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Free Tourism Dissertation: African Tourism Industry

A Strategic Analysis of the African Tourism Industry

Abstract

The study looks at the African Tourism Industry in terms of strategy for development over the coming decade, with particular reference to the differences between East and West African Tourism. A number of business models including SWOT and Porter’s Five Forces are applied to generate a strategic analysis and overall framework for implementation.A key aspect in the analysis is a small conceptual model using regression analysis to forecast the future evolution of the industry over the next 10 years.

1. Introduction

1.1 Study Rationale

This study looks at the African Tourism Industry in terms of strategy for development over the coming decade, with reference to the differences between East and West African Tourism. A number of business models including SWOT and Porter’s Five Forces will be applied to generate a strategic analysis and overall framework for implementing strategy.A key aspect in this analysis will be a small conceptual model using regression analysis to forecast the future evolution of the industry over the next 10 years.

It is useful to investigate this area as the tourism industry is currently small in Africa, but has great potential in terms of development with a large number of unique attractions. In addition, regional tourism currently dominates, and the proportion of international visitors, who tend to spend more money, is low. With African countries starting to work together to develop cross-border tourism offerings, the potential for increasing visitor numbers and wider awareness of Africa as a tourism destination is enhanced(Euromonitor International 2010). Intra-African tourism is currently a strong growth area, although advertising focus remains fixed upon attracting non-African visitors (New African 2010). In addition, tourism offers the chance to increase economic growth of individual countries in the region.Currently a rate of just over 5% growth is forecast annually between 1995 and 2020.

1.2 Background to Study

There is good potential for growth in the African tourism industry. However, any growth in tourism needs to take into account the need for sustainability. Over the last 30 years there has been an increasing demand that tourism be ‘green’ and think about the environmental impact of its activities. Sustainability is a complex area covering a number of related but distinct areas. These include understanding the consequences of climate change, and how unmanaged tourism can contribute to these; the impact upon local economies and the local people of unchecked resort development; and the need to ensure resources such as energy and water are conserved. Indeed, sustainable tourism has been already suggested as a way to shape forecasting strategy for African Tourism.

In addition, tourism is, compared to other industries, less influenced by the ‘stakeholder’ model in which the interest of other parties are taken into account when making business decisions; profitability is still the main driver (Shitundu 2003).Given the need for incorporating sustainability, there is a strong argument for turning to a stakeholder perspective. This would turn the focus away from the demands of shareholders and profits to incorporate views from all other interested parties including local businesses, chambers of commerce and other organisations, local government, community organisations and residents. All who have a legitimate interest in the way tourism develops should be consulted equally, and this should be done at the same time as representatives from commercial organisations are consulted (Budruk 2010)

In order that African tourism can provide the best outcomes for both sustainability and for all stakeholders, it is vital that it is managed within a strategic framework.Such a framework can help to develop a perspective upon the way tourism can develop, but also provide a structure whereby the developed policy can be both evaluated and improved in the future (Dumont and Teller 2005). A number of different models for strategic frameworking exist. Certain models centre on problem identification and solving. Others look at the objectives of the organisation as central. In the case of Africa, an argument could be made for basing the strategic framework around problem solving, as a central issue concerns the best way to develop tourism in a sustainable way. On the other hand, if objectives of both organisation and stakeholders are taken into account, an objective based perspective might be used.

A strategic framework in this instance can be based upon a review of resources. This resource-based perspective allows the capacity of tourism in Africa to be seen in terms of valuable resources including physical locations, cultures and traditions. In this study a framework developed by Crouch and Ritchie (1999) will be used to shape strategic analysis. Their framework both sets out resources in broad categories and traces the relationships between them. In addition, Yoon (2002)’s development of the model allows the addition of stakeholders perspectives. One useful tool for quantifying the strategic framework is by developing a forecasting model to set out the evolution of the industry. Such a model can both maximise benefits and play down the negative impacts. Forecasts assume a continuity from past to present, and use data from the past to project into the future.

1.3 Dissertation Structure

The literature review will develop key ideas in more detail, including different theories of strategic development, and forecasting models, including limitations of such models, and justification for the model selected for this study. The current African tourism industry will also be discussed in depth, although there is relatively little study of the industry in the continent, and particularly few primary research studies. The literature review will also discuss the distinction between tourism in East and West Africa. East African perspectives emphasise sustainability, and it is gaining importance in West Africa as well. There are, however, key differences between the areas which will be elucidated. The literature review was developed on the basis of academic and industry electronic databases through key word searches.

Further sections will set out the hypotheses to be tested, which will emerge from the literature review. The methodology of the study will be set out including how data was gathered, sampling techniques, statistical modelling used and types of analysis carried out.

The results will be discussed in terms of the overall aims of the study.Any limitations of the study will be pointed out, implications for future study will be highlighted, and ways in which the study results can inform the African tourist industry will be set out.

1.4 Research Objectives / Questions

The study will address the question of ‘what is the best strategy for a coherent plan to develop tourism in Africa, taking into account the need for any such strategy to be sustainable?’. The difference between strategy for East and West Africa will be taken into account. The study aims to clarify best strategy by identifying key variables, which impact upon the likely future development of tourism in the region.

1.5 Summary

This section has given an overview of the area under investigation, the African tourist industry, which is currently underdeveloped and yet has potential to become a key destination. The structure of the following is set out, and the key research questions highlighted.

2. Literature Review

This chapter reviews previous literature and studies on the African tourism industry, the need for political, historical and social analysis of tourism and the continents accepted strengths and weaknesses. On a regional level the literature analysis of West Africa and East Africa will focus on how these regions have attempted to build on best practices related to tourism. The section will look to explore the theoretical background and context that justifies the main objective of the study, which investigates the foundations of establishing a strategic approach for forecasting the future evolution of the tourism industry. A key focus will be the acknowledgment of tourisms economic influence towards African country economies, as well as the importance of promoting sustainable tourism activities and attraction and the promotion of co-ordinated tourism development.

2.1. The Rationale for the African Tourism Industry Strategic Framework

A review of the literature agrees that the African continent has an enormous potential for tourism development (Medlik, 2002, Ankomah and Crompton, 1990). Further research articulated by Poon (1993) points to the “new tourism” and “global trend” towards “non-traditional destinations and long-haul travel.” This, he suggests illustrates “changing traveller wants in terms of destination experience,” which should provide a significant change in the places visited in Africa. However, as stated in the World Travel and Tourism Council, Africa seems to be under performing. Gauci et al (2002) explains this as a result of: “poor infrastructure, such as roads, electricity and water supplies; insufficient accommodation; unsatisfactory public health services; poor telecommunication facilities; and in a number of cases security problems.” Gauci et al also explains that difficulties with the installation of better management strategies, as well as the doggedness of actions which hinder competitiveness, have “contributed to [the] slow development of the tourism industry.”

Ankomah and Crompton observe that Africa’s population doubled to 700 million in the post-independence period, thereby placing tremendous stress on all aspects of economic, social, cultural, environmental, as well as political development. In this context Luvanga and Shitundu (2003) argue that: “rapid growth of the tourism sector is an important instrument of poverty alleviation, the creation of jobs, the sale of goods and services, support of cultural industries and source of foreign exchange.” It is significant to observe that the elevated status given to tourism by the United Nations (UN) and the Economic Commission of Africa (ECA), which clearly supports the potential role of tourism in the economic and social development of Africa (ECA, 1999). Indeed, research and literature highlight the increasing influence of the tourism industry in Africa and illustrate that, although there are many limitations, there remains reassuring indications for the state of tourism in Africa. For example, the Tourism Vision 2020 report given by the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) estimated that there would be an annual rise of 5.5 percent in international arrivals in Africa in the years 1995 to 2020. A similar rate was forecasted for intra-African tourism. However, the study by Luvanga and Shitundu (2003) showed the alternative side to tourism: “it is a complex industry often driven by the private sector to benefit international companies rather than local economies and causing environmental degradation.” These juxtaposing opinions have seen advocates of a strategic framework (Nelson, 2007, Heath, 2003) argue that: “as tourism develops and becomes intricate it will require strategic management of the process.” By developing a forecasting model to predict future developments, the sector should make the most of potential advantages, and restrict and divert the unconstructive effects that make sure the development conforms to national policy regulations.

2.2. The Purpose of the Strategic framework

Dumont and Teller (2005) argue that a strategic framework “will help to establish, evaluate and benchmark integrated tourism policy at the local level with a view to maximising the benefits of tourism on conservation and enhancement of heritage diversity.” This interpretation indicates a strategic framework aimed at fostering a pro-active approach, facilitating impact assessment and increasing awareness of sustainability issues for the future. The purpose here is to employ a strategic framework as a tool for forecasting the future in order for the tourism industry to be prepared for what might happen. Forecasting that is based on historical information and past events. Importantly, Fayol (1949) wrote that managing means looking ahead and that if foresight is not the whole of the management it is at least a major part of it. According to Fayol, “to foresee is to assess the future and make provisions for it […] plans need to have unity, continuity, flexibility and precision.” The organisation or industry must be run as if the future was foreseen. The plan of action is considered indispensable and that experience, from the past, was what determined the value of the plan. Fayol did, however, recognise that there would be unexpected events but the plan would serve as protection against such events and resulting enforced changes of course.

Predicting and preparing is, according to Ackoff (1983), the paradigm of management with predicting and forecasting being the more important. Forecasts are based on descriptions of the past and that data is fitted to a line and projected into the future. The assumption is that what has happen in the past will happen in the future. Thus, the general objective is directed at assessing the past to develop labour outputs and focusing resources and personnel to attain greater levels of performance and market competition.

At this stage of the paper it is vital to observe that there are diverse levels of strategy formulation, development and implementation, which correlate with the strategy’s objective. Alberts (2004) defines “three levels” of the strategic forecasting framework: the corporate level “where corporate goals are set, the target markets are defined and the terms and conditions of the corporate strategy are defined”; the “business unit level [….] [where] the business strategy level involves devising moves and approaches to compete successfully and to secure a competitive advantage over competitors”; the functional level, which includes “value analysis, business processes reacting to marketing, resources allocation and management and research and development.” Each level of the strategy looks to gain an edge in a market that is powered by market demands. Alberts says that this is “particularly necessary because tourism enterprises are exposed to a vibrant market where they need to survive through innovative techniques that will create a sustainable competitive advantage.” Innovative action is a main source of sustainable competition and can be established with well-structured strategies and systems.

2.3. Strategic Framework theories

There are a multitude of different business strategy formulation methods, models and theories. Smith (2001) suggests that: “the best way of formulating a strategic framework is for it to be derived from problem identification, meaning that the approaches should be problem based.” Elsewhere, Oldham, Creemers and Rebeck (2000) state that “the purpose and objectives of the enterprise [is] the foundation of the strategic formulation.” This model-orientated approach introduces a system which is based upon a flow chart system or a number of relational stages. Pazstor (2001) agrees with Hamel and Prahalad (1994), stressing: “different circumstances call for different types of strategy.” Mintzberg (1987) states that since the 1960s strategic frameworks “have had a clinical popularity with organisations” as it has gained a lost popularity, as it was unable to fulfil expectations and provide satisfactory results; namely generating money for businesses and their shareholders. Allaire and Firsirotu (1989) state: “this limited success is attributable not only to earlier poor practices but is also a function of ever rapidly increasing change of the business environment.” Significantly changing climates cause uncertainty and brings the suitability of strategic frameworks into question. Additionally, it is questioned “how to handle this ambiguity?”

The question arises why do industries need forecasting strategic frameworksThe literature suggests it is to reduce future uncertainty (Linneman and Kennell, 1977). Langley adds that part of the answer is to assist organisations make better strategies through a systematic logical approach. Loasby answers the question with three responses:

To understand the future implications of present decisions in order for the organisation to get the full benefits from its present decisions.
To understand the implications of future events in order to make decisions to prepare for the future. This is an attempt to forecast the future.
To prepare motivation and a mechanism for dealing with the above and reviewing assumptions about the future.

Relevant literature pays substantial attention to developing strategic with the purpose of dealing with such variables. Comprehending the various strategic perspectives is important as it permits the holistic understanding of strategy formulation and implementation.

2.4. Strategic framework: Analysing competitive industry structure

2.4.1. Porter’s competitive strategies

We now turn to review some papers covering the topic of Porter’s generic competitive strategies, the source for much business strategy analysis. In their study Caves and Porter (1977) generalize the theory of competitive barriers to entering an industry into a theory of mobility dynamics and decision-making behaviour of both emerging and going organisations. Porter (1979) establishes the link between competitive forces and competitive strategies. Porter (1980) presents the competitive forces and generic business competitive strategies for emerging, mature, declining and fragmented industries while considering entry and exit industry barriers. In his review of Porter’s generic competitive strategies Vanhove (2005) writes that when Porter’s two basic theories of competitive advantage, that is “lower cost” and “differentiation”, are adapted to the tourist sector. Lower cost is “the ability of a firm to produce a more comparable service than its competitors.” Differentiation is “the ability to provide unique and superior value.” How does this relate to forecasting in the tourist sectorImportantly, Treacy and Wiersema (1995) note that “competitive strategy is about two things: deciding where you want your business to go, and deciding how to get there.”

2.4.2 Resource based View (RBV)

Grant (2001) states: “recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the role of the firm’s resources as the foundation for firm strategy.” This is reiterated by Hampton (2003), Lawson (2003) and Kozal and Louisa (2006), who feel that this considers an enterprise’s capacity by “assessing the levels and the potential of the enterprise to improve within the ambits of available resources.”

Collins and Montgomery (1995) present five tests that define a valuable resource:

“Inimitability – how hard is it for competitors to copy the resource A company can stall imitation if the resource is (1) physically unique, (2) a consequence of path dependent development activities, (3) causally ambiguous (competitors don’t know what to imitate), or (4) a costly asset investment for a limited market, resulting in economic deterrence.”
“Durability – how quickly does the resource depreciate?”
“Appropriability – who captures the value that the resource creates: company, customers, distributors, suppliers, or employees?”
“Substitutability – can a unique resource be trumped by a different resource

Competitive Superiority – is the resource really better relative to competitors?”

How does the above relate to the tourism sectorMassukado-Nakatani and Teixeria (2009) epitomise the implementation of RBV in the examination of the tourism industry and explain that “[although] tourist resources are not explicitly illustrated as a resource category in RBV, they can be considered a physical (e.g. geographical location) or an organisational resource (e.g. local traditions and culture).” He identifies tourism resources as “the most important asset for tourism development because the resources are fundamental to any public policy that aims to improve tourism activities.”

The two above frameworks have combined to produce further research in the tourism literature:

Crouch and Ritchie (1999) established a complete and complex system for tourism destination management which built upon the theoretical concepts of “competitive” and “comparative” advantages (Porter, 1990; Enderwick, 1990). These asses a wide selection of “factor endowments: human resources, physical resources, knowledge resources, capital resources, infrastructure, and historical and cultural resources.” Yet it was disputed that listing the factors that influence the destination’s competitiveness in this framework is not suitable; but it is vital to comprehend their relationships. Conceptual models for destination competitiveness can be constructed from the factors: “competitive (micro) environment, global (macro) environment, core resources and attractors for primary elements of destination appeal, supporting factors and resources for secondary elements of destination appeal, destination management and qualifying determinants” (Go & Govers, 2000). Government and chance events are considered to affect competitiveness because of the effect they have over basic determinants. Bordas (1994) helped to identify Tourism Policy as an unrelated factor to the described strategy, and encouraged the theory that critical policy must be examined in greater depth. To do this, planning and development issues which contribute to destination competitiveness and sustainability must be considered (Ritchie & Crouch, 2000).

Yoon (2002) gave exclusive attention to the viewpoint of the tourism stakeholders’ and used this to theoretically construct a structural equation model of tourism destination competitiveness. This empirically tested the interaction of relationships of five particular constructs: “tourism development impacts, environmental attitudes, place attachment, development preferences about tourism attractions, and support for destination competitive strategy, where the first three are exogenous and the latter two are endogenous.” Tourism development impact creates new jobs and working opportunities, as well as encourages investment capital. Place attachment was found to be influential over stakeholders’ development of tourism attractions. This positively affected the support for destination competitive strategy.

Dwyer and Kim (2003) constructed a system of destination competitiveness that “enables comparisons between countries and between industries within the tourism sector.” Using the key factors of competitiveness studies, which were taken from Crouch and Ritchie (1999), the model recognises the demand conditions as an important “determinant of destination competitiveness” (Dwyer & Kim). This was not mentioned by Crouch and Ritchie.

2.4.3. Strategic forecasting framework

Since this study looks to examine the anticipation of a future within tourism, we must consider the question: “what are the literature viewpoints on forecasting theories?” Chandra and Menezes (2001) write that accurate forecasts for tourism demands are essential for the development of effective strategic plans. In this regards, Brignall and Ballantine (1996) note the availability of accurate tourism has important economic consequence for various organisations involved with tourism planning and the provision of tourism products and infrastructure. They further note that given the perishable of the tourism product, the need for accurate demand forecast is even greater. Chandra and Menezes identify that among the forecasting models using multivariate techniques, multiple regression is the most used and the relevant technique for forecasting international tourism demand

Further analysis of the literature reveals that empirical economic studies in tourism has looked primarily at four key sectors:

“The economic impact of domestic/or international tourism on a local economy” (Archer, 1977; Kottke, 1988; Zhou et al, 1997; Wang, 1977; Vaughan et. al., 2000 and Saayman et al, 2000).
“The economic importance of tourism for development” (Diamond, 1976; Piga, 2003; and Saayman et al, 2001).
“The economic impact of identified events” (Randall and Warf, 1996; and Grelan, 2003).
“Research efforts that are incorporating the explanation of tourism demand on international tourism flows” (Crouch, 1995; Coshall, 2000; and Smeral and Weber, 2000).

