the TV set has become the place of “reconciliation and spiritual unity” of the family. And what is it that we’re watching? Is it an educational or discovery channel? Although some might, the majority of the shows we consume are reality shows. But “what is reality television? ” one might ask.

Reality TV is defined by MSN Encarta as “television programs that present people in live, though often deliberately manufactured, situations and monitor their emotions and behavior. ” Within this genre of television are subgenres such as Game or Elimination, Talent, Talk, Makeover, Documentary, and Spoofs. It was first introduced by Allen Flunt’s 1948 program Candid Camera. The show involved concealing cameras filming ordinary people being confronted with unusual situations, sometimes involving trick props, such as a desk with drawers that pop open when one is closed or a car with a hidden extra gas tank.

When the joke was revealed, victims would be told the show’s catch phrase, “Smile, you’re on Candid Camera. ” The show became a top rated TV show in both network runs and syndication. Reality television enjoyed a renewed popularity in the 2000s with shows like American Idol that featured an interactive aspect, asking viewers to call in to vote for favorites. Today you cannot turn the television on without coming across reality television. The final ratings for the 2009-2010 television seasons show that reality TV lead the pack and bring up the rear end.

It is everywhere and although it has spread in popularity there is often more negative remarks made against it than positive. Critics of reality TV often argue that the shows promote sex, drinking, violence and racism. Although reality TV may be fun to watch, it is very dangerous for teenagers who don’t have set morals and self-identities. Reality TV is questionable because of the messages some of the shows depict. While these messages can have an effect on everyone who views them, the audience that may be the most susceptible is teenagers.

The most contested issues are whether reality TV is, in fact, “reality” and whether teenagers may develop perceptions from the reality shows that may lead to poor choices and negative consequences. In a 2004 issue of “Pediatrics,” Rebecca L. Collins, senior behavioral scientist at the RAND Corp. , and her colleagues presented the results of a survey that measured the amount of sexual explicit television that teenagers watched and how much sexual experience the teenagers had had at a one-year follow up survey.

They found that teenage exposure to sexual content on television shows increased the likelihood of initiating sexual acts and the effect of shows that depicted sexual behaviors and those that just discussed sex had the same effect on teenage audiences. Similarly, in a 2008 edition of “Pediatrics,” Anita Chandra, a behavioral scientist at the RAND Corp. , and her colleagues released the results of a survey conducted over a three-year period that measured teenagers’ exposure to sexual content on television and any resulting first-hand experience with pregnancy.

They found that teenagers who regularly watch television programs containing a significant amount of sexual behavior are two times more likely to become pregnant or impregnate someone than those teenagers who do not watch programs with sexual content. Reality TV is also dangerous because of the way it depicts the characters as heavy drinkers. Many programs include segments that show the main characters drinking, partying and engaging in rambunctious behavior, but they often fail to show to the consequences that the characters must face for these actions.

When teenagers see these types of behaviors, they might be led to believe that they too should consume large amounts of alcohol and act in a similar manner. Television violence in reality TV is another major concern. Studies show that the amount of violence that is watched on television affects the amount of aggression and violence displayed in the individual (Fernandez, Roberto, Juan and Amy 137). Reality shows such as The Bad Girls Club and The Real World have more than its share of the violence. The target viewers for MTV are ages twelve to thirty three, this demographic makes up approximately thirty three percent of the U.

S. population (Smith 89). Thirteen year olds are already susceptible to influence, and are more at risk to be adversely affected by violent television than are those of later years (Comstock 1205). If life is really like it is depicted to be on an episode of The Bad Girls Club, the average person should wake up to a side of pointless fight, brunch to a cussing war, and eat supper around the time someone breaks a nose. Studies of US television airings discovered that there was a consistent rate of five to six violent acts per hour (Fernandez, Roberto, Juan and Amy 137).

In watching an episode of the Ultimate Fighter, one can expect to see at least twenty to thirty violent acts within the thirty minute airing with three minute commercial interruptions. Arriving at twenty to thirty violent acts in an episode is when you only count each individual match as one act. The numbers climb out of the ring as fast as in. If this is what young adolescents are taking is as “reality” than it is no wonder there are problems with violence and aggression in schools and on the streets.

In a behavioral science study, it was stated that “Aggression [… is the product of social categorization” and that it is not a natural phenomenon (Comstock 1206). According to a study conducted at Syracuse University in New York, “There is a statistically significant, positive relationship between exposure to television or film violence and aggressive and antisocial behavior” (Comstock 1186). The study concluded this theory by stating that by viewing violent television in everyday life, antisocial and aggressive behaviors and tendencies would be facilitated (Comstock 1191).

With this outlook, it seems much more likely that the significant amount of aggression present in society today can very well be influenced if not caused by the vast ocean of aggression harbored in television culture. Racism is very prevalent in crime reality television. There is a vast overrepresentation of violent crime (e. g. Kooistra, Mahoney, & Westervelt 1998; Oliver, 1994; Potter et al, 1997), crimes cleared (e. g. , Kooistra et al, 1998; Oliver, 1994) and non-whites as offenders and whites as law nforcement officers. In a direct test of the cultivation hypothesis, a social theory which examined the long-term effects of television on American audiences of all ages, Oliver & Armstrong (1998) reported that whites who watched more reality TV were more likely to report higher crime prevalence estimates.

The construction of these programs is considered from a cultural, qualitative perspective focusing on the ideal perspectives conveyed about law and order, social threats, and audience empowerment (Cavender, 11998; J. Fishman, 1999). For example, Cavender and Bond-Maupin (1993) argue that these programs make use of story-telling conventions to encourage empathy with an unsuspecting victim who falls prey to evil, which, in turn, primes the notion that no place is safe. They also indicated that reality-based crime shows such as America’s Most Wanted and Unsolved Mysteries depict crime in ways similar to those used in fictionalized crime shows which reinforces existing cultural stereotypes about criminals and victims.

The First 48 is one of the most watched non-fiction investigation series which aires on A&E. Set in several cities across the U. S. , the series offers an insider’s look at the real-life world of homicide investigators. Each episode picks one or more homicides in different cities, covering each alternately, showing how detectives use forensic evidence, witness interviews and other advanced detective skills to identify suspects. The cops on this show are mainly White, with the exception of a couple of Black investigators that are shown on few episodes.

This show is very biased in the fact that it depicts only the black communities across the nation and that which is full of criminals, gang violence & drug saturation. One would almost think that there are no White people who commit the same types of crime(s) in those cities. Or is it that the Police Departments in the white communities of those (& other) cities don’t permit the exploitation which is presented by this programming’s directors? The genre has also created a slew of reality stars, as a result of the fame game.

It seems that many are random people with no apparent talent. Keeping up with the Kardashians has made famous a whole family who appear to be famous without reason except that they have a reality show. Another reality TV favorite is The Real Housewives of Atlanta. The series has been going strong for three seasons. Everything about the show is a mess. This season has been about even more drama than ever before. Will Cynthia marry Peter? Is Phaedra married to a convict? Will “NeNe” and Greg get divorced? Will Brice get it together?

The craziness and complexity of it all is never ending. Why do we care? These people are just ordinary people with no real celebrity other than what we the viewers give them. The uses and gratifications perspective, the assumption that a media channel cannot influence an individual unless that person has some use for the medium or its particular message (e. g. Katz, 1959; Rubin & Rubin, 1985), may be a clear explanation of the genre’s appeal. The uses and gratifications framework includes five primary beliefs.

The first is that an individual’s behavior is goal directed and motivated. Second, people select and use media to satisfy biological, psychological and social needs. Third, individuals are influenced by various social and psychological factors when selecting among communication alternatives. Fourth, those media consumers are aware of their needs and whether these needs are being satisfied by a particular medium. Fifth, that different media compete with one another for attention, selection, and use.

In sum, uses and gratifications theory states that individuals are aware of their needs, evaluate various channels and content, assess functional alternatives and select the media or interpersonal channel that they believe will provide the gratifications they seek. Reality TV also offers some positive aspects as well. American Idol, which is the leader of reality TV, had over 24,000,000 viewers. The show starts off with thousands of people auditioning in hopes of becoming America’s next superstar. Some can sing, but many just make utter fools of themselves on national television.

Just a week ago an American Idol hopeful auditioned in front of the judges with her opera rendition of Justin Beiber’s song “Baby”. As she belts the notes Randy immediately puts his head down and motions for her to stop. Steven Tyler and “JLo” look as if they don’t know what is going on and as she hits the high note Steven marks the end with the sound of an explosion. They break out with laughter, just as we do sitting at home watching. “What the hell was that? ” may be what comes to mind. Beside it being purely entertaining because we like to see others humiliate themselves, the show offers stories of success.

For the people who volunteer themselves for the likes of American Idol and America’s Next Top Model, winning the show is potentially a life-changing experience and a springboard to a career in the entertainment industry. The reward is there for the taking, but it’s often not just the winners who can make a name for themselves. Jennifer Hudson, a finalist on season 3 of American idol and Tocarra Jones, a participant on season 3 of America’s Next Top Model, may not have won the shows, but they both went on to have major success.

Jennifer Hudson made her film debut in the 2006 film Dreamgirls, which won her many awards such as an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and a Golden Globe Award. She also won a Grammy award for her debut album. Tocarra is a working plus-size model today and she is signed to the largest modeling agency in the world. Reality TV can also provide learning on dating, family relations, friendships and dealing with sensitive issues. Pedro Zamora’s 1994 appearance on MTV reality show The Real World was a landmark media event: the first openly HIV-positive gay man on a nationwide TV series.

Zamora, who died at 22 just as Real World: San Francisco ended, was a teen when he learned he was HIV-positive, a diagnosis that led the diminutive Miami resident to become an AIDS activist and educator. His MTV fame ultimately drew the attention of President Clinton. Zamora’s role on Real World: San Francisco was memorable not only for lecturing housemates and viewers about HIV and preventative measures but also for his combative relationship with the abrasive Puck Rainey, one of the most polarizing roommates in the show’s 21-year history.

Things got so testy between Zamora and the politically incorrect Rainey that the roommates ultimately banned Rainey from their collective home. Even those reality shows that aren’t competitions can still make a name for the stars. Lauren Conrad started her career on MTV’s “Laguna Beach: The Real OC,” and with subsequent exposure on “The Hills” has become a best-selling author, spokesperson and fashion designer–not bad for a normal California girl. Watching these successes has also inspired a generation of youngsters to aspire to make something of themselves.

They want to better their lives and find inspiration from the success stories after the cameras have stopped rolling. Reality TV also offers a source of distraction and diversion to everyday life. It gives you a break away from your stress and frustration. Of course this does not solve the root case, but it helps take away from the root source of the stress. Although taking a walk or reading a book may be better alternatives for distractions, reality TV still allows you to momentarily forget your problems because you’re consumed in others on television.

Although reality TV offers some positive aspects such as success stories, positive learning experiences, distractions and others, the negatives outweigh them all when it comes to the teenagers which the shows are aimed at. They presume that reality TV is actually “reality”, which it is not by any means. Teenagers do not have the understanding so they could and probably will fall subject to all the negative side it can entail. Some solutions to the problem may be for the parents to parent more and as they should. Parents should have the knowledge about what reality TV is and explain it to their children.