However, Prideaux et al (2003) observe that “given the frequent reliance of the former forecasting techniques” on previous experiences, which required explicit and tacit assumptions regarding the stability of relationships, “the ability of forecasting to generate long-term results and account for unforeseen events remains limited.” Prideaux et.al. observes that “short term forecasting may only factor in known relationships which observe trends.” Using this as the foundations for development, it provides an image of what may potentially happen should alterations arise along predictable lines. These are equilibrium and stability assumptions which are in contrast to “dynamic complexity and turbulent systems perspectives” (Laws et.al., 1998).

Many researchers (Witt and Song, 2001) recognise the boundaries of contemporary forecasting approaches, especially the problems that arise from the inability to foresee irregularities, for example drastic changes in consumer taste and demand. In order to remedy these shortfalls, researchers like Turner and Witt (2001) discovered that: “structured time series models incorporating explanatory variables produced the most accurate forecasts.” Observing relevant non-economic variables is disadvantageous to development in the future, as well as to the fluidity of their significance; this offers a great amount of problems for the forecasters. Uysal and Crompton (1985), for example, noted that: “there are a number of limitations confronting demand forecasting: ignoring supply factors, the omission of non-economic factors which may have long-term consequences and the appropriateness of variables to change.” In addition, Prideaux (2003) explains that to these variables, a selection of other non-specific crises and disasters, including “domestic and international economy and natural disasters such earthquakes, cyclones or hurricane” must be contributed. Forecasters such as Witt and song (2001) attempt to comprehend these scenarios by utilising dummy variables which accommodate the impact of “one-off” disasters such as the 1970s “oil crises.” Irregular and ambiguous obstacles remain constant challenges to contemporary forecasting.

Witt and Song (2001) agree that “a more sophisticated approach utilising time varying parameters (TVP) regression to model structural change is one solution to the problem of predictive failure encountered by causal tourism demand for forecasting models.” They express that, although TVP strategy is able to imitate a variety of shocks and could affect the association between explanatory variables and dependent variables, TVP assumes that explanatory variables are exogenous. Witt and Song (2001) further notes that: “where there is some doubt about the creditability of the latter assumption the vector autogressive (VAR) modelling approach may be more appropriate.” This is because in the VAR model every variable is treated as endogenous.

Acknowledging the limitations of contemporary forecasting theory to manage the unforeseen, Faulkner and Russell (2000) raise an alternative theory, stating that because of the “uncertainty of the unexpected, authorities need to implement policies for coping with the unexpected disruptions to tourism flows”.

A well-developed literature typified by Sonmez and Graete (1998); Lepp and Gibson (2003); Ritchie (2004); Gunn, (2002); and Inskeep (1991) recognise that there exists a great variety of events which exist outside of the research of predictions, that standard forecasting techniques can be expected to yield. One the other hand, Prideaux (2003) notes that: “tourism literature has not begun to investigate the rich range of techniques developed in the risk management literature.” However, this could potentially surrender models, frameworks and theories which could aid tourism forecasters and planners, and help them to manage unforeseen disasters and events.

This, therefore, raises the question: where does this leave the study of forecasting within the tourism industryFaulkner (2001) notes that if change is slow and ordered, predictable forecasting “may yield a high degree of accuracy. On the other hand, where events follow the normal course of history and exhibit a tendency to sudden, large-scale instability and unpredictability, forecasting loses its potency and an alternative form of prediction is required.”

2.5. Background: A Conceptual Framework

Conceptual frameworks and theory are “typically based on combining previous literature, common sense and experience” (Eisenhardt, 1989). A look at the literature reveals a tendency towards sustainable tourism as a forecasting strategy for African tourism. The theory of sustainable development is described as “the central challenge of our times” (Wheeler, 2002) and “the issue of the twenty-first century” (Harrison, 2000). Jabareen (2004), even goes so far as to describe it as “one of the pervasive icons of modernity.” Yet, despite the attention it receives, the implementation of sustainable development in practice has been extremely poor given the continued decline of environmental quality measures on a global scale (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Numerous reasons can be put forward for this situation including vagueness of the term (Mayumi and Gowgy, 2001) and disagreement over what should be sustained (Sachs and warner, 1997). In an effort to clearly define the indicator selection process, attempts to construct frameworks were made, arranging the development and selection process. Indicator sets and monitoring frameworks are constructed from “indicator/measures” which are chosen an ad hoc manner (Waldron and Williams, 2003). White et al. explain that: “a conceptual framework allows for the coherent and consistent selection of indicators.” Therefore, it can be seen that the indicator selection process is value laden. It is left to be considered: should the stakeholder opinion alter over the importance attached to various definitions of a “good indicator” such as: assuming the trade-off between cost and complexity; the very objectives chosen; and the baseline and the benchmark data. Therefore, the explicit strategy framework permits a “transparent, responsive and robust process for indicator selection.”

2.6. African Tourism Industry

Naude and Saayman (2004) identify that “the economic dimensions of tourism to Africa, and specifically the determinants of the demand for Africa as a tourist destination are neglected in the economic research literature.” Lim (1997) “looked at over 70 studies of international tourism demand, although these did not look in any extensive detail at African nations. Eilat and Einav (2003) argue that this is a flaw in contemporary international empirical literature on tourism demand”: the deficiency of “rigorous panel data analysis.” The deficiency of suitable empirical studies on tourism to Africa has contributed towards the “limited policy guidance” to the sector, as stated by Christie and Crompton (2001).

Naude and Saayman (2004) further go on to explain that “so far most research on tourism demand and international flow of tourism have focused mainly on explaining tourism demand and flows in developed countries, with little reference to developing countries and even less to explaining tourism in Africa.” This discovered that literature tends to pay more attention towards the affect of the exchange rate and income on tourism receipts, and does not look to explain “country-specific determinants” of tourism arrivals

2.6.1. Determinants and obstacles to tourism growth in Africa

At this point in the paper it is important to ask: “Why do different nations invite greater levels of tourism than others?” It is a question that has been asked by various researchers of the tourism industry, and has been used as the basis for a wide variety of studies since the 1970s. Crouch (1994) explains that: “responsiveness of demand for international travel varies, depending upon the nationality of the tourist and the specific destination involved.” It can be seen, therefore, that “demand-elasticity for international tourism” alters “depending on the country-of-origin and country-of-destination.” Crouch (1995) concludes that “the demand for tourism is a function of the tourist’s country of origin, since cultural differences affect travel behaviour.”

Coshall (2000) indicates that: “there are many financial, perceptual. Cultural, social and environmental factors that could be used to try and explain international tourism flows.” The independent study that generated the information on which these findings are founded was compiled from looking at the tourism demand in first world countries, with only small reference given to developing nations. Kester, (2003) and Gauci et.al. (2002) argue that certain factors not included in previous studies need to be identified. For example, Christie and Crompton (2003) put forward the view that the greatest obstacle to Africa’s tourism sector growth “is its lack of price and quality competitiveness.” Kester argues the view that the major obstacles to tourism arrivals in Africa are “insufficient air transport, a deficiency in facilities and accommodation, lack of image and poor perceptions, poverty, disease and conflict.” Gauci et.al. (2003) discuss the problems facing tourism in these areas, such as underdeveloped public health services or fears for personal safety. Eilat and Einav (2003) find that “political risk has a significant impact on tourism demand in both developed and developing countries.”

Naude and Saayman (2003) make the identification that: “given the challenges facing Africa and the need for sound policy advice for promoting tourism, it seems more appropriate to identify the long-run determinants of tourist arrivals.” Naude and Saayman note that the uses of fixed effects estimator “allows the pick up of short-term effects since it focuses on time series components of data.” Naude and Saayman (2003) used “cross-section data and panel data for the period 1996–2000 to identify the determinants of tourism arrivals in 43 African countries, taking into account tourists’ country of origin.” The findings greatly indicate that “political stability, tourism infrastructure, marketing and information, and the level of development at the destination” are key determinants of travel to Africa. Typical “developed country determinants” of tourism demand, for example the amount of income within the origin nation, the cost of travel, are not as important in comprehending and clarifying the demand for Africa as a tourism destination. It is advised that “attention should be given to improving the overall stability of the continent and the availability and quantity of tourism infrastructure.”

The review of the literature on forecasting analysis suggests that any future strategic framework must include the above factors to gain substantial weight when the aim is to develop relevant forecasting models in the African context.

2.6.2. East African tourism

Much of the strategic framework in the literature for east Africa tends to encapsulate sustainable development based on conservation. For example, this was the purpose of Nelson’s (2007) study on strategic frameworks for east Africa, which covered the countries of Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique. The analysis was to create a basis for development and promoting forms of tourism that contribute to biodiversity/conservation in eastern Africa in line with the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) global mission and objectives. Another study on eastern Africa by Mugo (2006) also focused on the strategic framework for conservation. The study used situation analysis to devise a strategic framework to link related initiatives that were being undertaken in the region by national governments and international agencies. This included the Eastern African Ecoregion strategic framework, which focuses on coastal and marine conservation issues.

What about the application of regression based strategic frameworks in the East African literatureAn example is the study by Summary (1987), which looked at tourism in Kenya between 1963 and 1982. The study concentrated on the variable that tourism was one of the top three domestic exports during the period and aimed to influence tourism demand and policy makers in planning growth strategies. The results of the study indicated multivariable regression analysis has limited usefulness in identifying the significant factors which influence tourist’s decisions. Summary notes that data problems and multicollinearity caused unsuitable results in one case, while model specification appears to be a problem in another. The author concludes that quantitative studies should be supplemented by quantitative analysis in order to for Kenyan policy makers to make optimal decisions.

2.6.3. West African Tourism

Ige and Odulara (2008) write that the “increasing importance of sustainable tourism has become imperative to West Africa as a regional economic community.” A review of the literature focuses on the factors that explain growth. For example, models developed by Barro and Sal-I-Martin (1991) and Mankiw, Romer, Weil (1992) introduces “the concept of conditional convergence” and permit the analyst to consider the various nuances of different nations, for example the level and development of technology. Ige and odulara (2008) note that “most of the empirical studies have used a cross-sectional analysis, although with a growing availability of panel data, and the development of econometric techniques has been used widely to prove hypothesises.” A review of the literature brings up a study by Ige and Odulara (2008) which examined the influence of tourism on the West African economy by utilising pooled data on ten West African nations in the years 2000 to 2004. Studies showed that tourism certainly is influential in West Africa. This could be explained as the tourism destinations in West African economies are usually located within the “commercial nerve centres” which greatly affect the economic prosperity and, therefore, explaining the reasons for the regression. The findings also indicate that the influence of tourism must not be overlooked within climates of sustainable management of tourism to attain the maximum advantage of topical relevance to West African macro economic performance. This means that the economic performance in West Africa may be improved by proper tourism development policies which encourage openness with a lot of importance placed upon the liberalisation policy. The results of the model showed that for West African nations, the development of the tourism industry has seen greater economic development during the period 2000 to 2004. Thus, Ige and Odulara (2008) conclude that “West Africa needs to strategically harness its tourism potential in order to improve its economic performance.”

From the research it is important to note strategic frameworks are essential in developing tourism forecasting models but as stated by Crouch (2007) “destinations vary enormously and countries compete for different market segments in tourism, and so it is more meaningful to compare countries by market segment.” Indeed, it can be considered that the elements which may have a significant influence within one particular segment may be less significant in another.

3. Case Study – Methodology

This section will set out the means by which the case study will be conducted. First, the models that will be used to analyse the tourism industry in Africa will be explained. Subsequently, this section will look at the methodology for the regression analysis.

The models which will be used in the case study fall into two broad categories. On the one hand, some models help define what the overall strategic framework for the African tourism industry might be, on the other, further models help formulate the best plans in more specific terms.

Models to help formulate an overall strategic framework include Smith’s (2001) problem identification theory, Oldham, Creemers and Rebeck’s (2000) model based on organisational objectives, and Hamel and Prahalad’s (1994) contingency view of matching model to circumstance. In addition, other models such as a simple SWOT analysis or PESTEL overview can help link strategy to circumstance

Models which help add detail to the framework include Yoon’s (2001;2002) ‘Structural Equation Model’ and the similar models developed first by Crouch and Ritchie (1999) and later by Dwyer and Kim (2003) based around destination competitiveness and a hierarchy of priorities.

This section of the dissertation will look in more detail at the models which will be used in the case study, briefly outlining their theory and making clear how they work.

3.1 Overall Strategic Framework Models

This section outlines models which can help formulate overall strategic frameworks, and which will be used in the case study of Africa, below. The section will look at the notion of Butler’s lifecycle planning and ‘destination visioning’. Strategic planning needs to incorporate a long term perspective, the development of a holistic, integrated plan to manage change through goal formation and also formalise a decision process around the distribution of destination resources. Such a plan should also allow quick responses to changing situations. Kotler et al (Cooper 2002) have been influential in helping shape this overview of what such planning must incorporate. Strategic planning is particularly important for sustainability, as goal setting allows all stakeholders to have input into the future of the destination and help create a clear shared vision. There are, however, problems, for example the views of different shareholders with different value systems might be difficult to reconcile (Cooper 2002).

The ‘Life Cycle’ approach offers a technique for destination management strategy and a way to incorporate a long-term perspective. By differentiating between different stages in the life of a destination, management approaches can be tailored to these stages. The notion was developed by Butler (1980), who suggested that destinations cycle through six sequential stages: exploration, involvement, consolidation, stagnation and decline / rejuvenation (see figure 1) (Dong et al 2004).

Figure 1: Destination cycles through six sequential stages. Source: Butler (1980)

StageTourist CharacteristicsLocal consequences
ExplorationVisitors explorers, travel individually, irregular patterns, predominant attraction naturalLocals do not understand needs of visitors
InvolvementStart of variation in tourist numbers, low/high season. Man made facilities appearResidents start to dedicate resources to visitors, some advertising
ConsolidationVisitor numbers reach plateau. Package tours.Local economy dependent upon tourism.
StagnationDestination well established but loses fashion. Peak capacity reached. Tourists psychocentricLocal economy dependent on tourism
DeclineSome destinations decline – decrease in market…Impact on local economy as visitors decline
Rejvenation… others recover by changing attractions, new natural resourcesFurther pressure on local economy

It is possible to adapt the idea of the life cycle to integrate sustainable tourism with appropriate management strategies at each stage of the cycle with holistic planning (Bramwell and Lane 1993). One useful approach is ‘Life Cycle Analysis’ (Jain 1985) which combines the notion of the life cycle with Porter’s competitive position (dominant to weak). This is set out in figure 2 (Cooper 2003).

Figure 2: Jain’s Life Cycle Matrix (adapted from Cooper, 2003)

Competitive PositionStages of Industry Maturity

EmbryonicGrowthMatureAging
DominantFast growing

Start upFast growing, leadership

Renewing

Defending positionDefend position, Renew, cost leadershipDefend position

Focus

Renew

AdaptStrongStart up

Differentiate

GrowthFast growth

Catch-up

DifferentiateAttain cost leadership

Renew

Focus

Change with industryFind and retain niche

Grow with industry

HarvestFavourableStart up

Differentiate

Focus

GrowDifferentiate

Focus

Grow with industryFind and hold niche

Renew

Turnaround

Differentiate

Grow with industryRetrench

TurnaroundTenableStart up

Grow with Industry

FocusHarvest, Catch-up

Find niche

Hold niche

Focus

Grow with industryHarvest

Turnaround

RetrenchDivest

RetrenchWeakFind niche

Catch up

Grow with industryTurnaround

RetrenchWithdraw

DivestWithdraw

Another useful approach is that of ‘Destination Visioning’. This was suggested by Ritchie (1994) as a way to address the needs of strategic planning for tourism. This approach places power in the hands of the community, including local government, residents and businesses who have a central role in creating a strategic plan for the destination. There are three key ideas involved in Ritchie’s destination visioning. First, the vision needs to bring together the views the entire community as well as other stakeholders. Second, all involved parties need to agree about the vision, and third, the vision needs to incorporate long-term development plans. Cooper (2002) elaborates a practical strategy for delivering this vision with firstly a ‘destination audit’ – the commissioning of research to look at the nature of tourism in the region currently, the second stage ‘position stagements’ for key areas including market, investment, environment, and followed by ‘visioning workshops’ – perhaps the most important element with workshops held around the area to find out the views of all community members about tourism in the area. This feeds into the next stage ‘Development of the Vision’ where results are analysed and used to prepare a development plan. Finally, this is followed by the implementation scale. While there are acknowledged difficulties with Destination visioning – for example problems in making sure all community views are gathered, and difficulties gaining agreement on some areas, it seems a useful tool for developing a sustainable tourism plan (Cooper, 2002).

The case study will also bear in mind Oldham, Creemers and Rebeck’s (2000) model based in purpose and objective, and the more contingent approach championed by both Pazstor (2001) and Hamel and Prahalad (1994).

While there has been much discussion regarding whether strategic frameworks are a useful tool for developing organizations and ventures, perhaps due to the rapid change in the business environment, it is assumed in this study that they can add value and help formulate a better plan to deal with the future. They will be used in the case study to provide an overview for the tourism industry in Africa.