Parents or society should not rely on reality TV or any genre of television to teach our children or ourselves for that matter. It will indefinitely lead us in the wrong direction. It is not to teach, but to entertain. If we have the knowledge about what reality TV actually is, in turn, we will be able to keep it in the context of entertainment and not reality. For those who don’t take it seriously it can provide entertainment for 30 minutes or so. But if taken as “reality”, it then has a danger of harming its audience with unrealistic expectations.

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Determining Factors of Reality TV’s Popularity

In the article “Getting Real With Reality TV” published in the 5th edition of Perspectives on Contemporary Issues, author Cynthia M. Frisby argues that the reason that reality TV stays so popular is because of the audiences media gratification from social comparisons in the mass media.

According to CBS, the same element of being human that encourages people to gossip about the lives of their friends, family, and even total strangers is what fosters an audience for reality television (292). However she feels that it is something else that creates a reality television audience and it is the social comparison. Frisby believes that despite the shifting desires of society and fickleness of television audience, the human need to compare and relate has provided a market for this genre (294).

One major reason that Frisby feels that reality TV stays popular to the audience is because of the benefit of media gratification from social comparison. “people may compare themselves with others in their immediate environment or in mass media in order to judge their own personal worth (293). Frisby states that individuals compare their selves for various reasons “to determine relative standing on an issue or related ability; emulate behaviors; determine norms; lift spirits or feel better about life and personal situations; and evaluate emotions, personality, and self-worth (292). There is also the upward comparison in which there is a individual who is superior to or better off another individual, but on the other hand “self improvement is the main effect of an upward comparison because the targets serve as role models, teaching and motivating individuals to achieve or overcome similar problems (292).

Frisby believes that social comparison does not mean that the individual has to give careful, elaborate, conscious thought about the comparison, but implies that there has to be, to some degree, an attempt to identify or look for similarities or differences between the other and self on some particular dimension (293). Theorist argues Frisby’s claim that “for a comparison to be considered a comparison, the individual must be aware of the comparison and come into direct contact with the other person” (293).

In Frisby’s complete a uses and gratification survey she came up with two goals in mind to show that certain television shows may cause social comparison and to show that “viewers use reality television and images as a source for social comparison” (293). After doing this research she then conducted a analysis of all the thoughts that were given while watching reality television. Frisbys final thoughts were that regular reality television viewers and non reality television viewers responses did not differ.

Frisby states “that one major effect of exposure to reality television is to feel better about ones own life circumstances, abilities, and talents” (294). Whether if the aim of the show is about love, surviving to win money, to become a singer or for other creative expressions the results of reality viewers and non viewers are all the same. Reality television viewers like the fact that they are going through the same problems and that they can compare their living experiences and also can feel at ease that they have once made the same mistakes. Frisby feels as if “through a vicarious social comparison process (294). That viewers can one day land it big like “falling in love, winning $1,000,000, or getting the office snitch fired (294).

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Exploiting the Network: Synergy, Product Placement

The media industries have a suggestive and coercive power on society, embodied within the artifacts, images, and brands we consume. As these industries diversify, so do the products and the avenues in which they are offered. Synergy allows corporations the power to maximize advertising through a variety of cross-market promotional mechanisms, proliferating their products or logos exponentially. Initially, this essay requires an explanation of the use of synergy and cross-market advertising.

Subsequently, I will illustrate how television shows such as Nickelodeon’s SpongeBob SquarePants and MTV’s The Osbournes and Total Live Request (TRL), use the vast internal synergistic network of their parent company Viacom. Such programming appears to exploit its viewer-ship through commodification – product placement, branding, and celebrity endorsements. Synergy: The True Meaning of Cross-Market Advertising “We are reaching a position where the challenge for the 1990s should be to seek a greater understanding of the best ways, creatively, to exploit the potential for media synergy”(Confer, 10)

The concept of synergy is not new, however evidence suggests it has only been fully realized and exploited over the last decade. Synergy is created through the integration or combination of different but complimentary business interests, each feeding off the other. Ultimately, large corporations or conglomerates are diversifying their market interests rather than specializing. This diversification benefits the company by offering a new strata of opportunities thereby complimenting its existing functionality.

An example of this is a movie production company allying or buying out a major video game provider. The synergy created from such a merger allows for a film and a video game to use the same characters, story line or premise. Synergy works for two reasons. Primarily, synergy is an engine that provides cross-marketing and cross-selling opportunities, which would allow for greater sales, exceeding what would be possible from each division separately. (Hesmondhalgh, 141). Secondly, corporations also “plan and design texts, in order to encourage subsidiary spin-off texts” (Hesmondhalgh, 239).

Even if these texts or preplanned products are not of great quality or a commercial success, they will still sell thus generating profit. This is because there is a pre-existing, underlying product network that has already been established through the fan base. If synergy can be classified as the “the ability to keep cash flows inside a corporate family” (Klein, 148), through its internal use of cross-market production, promotion, and sales; Sumner Redstone’s Viacom is a perfect example of synergy at work. The Viacom Empire has tapped into many markets throughout the entertainment and media industry.

Viacom’s major subsidiaries include: Nickelodeon – children’s cartoon network; MTV – music network; NBC – television network; and Paramount – movie production company, which also runs numerous theme parks all over North America. Klein, 2000, comments on this phenomenon as “synergy nirvana” (160). According to Klein, ‘synergy nirvana’ is attained when a conglomerate works internally to “successfully…churn out related versions of the same product, like molded Play-Doh, into different shapes: toys, books, theme parks, magazines, television specials, movies, candies, CDs, CD-ROMs, superstores, comics, and mega-musicals” (161).

Basically, ‘synergy nirvana’ is the proliferation of standardized products in different packaging, through a preexisting framework of cross-market advertising; which is done on a vast scale through the exploitation of many different mediums and industries in the name of profit. ‘Synergy’ is Viacom’s number one marketing tool for it allows them to link the vastness of their empire together, into a culmination, dissemination and consumption of products, images, ideals, and brands.

Furthermore, ‘synergy’ in programming, such as SpongeBob SquarePants and The Osbournes, has evident implications for the viewer-ship. SpongeBob SquarePants: The Future of Product Placement “Nickelodeon has more children between the ages of two to eleven watching than the four major networks combined… This is significant in the competition for the children’s advertising market, which averages about $500 million a year” (Roman, 223). SpongeBob SquarePants is a lovable, animated sea sponge that manages to find himself in undersea trouble during every episode.

The “cartoon” (Mittell, 18) runs every “Saturday morning” (Mittell, 18) on Nickelodeon and is syndicated to most major television networks due to its incredible popularity among children viewers. What started out in 1999, as a comical concept for a children’s television program, has grown seemingly overnight into a ‘juggernaut’. Nickelodeon cannot only boast that it is “the number one rated program among children 2-11”, but according to Nielson ratings, “53. 7 million viewers tune into the show each month…including 22. 1 million kids 2-11, [and] 12. 7 million between 9-14” (Olson, blogcritics. rg).

With such commercial success and an immense viewer ship, Nickelodeon’s SpongeBob SquarePants uses synergistic principals of massive product placement to have free rein and ‘seep into every pore’ of consumer culture. SpongeBob employs Viacom’s cross platform synergies to network and gain access to most children’s homes. The motivation is a given when children between the ages of 2 – 11 are not only watching between 24 – 28 hours of television a week (Roman, 74), but are “responsible for either spending or influencing the spending of $100 billion annually” (Roman, 74).

This is clearly an influential and lucrative market. SpongeBob SquarePants should be the archetype for synergistic corporate product placement. With SpongeBob’s insurgence into popular culture, there have been similar synergistic trends of product placement. Support for this notion is found through looking back to 2004, days before the premier of the SpongeBob SquarePants movie in New York. Paramount, another Viacom subsidiary, launched a brand new SpongeBob SquarePants amusement park theme ride to coincide with the movie launch.

Additionally, Burger King (also owned by Viacom), released a SpongeBob SquarePants value meal that comes with SpongeBob SquarePants plastic figurines from the movie – ‘collect all 42. ’ Nickelodeon, the Viacom subsidiary that operates SpongeBob must not be ignored. Nickelodeon aired a 24-hour SpongeBob SquarePants Marathon that hyped up kids for the movie and forced unsuspecting parents to shell out $12 a ticket. Furthermore, during the Marathon’s commercial breaks, SpongeBob advised the viewers to eat SpongeBob value meals, collect all 67 figurines, and go to Paramount Theme Parks to try his new ride.

SpongeBob has saturated the market with his yellow sponginess, which must be overpowering to any parent; he can be found everywhere, in every nuance of daily life. Since the movie, product placements and cross-promotional marketing have skyrocketed. SpongeBob now has a line of clothing, DVD box sets, bed linens, and bowling balls with a real tenpin set. Of course a 5 year old needs a bowling ball and set of bowling pins with SpongeBob SquarePants on them – SpongeBob said so! MTV: Branding a Nation “MTV is associated with the forces of freedom and democracy around the world.

When the Berlin Wall came down, there were East German guards holding MTV umbrellas” – Sumner Redstone, CEO of Viacom MTV is known for hosting different music video programs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. In 1998, MTV was watched in “273. 5 million household worldwide” (Klein, 120), where it was reported, “85% of them watched everyday” (Klein, 120). The station offers a host television shows, including TRL and The Osbournes, that entrance its youthful audience through flashy music videos and the celebrities portrayed.

MTV’s popularity, since its inception in the early 1980s, is as a self-perpetuating “fully branded media integration” (Klein, 44). Klein, 2000, writes: From the beginning, MTV has not been just a marketing machine for products it advertises around the clock; it has also been a twenty-four-hour advertisement for MTV itself…[where] viewers didn’t watch individual shows, they simply watched MTV…Advertisers didn’t want to just advertise on MTV, they wanted to co-brand with the station (44). Today, advertiser branding can be seen throughout MTV.

As MTV endeavors to diversify in a changing market place, video shows like TRL are coupled with reality-based television shows intimately linked to ‘celerity’ including The Anna Nichol Smith Show or The Osbournes’. Beyond these shows lack of merit, their entire function is product branding and celebrity endorsements. Even though The Osbournes’ are a revival to the “original early 1950s format of the American sitcom” (Gillan, 55), I cannot fathom that product branding, product placement, and celebrity endorsements were as prevalent on national television in the 1950s as they are in modern programming.

Within the first ten minutes of the show, the audience can blatantly see a mansion full of expensive electronics, furniture, and cars – at a closer look, the brand names facing the camera and are a part of the Viacom conglomerate in a myriad of ways. All The Osbournes offer the predominately teen audience (other than a few less brain cells) is copious amounts of product branding though celebrity endorsement. Product branding on MTV is a big issue.

Much like the red carpet on Oscar night, where the predominant question on everyone’s lips is ‘who are you wearing? ’ MTV offers its audience the same intellectual stimulation, especially when all that its audience sees are ‘hella-cool’ rock stars and all the ‘bling’ they wear throughout their music videos, interviews, and award ceremonies. No wonder the Y generation is all about over consumption and bad taste. As we have entered the 21st Century, multi-media conglomerates have risen to great power in our society. They offer the consumer the media and entertainment that they desire.

However through internal synergistic networks, these companies, such as Viacom, can link the lucrative children’s market or the 24-hour advertising nature of MTV, to all other aspects of their company. As consumers, we neglect what these companies are telling us to do – to consume – in order to watch our favourite programs. We refuse to witness how the realities of consumerism, and sickening nature that these corporations control the very artifacts and images that we relate to and enjoy for their own personal profit.

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Bad Influence of Television

Television is a bad influence Nowadays, almost each family has at least one television. Even when we grow up, we still have a cartoon in our memories. But we can see, more and more children indulge to TV shows, they pick up bad habits from the programs and they lost a lot of fun because of they spend too much time in watching TV. Not only to the children but also to the adults, watching TV is harmful to people’s health. Too often such cruel behavior can be seen on television programs. The children could not distinguish which behavior is right and which one is wrong.

They even think some cruel behaviors are very cool. And when the children watch television programs, their parents do not have time tell them how to do is right. The programs or the films have many fighting and erotic actions to attract their attention. Young children could learn from them and do the same thing in their real life. That’s why young criminal are increasing in recent years. Watching television is interesting in children’s eyes. This is how things are. Most children like watching TV rather than playing outside.

But playing in the sunshine has better influences than staying at home. Because of staying at home, they have less chance to make friends or communicate with others. Social work skills should be learned from a kid. Maybe someone could say some programs are good for children to know more knowledge. But in fact, children are not interested in it. Learn knowledge from their own experiences can let them remember more clearly. For example, take the child to the zoo to see tigers would be better to watch tigers on a television.

If you spend too much time in watching television, it’s harmful to your health. Many teens have shortsighted because of this. And it caused the problem like fat. Staying at home will let you become lazier. Our body needs to do sports. When people are watching TV, their brain actually doesn’t need to think, the images and the voice can give enough information to them. So, our brain could be stupid. In a word, television is a bad influence. Let’s read books or go outside to play to kill time. Do not let television to be harmful to us.

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TV show

Check, Please! Bay Area is a local TV program, which reviews local restaurants. During each episode, three guests introduce their favorite restaurants to the television audience. Each guest also has to review the other two restaurants that are being featured on the show. Together with the host, the three guests gather around a table and talk about their experiences. The host of the show, Leslie Sbrocco, who has blond hair and wore a brown suit, talked throughout the program with a warm smile on her lips. Her guests were two guys, mark and Modesto, and a lady, Rachel.

Mark is around thirty and a youth worker. Maybe because of his job, he has a great sense of humor and was the most interesting person on the show. His skin is brown and his body is big, which made him look like a huge but nice potato. His favorite restaurant is New Kapadokia, a Turkish restaurant. Modesto looks older than Mark and lives in San Francisco. His favorite restaurant, Aperto, is also located in the city. Modesto looks affable and kind. He had black and gray hair and wore glasses. The last guest, Rachel, is an art director. She is also a blond and wore a blue sweater.

Rachel dressed kind of elegantly and likes elegant restaurants. The restaurant she preferred, Massa’s, was predictably expensive and formal. The room where the four of them sat looked like a dining room. In the center of the room was a large table on which set four glasses of wine. On other words, the host and guests sat around the table as if they were old friends having dinner and chatting in a luxurious dining room. The first restaurant they talked about was New Kapadokia, which was highly recommended by Mark. Mark lived in Turkey as a teenager and has wonderful memories of Turkish food.

He told Leslie Sbrocco and other two guests that the first time he dined at New Kapadokia it was love at first sight. The restaurant, whose name comes from a real region of Turkey, is located in Redwood City. It is a medium sized restaurant with French windows, white table cloths and comfortable wooden chairs. Turkish pictures decorate the bright-yellow walls and make the environment distinctly exotic. The dishes are genuine Turkish style cuisine, according to Mark.

Executive Chef, Meral Guvenc, has several signature dishes, which include kebabs, stuffed eggplant and one particular appetizer hat looks like a spring roll. Mark described the situation when he had first tasted this appetizer. “While my wife talked,” he said, “I just pounded them into my mouth. ” Everyone laughed. During the meal, a few cups of flavorful tea were used to enliven the meal. The Turkish tea is served in small Turkish glasses and presented on shiny brass trays. Finally, the other two guests gave restaurant a good review. Since the location is unpretentious, people can afford it and still have a wonderful dining experience. The second restaurant was Aperto, which has been at the same location in San Francisco for 60 years.

Similar in size to New Kapadokia, it is medium sized with twenty tables and French windows along the sidewalk side of the restaurant. The tables and chairs are of wood. The restaurant was very simply decorated but still looks neat and pleasant. The cuisine is Italian, and all the food is prepared with local Bay Area ingredients. The signature dishes of Executive Chef, Laura Guagliano-Montiel, are taglioline pepati, roasted chicken and butternut squash ravioli. There are also special recommendations from the chef everyday. Modesto said, “They are always different, but the special are always really special.

The restaurant served only wine and beer,, and Rachel said that she and her husband were disappointed with the meal. However, the guys still thought it was a nice place to hang out with friends or to have a casual meal with a family since the price is reasonable and the restaurant attracts open and friendly people. All in all, it is an affordable neighborhood restaurant. The last restaurant was Masa’s, the one recommended by Rachel and, of the three restaurants featured on this particular program, the most elegant. Like Aperto, Masa’s is also a San Francisco restaurant.

It is also a medium sizes restaurant but with no windows. All the light comes from the red-covered lamps hanging from the ceiling, which according to Rachel, are Masa’s most excellent decorations. The light is soft, with huge dark-red reflections on the floor. This lighting gives the restaurant a fabulous and somewhat mysterious atmosphere. The dark colored walls are decorated with simple-style pictures, copper statues and light-colored curtains, which create a wonderful contrast to the rest of the room’s deep richness. The cuisine offered by Masa’s is very contemporary French.

Every course is somewhat sparse but very delicious. A very extensive wine list provides to the adventure in dining. Dinner at Masa’s is a journey to elegance. Mark said that he was nervous throughout the dinner. The prices are quite high, but the service, the food, and the ambience are exceptional. There are even private dining rooms. Rachel called it a fabulous five-star dinging experience. Generally speaking, this restaurant is expensive but classic and wonderful. If a formal dinner is needed or, if people want to try the good service, Masa’s is a good choice.

Of the three restaurants featured on this particular episode of Check Please, New Kapadokia seems to be the best choice. It showcases casual-style dining at affordable prices for both lunch and dinner. Aperto and Masa’s also look like excellent choices, especially for people who live in the city. The reviews left by the audience who had been to these restaurants gave New Kapadokia the most support, so it is probably a good idea to go there first if you want a new dining experience. Some of the people said that the airing of Check Please, the restaurant become overcrowded, maybe it’s a good idea to make your reservation well in advance.

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Causes of Reality TV Popularity

There are several reasons that reality television has become popular today. The three that I will focus on are the concepts of money, instant fame, and the guilty pleasure phenomenon. The first catalyst for reality television being popular today is money. Today’s shows offer huge sums of money to people who do not necessarily possess the career skills that would make them a productive enough member of society to amass such wealth through honest work. Simplified, dumb people get lots of cash. Now, some shows do in fact have, at least at first, a pseudo-intellectual premise.

Who Wants to Be A Millionaire, for example, offered up to a million dollars to people answering a set of questions. The questions, however, differed from related shows in that they were usually trivia oriented. Also, the audience was involved, as well as calling a friend and so on, which added to the drama aspect. The lighting, music, and editing all were contrived to produce the maximum possible suspense surrounding rather innocuous pop culture subjects one might find in any game of Trivial Pursuit for Children.

The promise of money and the vicarious joy at someone winning lots of money, or more commonly spectacularly losing said money, is what draws millions of viewers. The second reason I believe reality television has become popular today is that of instant fame. Reality television takes ordinary people, sets them up in extraordinary situations on a world stage with other similarly commonplace individuals, and makes them the focus of a nation’s attention on, for example, an hour every Tuesday.

Obviously the majority of the population has no chance of ever being picked as a participant for the show itself, but again the concept of vicarious living kicks in and the audience is hooked. The members of the show are satisfactorily every-day individuals for fans to willfully suspend their disbelief. That’s what keeps 35,000 twenty year olds auditioning every year for a chance to participate in MTV’s The Real World, which offers no monetary reward save the endorsements from being an instant celebrity.

The third reason that reality television is popular today is what I like to call guilty pleasure syndrome. Sociology professor Mark Fishman of Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, has made a study of reality TV. “The Germans have a word for it, the appeal of some of these shows,” he says. “It’s called ‘schadenfreude. ‘ It means taking delight in the misfortunes of others. It’s a guilty pleasure. You feel you shouldn’t be watching.

It’s always been in good taste not to look at these things…. It’s a moral envelope that’s being pushed…. We seem to be in a new age of making public what [we used to think] shouldn’t be seen. ” In today’s society, with the massive technological revolution of home computing and the internet, and with the renewed interest in free speech and the protection of the arts, more and more people are finding premises entertaining that 30 years ago would have been considered obscene.

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Does Television Advertisement Have Positive Impact on Consumer

You must have at least once in your life seen television advertisements which made you feel bored and decide that you would never buy these products. In fact, television advertising becomes an indispensable part in marketing strategies. No doubt, there are many commercial advertisements that produce good responses right after its first broad cast. However, nowadays, consumers are very easy to “allergic” to the advertisements that they do not have feelings.

Television advertisements cause negative effects to consumers because they not fit consumers’ spending habit and thinking, use images that are annoying, and never tell all the truth about products. BODY: Many companies use television advertisements to penetrate the market but they did not succeed. The reason was that they forgot the key principle in marketing which is to put yourself in the consumer’s situation. According to Issabelle Szmigin, The act of consumption by people is very different to the picture sometimes produced from studies of consumption.

It is one of the reasons why some brands continue to live a charmed life and others cannot. Children, for example, can respond positively from this generation to the next generation with the same toy and refuse others after a few months of interest. On the other hand, as is the case of Novo, the company very clearly get wrong strategies and retrenches but still become successful in the domain of health care, while some other brands are removed for more complex tactical and strategic reason which the consumer will never know about.

In fact, you can see many television advertisements, that aired in the time period are very annoying, especially is midnight. Try asking, at this time, how many people will have to sit before the television waiting to see them. Besides that, many advertisements are very complex and have many details that made the audiences have to think. This causes customers to feel uncomfortable with the product. The important thing here is the television advertising does not suit the consumers’ spending habits, thoughts, so their failure in the market access is inevitable.

For years, massive advertising appears on television. Besides the good advertisements, there are many advertisements that using crude images, loss of culture. We still know that the advertising are necessary, but the culture in advertising even more important. Especially, with mothers who are raising young children, advertising is an effective solution in helping children eat and learn, so they require a lot from advertisements. According Scott Ward, the extent to which children attempt to influence parental purchasing is very big.