3.2 Models to Add Depth and Detail

This section sets out further models which will be used to add detail and depth to the case study by helping flesh out the overall strategic framework for African Tourism as it faces the next 10 years. Models of micro and macro environments can be useful, as are resource based views. A model by Yoon, and one based on ideas from Porter, developed by Crouch and Ritchie’s (1999) and Dwyer and Kim (2003) are also discussed.

Many useful models look at the macro and micro environments. The macro environment equates to the external environment and involves the identification of threats and opportunities to the enterprise. Tools such as PESTEL (which looks at Political, Economic, Social, Technical, Environmental and Legal issues) or STEEP (Socio-demographic, Technological, Economic, Environmental and Political influences) are useful here. Other approaches extend these analyses by including ‘international’ ‘communications’ and ‘infrastructure’ for example. The micro environment, on the other hand, looks at the immediate competitive threats to the enterprise. Here Porter’s ‘five force’ model to understand competitive position (see figure 4) is useful (The Hospitality Leisure Sport and Tourism Network 2011 online).

Figure 3: Porter’s Five Force Model

Porter’s model is based upon an economic model called ‘Structure-Conduct-Performance’ (SCP), which assumes that the structure of an organization and the industry in which it operates dictates how that organization behaves, and in turn this determines profit (performance) (Henry 2008). The model helps an organization or enterprise determine the merits of any course of action by looking at the way the five forces Porter identifies are interacting. While Porter developed the model from the point of view of organizations already operating in an area, it is also valuable for organizations or enterprises determining whether to enter a competitive environment (Henry 2008).

Another useful approach is to look at organisational resources and competencies. The ‘Resource Based View (RBV) looks in detail at the internal resources of the enterprise to work out how these can be used to gain maximum advantage. Porter’s value chain EXPLAIN concept can be used to understand these core competencies (The Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network 2011 [online])

Yoon’s ‘Structural Equation Model’ (2001) concerns the perspective of stakeholders in the tourism enterprise. It sets out the relationship between five areas: tourism development impacts, environmental attitudes, place attachment, development preferences about tourism attractions, and support for destination competitive strategy. The first three are exogenous, the latter two endogenous. Residents support for any future tourism, in the model, is determined by the way they perceive various aspects of tourism. Each of four elements or dimensions influences the total tourism impact, which in turn impacts upon the support for future tourism development. Yoon’s model is based in social exchange theory, which suggests that people are more likely to take part in an exchange if they think they will benefit from the exchange and will not occur too many costs. Residents need to perceive the benefits of tourism outweighing the disadvantages in order that they give their support to future developments. The model is set out in fig 4 (Yoon et al 2001).

Crouch and Ritchie (1999) develop a model based on idea of competitive and comparative advantages, including human, physical and knowledge resources, capital, infrastructure, historical and cultural resources. In this model, ‘attractions’ are the basic building blocks of a destinations appeal to the public, and act as key motivators for visits. They can include cultural and natural elements. The model moves beyond merely listing advantages to incorporate a way to understand the relationships between the factors in a ‘Conceptual Model of Destination’ which looks at the micro environment (the competitive situation), the macro (global) environment, core resources and attractors for primary destination appeal elements, supporting or secondary destination appeal elements and also qualifying determinants.

Dwyer and Kim develop a model, strongly influenced by Crouch and Ritchie (Kozak and Andreu 2006), based around destination competitiveness that allows comparisons to be made between countries. They base competitiveness between destinations in terms of the various characteristics of a destination which make it desirable to visit. They also suggest that these factors can be managed in a process of ‘Destination Management’, promoting the appeal of core resources, strengthening their quality and adapting to contingent conditions (Dwyer and Kim 2003). Tourist destination attractiveness include natural resources (scenery, parks etc) and artificial resources (museums, hotels, culture). Administrative factors should increase attractiveness of basic resources and amplify their appeal. Administration should be conducted efficiently and with adaptation to contingencies (Navickas and Malakauskaite 2009). Factors form a hierarchy, with natural resources the base of a pyramid, followed by created resources, then administration. Above these levels is the need for a cohesive policy and development. This pyramid will be used to structure the case study discussion. The similarities between the two models are drawn out in figure 5:

Figure 5: Dwyer and Kim, Crouch Ritchie Models (adapted from Dwyer and Kim 2003)

Dwyer and Kim (‘Integrated Model’)Crouch-Ritchie Model
Natural Resources

Cultural / Heritage ResourcesCore Resources (Climate, Culture, Activities Mix, Special Events, Entertainment etc)Supporting Factors and Resources (General Infrastructure, quality of service, accessibility of destination, hospitality)Supporting Factors and Resources (Infrastructure, Accessibility, Hospitality, Enterprise)Destination ManagementDestination ManagementSituational conditionsDestination Policy, Planning, DevelopmentCompetitive (micro) environmentGlobal (macro) environmentDemand ConditionsQualifying and Amplifying Determinants

3.3 Regression Analysis

In addition to the tools outlined above which will be used to inform the case study, this study will also include data interrogation. Data will be collected from Africa as a whole and East and West Africa as sub regions to determine the change over time for key variables upon tourism. A regression analysis will also be included on the data. Regression analysis is a statistical technique used to predict the value of one variable when we know the values of other variables. It models the relationship between two or more variables (Cohen 2007). Simple linear regression helps identify the most representative straight line connecting two sets of variables, which multiple regression maps the relationships between more than two variables. The latter will be used in this case. (Buglear 2004).

3.4 Section Summary

This section has examined the methodology to be used in this study. Tools and models for strategic planning were discussed, as well as additional models which can be used to add depth. To summarize the tools to be used, Butler’s (1980) lifecycle planning allows a long-term perspective on African tourism to be taken, a perspective which is currently missing. By combining this with Porter’s competitive positioning, Jain’s (1985) model suggests how this strategic position can be combined with an awareness of the rest of the tourism market. Ritchie’s destination visioning can also inform strategy by allowing all stakeholders to have a say in how tourism should develop in their area. In addition to tools which help develop a wide-reaching perspective, a number of tools for detailed analysis are useful. These include PESTEL, which allows key factors in the market environment to be isolated, and Porter’s ‘Five Forces’, which provides a way of seeing the industry in terms of competitive position. Dwyer and Kim (2003), and Crouch and Ritchie (1999), also suggest a useful model specific to the tourist industry. Finally, regression methodology was looked at.

4. Case Study: African Tourism

4.1 Overview of Africa and Tourism using Business Models and Tools

The methodology has set out a number of useful tools for analysing the resources of Africa as a tourist destination, which can be used in turn to develop an overall strategy for tourism, both in Africa overall and with references to differences between East and West. The following will discuss Africa in these terms, first using tools identified in the literature review such as PESTEL, STEEP and Porter’s Five Forces to look at Africa’s current position, and then taking a wider strategic view, again drawing upon tools and models discussed in the methodology.While tools such as PESTEL and STEEP distinguish different areas of consideration, to some extent these divisions are artificial, and the areas overlap to some extent.

4.1.1 The Political Situation

Most available information relates to the political and economic climate in Africa, and what it means for tourism. Tourists are, for example, highly sensitive to political instability, and can fear for their personal safety. It has been suggested (Okech 2010) that only democratic countries with a respect for law and human rights can create the stability which is necessary for tourism development.

The political history of Africa is complex, with many countries facing severe political problems which have their roots in colonialism and its aftermath. The Cold War and, more recently, Globalisation, have also had an impact. However, international news coverage can lead to a skewed notion that Africa is a state of ongoing political crisis. In fact, most of the countries which make up Africa, despite problems, are not in meltdown. In addition, the 1990’s saw a movement dubbed ‘Africa’s Second Liberation’ or ‘Second Independence’ with more than 20 countries moving from authoritarian regimes to more democratic decision making. To some extent however, countries are still marked by (Exploring Africa 2011 [online]) lack of democracy and plagued by rivalries between ethnic, religious and regional groups. Human rights abuses, corruption and authoritarian regimes still exist.This can prove a disincentive to more main-stream tourists.

Despite these problems, many African governments are aware of the potential of tourism. Tourism allows governments to profit financially as they gain both through taxes and indirectly through duties upon items tourists buy including drink, petrol and hotel accommodation. To this the income from foreign exchanges and tax on those employed in the tourism sector can be added (Okech 2010). Countries are consequently investing heavily in tourism development, attempting both to promote their countries and to redeem the image of the destination. For example, Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory have allocated large resources to tourism (Kareen 2008).

This new focus on tourism has been further fuelled by international development agencies such as the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the British Department for International Development and the SNV Netherlands Development Organization. However, investment from outside needs to be matched by government policy in order that investment can contribute to economic and social development in the most ‘joined-up’ way.Cross–border initiatives are also increasingly important, as tourists frequently travel across a number of African countries during their stay. The ‘New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NPAD [online] 2010), for example, sees a number of African companies join together with a shared recognition that tourism has great potential for economic development. Throughthe ‘Tourism Action Plan’ the NPAD set out a strategy for managing this potential. The strategy encompasses including key objectives such as creating a regulatory environment, strengthening planning, improving marketing and communications, promoting research and development, formulating education and skills training, and improvements to infrastructure (Rogerson 2007).

Many individual countries have a range of strategies to boost tourism. Some offer incentives; for example Tanzania has reduced visa costs. Some governments develop incentives for industry by offering, for example, help with marketing cash subsidies, business finance or skills development. Lack of funding is always an issue especially in countries like Africa where there are high levels of poverty, and tourism might seem less of an immediate priority.

In addition to initiatives by individual countries, there is a move towards establishing links between African countries to help tourism, as visitors often want to see more than one country. An example is a recent links between Angola and Nambia, another the ‘Peace Parks’ – trans-frontier conservation areas, parks which cross boundaries and which need joint management by governments. The Peace Park foundation was created 1997 and there are now 10 established parks. Governments are learning from more established destinations, for example South Africa (Euromonitor 2010)

However, it is also recognised that governments need to take pro-active approach which takes into account input from all stakeholders, and that there is a need to draft policies and through consultation with all residents. There is an equal need for planning control, investment incentives in order to include even the poorest areas in initiatives (Okech 2010). However, while this aim is clearly desirable, it has to be questioned whether African countries will be able to implement this in practice, given some history of less than fair business practices and the existence of bribery and corruption in the past. This is an under-researched area where more primary research would be welcomed.

Overall, Africa’s political situation has meant it has been at a disadvantage in tourism terms in previous years. Not only are countries hampered by undemocratic governments and have to deal with challenges such as poverty and disease which mean there is less money to boost tourism, but Africa’s difficulties mean that it can be avoided by travelers who assume it is too unstable and poverty-stricken to be a good holiday destination. However, there are signs that governments are recognizing the potential of tourism to improve Africa’s finances, and also working across country boundaries to strengthen their approach.

4.1.2 Economic Aspects

In terms of the economy, Africa overall has acknowledged problems including economic stagnation, international debts, deficits, rising inflation and lack of growth (Rogerson 2007).There are some signs that the economy is slowly improving, especially in terms of international trading relations, and particularly relationships with China and India. For example, Africa-China trade was 10.6 billion dollars in 2000, 40 billion in 2005 and rose to 107 billion in 2007. Already over 700 Chinese companies operate in sub-Saharan Africa. China has also been involved in the development of Infrastructure including roads and other transport links. Oil producing regions in Africa, for example Sudan, Nigeria and Angloa, are growing in international importance (Euromonitor 2010). International investment has doubled in size between 2004 and 2005 due largely to the trend for China and other Asian countries to increase their presence and second the improvements to African infrastructure generally and particularly to the financial infrastructure including expansions of the debt and equity markets (Nelson 2007). In addition, Africa seems to escape the worst of the international recession: Africa as a whole has shown higher GDP growth than the global average, with a slight rise in average spend. However, the recession still had an impact due to a decline in visitors from regions hit by downturn more severely. Despite these favorable signs for the future, the African economy has declined in most countries over last few years with lower standards of living and higher levels of poverty. Naturally related problems including drought and famine play a part; in addition political factors contribute to this less than favourable outlook: for example Kenya suffered a decline after political violence in 2007/8 (Euromonitor 2010). There has been some increase in poverty levels overall, and falls to standards of living (Okech 2010). There exist wide diversities between the different African countries in terms of Gross Domestic Product (Kareen 2008)

Against this background, there is widespread hope that tourism offers a way to boost economy (Rogerson 2007). Where tourism infrastructure does currently exist, it is often foreign-owned. There is evidence to suggest that this hope is well-founded: some countries in Africa, for example The Gambia and Ethiopia, have experienced 20% growth in tourism over the last 20 years. Rates of increase are different in different regions, but the trend is towards growth. Overall, over the same time period, Africa has been increasing its market share of the tourism industry with 60% of international tourists now visiting for leisure purposes. In 2005 Africa had the best performance for growth of international arrivals of all the world tourism organisation UNWTO’s areas. Tourism offers opportunities to all, as the market is growing, and has tripled between 1970 and 2003 with increases set to continue (Nelson 2007). Tourism offers particular opportunities to Africa as it is relatively poor in exportable commodities. This is confirmed by existing research. While there is a lack of published studies in the area, those that do exist back up the idea that tourism can work for Africa. For example, Fayissa, Nsiah and Tadasse (2007) – found that tourism has contributed to the GDP and economic growth of African countries, and recommended strengthening the tourism industry for economic advantage. Other researchers writing about the benefits of tourism wider afield suggest that tourism is beneficial for economic growth particularly for developing (rather than developed) (Eugenio Martin et al 2004). Other researchers found tourism played a positive role for the economy by increasing competition amongst providers of tourism services Krueger, 1980). In 2008, Kareen found, through analysis of panel data for 36 African countries, that tourism and economic growth are significantly related. He also suggests that tourism as an export product can be used to predict future economic growth in Africa. In addition, he suggests that there is a two-way relationship between tourism expenditure and economic growth with one feeding into the other. Higher tourism expenditure leads to higher growth, and accelerated economic growth in turn leads to more tourism. He concludes that this relationship needs to be more widely recognized and integrated into strategy (Kareem 2008). Kareem’s study is a welcome addition to an area which currently lacks research. However, it is primarily concerned with statistical analyses of panel data, and less with discussing the implications for promoting tourism in Africa. More discussion would be welcome to clarify what his findings mean for the industry as a whole.

The negative economic impact of tourism also needs to be kept in mind. The bulk of purchases made by tourists are non-exportable. By consuming produce of interest to the local market, tourism can make these scarcer and more expensive for local people (Kareen 2008). Mass tourism can also have a negative impact on sustainability and the environment, which will be discussed later.

One particularly important area of the economy and the impact of tourism is in the area of employment. Tourism is labour intensive, and creates a large amount of jobs including guides, interpreters, positions in travel, hotel vacancies, catering and entertainment, cultural and sports jobs. In addition it boost a number of jobs in the informal economy including prostitution and drugs.Currently, tourism provides between 2 and 6% of jobs in Africa, with women representing 50% of the workforce.While tourism offers the potential for increased employment, there are a number of problems to be negotiated. Current employment opportunities tend to be low or unskilled, and the infrastructure is lacking with little job security, little formal training or employee development, and few prospects for career development or personal improvement. Factors such as these cause a demoralised workforce and can impact upon productivity. In addition employment is seasonal with most travel taking place in the northern hemisphere Winter, and with a quieter period between April to August. This particularly effects beach destinations including Kenya in East Africa and Gambia in the West. Many employees lose their job in low season. A further problem is that the concept of tourism is not universal. Many people in Africa, especially those in the more remote villages, do not understand the idea, and therefore fail to see the opportunities for employment and economic enhancement (Kareem 2008).

Economic considerations cannot be seen in isolation however. It should be noted that poverty, which is rife in Africa, is not just about income. It forms a complex two-way relationship with disease, literacy, the environment, education, access to justice, disempowerment and infant death (Okech 2010)

4.1.3. Other Factors

While politics and economics are perhaps the most important factors to consider in devising a tourist policy for Africa, other factors play a part. One currently important socio-economic factor is the growth of interest in and demand for eco-travel, sustainability and ‘pro-poor’ tourism. Interest in these areas have been worldwide, as people have become increasingly aware of the consequences of mass market tourism. While it can bring economic advantage to tourist destinations, there are also many negative consequences including damage to the region environmentally, displacement of people, cultural upheaval, and (through foreign ownership) funds not benefiting local people. The original focus of sustainable tourism was upon protecting the environment, for example native species and bio-diversity were damaged by construction of hotels, roads and similar, but this focus has widened. The remit now includes social, economic and cultural facets, and encompasses varied areas including the ‘greening’ of the industry by a new focus upon waste management and energy efficiency, protection of all resources from the environment to local cultures, the awareness of the importance of involving local communities in initiatives, and ‘pro-poor’ measures (Kandari and Chandra 2004).