His research also reports data from mothers of young children, concerning their perceptions of the frequency with which television commercials influence their children to want advertised products, and the extent to which parents yield to children’ s purchase influence attempts. (Report Number 1, Effects of Television advertising on children and adolescents, 1971, p. 5). Mother’s decision to purchase much influenced from their children. The choice of image ads is extremely important but in fact, many marketers forgot this issue.

There are many ads that use bad images that are not effective to influence the thinking of the children or attractive to them. And of course, the mother would never buy that product. Culture advertising is not only promote the manufacturer’s brand, distribution in the masses in order to sell more goods, but also help consumers select product that suit with their needs. Besides that, culture advertising is the respect of consumers. Thus, television advertising has caused negative impacts on consumer if bad images are used, making viewers allergic to those products.

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Disadvantages of Watching TV

We require some kind of etiquate to educate the human beings for watching TV execessively without getting the advantages of the same. We have lost all our old heritage to socialise the environment. Watching TV does not involve the person participation actively. In sub-conscious mind we just go on watching the subject without involving our active mind. We are also loosing the social activites as well as outdoor activities which gives boosting effect on human mind. We should generate awareness among the people about the disadvantage of watching the TV.

Although this great invention of science has played major role in human life to give more comfort as well as information human requires for his development but in my view disadvantages has also played vital role to destroy of old age heritage which in fact scientifically proven that outdoor as social activites gives metal and physical satisfaction. As we are well our that our encestors have develop sense of visualizing the events happening at far distant places. This has happend because human has practiced his body in such a that they can see adn visualise the thing before the events take place.

But TV may not give this opportunity to develope the human mind. Watching TV has become habbit and some time we do not prefer to visit relatives and friends house and also do not prefer to be visited by them. We would like to generate the awareness in the human being to visulaise this drawback in order to avoid untoward incident to happen in futre and repent on this activity at later date. We must develope and generate a group who can devote the time to make people aware about the outcome of this activity.

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TV Is a Bad Influence

Do you know how does TV influence people? Well TV should be regulated and the people need to decide how to use it. TV is a bad influence for health, the publicity should be regulated; for example adult content must not be shown at available hours and TV is not the only way for entertainment. Watching TV for many hours brings you problems with your eyes as well as terrible headache. In fact, children that spend many hours watching it are lazier than children that read books; furthermore, children that see sports instead of practicing them tend to be obese. For better or worse, television is an important factor health educator.

In addition, 40% of the people Interviewed reported that they watched at least 2 hours of television per day, while 59% reported that they did less than 30 min of exercise and physical activity each day. The Comparisons between the foods and drinks were as a frequently consumed on television this was compared with the behavior and influenced on actual adolescents. They get influenced by TV on the patterns models of food. Over the 35% of the people admit eating pizza and pasta although 10% of Interviewed thought that television characters ate a lot of muffins and dough- nuts. Publicity should be regulated.

Publicity of adult content must not be on available hours. In fact publicity influences children on their growing up; they reported that what adolescents watch on TV the want to imitate for example the drink that they watch on TV is that one that they drank frequently. The data showed that the television focuses on the sex appeal, health and alcohol and that makes a powerful impact on the growing up of the adolescents for example: body satisfaction and health behaviors. The television actors who are overweight or obese are use with less importance on interactions for romantic scene.

In addition, overweight or obese actresses are more tend to be the joke of the TV shows and also to the violent acts. In contrast in Long et al. (2002) reported that the 11% of the adolescent that drank and have health behaviors are because they are influenced by characters of the television. The us population does not dines the fact that the television reports social norms and model behaviors especially the more affected are the teenagers TV is not the only way for entertainment; there are other things that people have forgotten.

For example: reading, museums, radio, parks, etc. TV doesn’t help to the cultural development. In fact people prefer watching TV instead of listening to the radio or to read. Television influence people in the way they think so as they act. TV is a good mass of media but first of all TV should be regulated and also people needs to decide how to use it because the educational shows are very good. But for example adult content and many other things affected to the Mind of the teenager. So people need to decide how to use it and not to be influenced by TV!

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Business Purposes Meetiing Aims and Objectives

The BBC is continuing its focus on delivering the best possible value for for licence fee payers. It means focusing on improving efficiency and generating maximum returns on their assets. By 2013 they will have delivered efficiency savings totalling nearly £2Billion meeting their 3% annual savings target.

They are now two years into their five-year efficiency programme, and by 2013 the work they already done will generate efficiency savings of £1,453million, which is the equivalent to 73% of their total savings target. They have succeeded in reducing the license fee evasion to just 5.2% of income a 0.1% improvement on last year.

BBC Worldwide has achieved a significant increase in profitability this year from £106million to £145million by growing its new business areas. This improved performance will benefit the BBC as they will put it into new and original programming.

Maximising the impact of the license fee

Maximising the returns they make on programmes paid for by the license fee. Their main commercial subsidiary, BBC Worldwide was created to generate the maximum return on programmes paid for the license fee payers. To achieve this they sell BBC programmes, formats and merchandise across the world.

Spreading the benefit of the license fee across the whole of the UK

The BBC is for all license fee payers across the whole Of the UK. They are committed to growing the whole country’s creative industries and production talent.

That is why one of the key metrics is the proportion of money they spend on the network televisions outside of London. Keeping costs down where ever possible. They Have made an increase in Scotland, Northern Island and Wales. According to an independent study impact of the BBC as helped create and support over 7,000 jobs in Glasgow, Cardiff and Bristol.

They also offer a pension scheme to all their employee’s at a rate that is reasonable and affordable to all those who work for them. So all in all the BBC are meeting both their aims and objectives according to my research. They make a profit as well as help support the public and bring the nation together with its music stations and televised programmes. They have to work within their budget given to them by the government and if they underspend then they have to give it back. Their turnover is relatively healthy and they do continue to make a profit each year which is good for all of us in the long run.

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The Effect of News Teasers in Processing News on Television

Past researches on cognitive effects of news teasers[1] (or news previews) were mainly focused on the viewer attention and memory performance (e. g. Scheuder & White, 1989; Cameron, Shleuder, & Thorson, 1991; Schleduder, White & Camerson, 1993), but little research has been conducted to examine the effects of the by-product of newscasts-news teasers. Chang’s paper aimed at filling the gap between previous researches by exploring the role of news teasers in processing television news and examining the effectiveness of different news teasers in improving information retention and comprehension.

Chang found that the presence of a news teaser in the preceding TV program enhanced viewer’s recall and comprehension of the news story teased. Additionally, the presence of a program reference in the news teaser demonstrated a significant impact on viewer’s comprehension of the news whilst presentation format of the news teaser did not have any effect.

According to the priming effect and schema theory, priming is a natural process of the spreading activating particular connections in memory (Berkowitz & Rogers, 1986) and it is used to explain the effects of news previews on viewer’s attention and memory status (Schleuder, White, & Cameron, 1993). In addition, Schemata are mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge, make sense of an event and provide a framework for future understanding.

With the use of a program reference in a news teaser will not only enhance spreading activation process, but serve a cue emphasizing the connection between program and upcoming news story. Therefore, Chang’s study contended and showed that program-referred teasers have stronger priming effects on viewer’s recall and comprehension. Chang’s findings are particular useful in amplifying the agenda setting effect by leveraging on the relationship between preceding program, news teasers and the following news feature.

Common examples of such application include but not limited to socio-educational messages such as safe sex, safe driving, and campaigns against drugs, smoking and driving after alcohol consumption. A situational drama can first mention how drug taking ruined the life of a fictional character, following by a news teaser in the commercial break extracting remarkable scenes from the upcoming news program, then the news feature itself. The interaction between the three elements within such a short period of time not only could reinforce the message to be conveyed, but also deepened viewer’s impression on the issue.

The most severe weakness of Chang’s study is that it employed a simulated newscast and news teasers instead of naturally occurring ones. Besides, the external validity of Chang’s research is weak given the TV viewing session was conducted in a laboratory setting with all participants being students. Despite the above limitations, Chang’s study does provide new insights for practitioners to adopt in improving audience flow in broadcasting.

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The Influence of Television in Politics

The Influence of Television in Politics Kendra Harris Brigham Young University- Idaho Author Note This paper was prepared for Professor Kiersten Lee’s FDENG 201 class. The Influence of Television in Politics “Americans are the best entertained and quite likely the least-informed people in the Western world. ” (Postman, 1984, p. 2) While this statement is painfully ominous, its message is one that has been debated tirelessly since the dawn of technology. The influence of television in politics is one with strong advocates and opponents.

There have been many studies and investigations into the effects of technology on the political world, and yet no conclusive evidence has come forth. (Rannay, 1985, p. 3) Despite this, it is no mystery that television has irrevocably changed politics in the past and now. The responsibility for this change does not lie solely with television or with the audience. What remains to be seen is whether this effect has been detrimental or beneficial to the political process. “Between 1947 and 1955, the percentage of American homes owning television sets rose from less than 1 to 65 percent; today, almost everybody has a TV set. ” (Rannay, 1985, p. ) The television set became commercially available in the 1920s, but did not begin to have a political effect until the 1952 presidential campaign between Dwight D. Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson. While Stevenson did not approve of electronic campaigning, Eisenhower to took the screens, creating “short spot commercials to enhance his television image. ” (Kaid, 1981, p. 47) These commercials helped Eisenhower to create an image that was friendly and charming, which eventually led to him winning the campaign. Since this pioneering campaign, “Every presidential campaign […] has relied heavily on political television spots. Television campaigning dominates the political world, and 50-75% of all campaign budgets in the 1992 presidential campaign were devoted to TV spots, commercials, and shows. (Devlin, 1992, p. 12) Given this evidence, it is easy to conclude that the television is vital in modern politics, but one must take into account what political message the television is giving to the American audience. “Over the past five decades of political spot use, about one-third of all spots for presidential campaigns have been negative spots. ” (Devlin, 1992, p. 12) The television, while useful, is used today primarily for entertainment.

If something is not quick, easy, and fun, then it has no place on the television. Everything from court trials to private lives are put on the screen for personal enjoyment, and it is no different with politics. No longer do politicians need to provide in-depth answers to political questions, or prove to the American audience that their policies and platform are sound – they merely need to be liked. “In the age of television, people do not so much agree or disagree with politicians as they like or dislike them, for the image is not susceptible to verification or refutation, only to acceptance or rejection. (Postman, 1984, p. 3) There is no need for politicians to prove that they should be in the White House with their words, because Americans will judge them on their looks and character before ever listening to what they have to say. Of course, Americans would be lucky to even hear what politicians have to say. Most political speeches and debates are cut down to “soundbites, snippets of candidate messages or commentary excerpts,” (Kaid, 1981, p. 4) by news programs, newspapers, and online journals. By the 1980s, most presidential campaign coverage on news programs were cut down to soundbites of only about nine seconds.

These soundbites catch the ‘best part’ of the presidential campaign, resulting in “television news coverage that concentrates more on candidate images, ‘horserace’ journalism (who’s winning, who’s losing, opinion poll results), and campaign strategy than on issue concerns. ” (Kaid, 1981, p. 4) Americans are so used to seeing the bare bones of political campaigns that they no longer search for the meat in issues. Instead, they just skim over politics, taking in a few stories here and there (mostly the more controversial stories that get more media coverage) and make their decision as to who will be president.