Africa’s environment is one of the key attractions for visitors, as it has many areas of natural beauty and interest (Spenceley 2008). Key natural attractions include Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe, Okavango Delta in Botswana and the Namib Desert in Namibia (Bennett et al 2001). However, there are other issues which impact upon these natural attractions, and which make incorporating a sustainable perspective into tourism strategy imperative. Parts of Africa are subject to severe climatic conditions, and the natural attractions are also threatened by human action, for example the destruction of the rain forest and savanna, and changes to the levels of bio-diversity amongst plants and animals. These environmental issues have led to political and cultural changes, for example as early as 1977 Gambia formulated the Banjal Declaration as a response to loss of wildlife. This aimed to protect biodiversity, conserve existing resources and ensure that species do not become extinct (Weaver 2001)

Despite the relatively small size of the tourism industry in Africa currently, there has been widespread recognition of the need to promote sustainable development in the industry. The World Bank, for example, is committed to sustainable management in Africa in order to ‘Enhance Livelihoods’, ‘Protect People’s Health’ and ‘Reduce People’s Vulnerability’ to environmental risks. The African Region Environmental Strategy (ARES) also makes the support of environmentally oriented tourism a priority (World Bank 2001)

Pro-Poor tourism is a fairly recent concept, which aims to ensure that revenue flows back go grass roots levels and entrepreneurs (Kareem 2008). Pro-poor tourism is an initiative which hopes to increase benefits to poor locals from tourism, and tries to integrate these economic benefits in a way which will reduce poverty long-term. It characterizes an approach rather than a product or sector. It relates to ‘sustainable’ tourism, and they have areas in common, but pro-poor tourism is different, with a higher focus upon poverty. Many African countries are characterized by high levels of poverty, and there is a consequent need for strategy to incorporate pro-poor measures into tourism (Ashley et al 2001). Pro-poor tourism also helps the tourist feel involved with the people of the region visited (Okech 2010). Pro-poor tourism is a multi faceted approach which includes, for example, offering support to small local businesses, boosting tourism to rural areas, forming partnerships between local communities and businesses, involving communities in planning and improving tourism in ways which clearly benefit the poor (for example improving working conditions) (Kandari and Chandra 2004).Other strategies can include promoting the ability of local people to provide tourist products, marketing, linking with private sector, policy and participative decision-making. A pro-poor initiative can focus upon the small scale or take the form of a national scheme. The various aspects of pro-poor strategy can be analysed into three streams. First, the aim to expand economic benefits for people in poverty, second to deal with the non-economic consequences of poverty, and third to develop core policies, systems and partnerships. Evidence so far suggests that pro-poor tourism initiatives can help lift people out of poverty, although success seems to depend to some extent upon access to education and infrastructure, and results are further mediated by cultural factors. The accessibility of regions (including not just locations but the existence of cultural elites, social constraints), the commercial viability of the product and national and local policies all play a part in determining success. Overall, pro-poor tourism (PPT) works best in the context of a wider agenda for the area and already well developed areas. There is also a need for a ‘stakeholder’ approach in which all interested parties have a say. Although a new development, there are signs of infrastructure to address the demand for pro-poor tourism, for example the African Pro-Poor Tourism Development Centre in Kenya (Okech 2010)

Other factors in the African situation include technology and infrastructure. While mobile services are growing quickly, and mobile phones becoming widely used, Africa’s online provision lacks behind the rest of the world with only 6.2% of the population having internet access (this varies between countries) (Euromonitor 2010). This lack of connectivity in Africa and a poor digital infrastructure will have clear impacts upon tourism in Africa, for example on the ability of small-scale businesses to promote their services, on the awareness of local people of employment opportunities, and of the more widespread marketing of African destinations as a whole to overseas tourists.

Problems with infrastructure are not limited to online and digital services. Hotel provision and road, rail and airport networks are underdeveloped.Most current visitors to Africa stay in hotels, but hostels, lodges and private accommodation are also used. Independent hotels are dominant, with international chains having presence only in key tourism areas (Euromonitor 2010).Roads need improvement, rail travel is difficult as the network is not comprehensive, services are slow and trains unreliable. Air, after road, is the second most popular transport form, but air travel is expensive and standards questionable. National carriers tend to have a monopoly, and there are few budget air travel providers (Euromonitor 2010)

There has been some recent investment in infrastructure, largely as a result of overseas investment from China in particular. Although not done for the tourist industry directly, the improvements do help the industry considerably, for example the building of the Mkapa Bridge across Tanzania’s Rufiji river has improved access to the southern coast (Nelson 2007).

4.1.4 Further analyses of Competitive Position

Porter’s ‘Five Forces’ model can be used to explore the competitive position of Africa in regards to tourism. Porter isolates five areas which together determine a strategic position for an organisation or enterprise. In terms of the first, the ‘suppliers’ are the African countries which make up Africa as a whole, and within these the myriad of individual suppliers of accommodation, transport and other tourist products. These are primarily small and local providers, but there is scope for expansion here. International suppliers are currently few. In terms of ‘competitive rivalry’, Africa is competing with other tourist destinations, but perhaps more particularly with destinations which have been overlooked in the past, and ones which offer a range of natural attractions. Perhaps the biggest rivals are from the more developed African destinations of North and South Africa, which are better known, better marketed, and more able to cope with tourism due to an established network of hotels and other resources. The threat of substitutes concerns the market’s willingness to accept another offering which addresses the same needs. In an area like tourism, where destinations are the product rather than, for example, soap powder, where a number of products do the same job, there is a need to highlight the unique destination qualities to ensure that there can be no substitute product.

Buyers for the African tourist product are currently outside the mass market. There are also sub-groups of buyers, including those interested in wildlife and safari holidays. Africa as a whole needs to consider whether they want to move into the mass market, or address smaller niches such as eco or pro-poor tourism.

‘Barriers to entry’ are diverse. They include lack of price and quality competitiveness (Christie and Crompton 2003), poor air transport, lack of facilities, lack of adequate information and poor public perceptions of, (and the existence of), poverty, disease and conflict (Kestler).Public health services are underdeveloped, and travellers are more likely to fear for their safety (Gauci et al 2003), and be deterred by the risk associated with turbulent political situations (Eliat and Einav 2003). Marketing needs careful consideration to mitigate the effect of these barriers (Okech 2010).

The models by Dwyer and Kim (2003) and Crouch and Ritchie (1999) discussed earlier can also be used to get an overview of the actual and potential for tourism in Africa, as summarised in the following table:

Figure 6: Dwyer and Kim / Crouch and Ritchie Models for Africa

Dwyer and Kim (‘Integrated Model’)

Crouch-Ritchie Model

Africa

Natural Resources

Cultural / Heritage ResourcesCore Resources (Climate, Culture, Activities Mix, Special Events, Entertainment etc)Wildlife, natural attractions, unique culture, specialised attractions e.g. Safari. Scope for developmentSupporting Factors and Resources (General Infrastructure, quality of service, accessibility of destination, hospitality)Supporting Factors and Resources (Infrastructure, Accessibility, Hospitality, Enterprise)Infrastructure improving, but room for further improvement. Inter and Intra Africa travel can be improved. Also scope for improvement in hotels, other servicesDestination ManagementDestination ManagementAd hocSituational conditionsDestination Policy, Planning, DevelopmentSome government / other schemes, room for new initiativesCompetitive (micro) environmentUnique product can reduce competition from other sources. Main competition for individual destinations other African destinationsGlobal (macro) environmentPoor image of Africa outside continentDemand ConditionsQualifying and Amplifying DeterminantsDemand for eco tourism

4.2 Strategic Planning for Africa

So far, Africa has failed to fully capitalize on its tourism potential, although efforts have been made over the last 30 years and the role tourism can play in the economy has been noted, particularly since 1990 with more recent attempts to set a sustainable agenda (Kareem 2008). This section will, using models identified earlier, look at the current situation and map out possibilities.

In terms of Butler’s life cycle, Africa overall seem to be at stage two ‘involvement’.There is some division between low and high seasons, with most visitors during October to April, and some attempt to advertise and dedicate resources to visitors. Individual regions in Africa, and within these individual destinations, vary considerably however, with some well-known resorts at a later developmental stage, and with North and South Africa ahead of West and East.In terms of Jain’s ‘Life Cycle Analysis’, the overall position of Africa seems to be either ‘favourable’ (if barriers to entry can be overcome) or ‘tenable’, with maturity stage predominantly ‘growth’ with individual destinations more or less mature. The aims for this grouping are finding a niche, holding that niche, growing and focussing, which seem to characterise the current need of Africa to overcome problems as a destination and develop a ‘joined up’ approach to the market, for example by addressing issues with political stability, infrastructure, information provision and marketing (Naude and Saayman 2003), lack of skills and training, poor standards, and above all the lack of overall strategy (Rogerson 2007).

One way to focus such a strategy is upon eco- and pro-poor tourism, as part of a wider agenda of sustainability. This focus has the added benefit that it is supported by wider organisations for example the WWF and USAID, who have already donated money to help African destinations develop eco products including ‘agritourism’, in which city dwellers try rural life by living on working farms (Euromonitor 2010). Ritchie’s ‘Destination Visioning’ seems an ideal way of developing an overall strategy for Africa, and within Africa for individual regions and countries. Rather than imposing a vision from above, through government decision being forced upon Africa’s people, this strategy involves all stakeholders from the offset. This seems the best way to ensure that all, including the poor, have a say in Africa’s future as a destination. Cooper suggests a ‘destination audit’ and ‘visioning workshops’ to gather the views of all interested parties. Yoon’s (2001) model might be a useful way of synthesizing the diverse views of stakeholders. As discussed above, Yoon classifies stakeholder perspectives into the economic, social, cultural and environmental impact, and uses these to quantify a total impact.This seems to suggest a way for conflicting perspectives, for example the need to protect bio-diversity and the need to build larger hotels, to be compared and an overall impact calculated.

Just as North and South Africa have developed as very distinct tourist destinations with unique attractions, there is considerable potential for West and East Africa to develop their own identity as destinations, with East Africa particularly concerned with sustainability, biodiversity and conservation (Nelson 2007; Mugo 2006). Existing research comparing the two regions is largely concentrated on East Africa, where a high potential for conservation-based tourism is found. Ecological resources are currently a major draw for tourists, and offer further economic potential. Kenya and Tanzania have already started to capitalise on this potential with growth promoted by investment as part of wider economic strategies, poverty reduction strategies and infrastructure Improvement. At the same time, there are many areas which are currently undeveloped as destinations (South Tanzania, Mozambique), including coastal regions. There is currently more emphasis upon inland resources and safaris (Nelson 2007).

4.3 Data Analysis

In order to assess the development of tourism in Africa, data from 6 African countries (three from East and three from West Africa) was analyzed, and the results inform and support the discussion above.The six countries are Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya (East) and Senegal, Ghana and Gambia (West). The data, shown in Appendix 1 (tables 1, 2 and 3), from individual countries confirms a general pattern of growth which is more or less marked by country. Data is shown from 2003 to 2007 for West Africa, and 2005 to 2009 for East, for a number of variables including arrivals, arrivals by region, arrivals by main purpose, mode of transport and expenditure. While full data is given, it is interesting to summarize the data into West and East Africa, and also look at distributions for Africa overall. In calculating grouped data, where data was missing for one year for a country, it was calculated by averaging from other years. Where data was missing for a variable across years, an estimate was used based on averages for remaining countries. Note, in the following, ‘West’ and ‘East’ Africa denote the three countries for which data was examined.

For West Africa, (see table 1, appendix 1) tourist arrivals have increased fairly steadily over the five year period. Here there is some overall increase, but a large count in 2003 was not matched in subsequent years. Here future data and data from previous years would be interesting. Spend has also increased, on average over the 5 year period with a slight tailing off in 2007. In terms of GDP, tourism’s share seems pretty level over the 5 year period, starting at 4.75 and at 4.85 in 2007, so a longer period of study is needed here, or to include data from other destinations. Total hotel room numbers has also increased, as has (overall) visitors from Europe. While this paints a positive picture of tourism growth in West Africa, it would have been ideal to include data from a greater number of destinations to avoid ‘skew’ from one particularly popular or unpopular destination. Within East Africa (see table 2, appendix 1), there are no figures for tourism’s contribution to GDP, and only data for Kenya regarding hotels, so these tables have been omitted. However arrivals and arrivals for the purpose of tourism also show growth, as do spend and arrivals from Europe (here 2008/2009 data was missing for Kenya: 2007 was used). Again, the overall trend is upwards. Africa as a whole can also be examined, for the overlapping period of 2005-2007 (see table 3, appendix 1). Arrivals, arrivals for the purpose of tourism, expenditure, and European arrivals have all increased steadily over the three years.

4.4 Section Summary

This section looks at Africa and tourism in detail, using the variety of methodological models discussed in the previous section. Africa’s potential is currently not being realized, and a strategy embracing pro-poor and eco-tourism is likely to be useful. In addition, descriptive data was examined, showing there has already been an increase in tourist numbers to the continent.

5. Forecasting – Regression

5.1. Introduction

As emphasized in the methodology chapter, regression analysis has been conducted on variables from East and West African countries in order to determine the factors that most affect the average number of individuals visiting African countries for tourism and in order to build a forecasting model that could be used to predict future tourism visits. The tables below show the results of a multiple regression analysis on East and West Africa done separately. The dependent variable utilized here is the average number of tourisms that visit the three countries yearly over a five-year period (2003 – 2007), while the independent variables utilized are total arrivals in East Africa, Total Expenditure in East Africa, and Total number of arrivals from Europe. The same variables have been utilized for the West African calculations. These variables were chosen based on the frameworks depicted in the literature review and the case study analysis that ensued.

As depicted earlier, the total arrivals, total expenditure and number of individuals from Europe, could all positively affect the tourism industry, as they positively contribute to the economy of participating nations. Other variables were also considered, based on inputs from the case study, and these were political stability, incentives for tourism, and infrastructure availability, however on close inspection of the tourism websites of all six countries analyzed, and on review of existing literature, it was found that all these countries were on similar levels in terms of these three major factors. All of them were politically stable with democratic governments. Only Uganda is landlocked, while the others have “attractive beaches”. They all offer incentives for tourism development, and even Tanzania offers reduced visa fees. Finally, they all have relevant infrastructure such as Hotels, and attractions to keep tourists coming back. Due to these factors, no dummy variables could be utilized in conjunction with the regression analysis, so the only variables measured, were those in which we could readily find data on.

5.2. Regression Analysis

Figure 7: Multiple Regression Analysis for East Africa Tourism

Linear Regression

Regression Statistics
R0.97677

R Square0.95408

Adjusted R Square0.81631

Standard Error84.29037

Total Number Of Cases5

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM E AFRICA =- 262.5334 + 0.7300 * TOTAL ARRIVALS E AFRICA + 0.1548 * TOTAL EXPEND. E AFRICA – 1.5888 * TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS E AFRICA

The multiple regression analysis on East Africa as shown in the table above shows a coefficient of determination of 0.95, thus meaning that over 95% of the tourism growth in East Africa could be explained through the total number of individuals arriving in East Africa, the total expenditure and the total arrivals from Europe.

Similar results were also obtained for West Africa, as the regression analysis, using the same variables yielded a coefficient of determination of 0.837. The results illustrate that up to 84% of the tourism arrivals in West Africa could be explained through total arrivals, total expenditure and total European arrivals.

Figure 8: Multiple Regression Analysis for West Africa Tourism

Linear Regression

Regression Statistics
R0.91538

R Square0.83793

Adjusted R Square0.35171

Standard Error37.52201

Total Number Of Cases5

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM W AFRICA =- 16.9176 + 0.2295 * TOTAL ARRIVALS W AFRICA – 0.5357 * TOTAL EXPEND. W AFRICA + 1.0500 * TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS W AFRICA

Though the data utilized in the regression analysis were based on the three topmost countries in both regions (based on UN World Tourism Organisation ranking), the researcher believes that they offer a fair explanation of the determinants of tourism growth within the individual countries, and could thus be utilized in developing a framework for forecasting tourism growth within individual countries. Based on the regression analysis for East Africa, with a coefficient of determination of over 95%, the following formula could be used for predicting future tourism growth:

T = -262.53 + 0.73 (TA-EA) + 0.1546 (TE-EA) – 1.5888 (TEA)

Where T = Total visits for tourism

TA-EA = Total arrivals in the East African country

TE-EA = Total expenditure in the East African country

TEA = Total European Arrivals

The same holds through for West Africa, with 83.7% predication rate. The formula for predicting future tourism growth in West Africa would be:

T = -16.92 + 0.2295 (TA-WA) – 0.5357 (TE-WA) + 1.05 (TEA)

Where T = Total visits for tourism

TA-WA = Total arrivals in the West African country

TE-WA = Total expenditure in the West African country

TEA = Total European Arrivals

The results from the regression analysis show that countries in West and East Africa that are seeking to improve their tourism industry should do so by making efforts to increase general total arrivals within their countries, by making their countries more attractive to foreign visitors. They should also improve expenditure within their countries, whilst attracting European visitors for holidays. The results also confirm that of Kareem (2008), who found that tourism and economic growth are significantly related.

5.3. 10 Year Forecast

10-year forecasts were made for the East and West African tourism countries, in a bid to forecast how the industry would generally perform in coming years. The independent variables were utilized in forecasting the total number of tourism visitors for East Africa, based on the Regression analyses present in Figures 7 and 8. The forecast figures for the independent variables were calculated using Compounded Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) over the past five years, to predict their growth over the next 10 years.

For East Africa, it was found that Total Arrivals in East Africa grew by 3.37% from 2003 – 2007; Total expenditures grew by 6.32% and Total European Arrivals grew by 2.11% over the same period.

For West Africa, the calculation showed that Total Arrivals in West Africa grew by 6.6%; Total expenditure grew by 10.22%, while Total European Arrivals grew by only 2.78% over the same period. The regression analysis for West Africa shows a negative relationship between total expenditure and total tourism visits.

East African forecasting figures, as shown in Figure 9, show that the Total Tourism Visits to East Africa is forecasted to grow over the 10 year forecast period from 2007 – 2017, representing a CAGR of 4.3%.

Figure 9: Forecast for Tourism Visits in East Africa

The results for West Africa however show a different forecast, as the total tourism visits seem to be inversely related to total expenditure. This is an anomaly, and in sharp contrast to results from East Africa. If it were possible to have much more data over a broader period in time, then this forecast could have been verified. The total tourism visits in West Africa shows a CAGR from 2008 – 2014 of -24.56%, when then results in a negative value.

Figure 10: Forecast for Tourism Visits in West Africa

The results of the regression analysis show a flaw in the data gathering, which is that data from the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) only spanned 5 years from 2003 – 2007, so the calculations and forecasts in this study are limited to the Tourism industry within that period. As a result of this limitation, an effective “What If” analysis could not be effectively carried out, as the P value was significantly higher than 0.05 for both multiple regression analysis of East and West Africa.

CHAPTER SUMMARY

Results from the regression analysis show that both East and West African Tourism visits are determined highly through the total number of visits, total European visits and Total expenditure within individual countries. Forecasts for East Africa show that it is predicted to grow by a CAGR of 4.3% over the following ten years from 2008 – 2017; while that for West Africa shows that it is predicted to decline by 24.56% yearly from 2008 – 2014. The decline in West Africa growth is due to a calculated negative correlation between Tourism Growth and Total Expenditure (which grows by over 10% yearly). The results from the regression analysis should be expanded and recalculated with the use of data from a longer period, and not just from 2003 – 2007.

6. Discussion

The case study has pointed out that Africa’s tourism potential is under-developed. Theoretical models, and one drawn from business, for example PESTEL and STEEP allow a clear view of Africa’s current situation regarding tourism, particularly in separating out the different strands which go to make up the overall position. In this analysis it became clear that political and economic factors are particularly important. Africa needs to overcome not merely adverse political and economic conditions (war, poverty, intra-country conflict) but to develop a better public face in the developed world in order to attract tourists. On the other hand, it has become clear at a government level for many African countries that tourism can play a central role in boosting GDP and helping reduce poverty. In consequence, many countries are now taking a pro-active role to incorporate strategies to encourage tourism by promoting it to communities and offering incentives. In addition, the case study reveals that Africa faces other challenges including lack of transport infrastructure that need to be addressed for tourism to play a larger role, and also that the lack of online communication is hampering attempts to raise profile with the rest of the world.Porter’s ‘Five Forces’ allowed a way to see African Tourism as a unified enterprise and to analyse competitive and other forces which dictate how it should proceed. In particular there are several barriers to entry which need to be addressed before progress can be made.

The literature review and case study also looked at differences between East and West Africa. Here, the lack of available research means that mapping out differences in approach to tourism in these areas has been limited. However, in East Africa, it was shown, strategy is frequently based around sustainable development and the need for conservation and retaining biodiversity. The literature review on West Africa also suggests the importance of sustainability, as well as highlighting the significance of economical considerations. There is also an emphasis upon liberalisation and openness. Results from both regions therefore seem to highlight a need to incorporate sustainability into any long-term plan for tourism.

The literature review and case study have shown that there has been relatively little investigation of the economic present and future impact of tourism to Africa so far. While this means the current study provides a welcome addition to the literature, and can point out areas for future development, it also means that there is only limited scope for fully examining what a strategic plan for Africa’s tourism would involve and comparing the results obtained with previous work. In particular, the lack of panel data analysis means that results from this study cannot be usefully compared with other studies in detail. Existing studies seem to have looked at tourism in developed countries, and developing ones like Africa have been neglected. The focus in such studies which do exist is upon the influence of the exchange rate and income on tourism. There have been no studies looking at the role played by sustainable tourism for example.This clearly points to a need for further investigations to flesh out available data.

However, understanding Africa’s position in terms of internal strengths and weaknesses and in terms of micro and macro external forces is insufficient. Indeed, so far the lack of research has contributed to the lack of guidance and policy for African tourism (Christie and Crompton 2001). There is therefore a need to develop a strategic vision which can guide the development of tourism within the region as a whole, in order that East and West Africa can catch up with North and South, who currently dominate as tourist destinations. There is a clear need for Africa to develop a unified vision for tourism. It has been shown above that while Africa has a wealth of natural and cultural resources, and while these resources are currently underdeveloped, it has some way to go before these resources are part of a developed tourism agenda. In these terms, the most useful tool for developing a vision is the notion of ‘destination visioning’. It is clear from the above that such a vision may stand the best chance of success if it embraces ideas of pro-poor and eco-tourism as well as sustainability. Africa’s attractions, particularly those in East Africa, are dominated by natural resources, and there is a need to learn from the case of mass tourism in, for example, coastal Spain to ensure that developments preserve these attractions and that infrastructure is sensitive to nature. In addition, given Africa’s high levels of poverty, that ‘pro-poor’ tourism should be integrated into the plan. This provides a way in which economic and other benefits of tourism can be fed back into the local economy and support the poorest locals. In addition, ‘pro-poor’ tourism is a marketable concept which is of particular interest to a sustainability-conscious market sector. A further clear need is for planning to incorporate stakeholder perspectives. There is a need not for profit to feed back to large scale overseas owners but for planning to be jointly owned, from the onset, by integrating the views of all interested parties including local people, small business owners, local government and others.

Key descriptive data also show a positive increase in tourism and tourism related products in both East and West Africa over recent 5 year periods. This suggests that the process of developing Africa as a tourist destination is already underway, but the data considered also raises questions about longer-term perspectives. There is also some issue over the veracity of data from some countries, which is of concern. However, any development which occurs needs to be harnessed in order to avoid over-development of areas and destruction of natural resources. A ‘destination visioning’ plan would seem a useful way of doing this. Furthermore, the regression analysis has shown that West and East African countries would need to develop their infrastructure with the view of attracting more visitors into their countries, especially from Europe and increasing expenditure; all of which would improve tourism visits within their country.

In summary, while Africa, and particularly East and West Africa are underdeveloped in terms of tourism, and consequently have potential to become more popular destinations, the lack of an overall vision and coherent development policy needs to be addressed. By working together as a whole, Africa can continue to capitalize on increasing tourist interest.

7. Conclusion

The study has looked at the African Tourism industry to generate a strategy for development over the next case, based upon the existing strengths and weaknesses of the industry as a whole. A number of business models were used to generate an overall picture of the industry including micro and macro environmental factors, competitive environment and the implications of economic, government and other factors. This picture shows a continent with countries at very different stages of tourism development with different things to offer. Common themes can however be picked out: there exist some difficulties for Africa which act as barriers to developing tourism, for example the widespread existence of poverty, and lack of infrastructure, however the country has great potential as a tourist destination particularly if a sustainable approach is embraced. The study further looked at ways to generate a strategy for development, and it was argued that a model based around the concept of destination visioning is likely to be most successful. This concept allows the views of all stakeholders to be taken into consideration in a process which collects views from all interested parties from the outset of planning. It was also suggested that any future strategy should be firmly rooted around sustainability, eco-awareness and particularly ‘pro-poor’ tourism, as this is likely to lead to a future in which natural and cultural resources are retained, in which the economic benefits of tourism are more equally shared, and in which resources are returned to the poorest members of society.

Data collected from three East African and three West African countries was analysed, and showed that over a recent five-year period there has already been a notable increase in tourism and associated indicators.

There are a number of limitations of this study. The amount of data available is restricted, and what does exist is of questionable validity. While there exists considerable numbers of studies looking at tourism in South and North Africa, other regions have been correspondingly neglected. It has therefore proved more challenging first to create an overall picture and second to extrapolate differences between East and West Africa. In addition, quantitative data was collected only over a five-year period. While this can give insight into the way tourism seems to be increasing, a longer term perspective would give more insight. In addition, if data was available for changing attitudes amongst tourists to Africa as a destination, this would have allowed further useful analyses to be carried out.

The study also suggests some areas for future investigation. For example, it would be useful to take a case study approach to African countries where a long-term tourism strategy is being developed, in order to assess whether this process if feasible and whether any problems – for example reconciling very different stakeholder perspectives – can be overcome. Similarly, it would be useful to assess the impact of pro-poor and other sustainability initiatives and their impact upon tourism in Africa.

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APPENDIX

Appendix 1: West African Data

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Arrivals total (000) Gambia

460

613

487

643

550.75

Senegal

502

677

779

876

879

Ghana

584

429

497

587

698

TOTAL ARRIVALS W AFRICA

1546

1719

1763

2106

2127.75

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Arrivals Purpose Tourism Gambia

93

111

126

122

81

Senegal

139

97

112.5

114

107

Ghana

185

83

99

106

133

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM W AFRICA

417

291

337.5

342

321

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Expenditure Gambia

59

69

100

81

64

Senegal

269

287

334

329

304.75

Ghana

495

867

910

990

970

TOTAL EXPEND. W AFRICA

823

1223

1344

1400

1338.75

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Indicators Share Tourism GDP Gambia

4.75

5.85

5.5

5.05

4.85

Senegal

3.9

3.6

3.8

3.5

3.7

Ghana

5.6

8.1

7.2

6.6

6

AVERAGE SHARE TOURISM W AFRICA

4.75

5.85

5.5

5.05

4.85

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Hotels number rooms Gambia

14809

15426.5

19338.5

18315

20126

Senegal

11539

12101

15842

15842

15842

Ghana

18079

18752

22835

20788

24410

TOTAL HOTEL ROOMS W AFRICA

44427

46279.5

58015.5

54945

60378

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Arrivals from Europe Gambia

93

101

121

123

115

Senegal

252

349

393

324

324

Ghana

145

101

123

123

123

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS W AFRICA

490

551

637

570

562

Appendix 2: East African Data

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Arrivals total (000)
Uganda468

539

642

844

817

Tanzania613

644

719

770

714

Kenya1479

1601

1817

1203

1490

TOTAL ARRIVALS E AFRICA2560

2784

3178

2817

3021

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Arrivals Purpose Tourism
Uganda9

30

140

144

128

Tanzania467

495

580

650

733

Kenya1063

1088

1279

936

1061

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM E AFRICA1539

1613

1999

1730

1922

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Expenditure
Uganda382

347

402

531

683

Tanzania835

986

1215

1293

1192

Kenya969

1181

1514

1398

1095

TOTAL EXPEND. E AFRICA2186

2514

3131

3222

2970

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Indicators Share Tourism GDP
Uganda
Tanzania
Kenya
AVERAGE SHARE TOURISM E AFRICA0

0

0

0

0

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Hotels number rooms
Uganda
Tanzania
Kenya3302

4501

5044

2080

4062

TOTAL HOTEL ROOMS E AFRICA3302

4501

5044

2080

4062

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

Arrivals from Europe
Uganda62

71

77

106

80

Tanzania220

229

274

246

233

Kenya
TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS E AFRICA282

300

351

352

313

Appendix 3: East and West Africa

2005

2006

2007

TOTAL ARRIVALS E AFRICA2560

2784

3178

TOTAL ARRIVALS w AFRICA1763

2106

2127.5

TOTAL ARRIVALS AFRICA4323

4890

5305.5


TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM E AFRICA1539

1613

1999

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM W AFRICA337.5

342

321

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM AFRICA1876.5

1955

2320


TOTAL EXPEND. E AFRICA2186

2514

3131

TOTAL EXPEND. W AFRICA1344

1400

1338.75

TOTAL EXPEND. AFRICA3530

3914

4469.75


TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS E AFRICA1405

1384

1588

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS W AFRICA637

570

562

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS AFRICA2042

1954

2150

2005

2006

2007

TOTAL ARRIVALS E AFRICA2560

2784

3178

TOTAL ARRIVALS w AFRICA1763

2106

2127.5

TOTAL ARRIVALS AFRICA4323

4890

5305.5

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM E AFRICA1539

1613

1999

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM W AFRICA337.5

342

321

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM AFRICA1876.5

1955

2320

TOTAL EXPEND. E AFRICA2186

2514

3131

TOTAL EXPEND. W AFRICA1344

1400

1338.75

TOTAL EXPEND. AFRICA3530

3914

4469.75

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS E AFRICA1405

1384

1588

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS W AFRICA637

570

562

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS AFRICA2042

1954

2150

Appendix 4: Regression analysis of West Africa

Linear Regression

Regression Statistics
R0.91538

R Square0.83793

Adjusted R Square0.35171

Standard Error37.52201

Total Number Of Cases5

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM W AFRICA =- 16.9176 + 0.2295 * TOTAL ARRIVALS W AFRICA – 0.5357 * TOTAL EXPEND. W AFRICA + 1.0500 * TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS W AFRICA

ANOVA

d.f.

SS

MS

F

p-level

Regression3.

7,278.89885

2,426.29962

1.72335

0.49838

Residual1.

1,407.90115

1,407.90115

Total4.

8,686.8

Coefficients

Standard Error

LCL

UCL

t Stat

p-levelH0 (5%) rejected?
Intercept

-16.9176

446.92074

-5,695.58406

5,661.74885

-0.03785

0.97591

No
TOTAL ARRIVALS W AFRICA

0.22949

0.1841

-2.10973

2.56871

1.24656

0.43041

No
TOTAL EXPEND. W AFRICA

-0.53566

0.31258

-4.50731

3.43598

-1.7137

0.33628

No
TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS W AFRICA

1.05001

0.9154

-10.58131

12.68133

1.14704

0.45647

No
T (5%)12.7062

LCL – Lower value of a reliable interval (LCL)
UCL – Upper value of a reliable interval (UCL)

Residuals
Observation

Predicted Y

Residual

Standard Residuals

1

411.53219

5.46781

0.29145

2

301.02018

-10.02018

-0.5341

3

336.60354

0.89646

0.04778

4

314.97171

27.02829

1.44066

5

344.37238

-23.37238

-1.2458

Appendix 5: Regression Analysis of East Africa

Linear Regression

Regression Statistics
R0.97677

R Square0.95408

Adjusted R Square0.81631

Standard Error84.29037

Total Number Of Cases5

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM E AFRICA =- 262.5334 + 0.7300 * TOTAL ARRIVALS E AFRICA + 0.1548 * TOTAL EXPEND. E AFRICA – 1.5888 * TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS E AFRICA

ANOVA

d.f.

SS

MS

F

p-level

Regression3.

147,608.3332

49,202.77773

6.92522

0.27075

Residual1.

7,104.8668

7,104.8668

Total4.

154,713.2

Coefficients

Standard Error

LCL

UCL

t Stat

p-levelH0 (5%) rejected?
Intercept

-262.53336

828.02569

-10,783.59733

10,258.53062

-0.31706

0.80454

No
TOTAL ARRIVALS E AFRICA

0.73003

0.282

-2.85309

4.31314

2.58878

0.23467

No
TOTAL EXPEND. E AFRICA

0.15484

0.32694

-3.99936

4.30904

0.4736

0.71842

No
TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS E AFRICA

-1.58876

4.08199

-53.45542

50.27789

-0.38921

0.7637

No
T (5%)12.7062

LCL – Lower value of a reliable interval (LCL)
UCL – Upper value of a reliable interval (UCL)

Residuals
Observation

Predicted Y

Residual

Standard Residuals

1

1,496.78518

42.21482

1.00165

2

1,682.50098

-69.50098

-1.64908

3

1,984.64089

14.35911

0.34071

4

1,733.60255

-3.60255

-0.08548

5

1,905.4704

16.5296

0.39221

Appendix 6: Tourism Growth Forecast in West Africa

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM W AFRICA

TOTAL ARRIVALS W AFRICA

TOTAL EXPEND. W AFRICA

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS W AFRICA

2003

417

1546

823

490

2004

291

1719

1223

551

2005

337.5

1763

1344

637

2006

342

2106

1400

570

2007

321

2127.75

1338.75

562

2008

319.65

2268.10

1475.57

577.62

2009

290.06

2417.71

1626.37

593.68

2010

254.95

2577.19

1792.58

610.18

2011

213.64

2747.19

1975.78

627.15

2012

165.36

2928.41

2177.71

644.58

2013

109.28

3121.58

2400.26

662.50

2014

44.47

3327.49

2645.57

680.91

2015

-30.12

3546.98

2915.94

699.84

2016

-115.64

3780.95

3213.95

719.30

2017

-213.37

4030.35

3542.41

739.29

1.0660

1.1022

1.0278

-24.56%

6.60%

10.22%

2.78%

Appendix 7: Tourism Growth Forecast in East Africa

TOTAL PURPOSE TOURISM E AFRICA

TOTAL ARRIVALS E AFRICA

TOTAL EXPEND. E AFRICA

TOTAL EUROPE ARRIVALS E AFRICA

2003

1539

2560

2186

282

2004

1613

2784

2514

300

2005

1999

3178

3131

351

2006

1730

2817

3222

352

2007

1922

3021

2970

313

2008

1997.47

3122.72

3157.75

319.60

2009

2094.38

3227.86

3357.37

326.33

2010

2195.60

3336.55

3569.61

333.21

2011

2301.34

3448.89

3795.26

340.24

2012

2411.81

3565.02

4035.18

347.41

2013

2527.24

3685.05

4290.26

354.73

2014

2647.86

3809.13

4561.47

362.21

2015

2773.94

3937.39

4849.83

369.84

2016

2905.73

4069.96

5156.41

377.64

2017

3043.52

4207.00

5482.38

385.60

Categories
Free Essays

Tourism Dissertation Topics (2018)

1. Introduction to Hospitality / Tourism Dissertations ~ our site

This guide gives you some ideas for dissertation titles. Hospitality and Tourism covers many areas, so there should be plenty to whet your appetite here.Hospitality and Tourism dissertations typically take one of two forms, focusing either upon collecting and analyzing primary data or upon appraising secondary data only. Either type can be appropriate to your area of study. You will also find an overview of how to structure your dissertation in section three below.