Despite the accomplishments of television and the media “[…] their news departments tend to operate as [a] show-business. ” (Goodman, 1994, n. p. ) Just like in show business, anything slow and detailed is boring in television, and so Americans greedily gobble up light dishes of insignificant facts, leaving the heavier business of issue concerns to others. This “[…] condition is chronic and has become painfully evident in the late political season […] A medium that has shown it can bring information and even ideas effectively to millions is reduced every two years to a tool for stirring up emotions and shutting down minds. (Goodman, 1994, n. p. ) But enough of this depressing business for a moment; let us discuss why we are allowing ourselves to become so politically lazy. The social stigma of a lazy American is common but is not necessarily true. So why do so many Americans allow themselves to be swept up in political frenzy, eventually making bad decisions that lead to bad government? The answer is in the way we think. As Americans become exposed to more and more information the ability to think deeply and comprehensively is lost.

In modern times, “the advantages of having immediate access to such an incredibly rich store of information are many, and they’ve been widely described and duly applauded. ” (Carr, 2008, p. 2) Carr continues to say though, that having access to this amount of information comes at a price. Americans are getting their information from the media, but our information does not come from an inert source. New programs control what political information we have access to, and politicians live in a world where “they can’t control the message. ” (Negaunee, 2006, n. p. Instead of being given in depth messages from candidates, news programs give us small scraps of information. As we learn snippets of information over many years, we begin to think in snippets of information, and we slowly lose our ability and “capacity for concentration and contemplation. My mind now expects to take in information the way the Net distributes it: in a swiftly moving stream of particles. ” (Carr, 2008, p. 2) The television is no different from the Net in this regard, and so Americans now expect a ‘steady stream’ of politics, without any effort needed in order to know everything about political candidates.

The true grit of politics – the issues, the questions, the problems, the things that matter – are not included in this steady stream. And so Americans, by our own actions, avoid the deep facts. We make decisions based on half-truths and unsearched details- decisions that shape our government. Without the ability to think and study issues for ourselves, we rely heavily on a candidate’s looks, charisma, and coverage in order to make our decision. Today, we are merely vessels for voting, “deprive[d] of independent thought. ” (Huxley, 1958, p. ) As Aldous Huxley states, “Today the art of mind-control is in process of becoming a science. The practitioners of this science know what they are doing and why. ” (Huxley, 1958, p. 2) While mind control may seem a little far-fetched right now, we as Americans are allowing ourselves to be controlled by our televisions, controlled by newscasters and programs that know exactly what they are doing when they give us inaccurate and biased information. Perhaps one of the best examples for showing the affect of television on politics is the presidential election of 1960.

The race was between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon. The first televised debate of this candidacy brought very different reactions between those who watched it on the television, and those who heard it on the radio. “A survey of those who listened to the debate on radio indicated that Nixon had won; however, those who watched on television, and were able to contrast Nixon’s poor posture and poorly shaven face with Kennedy’s poise and grace, were more likely to think Kennedy had won the debate. ” (Stephens, n. d. , n. . ) There is no saying who would have been a better president, or who was more qualified for the role, but this evidence shows that television heavily influenced the audience’s opinion of the candidates. Those who watched the debate on the television preferred the more attractive portrait of JFK versus that of the less attractive Nixon. Those on the radio – the ones who actually listened to the debate versus watching the people – felt that Nixon had won because his policies and debating skills overpowered those of JFK.

This poses the question: would Nixon have won if there had been no television? Should JFK have won based on his good looks? And perhaps, we must ask the most ominous question of all: Do we want people elected as president based merely on good looks and a warm personality, or do we want them elected based on excellent policies and management skills? All of this seems a little extravagant and paranoid and yet the evidence rings true. We as Americans let looks and personality get in the way of actual politics and brains when it comes to a political election.

Undoubtedly, the television has detrimentally affected politics. It has changed the way we think, and have made us intellectually lazy. It has changed the way we vote, making us vote based on superfluous details versus cold hard facts. Television is not completely to blame though, for Americans have played their part in allowing themselves to become lazy. The only solution to the political epidemic sweeping the nation is to change the way we think. In order to do this, we must first change the source of our information. The solution is not to bemoan technology but to develop strategies of self-control, as we do with every other temptation in life. ” (Pinker, 2010, p. 2) As we force ourselves to seek complete and unbiased information by watching complete debates, reading platforms, and studying issues (or, if we cannot find unbiased information, at least studying the biased information on both sides of an issue to get the full story), we will be able to make well-informed decisions. As we seek the truth, news programs will begin to catch on that the audience demands more complete information, and we will begin to get what we crave.

Only when we have the true report about politics will we be able to make better decisions regarding government and better our lives. References: Carr, N. (2008) Is google making us stupid? In W. Brugger, D. Hammond, M. K. Hartvigsen, A. Papworth & R. Seamons (Eds. ), The way of wisdom (p. 1-8). Rexburg, ID, BYU-Idaho. Retrieved January 16, 2012, from http://ilearn. byui. edu Huxley, A. (1958) Propaganda under a dictatorship. In W. Brugger, D. Hammond, M. K. Hartvigsen, A. Papworth & R. Seamons (Eds. ), The way of wisdom (p. 1-5). Rexburg, ID, BYU-Idaho.

Retrieved January 16, 2012, from http://ilearn. byui. edu Kaid, L. (1981) Political advertising. In D. Nimmo and K. R. Sanders (Eds. ), Handbook of political communication. Beverly Hills: Sage. Nagourney, A. (2006) Politics faces sweeping change via the web. New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2012 from http://www. nytimes. com/2006/04/02/washington/ 02campaign. html? pagewanted=all Pinker, S. (2010) Mind over mass media. In W. Brugger, D. Hammond, M. K. Hartvigsen, A. Papworth & R. Seamons (Eds. ), The way of wisdom (p. 1-4). Rexburg, ID, BYU-Idaho.

Retrieved January 16, 2012, from http://ilearn. byui. edu Postman, N. (1984) Amusing ourselves to death. In W. Brugger, D. Hammond, M. K. Hartvigsen, A. Papworth & R. Seamons (Eds. ), The way of wisdom (p. 1-4). Rexburg, ID, BYU-Idaho. Retrieved January 16, 2012, from http://ilearn. byui. edu Ranney, A. (1985) Channels of power: the impact of television on American politics. (pp. 1-7). New York: Basic Books. Stephen, M. (n. d. ) History of television. New York University. Retrieved January 23, 2012 from http://www. nyu. edu/classes/stephens/History%20of%20Television%20page. htm

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Analysis of a Print Advertisement and a Television Commercial

Print advertisements are used by marketers to make advertising appeals with an aim of influencing the manner in which consumers or buyers view themselves. This creates a psychological appeal whereby buyers view buying of certain products as beneficial to them. Print advertisements greatly influence the buying decisions of the consumers. The Tripwire Magazine contains car advertisements that capture the attention of the reader and arouses emotions that make them desire to get more about the cars.

The psychological and socials needs of an individual are elicited by an emotional appeal that motivates consumers to make certain purchases (Betonio, 2011). Therefore, advertisers capitalize on the emotional appeal supported with logic in print advertisements to ensure consumers personal and social needs are captured the advertisements influencing the buyers purchase behaviors.

The Samsung 46” digital TV LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY) display appeared in a TV commercial with an emphasis on product features such as the advanced cooling, longer operation, the high, gloss piano black finish, and the quality display resolution capturing consumers emotions through its emotional appeal. The advertisement used a colorful sculpture to show the commercial grade television and its other distinguishing features.

In my opinion, they used this colorful art to attract the attention of the costumers and make them believe that they are buying something more than a simple Television; that’s why they mentioned at the end of the advertisement “is it art or television? ” The ad also thrills the consumer when it illustrates how the Samsung 46” digital TV LCD captivates its viewers with professional displays that give a flexible, engaging and an interactive way to channel a message across.

In conclusion, print advertisements or TV commercials are powerful advertising tools and are aimed at making a psychological appeal to consumers by attracting, holding as well as making them focus their attention on the product arousing an interest to possess it. This creates a positive image to those who purchase the product increasing the need to own one.

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Trouble with Television

The trouble with television My viewpoints on the book written by Marie Winn “The Trouble with Television” which talks about how television has a negative effects on children and family. I’ve read the book and I agreed with everything author Marie Winn wrote, so I have decided to argue for her on the major points of the book.

My first argument for the book will be about the family, it talks about how “TV Keeps Families From Doing Other Things”, which it explains how a child that spends too much time watching TVs will miss out on a very important part of their learning development, because in the home its where much of the child learns an if the child is watching TV and not learning and bonding with their family, the television will turn off the process that transforms children into people.

My second argument will be about TVs is a hidden competitor for all other activities  this topic is about how TVs takes most of your time so you don’t have time to do anything else ,TVs is competing with every activities an TVs is the one of the reason why some activities people never get to do

The book also says “That TVs takes the place of physical fitness and play”, I totally agree with that statement because too many kids are just watching TV, not doing any physical activities at all, studies are showing that people are watching more TVs an getting more obese due to a lack of physical activities, to me after finding that out too much TVs has such a negative effect on physical health, I’ve decide to cut down on the number of hours I spend watching TVs.

TV has such a negative effect on school achievement ,that was one of the main points in The Trouble with Television book ,it explains how excessive TVs watching directly negatively affects the brain ,in other words  turns the brain into mush due to more watching TVs and less studying. In my opinion I agree with everything author Marie Winn wrote in The Trouble with Television book.

I agree that too TVs is a big problem . I once use to watch TVs so much and never studied I was failing in school, and when I finally turned off the TVs and picked up a book, my grades an my life became so much better, when you turn off the TVs you come back to reality an so some world that wastes your time

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The Dangers of Television

SUMARY The Dangers of Television by Harriet B Fuller (USA) According to Harriet in the United States, television has played in changing American values as follows. In the 1940s, television was predicted to bring families closer together. Its influence, however, has splintered family relations. The first danger of television, as the author mentions is the lack of as family outings‚ the going of the whole family together such as family take a walk, dine out, go to the cinema are constrain when one or more family members do not go by they want watching more go out.

The second danger mentioned by the author is the limitation of family time together at home. The recreational activities before TV include: games, songs, and hobbies. They will replace the time of the occasion for talking in family: debate and talk with family members. The final danger as the author claims is the “domination” of TV in our daily life. This is “dominates” the family. The family activity depend on TV.

In conclusion, the writer gives an alarm that if children watch TV for hours; it has become a pacifier and a baby-sitter. Parents’ roles as educators have been replaced by TV, preventing necessary interactions between family members Reaction paragraph According to Harriet in the United States, television it now “dominates” the family and In my opinion, the writer is completely true. Obviously,I have seen the effects of television on my family and agree with the author of this article.

As a child, I can remember watching very little television. The majority of my time was spent outdoors with my family gardening, playing, caring for livestock. However, I did have a younger brother who preferred watching television to joining our family activities. and bad effect to our family. In conclusion, it is significant that we need to consider the dangers of television to our life and future because it effect to family relationship.