2. Categories and List of Dissertation Titles

2.1 Sustainability and Tourism

2.1.1 Do standards of sustainability differing from country to country impact upon global efforts to develop a more sustainable tourismA review of recent literature.

2.1.2 Is a resource-based or a market based approach to sustainable tourism more effectiveA qualitative study amongst tourism professionals in the UK.

2.1.3 What role can grass-roots education at a local level play in introducing sustainable tourism in developing countries A study of the literature.

2.1.4 How can potential damage to natural resources in areas attractive to tourists be minimized whilst maintaining the economic benefits of welcoming visitors to the regionA case study of China’s wild plants and habitats.

2.1.5 Lip-service to ‘green’ values or committed attempts at promoting sustainabilityAn analysis of recent environmental programmes from major global hotel chains.

2.1.6 What are the best ways to incorporate environmental concerns into branding of tourist destinationsA critical analysis comparing marketing material from 5 resorts in the Indian subcontinent.

2.1.7 To what extent can increased awareness of the need to conserve water resources impact upon water use in tourist destinationsA quantitative study.

2.1.8. The Green Tourist: To what extent do ‘Green’ tourists really contribute to the sustainability of the areas they visitAn action research study amongst locals and tourists in an African resort.

2.2 Tourism General, Specialist

2.2.1 Dark Tourism: a tool for social justice or unnecessary voyeurismA case study of ‘ground zero tourism’ in New York.

2.2.2 Exploitation or Understanding: To what extent does the phenomenon of ‘Poverty Tourism’ bring benefits to areas with social and economic problems A critical analysis of tourist organizations taking visitors to slums in India.

2.2.3 Cosmetic surgery abroad: what are the factors which influence people to travel to overseas destinations to have plastic surgery A quantitative study amongst UK residents.

2.2.4 Camping in Cornwall or cheap flight to the CostasThe impact of the recession upon destination choice amongst UK holiday makers. A quantitative study.

2.2.5 The Glastonbury effect: has the increased popularity of music festivals led to a new perception of camping holidays as fashionableA qualitative study amongst people considering a holiday within the UK.

2.2.6 Sewer tourism and psychology: towards a typology of participants in organized tours of sewers in Europe. A qualitative study amongst tourists from 5 European countries.

2.2.7 The ‘Trip Advisor Effect’: the impact of internet review sites on bed and breakfast owner behaviour. A quantitative study amongst Brighton B&B owners.

2.2.8 What lessons were learned from the most recent Foot and Mouth epidemic in the UK in terms of tourismA review of literature.

2.3 Marketing, Management and Tourism

2.3.1 Something for nothingIs the propensity of people to remove items from hotel rooms linked to cost of room, education level or age of guest A quantitative study amongst hotel visitors in London.

2.3.2Staff satisfaction, job ‘churn’ and motivation in the hotel industry: are lower paid workers more likely to express dissatisfaction and leave their job A review of the literature.

2.3.3 Which visitor monitoring techniques are most appropriate for assessing the impact of tourism A review of literature from the UK, Europe and UAS comparing visitor surveys with other techniques.

2.3.4 Can competency-based pay be used to improve employee motivation in the hotel industryA case study in a large UK hotel chain.

2.3.5 Is it as important to acknowledge and managing tourist emotions to enhance their holiday as it is to address their physical and financial issues A review of recent literature.

2.3.6 ‘It’s not how you say, it’s how you say it’: the impact of service provider style of communication on guest perceptions and satisfaction. A quantitative study in a London independent hotel.

2.3.7 What influences visitors to small, independent bed and breakfasts in the UK to stay at the same venue againA quantitative study amongst travelers around the UK.

2.3.8 To what extent do middle-managers fully embrace the concept of sustainable tourismA qualitative review amongst staff in a large UK hotel chain.

2.4 Catering

2.4.1 Booze Britain: Who should take responsibility for the impact of alcohol-related destructive behaviours – government, retailers or individualsAn analysis of policy, popular culture and commercial interests.

2.4.2 Fast food and obesity: To what extent has the culture of eating in the UK changed over the last 20 years, what part has this played in the growing obesity epidemic, and what part has the growth of fast-food outlets in the UK high Street played?

2.4.3 The brand appeal of Iceland: fast, cheap and ready madeA qualitative study of customers of the ‘Iceland’ food chain.

2.4.4 Which, if any, demographic variables have a positive impact upon catering staff’s awareness of health and safety in their day to day workA quantitative study looking at age, sex, education levels and length of tenure.

2.4.5 ‘Here comes the trolley’: is there any scope for a higher-quality menu for second class rail passengers A quantitative study amongst passengers on a Virgin Trains London to Manchester service.

2.4.6 The demand for ethically sourced and Fairtrade products in hospitals: to what extent do patients request ‘green’ alternativesA quantitative study in 3 UK hospitals.

2.4.7 A macho culture: to what extent do women’s perceptions of working in high-end restaurants prohibit them training as chefsA qualitative study amongst 16-18 year old women.

2.4.8 Restaurants and colour: how does the use of colour in the interior design of independent restaurants influence customer perceptionsA phenomenological analysis.

2.5 Hospitality

2.5.1Which theoretical model of tipping is most appropriate to explain tipping in independent (boutique) hotelsA literature review and case study of three boutique hotels in the UK.

2.5.2 Are user perceptions of a casino influenced by in-hotel postersA quantitative study in a large, independent UK hotel.

2.5.3 To what extent do perceptions of sexual orientation influence customer satisfaction in budget hotels A quantitative study amongst international guests in a large hotel.

2.5.4 Fresh or frozenTo what extent can the provision of fresh food, rather than food prepared from frozen, influence perceptions of acceptable amounts to pay for a hotel roomA quantitative study amongst guests in smaller hotels.

2.5.5 Which model of restaurant selection best explains the decision making processes of visitors to small towns celebrated for their history and heritage A quantitative study amongst visitors from Europe.

2.5.6 The impact of union membership upon employee job satisfaction in the UK hotel industry. A review of recent literature.

2.5.7 What factors pre-dispose hotel staff to ‘burnout’ and job stressA quantitative analysis of staff in Spanish budget hotels.

2.5.8 Have smoking bans across Europe had a similar impact upon use of bars and pubs A review of the literature from Europe.

3. How to Structure a Tourism and Hospitality Dissertation, Tips

For details on how to structure a tourism dissertation, kindly check out the following posts:

How to Structure a dissertation (chapters)
How to structure a dissertation (chapters and subchapters)
How to structure a dissertation research proposal

Categories
Free Essays

Hospitality and Tourism Marketing Strategies

1.0 Introduction

The original Travel Lodge brand was first established by its founder Scott King, in 1939 by opening the first motels in southern California. During its starting phase, it highlighted itself as a budget motel chain offering functional accommodation at lower rate than other lower chain by providing comfortable beds, free TV and room phones, carpeted floors, in-room coffee pots and pools.

Travel Lodge is fastest growing and most recognized budget Hotel Company in the United Kingdom. Travelodge currently has 466 hotels and 32,477 rooms in the UK, Ireland and Spain. The budget hotel chain has one goal is to have 1,100 hotels in Europe with more than 100,000 rooms in 2025. With 5,714 rooms and 40 hotels in the capital, Travelodge, the fastest growing hotel chain, has taken the title of being the largest brand from the Hilton hotel in London. This company was first lunched as first budget hotel brand in the UK in 1985 and is today one of the major branded hotel companies in the united kingdom with nearly 460 hotels. This chain is employing around six thousands staffs and more than seven million people stayed there in 2010 and more than eight seven booking are being made through online. Room rated start at ?19 per night, which is attracting the huge amount of customers. Travelodge is a brand champion of consumers; focus on driving prices in the hotel industry to encourage more people to use the hotels. Low prices of the chain budget delivered by commitment to operational efficiency and low cost business model. Only this year, Travelodge will offer over ? 2,000,000 rooms at ? 29 or less.

Travelodge Heathrow Central 3 star hotel is situated on the Bath Road where most big Heathrow hotels are located. It’s actually in the far east of the airport perimeter which is about 2 miles from terminals 1, 2 and 3 in the central area and terminal 4 in the southeast corner of the airport. This situation is actually quite convenient for the West London / Central London as the right side of the A4 London airport. A normal journey by car / taxi in west London takes about 20 minutes and 30-40 minutes to central areas. This location travel lodge was established in 2008 with the aim of providing budget priced accommodation in the Heathrow area. There is licensed bar cafe where breakfast, lunch, snack, dinner and drinks can be purchased within the hotel.

1.1 Porter 5 forces analysis of Travelodge

Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business School developed a five forces framework for industry analysis and business marketing strategy development in 1979, which was aimed to increase the overall industry profitability.

As stated by porter (1980) “there are five forces that determine industry attractiveness and long-run industry profitability”. These five competitive forces are:

The threat of entry of new competitors (new entrants)
The threat of substitutes
The bargaining power of buyers
The bargaining power of suppliers
The degree of rivalry between existing competitors

This forces and their rivalry can be best understood by the following diagram:

Source: Porter (1980)

Force 1: The degree of rivalry

The intensity of the rivalry, which is the most obvious of the five forces in an industry, helps determine the extent to which the value created by an industry that is dissipated through the head to head competition. The most valuable contribution of Porter’s five forces in the context of this problem may be its suggestion that rivalry, while important, is just one of several forces that determine industry attractiveness.

The degree of rivalry is very high because Heathrow area is the busiest area where around 50 star hotels are operating among them 16 hotels are 3 stars so, but Travelodge is competing with them with its cheapest budget 3 star hotel with high standard infrastructure and service. Premier inn is the one of the largest competitor having more rooms and facilities more than but Travelodge low price strategy and global largest chain playing the great role.

Force2: The threat of entry

Potential and existing competitors influence average industry profitability. Unless the entry of new firm is barred, the rate of profit will fall towards its competitive level. The threat of entry rather than actual entry might be sufficient to make sure that established firm constrains their price to the competitive level. By contrast, existing entry barriers whenever difficult or not economical feasible for an outsider to replicate the position of incumbents (Porter, 1980; Sanderson, 1998).

Threat of new entry is low as brands are very important in the hospitality industry. Travelodge use its name from a strong brand to attract new customers and retain old ones. Moreover, an economy of scale is also a very important factor inthis industry. The profitability of Travelodge is higher than the individual operations. A new entrant cannot compete with established players in terms of quality and price if they can achieve economies of scale. Being Travelodge, a capital intensive industry with a lot of it, tied in fixed costs, makes entry to most difficult. Protection of the Government for the tourism sector is very high and this in turn blends into the hotel industry and it is thus attractive industry in general.

Force3: The threat of substitutes

A threat of substitutes exists if there are alternative products with lower prices of better performance parameters for the same purpose. They could potentially attract a significant proportion of market volume and hence reduce the potential sales volume for existing industries. This category also relates to complementary products.

The main substitutes for the hotel industry are camping and recreational vehicles for tourists, corporate guest houses for business travellers and other informal means of accommodation with family and friends. Compared to the hospitality industry, these are much cheaper alternatives, so their prices very high values and switching costs very low. This makes the attractiveness of the industry in terms of substitutes, low. But, Travelodge is the one who is offering the high standard service at cheap price so the threat of substitutes is low.

Force4: Buyer’s power

The most important factors affecting the purchasing power are the size and concentration of customers. Other factors, the extent to which buyers are informed and concentration or diversity of competitors. Kippenberger (1998) states that “it is often useful to distinguish the potential buyer in the purchasing power of desire or incentive to use that power, readiness, which comes mainly from the risk of failure, associated with its use.

As far as the cheap price accommodation, there is low buyer’s power in case of Travelodge. Travelodge has numerous customers who are relatively very small in size. Loss of a single customer has little impact on it and finally this drives down the buyers bargaining power. Likewise buyer’s threat of backward integration is almost impossible and so is the company threat is forward integration.

Force5: suppliers’ power

The term suppliers include all the sources for inputs that are needed in order to provide goods or services. Basically the key suppliers of the hotel industries are; labour suppliers and real estate suppliers. All the suppliers in the market are defined as customers’ suppliers those who supply customers like travel agents, airlines companies, and other organisations where as property owners, infrastructure suppliers and housing and decoration are real state suppliers. Beside that labour suppliers have also key role to the company.

Overall, supplier power is low as customers suppliers is low as it is the budget chain hotel and get customers from its chain hotels along that its cheap accommodation is also the main customer attractiveness. About the labour suppliers they have also moderate power because of the huge number of labour suppliers so they is big competition between the suppliers, on the other hand due to the national legal policy, minimum wages has to be paid so unlike other countries, this company can’t hire the labour less than minimum wages.

The number of suppliers for the hotel industry is quite large and each supplier is very small compared to the leading players in the industry. Few powerful players are essential to the suppliers. Substitutability suppliers are also quite possible and affordable. Switching between estate agents is not going to affect significantly the company’s hotel. However, in terms of quality, training centres for workers and producers who provide ICT systems that for property management are relatively difficult to replace. Therefore, in terms of attractiveness of alternative suppliers of the industry is moderately high.

1.2 Porter 3 generic strategies

Porter’s generic strategy matrix, which emphasise the costs leadership, differentiation and focus based on three options for businesses, has dominated competitive firms strategy since Generic strategies were first presented in two books by Professor Michael Porter of the Harvard Business School (Porter, 1980, 1985). According to this model, a company can choose how to compete on the basis of match between the type of competitive advantage and objective market as the main determinants of choice. Porter, generic strategy typology remains a most notably in the strategic management literature. A business can maximize performance either by striving to be the low cost producer in an industry or by differentiating their line of products or services from other companies; either of these two approaches can be accompanied by a focus of organizing efforts in a particular segment market.

Travelodge business purpose is to provide its service for everyone by delivering low cost and maximum value for money accommodation to all customers and highly attractive, efficient and convenient stop-overs or stay-overs. Its overall strategy is cost leadership, this can be realised by its offer room starting from ?19, where as its more than 80% internet booking playing a key role to minimise its operational cost, as a result it has been possible to become cost leadership.

1.3 Value chain analysis of Travelodge

The value chain is a systematic approach to examining the development of competitive advantage. It was created by M. E. Porter in his book, Competitive Advantage (1980). The chain consists of a series of activities that create and build value. They culminate in the total value delivered by an organisation. The ‘margin’ depicted in the diagram is the same as added value. The organisation is split into ‘primary activities’ and ‘support activities.

Primary Activities

Inbound Logistics

Activities related to receiving the materials from the supplier, storing them externally sourced materials and handling them within the firm where goods are received from a company’s suppliers and are stored until they are needed on the production/assembly line is called inbound logistics. Travelodge ensures the right components are delivered to the right manufacturing point at the right time and they appoint their right supplier in time with certain terms and conditions, therefore the inbound logistics is good.

Operations

This section includes all the activities concern with the production of products and services. In case of Travelodge, it has been divided into three sections as reception, room service and food service. Its food service is delivered thorough its restaurant, it has its own business, there is no connection with residence and food like others star hotel. As far as the customers complaints found in blog, most of them are related to cleaning and security, so Travelodge is operation is not so good it’s just moderate.

Outbound Logistics

The goods are now finished, and they need to be sent along the supply chain to wholesalers, retailers or the final consumer. These are all the activities related to distributing the final product or service to the customers. Travelodge has its unique outbound logistic system where they get customer from its travel agents, its own branches and its cheapest budget hotel policy. Because of its good outbound logistics system, travel is the one of the hotel chain, which didn’t suffer of last economic downturn.

Marketing and Sales

In true customer orientated fashion, at this stage the organisation prepares the offering to meet the needs of targeted customers. This area focuses strongly upon marketing communications and the promotions mix. In Travelodge, this area essentially analyses the needs and desires of customers and its responsible for creating awareness among the target group about the company products and services. Travelodge is using the marketing communication like advertising, sales promotion and cheapest budget hotel strategy to attract the customers to their products. By analysis its marketing and sales, it seem to be at good position, their e-marketing is excellent because of that Travelodge is saving its huge amount of money in advertising.

Travelodge subsidiaries are in throughout the world so it marketing of any part of the world to some extent affects company popularity. Recently, Travelodge has an advertising agreement with Google which is expected to enhance the sales. The new strategy has been created to differentiate Travelodge from competitors in hotel sector and to move its marketing focus beyond its cheap price.

New campaign the Sleep Tight will be a collection of cuddly toy animals going under the name Mr Sleep and the Z Squad. The marketing team is doing whatever is necessary to ensure a good night’s sleep and the first advertisement lunched on first may 2010. Travelodge launched a new TV advert in February 2011, featuring its famous Mr Sleep and his pal Big Ted. The 30 second TV ad featured the two teddy bears travelling around the UK, staying at various Travelodge hotels.

Service

This includes all areas of service such as installation, after-sales service, complaints handling, training and so on. There is often required to provide services like pre-installation or after-sales service before or after the sale of the products or service. Travelodge is mostly focusing on its pre-installation service and less effort on after sales service so they are not handling their customer complaints.

Support Activities

Procurement

This function is responsible for all purchasing of goods, services and materials. The aim is to secure the lowest possible price for purchases of the highest possible quality. They will be responsible for outsourcing and purchasing using IT and web-based technologies to achieve procurement aims. Procurement activities are running through a system, like purchasing goods is being done by the competition between the suppliers and IT infrastructure contact with big IT companies.

Technology Development

Technology is an important source of competitive advantage in Travelodge by using them to innovate to reduce costs and to protect and sustain competitive advantage. This could include production technology, Internet marketing activities, lean manufacturing, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and many other technological developments. Travelodge is very good for using latest and modern mainly internet technology.

Human Resource Management (HRM)

Employees are an expensive and vital resource. An organisation would manage recruitment and s election, training and development, and rewards and remuneration. The mission and objectives of the organisation would be driving force behind the HRM strategy. Travelodge has its own HR department where all recruitment selection, training and rewarding system are being done. For cleaning service, Travelodge has a contract with other outside cleaning companies with certain terms and conditions and is supervising their works.

Firm Infrastructure

This activity includes and is driven by corporate or strategic planning. Travelodge uses the Management Information System (MIS) and other mechanisms for planning and control such as the accounting department, finance and corporate strategy which make Travelodge’s better company infrastructure.

2.1 Boston Box Matrix analysis

The Boston box is a classic tool of strategic planning and was developed in the early 1970s by Bruce Henderson. Matrix provides a useful tool for analysing an organisation’s portfolio of business units, product lines, offerings or activities. It helps businesses to identify which products to invest in and which not to invest in depending on their relative market share and the growth rate of the markets they serve.

Using the BCG Box, a company classifies all its strategic business units according to two dimensions as horizontal axis; relative market share this serves as measure strength in the market this provides a measure of market attractiveness. Residential rooms are the product of Travelodge, by selling them it has been running its business and now it steps to the stage where company is getting a good profit and investing to expand its service.

By dividing the matrix into four areas, four types of units can be distinguished:

Stars – Stars are high growth businesses or products competing in markets where they are relatively strong compared with the competition. Often they need heavy investment to sustain their growth. Eventually their growth will slow and, assuming they maintain their relative market share, will become cash cows.

Cash Cows – Cash cows are low-growth businesses or products with a relatively high market share. These are mature, successful businesses with relatively little need for investment. They need to be managed for continued profit – so that they continue to generate the strong cash flows that the company needs for its Stars.

Question marks – Question marks are businesses or products with low market share but which operate in higher growth markets. This suggests that they have potential, but may require substantial investment in order to grow market share at the expense of more powerful competitors. Management have to think hard about “question marks” – which ones should they invest inWhich ones should they allow to fail or shrink?

Dogs – Unsurprisingly, the term dogs refers to businesses or products that have low relative share in unattractive, low-growth markets. Dogs may generate enough cash to break-even, but they are rarely, if ever, worth investing in.

As Travelodge has high market share with a slow-growing industry and these units typically generating cash in excess of the amount of cash needed to maintain the business therefore falls on cash cow business strategic units. This company is running more than 30 years and successful business in UK hotel industry with relatively little need for investment.

2.3 Product life cycle

The life of a product is the period over which it appeals to customers. The sales performance of any product rises from nothing when the product is introduced to the market reaches a peak and then declines to nothing again. With respect to the revenues generated by a product over a period of time, there are various stages that are achieved by any product. This is called a product’s life cycle. A product life cycle mainly consists of below mentioned four stages.

Product life cycle

Source: Graham R. Massey, (1999)

Introduction Stage

At the Introduction Stage market size and growth is slight. It is possible that substantial research and development costs have been incurred in getting the product to this stage. In addition, marketing costs may be high in order to test the market, undergo launch promotion and set up distribution channels. It is highly unlikely that companies will make profits on products at the Introduction Stage. Products at this stage have to be carefully monitored to ensure that they start to grow. Otherwise, the best option may be to withdraw or end the product. Travelodge created product awareness & develop a market for the product. No profits were made when it was at introduction stage as development costs have not yet been covered. It took a substantial amount of time to catch on in the market before they enter their growth phases.

Growth Stage

The Growth Stage is characterised by rapid growth in sales and profits. Profits arise due to an increase in output economies of scale and possibly better prices. At this stage, it is cheaper for businesses to invest in increasing their market share as well as enjoying the overall growth of the market. Accordingly, significant promotional resources are traditionally invested in products that are firmly in the Growth Stage. After the year of 2000, Travelodge is considered in growth stage, when it was expanding throughout UK and they were investing their profit to open new hotels.

Maturity Stage

Currently Travelodge is in maturity stage, maturity Stage is, perhaps, the most common stage for all markets. It is in this stage that competition is most intense as companies fight to maintain their market share. Here, both marketing and finance become key activities. Marketing spend has to be monitored carefully, since any significant moves are likely to be copied by competitors. The Maturity Stage is the time when most profit is earned by the market as a whole. Any expenditure on research and development is likely to be restricted to product modification and improvement and perhaps to improve production efficiency and quality.

Decline Stage

Travelodge is expected to be in maturity stage after some decades when its market is shrinking, reducing the overall amount of profit that can be shared amongst the remaining competitors. At this stage, great care has to be taken to manage the product carefully. It may be possible to take out some production cost, to transfer production to a cheaper facility, sell the product into other, cheaper markets. Care should be taken to control the amount of stocks of the product. Ultimately, depending on whether the product remains profitable, a company may decide to end the product.

As travel was established before more than 25 years and it has more than 460 hotels in United Kingdom, it is making a good profit and one of the established budget hotel therefore it is in the maturity stage in the life cycle.

2.3 Market segmentation

Segmentation is the term given to the grouping of customers with similar needs by a number of different variables. Once this has been done, segments can be targeted by a number of targeting strategies. Based on Travelodge business goal, competition and customers, they have divided their market into four segments business, leisure, group, and other as described below:

Business Travellers

Business travellers represent a large portion of lodging demand in many market areas. Travelodge include people travelling on business representing commercial, industrial and governmental organizations. It is important to understand why business travellers are visiting the market area and how many room nights they generate. Reasons for visiting a particular area might include conducting business with a company recruiting, training, management meetings calling on multiple businesses and stopping over between destinations.

Leisure Travellers

Leisure travellers may visit an area for a vacation, to attend sporting or social events, to shop, or to visit friends and relatives. They might be staying over simply because they are travelling to other destinations. Leisure travellers may be individuals, couples, families, or small groups. Travellers visiting hospitals and universities are typically included in this market segment. Leisure room demand is often seasonal. In larger, Travelodge more urban market areas, leisure room demand may be limited to weekends, summer months and holiday periods.

Group Meeting Travellers

For Travelodge, group market consists of both leisure and business travellers but due to the size of meeting or gathering hall they limited this segment as small group meeting travellers. Leisure groups include bus tours, school activities, athletic events, etc. Tour groups are often brought to an area for sightseeing and attending special events. Local attractions that appeal to leisure tour groups may have records of the numbers and names of tour operators who have visited their attractions. Business group meetings are typically associated with board meetings, training programs, seminars, trade shows, and other gatherings. Often the sponsoring organization will be from the local area. Out-of-town organizations may use logical meeting facilities because they often rotate the sites of their regional meetings. Information on the group meeting market can be obtained through state chapters

Other Travellers

Various lodging customers cannot be classified under the categories of business, leisure, or group. These travellers may include construction workers, truckers, utility crews and others. Activity at local truck stops, distribution centres, long term construction projects and other sources of demand could help you estimate the significance of this market segment.

3.1 Creating and Developing Customer loyalty

Generally, customer loyalty can be defined making customers feel that they are the company’s number one priority. Competitive advantage can be achieved through customer loyalty. This is the way to gain the best kind of customers, repeat customers. Repeat customers tend to spend more money and provide the best personal advertising. Customers feel customer loyalty when they consistently purchase a certain product or brand over an extended period of time. As an example, many customers stick to a certain travel operator due to the positive experiences they have had with their products and services.

In Travelodge, customer loyalty is the key objective of customer relationship management and describes the loyalty which is established between a customer and companies, persons, products or brands. This company believes that the individual market segments should be targeted in terms of developing customer loyalty.

The Customer Loyalty Grid is helpful to understand customer loyalty better. This grid is divided into four zones, as shown in the diagram below:

Zone 1: The Zone of Indifference

Zone of indifference includes those services which are unstated but expected. Literally, this includes all those customer needs and wants that are basic to fulfilling the contract between you and them. For example, customers expect to be treated with courtesy and respect, and would probably be puzzled and maybe even insulted if customer asked them if this was a need. It of course is, and if don’t meet this need; it will cause dissatisfaction for example sometimes travel lodge cleaning service and infrastructure are criticised by the customer. If you meet this basic and obvious need, the best you can hope for is indifference.

Zone 2: The Zone of Satisfaction

This is where your customer actually tells what is important to them. Meeting a customer’s needs here will cause satisfaction, whereas not meeting them will cause huge dissatisfaction. For example, Travelodge advertise that it has offer room for ?19 per night, customer think that if even they don’t book before, it not going to hogh price for the room but sometime it is, this cause a customer dissatisfaction. It is an expectation, simply because other organizations that the customer deals with provide this benefit.

Zone 3: The Zone of Delight

This is where your customer hopes for something, asks for it, but really does not expect to provide it. This is opportunity to provide something beyond their expectations and by so doing will create delight. For example, a customer might ask for something that is usually available only in a premium priced product. Not providing it will unlikely cause dissatisfaction. Therefore this is an area for particular attention in building a loyal customer base. This area is not seem to be good at Travelodge.

Zone 4: The Zone of Loyalty

This is an area where hotel expertise in whatever product or service you provide and the customer’s lack of knowledge can really give back. Providing benefits above and beyond what the customer is even aware of can create a loyal customer. This requires you to be really proactive in suggesting to customers new innovations that they can really benefit from. Many customers will be even willing to pay extra for this. In case of Travelodge, it is very careful about the hidden cost of hotel so tries to offer like welcome drinks, some gift for celebrating birthday customer.

At Travelodge, Customer loyalty is the key objective of customer relationship management and describes the loyalty which is established between a customer and companies, persons, products or brands. If this company be careful about all the zone of matrix then of it will create and develop best customer loyalty than currently.

3.2 Network and relationship marketing

Network and Relationship Marketing has evolved as a strategic marketing approach which is oriented towards attaining long-term profitability and value creation by interactions and mutual exchange among customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. It is also can be adopted to enhance the competitiveness and profitability of a value delivery network (supply chain). Better integration and shared mutual values can be developed through relationship marketing across value delivery network. Network marketing is commonly known as multi-level marketing. It is part of the direct selling industry and is run as a business-distribution model that allows a parent company to market its products directly to consumers through a large network of distributors and consumers, thereby bypassing the middleman. Travelodge is mainly focus on relationship marketing, they have a customer record keeping system so they treat regular customer specially. They are promoting relationship marketing by developing the good relationship.

3.3 Viral and Guerrilla marketing

Guerrilla Marketing is an unconventional system of promotions on a very low budget, by relying on time, energy and imagination instead of big marketing budgets. The term has since entered the popular vocabulary to also describe aggressive, unconventional marketing methods generically.

Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness, through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. It can be word-of-mouth delivered or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet. Viral marketing is a marketing phenomenon that facilitates and encourages people to pass along a marketing message voluntarily. Viral promotions may take the form of video clips, interactive Flash games, images, or even text messages.

As travel is considered itself as a largest budget hotel in UK and investing millions of pound on marketing so Travelodge don’t think about adopting Guerrilla marketing. But talking about viral marketing Travelodge is to some extent using if we see internet we can see many images and video clips about the service and infrastructures. Viral marketing is the Travelodge authorised company strategy as well but guerrilla marketing is not Travelodge policy.

References

Porter, M.E. (1980) Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors , Free Press, New York, 1980.

Sanderson, S. (1998) New approaches to strategy: new ways of thinking for the millennium, Management Decision, Vol. 36 issue 1, pp.9-13.

Graham R. Massey, (1999) “Product evolution: a Darwinian or Lamarckian phenomenon?”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 8 Iss: 4, pp.301 – 318

Howard, Theresa (2005). “USAToday: Viral advertising spreads through marketing plans”. USA Today.

Fornell, C. and Wernerfet, B. (1987) “Defensive marketing strategy by customer complaint management : a theoretical analysis”, Journal of Marketing

Moloney, Chris X. (2006) “Winning Your Customer’s Loyalty: The Best Tools, Techniques and Practices” AMA Workshop Event(s). Misc. materials distributed related to event(s).

Kotler, Philip, Armstrong, Gary, Saunders, John and Wong, Veronica. (1999). “Principles of Marketing” 2nd ed. Prentice Hall Europe

McKenna, R. (1991) “Marketing is Everything”, Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb, 1991, pp 65–70

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Critically evaluate whether the requirement for emotional labour in hospitality and tourism work is ethicalCritically evaluate whether the requirement for emotional labour in hospitality and tourism work is ethical

Introduction

In the field of hospitality and tourism, emotional labour is a controversial but increasingly common factor in the management of working environments. It was first described by Hochschild (1983) as “management of feeling to create a publicly facial and bodily display” (Hochschild, 1983: 15). In other words, it is the idea that employees should behave in certain ways and display certain emotions that contribute to a certain perception of the company for which they are working. At a basic level, someone who works in a business where they have to interact with customers a lot might be expected to act as if they are happy all the time, even if they are feeling sad. This would give the company a level of consistency across all its employees and would, in theory, encourage customers to believe not only that the company is more friendly and well-meaning, but also that the employees are genuinely happy to be working there.

However, some critics believe that emotional labour is fundamentally dishonest and unethical. For one thing, emotional labour demands that employees ‘act out’ false emotions and even entirely false personalities. As Williams (2002) points out, this can “not only make the hospitality environment seem strained and unusual, it can also have a negative impact upon the psychological well-being of the employee” (Williams, 2002: 50). In other words, although emotional labour is designed to strengthen the relationship between an employee and a customer, it can in fact have the opposite effect. Meanwhile, there are also concerns over the extent to which emotional labour destabilises relationships in the service sector and encourages falseness and insincerity. For these reasons and others, many critics have suggested that emotional labour cannot be considered to be ethical.

Emotional labour is based on the ability of a company to dictate a certain ’emotional palette’ that employees can use when interacting with customers. In the service industry this is particularly important, because employees are often helping customers to enjoy themselves. It is clear that employees in this industry need to be friendly and helpful, and that a rude or arrogant employee could cause problems. But some critics believe that the concept of emotional labour has taken that basic assumption and expanded it “to a quite absurd degree so that it is a caricature of common sense” (Baum, 2006: 108). In other words, emotional labour is “the ritualisation of courtesy” (Nickson, 2006: 130) and will in many cases create a false environment. Many critics also note that this is ultimately pointless because “most customers are capable of detecting falseness and insincerity” (Baum, 2006: 110). If this is the case, emotional labour can be seen to be a kind of ‘subconscious contract’, where both employee and consumer are aware of this artificiality but value it nonetheless.

In the hospitality industry, for example, an employee must reflect cleanliness and professionalism. For example, someone working for a caterer must appear not only happy but also meticulous, careful and clean. In effect, then, the employees become a collective personification of the company’s identity, and they are a key way in which the company can project an external image of itself to its customers. Many companies therefore try to project a strong, positive and forward-thinking image in order to impress customers, even though this impression might be far removed from the reality of working for the company and from the company’s overall philosophy. Over the past few decades, emotional labour has become an increasingly controversial and influential aspect of the ways in which companies encourage employees to behave, but as Sandiford and Seymour (2002) point out, this can be both a positive and a negative factor (Sandiford & Seymour, 2002: 160). It is important to note that emotional labour is not seen by most critics as an entirely negative concept. The debate is over the application of that concept.

These principles are a basic part of any people management strategy, but some critics argue that emotional labour goes too far and encourages a level of dishonesty that is unethical. In order for people management to be ethical, it has to ensure that employees are not persuaded to lie. Critics of emotional labour argue that it is a form of deception and that it encourages people to view corporations as if they are people rather than businesses. This, according to Burchill (2009), “creates an unequal and unbalanced relationship between consumer and company, one that the company can manipulate” (Burchill, 2009: 71). Although consumers should in theory be able to get past such perceptions, in reality they often cannot and will instead treat the company as if it is a manifestation of its employees. James (1998) notes that “considerable amounts of research have shown, time and again, that employees who are smiley and happy will give an overall better impression of the company than employees who are dour” (James, 1998: 25) and that perceptions of employees can transfer to perceptions of products and services.

Similarly, Korczynski (2003) argues that “consumers prefer to interact with corporations on a human level and so will be particularly receptive to any opportunity that they might have to deal with a company as if it is a person” (Korczynski, 2003: 56). Korczynski goes on to suggest that this is a form of “coping mechanism” (Korczynski, 2003: 57) that is embraced willingly by consumers so that they can more easily navigate the commercial environment. This argument would seem to suggest that consumers are more than happy to submit to the benefits of emotional labour, and that any negative aspects are perceived to be more than made up for by the fact that they are able to interact with ‘actors’ who seem to be happy. Some critics also argue that this approach helps consumers to get over any feelings of ‘guilt’ that they may have due to their position in the commercial relationship.

Ethical people management should not place undue stress on employees. Sharpe (2005) notes that stress can harm both the employee and the business (Sharpe, 2005). Although any workplace is likely to feature some degree of stress, most critics agree that there is a limit, although not necessarily the extent of that limit. Kasavana (2005) points out that “ethical people management has to include some element of stress management, in order that employees are able to operate in a way that reflects their personality” (Kasavana, 2005: 16). He goes on to note that “research has shown consistently that customers tend to relax when they perceive that the employee is professional yet also personable” (Kasavana, 2005: 19), i.e. artificiality can be a strong negative factor. For employees themselves, emotional labour can be a difficult concept to fully grasp. James (1998) argues that “different people respond in different ways to the fundamental demands placed on them by the ethos of emotional labour” (James, 1998: 28). Responses from employees can range all the way along the spectrum, from complete acceptance and willing participation, to a grudging willingness to comply. Some researchers have questioned the degree to which this can lead to emotional problems, including depression, especially if someone is forced to maintain a happy facade for long hours when that facade is strongly contrary to how they are really feeling.