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A Persuasive Essay About the Influence Television Has on Children

Obesity is a growing problem, and it is time for parents to step up to the plate and take responsibility for child obesity. Daniel Weintraub uses an emotional appeal, the article “The Battle Against Fast Food begins in the Home”, to mandate parents to take responsibility to protect their children against obesity. He states that even though the fast-food companies and the government contribute and influence childhood obesity, ultimately it is the parents’ responsibility for obesity in their children.

He provides several good points showing how parents are the ones to take the blame for the increasing problem. I believe that parents are indeed responsible for child obesity. Weintraub makes several good points on how parents should take responsibility and avoid obesity in their children. He does this by commanding parents to teach their children good habits, especially good, healthy eating and exercise habits. Also, he states that parents should protect children against bad things.

In this case, fast-food is considered a bad thing since it does not only make children obese but causes a variety of medical conditions as well, so parents need to step up and protect their children against fast-food. Lastly, he believes that parents need to take responsibility since they are in the best position to educate their children. According to Daniel Wientraub, “It is parents–not the government, not the fast-food companies, not the video-game manufactures–are in the best position to fight the epidemic of overweight children. As you can see Weintraub believes that there is no one to blame for childhood obesity but the parents. Weintraub makes several good points, which induces parents to take responsibility and action for the matter. Even though Weintraub makes a good argument, he has a few weak points, because his opinions are too simple when there is more to it than what he presents. For example, Weintraub does not provide any sort of statistics, facts, or references. Also, you could argue that teachers, not parents, are in the best position to teach their children since they are well educated in the field of health and nutrition.

After all, teachers are required to teach health class in school. Lastly, the whole article is just an emotional appeal in which Weintraub goes to the extremes and exaggerates. Weintraub says, “We have laws against leaving a loaded weapon where their children can find it and use it to hurt themselves or others. But no one seems to want to tell parents that they need to protect their children from unhealthy foods and from sloth. ” Clearly, he exaggerates because it is almost absurd to compare the dangers of a firearm to the dangers of a french-fry.

Overall, I agree with Weintraub and believe that parents are the ones responsible for childhood obesity. First of all, parents’ poor eating habits have a great influence in child obesity. Parents need to educate themselves in the nutrition field, to be able to offer a good, healthy diet and correct portion sizes to their children. Secondly, the lack of discipline by parents also contributes to obesity in their children. Parents are easily manipulated by their children, and as a result children get what they want.

Parents need to make their children get some sort of exercise as well. Lastly, parents’ economic issues might lead them to buy fast-food, but fast-food is not as cheap as it seems. When you add up all the numbers it is inevitable to notice that the difference between fast-food and home cooked meals is minimum. According to a Yale survey, seventy percent of the cause to the rise in childhood obesity rests with the parents. As you can see, statistics have shown that parents are the responsible ones for obesity in children.

Evidently obesity among children is a huge, dangerous problem, which parents need to take action of and help their children. It is a must for parents to teach their children about proper eating habits. Disciple also influences a child’s obesity and parents need to get a bit strict with their children. Lastly, economic issues should not lead parents to buy fast-food because it is not that cheap and very unhealthy. I believe it is time to stop blaming others. Parents need to get well educated, so they can provide good eating habits and decrease the growing problem of obesity in children.

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Impact of Television on Presidential Elections

Impact of Television on Presidential Elections The Impact of Television on Presidential Elections: The aim of this paper is to look at the relationship between the mass media, specifically television, and presidential elections. This paper will focus on the function of television in presidential elections through three main areas: exit polls, presidential debates, and spots. The focus is on television for three reasons. First, television reaches more voters than any other medium. Second, television attracts the greatest part of presidential campaign budgets.

Third, television provides the candidates a good opportunity to contact the people directly. A second main theme of this paper is the role of television in presidential elections in terms of representative democracy in the United States. Researchers tend to hold one of three views about television’s influence on voters. Some believe that television affects voters in the short run, for example in an election campaign. Another group of researchers believes that television has a great influence on voters over time and that television’s impact on voters is a continuous process from one campaign to the next.

Others stand between the two views or combine both. In the last three decades, polls became an important instrument for the media, especially television networks, to determine who wins and who loses the election. Caprini conducted a study about the impact of the early prediction of a winner in the 1980 presidential race by the television networks. He observed that, shortly after 8 p. m. Eastern standard time, NBC announced that, according to its analysis of exit poll data, Ronald Reagan was to be the next president of the United States (Caprini, 1984, p. 866).

That early call was controversial because the polls in many states were still open at the time and, in some of the western states, would remain open for several hours. Caprini ended his study with the following conclusion:       Voting for the Republican candidate was completely unaffected by the early call, with precall and postcall districts varying from their normal patterns in exactly the same amount and direction. The Democratic vote, however, declined 3. 1 percent more in the postcall districts than in the precall districts (p. 874). This result suggests that the NBC prediction did have an impact on the election.

Additionally, this result supports the impact of the media on political behavior. Some experts argue that rates of voting in the western states are not affected by early projections. Strom and Epstein argue that the decline in western states’ turnouts is not a result of the early projections by the networks but is the result of a complicated combination of factors, none of which is related to information received on election day (Epstein and Strom, 1981, pp. 479-489). This argument denies the influence of polls on the voting turnout in the first place, and it denies the impact of media on political behavior.

Other researchers look at the issue of exit polls from a legal perspective. Floyd Abrams, a First Amendment lawyer, supports the constitutional rights of the media and says their exercising of their rights should not be restricted, even if that influences the voters:       Once it becomes a legal issue, even people who believe that projections are harmful, or that exit polls are sometimes misused, should unite and say that the law should not be used to stop people from exercising their constitutional rights even if we happen to disagree with the way that they are using them (Abrams, 1985, p. 8). These different viewpoints represent two sides, the public and the media. Few researchers believe that exit polls have no effect on voting behavior. The majority of researchers believe that exit polls and early projections of the presidential elections do influence voters, but they disagree to what extent. The most persuasive reason to include televised debates in presidential campaigns is that voters want them.

Voters find something in televised debates that confirms their previously held support for a candidate or helps them to decide whom to support. So television debates are now part of the political landscape. However, one expert has written that, even after the Bush-Dukakis debate, thus making four campaigns in a row to include debates, he would not predict continuation: “there are too many points at which disagreement might scuttle the whole plan” (Mickelson, 1989, p. 164).

Stephen Hess in his book, The Presidential Campaign, observes that:       While some contend that televised debates of 1960 and 1976 elected John Kennedy and Jimmy Carter, those elections were so close that any single factor – including debates – could have been said to have made the difference (Hess, 1988, p. 76). Debates give people an opportunity to learn about those who will be president. This is probably the most positive thing to come out of the televised debates. People build their images about the candidates through their stands on the issues. For the 1960 ebates, Katz and Feldman reviewed studies:       As far as issues are concerned, the debates seem to have (a) made some issues more salient rather than others (the issues made salient, of course, may or may not have been the most important ones); (b) caused some people to learn where the candidates stand (including the stand of the opposition candidate); (c) effected very few changes of opinions on issues; and (d) focused more on presentation and personality than on issues (Katz and Feldman, 1962, pp. 173-223). This conclusion shows the importance of “psychological factors” in voting.

As technology develops, researchers try to determine its impact on voting behavior. Technicians use advanced techniques during the presidential debates to get the viewers’ attention. The most impressive effect of the presidential debates is its impact on voters compared to that of other televised political communication in presidential campaigns. In a 1983 study of 2,530 voting-age Americans, ABC News and the John F. Kennedy School of Government noted that voters and non-voters agree that debates are more helpful in deciding whom to vote for than either television news reports or the candidate’s own television ads (Kraus, 1988, p. 28). So it is obvious that such debates will have some impact on the outcome of the elections. Presidential debates are controlled by the candidates in several ways: the decision about whether to participate, the approval of areas of discussion, and the refusal to debate without panelists (p. 142). The 1988 debates were actually just joint appearances by Bush and Dukakis answering reporters’ questions in two-minute and one-minute segments (Mickelson, 1989, p. 164). The year 1952 witnessed the emergence of the televised spot commercial in politics.

The spot is a very short ad designed to convey a specific point or image without going into depth on issues or providing much detail. Since that time, spot commercials have been a main part of presidential campaigns. Joe McGinniss, an expert on campaigns, noticed the importance of the political ads:       It is not surprising then, that politicians and advertising men should have discovered one another. And, once they recognized that the citizen did not so much vote for a candidate as make a psychological purchase of him, not surprising that they began to work together (McGinniss, 1969, p. 27).

The goals of spots are converting the voters and keeping the committed in line. Also, spots can encourage the voters to go out and vote on the basis of their commitments (Diamond and Bates, 1984, p. 352). These goals are related to the short-term influences of television on voting behavior because spots appear in the last weeks of the campaign. They could make a difference in the outcome of the presidential election. The goals are also related to the long-term influences of television on voting behavior because young voters today have been raised with television and they perceive the political process through the media.

The evidence supports the idea that spots, more than anything else, could make a difference in the outcome of the presidential elections. Sidney Kraus makes this point in the book, Televised Presidential Debates:       It came as a surprise to almost everyone in the broadcasting industry to find a major study of the 1972 presidential race (conducted by two political scientists) concluding that voters learned more about Richard Nixon and George McGovern from political spots than they did from the combined nightly newscasts of the networks” (Kraus, 1988, p. 17).

Kathleen Jamieson agrees: . . . political advertising is now the major means by which candidates for presidency communicate their messages to voters . . . Unsurprisingly, the spot add is the most used and the most viewed of the available forms of advertising (Jamieson, 1984, p. 446). On the other hand, others argue that spots are not providing the voters good information about the candidates. Theodore Lowi supports that position:       Since the brief commercials are built on impressions rather than logic, “instant replay” benefits the sender, not the receiver (Lowi, 1985, p. 4). Others describe these spots as selling candidates like any other product. These experts ask whether presidential campaigns should be run on marketing principles or political tactics, whether the best candidate or the most telegenic performer wins, whether money can buy enough media to buy elections (Lowi, 1985, p. 65). The emergence of spots has been particularly upsetting to those who believe that political campaigns should inform the voters, not manipulate the opinions of the voters.

The growing role of television in the presidential elections and its effects on the public gives rise to an important question: Is this phenomenon healthy for democracy in the United States? Television became an important factor in the election process for several reasons: the decline of political parties, which had been the most important factor; (Wattenberg, 1986, p. 108) developing technology, which provided new opportunities for political television, like spots and debates; and, as a consequence of the decline of political parties, decreasing voter turnout in presidential elections since 1960.

For example, only 53. 3 percent of the eligible citizens voted in 1984, the lowest since 1948. This is the same period during which the amount of money spent on televised political advertising tripled (in constant dollars) (Diamond, 1984, p. 352). Experts disagree about how television should function in a democratic society. Proponents see television as part of political socialization, and they believe that voters have profited from the presidential debates and political ads. Proponents do, however, suggest particular improvements in presidential debates.

Kraus suggests the following:       Campaign Act of 1971 provides a tax check off to help finance campaigns in presidential general elections, and since the public want presidential debates those who receive funds should debate. Candidates may refuse to debate, but they would not receive public funds (Kraus, 1988, p. 154). Others defend television from a legal perspective. Floyd Abrams defends exit polls as follows:       Once it becomes legal issue, even people who believe that projections are harmful . . . should write and say that the law should not be used to stop people from exercising their constitutional rights (Abrams, 1985, p. 8). Opponents look at television as a harmful factor in the democratic process of electing a president. According to one expert, “The promise [of] television . . . has collapsed in an era dominated by packaged campaigns and avoidance of issues (Mickelson, 1989, p. 167). Others see the media as the main cause of the decline of political parties, which were supposed to be intermediary between the government and the people in a representative democracy, and they believe the decline of the parties will increase the gap between the government and the people. Also, they see the media as a part of the political elite in the United States.

Edward Greenberg noticed this point:       Most importantly, the mass media are themselves parts of gigantic corporate empires and, while a few among them may experience an occasional episode of “muckraking” these media are firmly, in the long run, entrenched in the camp of the powerful (Greenberg, 1986, p. 22). Regulations are necessary to control some of the bad effects of the media, particularly television. Exit polls could be regulated so that East Coast poll results are not announced until the last poll on the West Coast closes. Participation in presidential debates should be required of candidates who want to receive campaign funds.

Spots should have more regulations than the previous two areas because the candidates use spots to attack each other. For example, in the 1988 elections, George Bush had one spot in which he rode a yacht through Boston Harbor to show that Michael Dukakis is not an environmentalist and which appeared many times during the last days of the campaign (Mickelson, 1989, p. 162). The public got the impression that Dukakis is not concerned about the environment. Spots should be based on facts. This paper demonstrates that the mass media, particularly television, have a great effect on presidential elections.

Analyzing exit polls, presidential debates, and spots shows that television does affect the voters and the voting turnout in the United States. Scholars agree on the effects of television on presidential races; however, they disagree on the extent to which television has affected voting behavior and the voters. Television emphasized the decline of political parties in the last four decades. Although some experts believe television in presidential elections is healthy, others believe it is harmful to democracy, increasing the gap between the government and the people.

The negative effects of political television on democracy can be eliminated through regulations. Such regulations could permit political television without its dangers. References Abrams, Floyd. (1985, Spring). Press practices, polling restrictions, public opinion and first amendment guarantees. Public Opinion Quarterly 49 (1): pp. 15-18. Caprini, Michael X. Delli. (1984, August). Scooping the voters? The consequences of the networks’ early call of the 1980 Presidential race. Journal of Politics 46: pp. 866-85. Diamond, Edwin, and Stephen Bates. (1984). The Spot. Massachusetts: MIT Press. Epstein, Laurily R. , and Gerald Strorn. October 1981). Election night projections and west coast turn out. American Politics Quarterly 9 (4): pp. 479-91. Greenberg, S. Edward. (1986). The American political system: A radical approach. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Hess, Stephen. (1988). The Presidential campaign. Washington D. C. : The Brookings Institute. Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. (1984). Packaging the Presidency: A history and criticism of Presidential campaign advertising. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katz, Elihu, and Jacob J. Feldman. (1962). The debates in the light of research: A survey of surveys. In The Great Debates, ed. Sidney Kraus.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 173-223. Kraus, Sidney. (1988). Televised Presidential debates, and public policy. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Lowi, Theodore J. (1985). The personal President: Power invested promise unfulfilled. Ithaca, New York: Cornell      University Press. Mcginniss, Joe. (1969). The selling of the President 1968. New York: Trident Press. Mickelson, Sig. (1989). From whistle stop to sound bite: Four decades of politics and television. New York: Praeger. Wattenberg, Martin P. (1986). The decline of American political parties 1952-1984. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

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Peak – Time Executions as a Television Spectacular

Peak – time Executions as a Television Spectacular Peak-time Executions As a Television Spectacular by Ellen Goodman. Written for The Washington Post in America in 1954 and later published in the British newspaper The Guardian Weekly on April 1, 1984. The article is about how the murderer James David Autry wants his execution to be on the television and Goodman asks questions to whether or not it is okay to show the spectators that kind of violent spectacular and how it will affect them.

Obviously this article was meant to create a debate when it was published those many years after in Britain. If we take a look at the different executions that occur in the article, then we get a pretty good view of how the articles main interest and opinion is negative and wants to show that it has done nothing but bring out the bad in people. Watt Espy who is an historian of capital punishment at the University of Alabama Law Center believes and has heard that violence only brings more violence – “[…] has collected tales of the violence begat by violence” (p. ll. 1-2). He gives an example of how the execution of two men in Attling, Georgia. leads to a fight between the spectators and ends with a man being killed. He states – “This was not unique” (p. 2 l. 3). By that he tells us that it was not uncommon at that time to have consequences like that happen during an execution. The people at that time didn’t handle the rush of the spectacle and of the “show” very well. It got to them and the influence of the bad situation would spread and affect the spectators.

Another example of an execution giving by Goodman is when she talks about one of the last time that the public could watch an execution in America. It was August 26, 1936 that Raine Bethea was hung in front of a crowd of 10,000 people in Owensboro, Kentucky. Goodman describe the execution before and after, like it was some kind of concert or entertainment show that the spectators were about to watch. “Through the early hours of that day, “Hawkers squeezed their way through the crowd selling popcorn and hot dogs. Telephone poles and trees were festooned with spectators”. (p. 1 ll. 12-13) It reminds me of a circus, where you can buy hot dogs or an outdoor movie theater with popcorn, also Goodman writes that a vivid account by Time Magazine showed that the night before the execution of Bethea, the spectators had gone to hanging parties and drinking like the execution was something to look forward to. “By 5 o’clock, “the crowd grew impatient, began to yip, “Let’s go, bring him out”. ” (p. 1 l. 14) Again the crowd shows the influence of what was going on. The bad situation had a violent effect on them.

It made them seem and act almost crazy by the things Goodman describes – “At 5. 28 there was a swish, a snap. ” Soon the spectators crowded in and “eager hands clawed at the black death cloth… The lucky ones stuffed the bits of black cloth in their pockets”. ” (p. 1 ll. 16-17) The quote says that “the lucky ones” got to go home with a piece of clothing from Bethea after he was dead, as proof that they had witnessed the execution. The way that the reaction to Bethea’s execution gets described is very harsh and cynical, like the spectators had forgotten their humanity and compassion.

It is an example like this that makes Goodman bring it up. It shows how wrong it is and what impact seeing an execution can have on people. She sees no reason for bringing such a spectacle up again. For example this quote says that if we go back to the way it was back then it would most likely result in videos of the state-approved murders – “As we resume the march of state-approved murder, it seems likely that television reporters will soon be allowed to bring tools of their trade – cameras – into the death chamber, the way print reporters bring pencils” (p. ll. 21-13) “Indeed, if others have their way, we may yet tune in on death. Live at Five. We may enter the death chamber through the living room. Once again we may become spectators at executions” (p. 1 ll. 5-7) – Again when she writes “once again” she refers to it as going around 50 years back in time to when it was executions on the streets. She also uses irony with the “live at five” because it makes it sound like it was any other television show and that we could watch death “through the living room”, that doesn’t sound very appealing.

By saying things like that she uses the irony to make people think about what this actually means, which is watching another human die as “entertainment” on the television in your own living room. In the article Goodman also write about arguments for and against showing executions on televisions, but not her own arguments though. “Some who favour capital punishment as a deterrent to crime are convinced that watching an execution would scare criminals straight. Some who oppose capital punishment believe that the sight would enrage the public” (p. 1 ll. 3-25) as the quote says an argument for, could be to scare the criminals so they could see what could happen to them. And an argument against could be that it would only have a bad effect on the public. “There’s no scientific way to prove in advance the effect of televised executions on crime [… ] but we do know something about the effect on the “audience”. We do know something about spectators from the old days” (p. 2 l. 12, ll. 13-14) – Goodman knows that there is no way to prove what effect it would bring but she see no reason to try and test it. The descriptions of his death were graphic enough” (p. 1 l. 1) – When writing about Autry, Goodman clearly states her opinion towards the subject which if the executions should be on television or not. Like the descriptions of how Autry’s execution went in details weren’t enough? She is saying that it should be enough. That showing it on television would be over doing it. Hearing about how someone takes a man’s life on purpose would be hard enough but to actually see it happening with your own eyes would be horrifying.

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True Life: Reality Television Is Scripted

Since the 1990’s, when reality television first started becoming widely popular, we have been able to see into the lives of different kinds of people, often turning everyday people into celebrities. With some of the most popular reality television shows, like Big Brother, True Life, American Idol, and most recently Jersey Shore, we are led on to believe that it is all real (“The Hunger Games Theme of Versions of Reality”). The reality of this television though is that most of it is either altered or manipulated just for our own entertainment.

The directors of some of these shows often script, manipulate and plan situations to make the shows more appealing to their audiences (“How Much of the Reality”). Even in popular books like The Hunger Games where reality television is a theme, it is shown that it is changed just for the entertainment of the viewers (“The Hunger Games Theme of Versions of Reality”). While it is perceived to be real, the title of “reality television” is a misnomer because most showed turn out to be fake and scripted.

Reality television directors push their participants into exploiting themselves for the entertainment of their viewers. There are hundreds of reality television shows currently on, and they make up a large portion of what people are exposed to in popular media, especially young people. While most shows won’t admit to being scripted, in fear of losing their “reality television” title, some shows have admitted to planning situations to get a good reaction out to the cast, which makes for more interesting television.

Also, some directors have said that they do push the participants to the edge when they can to get interesting reactions out of them. They say there are lines that they don’t tend to cross, but they like to mess with the mind of their participants of their shows (“How Much of the Reality”). By pushing the people to their limits, and manipulating situations, they basically do whatever they can to produce an entertaining show.

In the country of Panem, where the book The Hunger Games takes place, reality television is something that the people look forward to each year. The people of Panem and especially the people in the Capitol gather together and look forward to seeing the games each year; just as a group of friends may get together and watch the season premiere of Jersey Shore. The people look forward to one show in particular though, called The Hunger Games.

But this reality show they watch is a little different than the ones we watch; instead of living in a house with strangers, or hopefully finding true love, the contestants kill one another until one is left standing (“The Hunger Games Theme of Versions of Reality). The game makers, who are the ones controlling the game don’t seem to always make it fair, that’s where is seems scripted in a way. There are several examples in the book where The Hunger Games was altered simply for the entertainment of the viewers.

First, throughout the training Katniss, the main character of the story, is told to be and act like someone whom she is not. Katniss is told to act friendly, and personable, and desirable so that she will have a stronger chance to surviving the games and it will make the viewers like her (Collins 135). Also another important example of when the Capitol changed the game for entertainment purposes is when they set fire to the forest to keep Katniss in the game (Collins 171). They also set the fire to give the viewers some excitement.

In today’s reality TV, the directors will stir up conflicts and situations often to create excitement. In modern day reality television and also a fictional version of reality TV in The Hunger Games, entertainment of their audiences is more important than the actual realness of what they are showing. Being said to be some of the most romantic shows on television, an average of 17 million people tune in each week to view The Bachelor and The Bachelorette. What seems to be true love on screen, doesn’t always translate to that off screen.

The success rates of the show’s relationships are low. In the 23 combined seasons of The Bachelor and The Bachelorette only 17% of couples are still together. Most of the couple who are not together anymore broke up between 1 month and 1 year after the finale of the show. With so many failed relationships resulting so quickly from the show, it makes viewers wonder how much of the romances were actually enhanced for the for entertainment of the show (“How Many Bachelor”).

Reality television is widely popular in today’s entertainment; it seems like you can’t turn the TV on without having not having the option of catching up on a different version of reality television. We are led on to believe that it is all real, but the reality of these television programs is that it isn’t all real. A lot of it is faked just to get a good show, and to entertain people. While simply the genre of reality TV naturally drives people’s interests in, so the directors manipulate situations and people reactions to produce something that they hope to get as many viewers as possible.

Its supposedly “reality television,” so why isn’t it all real? Work Cited “How Much of the Reality Show Is Scripted? ” Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 30 July 2010. Web. 04 Oct. 2012. . “The Hunger Games Theme of Versions of Reality. ” Shmoop. Shmoop University, Inc. , 2010. Web. 04 Oct. 2012. . Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. New York: Scholastic Press, 2008. Print. “How Many Bachelor and Bachelorette Couples Actually Make It? – The Bachelor. ” Home – wetpaint. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. .

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Television and Cultural Change

Television and Cultural Change Research Paper: 1. Introduction Once considered a complete luxury for a family to own, the television has become a stable fixture in British and American households over the past few decades. In recent years, it has become unusual for a family not to own a television set and now it is just as uncommon for a family to own just one. In Britain, the years spanning from 1955 to 1969 saw an increase from 40 percent to 93 per cent of the population owning a television set (Silverstone, 1994, p. 67).

Television or “TV” has become a prominent source for news and entertainment for billions of people around the world. For this, among other reasons, the concept of TV and its content has been the subject of much academic discourse and controversy. A lot of this discourse focuses on the ways television affects changes in societies’ behaviour and culture. This is visible via various scholarly communities. For example, up until 1982, psychologists had conducted over 2000 studies regarding the imitation of violence in the mass media.

Economists and market researchers have performed similar types of empirical studies regarding imitation and suggestion in advertising (Bollen and Phillips, 1982, p. 802). This paper will combine findings of similar studies in an aim to examine the way television both mediates and contributes to cultural shifts in societies, particularly in Britain and the United States of America. 2. The Interplay of Institutions, Markets and Audiences Television drama, news, factual programming and the transformation of public service broadcasting have all played a huge role in the development of British and American society and cultural change.

These changes currently present themselves through communications held between institutions, markets, and audiences. For instance, the consideration of an audience as a market instead of as the public by all types of institutions is the source for much controversy and debate (Walter, 2000, p. 67). This point will be further touched upon when discussing pubic service broadcasting and market-led broadcasting but first we must grasp a general understanding of cultural response to television as media. 3. Positive and Negative Response in Society

The communications that develop can be positive, in the case of an increase in democratic involvement or participation in the community but it can be also be negative, in the case of controversial programming, which can arguably contribute to the loss of a child’s innocence and even impair one’s ability to develop critical thinking skills. According to Bernard Berelson, a prominent American behavioural scientist, those with the greatest mass media exposure are much more likely to know a candidate’s stance on various issues (McCombs and Shaw, 1972, p. 77). On the contrary, Kenneth Bollen and David Phillips reported a prime example of how news can lead to a negative change in a society. A study that was performed and then replicated for a different time period showed that suicides had increased immediately following (10 days proceeding) a news report of a suicide in the surrounding region (1982). In order to ensure that changes are beneficial and that they contribute to the greater good of people, in this case in Britain and the U. S.

A, studies such as this one must be produced and analysed. The study should offer insights, convey patterns, and report facts that can be applied in a practical way. As in the aforementioned case, it is evident that those who produce media have a responsibility for what they produce, whether it is fiction or fact. If watching a news report can incite someone to act on something as extreme as the contemplation of suicide, it may very well do the same for matters of a different nature 4. Public Service Broadcasting and the Free Market

When television was invented, it altered all preceding media of news and entertainment as well as many of our institutions and forms of social relationships (Williams and Williams, 1992). In the public service broadcasting system, the consensus was that television media should be used for the good of the public and that access is guaranteed for all citizens (Walter, 2000, p. 67). Instead, private profit and gain enforced by market-led broadcasting, has compromised the idea of equality in terms of ability to receive information.

This dissipation of equality stems from the differences in the general understanding of the roles that broadcasting plays (Walter, 2000, p63). The role that public service broadcasting plays is relevant today even with the new communication technologies of cable and satellite as the former provides quality programming which aims to raise cultural standards and provide a forum for democratic discussion and debate while the latter provides choice merely through exclusion, predicated by the ability of the consumer to pay for the additional services provided (Walter, 2000, p. 4). The Protocol to the Amsterdam Treaty dated June 1997 on public service broadcasting states “the system of public service broadcasting…is directly related to the democratic, social and cultural needs of each society… to preserve media pluralism”, and it is in itself the reason why PSB is still relevant today, even for those states who did not sign on this treaty. 5. Understanding and Critiquing News Programming If one should ever listen in on a families’ after dinner conversation, one could often hear a parent commanding his or her offspring to “Turn that junk off! or questioning them as to “Why don’t you watch something educational instead? ” and other comments of similar nature. The non-junk and educational content they are often referring to is factual programming such as the news. However, even with something as objective as the news there are still a few elements that one should consider when determining its quality and contribution to the viewing audience, as the point of contact between the people, events and politics. The objectivity of a news report should always be considered, just as the bias in a study or an experiment is considered in scientific communities.

Many networks, even those provided through PSB, often have agendas and side with a political group. Furthermore, news stations are often pressured to deliver information that will grasp the attention of the viewer foremost, with the achievement of a quality report being a secondary goal. Considering factors such as the frequency and threshold of reported events can help in one’s appraisal. To exemplify the former, one can reflect on a news program dealing with the economic status of the country.

If it focuses on temporary events that will not re-occur and do not help draw a picture of the economy as a whole, it is not a quality report. As for threshold, for instance, after the murder of John Lennon, events, which would normally not be considered newsworthy, received more coverage than they should have due to the public’s demand for therapy (Hartley, 1992, p. 76). A rule of thumb for news reporters is that bad news is good news (Hartley, 1992, pg. 76). However, as mentioned in a previous section of this report, empirical evidence shows that this is definitely not he case for the audience, considering the outcome suicide reports have on the subjected audiences behavioral changes. 6. Conclusions 6. 1. The Effects of Television on Society Television has many supporters and critics alike. Some argue that it brings people closer and some maintain that it can cause a divide in a community or even in a family. The way that one comes to these conclusions is by drawing questions such as the following. Do those who are not entitled to as much information due to economic reasons going to feel excluded and unworthy?

Does media, such as television, contribute to a decrease of peoples’ participation in politics, the social environment and traditional leisure programs? Does locally produced programming strengthen the local community? These questions, among many others , should be answered in a proper analysis of television’s effect on people. Because those who are raised within a society develop and contribute that society’s culture more, it is vital to pay attention to its younger population. 6. 2. The Effects of Television on Young People

Young people, in particular, have very malleable minds and are greatly affected by the things they see on television. In Sonia Silverstone’s Young People and the New Media, this phenomenon is thoroughly examined (1994). In this article, Silverstone reports of a British team of researchers who posed these types of questions in the form of survey questionnaire and interviews. The subjects ranged in age, gender and social and educational backgrounds in hopes of correlating media usage and effect across different segments of population.

Findings showed that although television is considered an adequate source of information, it is also used to fill in the boring gaps of a child’s life. Television has the ability to shape a child’s emotions and it has effects on family life (Silverstone, 1994, p. 64, p. 68). 6. 3. The Effects of Television on the Domestic Space A crucial position in which TV has affected society can be viewed from within the domestic space. The television set has visibly transformed domestic arrangements over the years.

In prior times, only the wealthy homes had a set in the family room. In more recent years, television has overtaken individual space as well, allowing for less family communication, a pattern which is now repeating itself with personal computers. Domestic time was also affected as television-viewing time has gradually increased over the years, once again allowing for less family time and communication. An outstanding statistic shows that at one point, Europe’s highest television viewing times belonged to the British population aged 9-16 (Silverstone, 1994, p. 69).

In the same year, every age group from 10-16 years old reportedly preferred to watch TV alone as opposed to with friends, siblings, parents or anyone else (Livingstone, 1994). 6. 4. Representation of Reality Our perceptions of reality have been transformed by contemporary celebrity culture via television. The role played by television is that of reinforcement for both the state (which, today can be any figure appearing on a network) and the citizen (the audience). The validation that is provided serves as a means of centralised opinions and styles of behaviour (Williams and Williams, 1992).

This is why anxieties about ‘dumbing down’ are in fact legitimate. Let us take an actor who believes that which is not presented in his character on his daytime drama. The audience who views this actor/ actress may adopt to a notion, feeling or belief portrayed by the character, in turn validating the actor/ actress himself of a new belief system, one that he/ she had not previously considered. Should this belief system be one, deemed by professional opinions and the general public, of bad taste, it would mean that this is not quality television, and it does not produce a good quality of change for the general public as a culture.

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Television Programme

ogrmI am someone who doesn’t watch TV at all. But there is one show that I just can’t afford to miss ‘the fresh prince of bel air’. This show got me hooked the first time I watched it, my brother was watching TV and I was there in the living room reading a book. I like reading a lot. I did not realize when I stopped reading and started watching the show instead. The fresh prince of bel air is an American comedy sitcom, with a big star will smith.

It was originally aired in 1990s. So the main character is obviously will smith. He is the fresh prince from west Philadelphia sent by his mother to California to live with his aunty, uncle and cousins. The story is about how his life is changed and how he changes their life. This is a show from 90s but I am watching the reruns now. Can’t believe I missed out on a show like this. I really think the 90s show were more entertaining than the shows we have today.

I don’t like reality shows because I think they are not real at all and its all scripted. I like comedy and so I like this show and the only thing I watch on TV at the moment. The best thing I like about this show is that its very well written. It sends a good message by the use of comedy. The show makes you think, makes you cry and makes you laugh a lot. what makes it even better is the acting by all the actors especially will smith and Alfonso Ribeiro. All characters are very likeable and well developed.

My dilemma is I can’t choose between will and Carlton, (Alfonso Ribeiro) both are equally as good. So I would say they are both my favourite characters as their humour and sarcasm is awesome. The chemistry between the two is amazing. I like how will is always cracking jokes about Carlton’s height and Carlton makes fun of will’s low intellect. The best thing about Carlton is the funny dance he does, nobody can do it better, it really makes me laugh a lot. Another character that I really like is Hillary ( Karyn parsons).

She is as dumb as a donkey, which is what makes her really funny. She has a very bubbly personality, and is shown to be very shallow all she cares about is her appearance. Uncle Phill, aunty Vivian and Ashley are the least humorous out of them all but still are really good at their character. This is the only show that I love watching and know that I will not get tired of watching it. This is the best show ever according to me great fun and laughs for the whole family.