Fennell and Malloy (2007) suggest that the theory of emotional labour “focuses on obvious forms of interpersonal communication and ignores the subtle” (Fennell & Malloy, 2007: 15). There is no definitive study of this emotional impact, but Korczynski (2003) notes that “there is substantial anecdotal evidence to support the idea that many employees have to develop their own personal coping mechanisms in order that they can deal with the requirement to be happy and friendly at all times” (Korczynski, 2003: 59). The emotional toll that this places on employees can be measured in the short, medium or long term, but is likely to become more apparent as time passes. Critics argue that employees can develop not only depression but also stress, emotional exhaustion and feelings of inauthenticity, and that in some cases pre-existing emotional or mental problems can be significantly exacerbated by the need to conform to the demands of emotional labour. Since employers have a duty of care when it comes to their employees (Sharpe, 2005), it is important that they do not add to the stress that employees feel.

Emotional regulation in the workplace takes two key forms. Each form is subtly different from the other and is perceived as having advantages and disadvantages:

Antecedent-focused emotion regulation involves the modification of emotional responses on an ongoing basis, determined by changing the situation or changing the ways in which the situation is represented.

Response-focused emotion regulation involves making constant changes to emotional regulation based on how a relationship is developing and how a customer seems to be responding.

Both approaches are widely used. The antecedent-based method allows employees in the service sector, in particular, to find new ways in which they might be able to best manage the presentation of emotions in the workplace. In fact, Fineman (2003) argues that one of the core aspects of emotional labour is the ability of an individual to regulate and manage his or her emotions in a way that reflects the different demands of a particular situation. It can be argued that his is especially difficult in the service sector because “employees might find that they are constantly encountering new individuals and having to re-interpret their own emotions in order to fit a constantly changing need” (Fineman, 2003: 105).

For example, an employee might work with a happy customer one moment, then a demanding customer, then a customer who is angry, and so on. In some cases, there might be multiple customers to deal with and, in the service sector especially, it might be virtually impossible to find a way to satisfy everyone at once. As Fineman goes on to argue, “it would be simplistic to accept that emotional labour can be restricted to a simple one-to-one dynamic when in fact an employee has multiple relationships to deal with simultaneously” (Fineman, 2003: 108). For example, an employee might have to deal with multiple customers, plus colleagues, plus employers, plus self-perception, and might struggle if unable to find some way to draw all these perceptions together and create a single perception of self that can be presented to others.

Some critics see emotional labour as a particularly western phenomenon and, as a result, view it as part of a deeply unethical hegemonic control system. For example, Crotts and McNeill (2005) argue that “as western companies expand across the globe, they seek to control the emotional labour of employees in very different, non-western cultures” (Crotts & McNeill, 2005: 280). This, the authors suggest, results in westernisation of many workers around the world, which in turn reduces the cultural specificity of work in particular locations and leads to an inability for different cultural standards to co-exist. This damages not only the culture that is forced to conform in this way, but also the tourists who are unable to engage with true representations of other cultures. Many critics believe that this will, over time, have a significant negative impact on the ways in which different cultures are able to co-exist. However, it is also clear that in this context emotional labour is a strong profit-driver for western companies, which in turn are extremely unlikely to want to give up this lucrative trade.

Therefore, it can be argued that emotional labour is perpetuated because it increases profits, and that any arguments over the ethics of the practice are unlikely to succeed. This is not necessarily a rational approach to the relationship, nor is it necessarily an approach that has any basis in logic, but as Fineman (2003) points out “rationality is not really a factor in many service-orientated relationships” (Fineman, 2003: 147) and there is “an unspoken contract between the various ‘actors’ in any given situation” (Fineman, 2003: 150). If this unspoken contract is broken, the result can be feelings of awkwardness and uncertainty, and this can negatively impact any purchasing decisions that are made. Furthermore, the results can be that the customer develops a negative perception of the entire company based purely on the perception of one particular employee. In this way, it is clearly extremely important that every employee maintains a certain minimum level of behaviour. A number of critics point out that some expectations are perfectly reasonable (Grandey et al., 2005), but that in some cases these are taken too far. In some companies, there are additional requirements that are linked to the identities of those particular companies. If an employee is unable to comply with these demands, he or she might be seen as a disruptive element.

Emotional labour can cause more harm, however, when it is applied in a way that damages the ability of workers to present the kind of persona that company’s desire. Lieberman & Nissen (2008) suggest that there is a danger that “emotional labour will put impossible pressure on employees, to the extent that they are bound to fail” (Lieberman & Nussen, 2008: 20). If workers are forced to do something that is strongly against either their principles or their personal feelings, the result can be a strong sense of inauthenticity. Burhcill (2009) points out that “there is a thin and almost imperceptible line between a convincing and an unconvincing display of emotion in the workplace” (Burchill, 2009: 190), and while the former can be positive and helpful, the latter can be disconcerting in some cases extremely negative. Burchill goes on to note that poorly implemented emotional labour can in many cases be worse than a complete lack of the same approach, since “poor implementation can give rise to strong perceptions of artificiality and can emphasise, rather than disguise, the commercial nature of the relationship between customer and employee” (Burchill, 2009: 193). This highlights the fact that in many ways, emotional labour can be seen as a form of untruth or falsehood that encourages unreal relationships to develop, and which might ultimately have a strong negative impact.

Clearly, therefore, emotional labour has both positive and negative aspects. In the tourism and hospitality industries, emotional labour can enhance the experience for some customers while damaging it for others; it can also improve the working conditions for some employees, while harming it for others. The ethics of emotional labour are clearly quite contentious, and the issue is highly subjective. Although there are clearly some downsides to emotional labour, especially if it is pushed too far and ends up causing a sense of inauthenticity, this should not be taken to mean that emotional labour is not effective as a concept when it is properly implemented. In fact, when emotional labour is implemented with care and precision, it can be a very powerful business tool, especially within the tourism and hospitality industries.

References

Baum, T. (2006). Human Resource Management for the Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure Industries. LondonL Cengage Learning

Burchill, F. (2009). Labour Relations. London: Palgrave Macmillan

Crotts, J.C. & R.G. McNeill (2005). Selling Hospitality: A Situational Approach. London: Delmar Cengage Learning

Fennell, D.A. & D.C. Malloy (2007). Codes of Ethics in Tourism. Brighton: Channel View Publications

Fineman, S. (2003). Understanding Emotion at Work. London, New Delhi & Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications

Grandey, A. & Fisk, G. & Steiner, D. (2005). Must service with a smile be stressfulThe moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (5), pp. 893-904

Hochschild, A. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press

James, N. (1998). Emotional Labour: Skill and Work in the Social Regulation of Feelings. London: Routledge

Lieberman, K. & B. Nissen (2008). Ethics in Hospitality and Tourism. Washington DC: Amer Hotel and Motel Association

Kassavana, M.L. (2005). Managing Front Office Operations. New York: The Educational Institute of American Hotels

Korczynski, M. (2003). Communities of coping: collective emotional labour in service work. Organisation, 10 (1), pp. 55-79

Nickson, D. (2006). Human Resource Management for the Hospitality and Tourism Industries. London: Butterworth-Heinemann

Sandiford, P. & Seymour, D. (2002). Emotional labour in public houses; reflections on a pilot study. The International Journal of Hospitality Management, 19 (2), pp. 159-171

Sharpe, E. (2005). Going above and beyond: the emotional labour of adventure guides. The Journal of Leisure Research, 37 (1), pp. 29-50

Williams, A. (2009). Understanding the Hospitality Industry. London: Butterworth-Heinemann

Categories
Free Essays

Marketing in the different sectors of tourism

Introduction

Virgin Atlantic is the second largest long haul airline in the UK and it is a popular and well known airline all around the world. It is also the third largest European carrier over the North Atlantic and over the years has rapidly grown and includes destinations in the US, Caribbean, Far East, India and Africa. http://www.virgin-atlantic.com

Virgin Atlantic flew its first flight in 1984 after Richard Branson who is the owner announced to the world that a high quality, value for money airline would begin operating within three months. After 10 years from its launch the airline had flown over 1 million passengers and started bringing up services onboard. It became the first airline to offer individual TVs to their business class passengers. Then In 1992 Richard Branson made a huge investment. He sold his Virgin music store and invested the profits into Virgin Atlantic, improving on an already great service. Within the same year the first super economy service was launched and it then went on to become an award winning Premium Economy.

http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/gb/allaboutus/ourstory/history.jspaccessed 01/08/2011 at 17:17

In 2003 the Virgin Atlantic’s revolutionary Upper Class Suite was launched; it was the longest and most comfortable flat bed and seat in business class. Then in 2007 Virgin Atlantic went on to launch brand new check in facilities at Heathrow Terminal Three. For the Economy and Premium Economy passengers Zone A became wider and more spacious, enabling passengers to check-in at kiosks in a faster and more stress-free way. For the Upper Class passengers, an Upper Class Wing which offers private security corridor so passengers can speed through the terminal to the Clubhouse quicker than before.http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/gb/allaboutus/ourstory/history.jspaccessed 01/08/2011 at 17:17

In 2008 virgin Atlantic went on to operate a pioneering bio fuel demonstration with Boeing and engine manufacturer GE Aviation on a 747 between London and Amsterdam. This became the world’s first flight using bio fuel by a commercial airline. Then In June 2009, Virgin Atlantic celebrated its 25th anniversary with a series of special fares, campaigns and events in the run-up to its birthday, as well as promoting red hot fares to red hot destinations.

http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/gb/allaboutus/ourstory/forstudents.jspaccessed 01/08/2011 at 17:10

I chose virgin Atlantic because I personally have travelled with them on many occasions and I receive the best service any other airline could offer. Due to its good reputation it appeals to a much wider market as it is a reliable and trusted airline and has a lot to offer its customers.

Market it faces today

Virgin Atlantic uses a wide range of marketing techniques. It promotes its products and services through a wide range of sources which include direct mail, Television, press, magazines, outdoor posters and taxi sides, all featuring their distinctive logo.

http://www.nyama.org/mhf98.htm

Virgin Atlantic targets specific customers by advertising the comfort and quality of the airline. Their tickets are sold through various sources such as the Internet, travel agents, and direct communication with customers to suit different customer needs.

Virgin Atlantic Customer Service Representative, Quick Reference Guide, 2001.

Keegan, Warren J & Green, Mark S., Global Marketing, 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Page 40,

2001.

To attract more customers Virgin Atlantic has differentiated their product by taking the customers’ expectations one step further through communication with the customer. A prime example can be seen in providing in flight ice cream, something other airlines do not offer.

Keegan, Warren J & Green, Mark S., Global Marketing, 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Page 40,

2001.

On the aircraft passengers experience spacious setting arrangements, state of the art in-flight entertainment system, and most importantly a high level of customer service. In addition, Virgin Atlantic offers a distinctive upper class service at business class prices.

PR News Wire, London, Virgin Atlantic Implements Galileo International, 5 September, 2001.

The Virgin Atlantic market is segmented into classes. There is the economy class where passengers are a much broader group, travelling mainly for leisure and are evenly spread across most socio-economic groups, and age ranges. Then there is the

Premium economy class where there passengers are split evenly between travelling for business or leisure and most are male, average age 41. Those travelling for business purpose in this class are often doing so because their company operates an economy travel policy. Lastly there is the upper and business class which is the virgin atlantics major target market as they bring in more money. They are predominately travelling on business and are usually male, 35 to 45 years old and earning ?50K plus per annum.

http://www.safarigraphics.com/salterquest/portfolioPDFs/ws_Virgin_Atlantic_Marketing_Case_Study.pdf

accessed 01/08/2011 at 18:20

A virgin Atlantic s criterion for segmenting is:

Who buys their product
Who does not buy their product
What need or function does their product serve
What problem does their product solve
What are customers currently buying to satisfy the need or solve the problem for which their product is targeting
What price are they paying for the product they are currently buying
When is their product purchased
Where is their product purchased
Why is their product purchased

Keegan, Warren J & Green, Mark S., Global Marketing, 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Page 40,

2001.

http://www.safarigraphics.com/salterquest/portfolioPDFs/ws_Virgin_Atlantic_Marketing_Case_Study.pdf

With virgin Atlantic there is something for everyone .Examples of how virgin Atlantic markets its segments is by offering value for money products and services to bring in the customers. For upper class passenger, In-flight beauty therapy – massages and manicures, Onboard stand-up bar, Personal 10.4 inch video screen, A dedicated sleeping area ,Fast track-priority service through immigration, Sleep service – pyjamas, full size pillows, feather duvets and fleece blanket and a Drive Thru check in from the limo etc are al offered within the price.

For the premium economy class a Dedicated check-in desk, Priority baggage handling, Flexible ticket – no penalty for last minute changes, Comfortable wider seats with up to 6 inches of extra leg room, Seatback video screen, Fast track-priority service through immigration etc is all offered to them.

For the premium economy class a Seatback video screen with up to 43 channels of movies, music, and video games, Free amenity kit, Children’s services including K-iD backpacks, TV channels and special meals, Choice of three entrees, including a vegetarian option, Ice cream during movies etc is available to them whilst onboard.

Keegan, Warren J & Green, Mark S., Global Marketing, 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Page 40,

2001.

Virgin Atlantic Customer Service Representative, Quick Reference Guide, 2001.

References

http://www.virgin-atlantic.com accessed 01/08/2011 at 17:30

http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/gb/allaboutus/ourstory/history.jspaccessed 01/08/2011 at 17:17

http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/gb/allaboutus/ourstory/history.jspaccessed 01/08/2011 at 17:17

http://www.virgin-atlantic.com/en/gb/allaboutus/ourstory/forstudents.jspaccessed 01/08/2011 at 17:10

http://www.nyama.org/mhf98.htm accessed 01/08/2011 at 17:10

http://www.safarigraphics.com/salterquest/portfolioPDFs/ws_Virgin_Atlantic_Marketing_Case_Study.pdf accessed 01/08/2011 at 17:10

http://www.safarigraphics.com/salterquest/portfolioPDFs/ws_Virgin_Atlantic_Marketing_Case_Study.pdf accessed 01/08/2011 at 17:10

Keegan, Warren J & Green, Mark S., Global Marketing, 2nd Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Page 40,2001.

PR News Wire, London, Virgin Atlantic Implements Galileo International, 5 September, 2001.

Virgin Atlantic Customer Service Representative, Quick Reference Guide, 2001.

Categories
Free Essays

Trans-national tourism corporation

Introduction

There are various of interpretations to what Trans-national Tourism Corporation means. However, this essay will suggest that Trans-national Tourism Cooperation (TNC) as Hampton (2011) suggested that it has been defined as large firms with subsidiaries in 2 or more countries. Hall suggested that TNCs are where the organisational behaviour ideas are an approach for marketing and promotion in the global market. Mowforth and Munt states that 80% of mass tourism is dominated by TNCs and around 80% of tourists who travel by air to a less-developed country (LDC) will stay at hotels owned by TNCs. (Britton, 1991) TNCs benefits from vertical integration as it helps to reduce transaction cost because there is no ‘middle-man’ to deal with and the size of TNCs also mean that they will benefit from economies of scale. TNCs are also known as multinational companies. Tourism for the Trans-national co-operation is the centre point, and specifically more focused on Less Developing Countries.

The first advantage of a TNC according to Mowforth and Munt Japanese Tourist arriving there from Tokyo. The tourist is transferred with a luxurious car Honda from the airport and stays at the Japanese owned Hotel as well as eats all the authentic Japanese food. However, travels back to Tokyo in the Hondo and explains that Japan is a good Third World destination. Furthermore, there could have been a BMW and an international hotel- but the point is argued that it is the main ownership that has made the benefit for the Tourism Industry.

This now means that only the small proportion of the money is spent in the country itself so this connects to leakage as Mowforth and Munt adds that this does not just mean the purchase goods by the tourist in a destination also looks at goods and services by hotels and all other organisations. Leakage is not the main d of disadvantage for all financial aspects as Tourists itself but it is highly in use of Third World Countries.

Mowforth and Munt say that the level of leakages is highly important the reason for this is this affects the economic power which is held by the TNCs for all local communities and government. What should be taken into account that due to not having a relevant collective data it is very difficult to calculate the leakage in a Tourist destination.

Second advantage for a TNC in a poor country is having a TNC is powerful for the industrialisation especially for all the Asian countries where there needs to be rural development. Therefore, the government makes the farming prices quite low- and saves money; takes cheap food so the workers do not demand high wages. With the positive side to having a TNC this creates a good form of power for the poor people in LDCs as the TNCs clearly know the wants and the basic needs of the poor people and making sure they are getting what they deserve. (Madeley, J. 2003)

A general advantage for the TNCs is having more a Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as this heavily benefits the Tourism factor. Nusa Dua in Bali is encouraging the TNCs to develop their restorts. FDIs are usually very good for funding for local or government projects that the country wants to run. This benefits Bali, by having a better economy, better jobs for the locals making Bali a better destination. This has helped Bali to succeed to be a better destination and improve its roads. This would mean more Tourists would now come into Bali and this will benefit them as a flourished economy.

An disadvantage of a TNC reported by Pattullo in Mowforth and Munt (2005:51:-2)- this shows that there is a high level of leakage it is an overall of 50-70% but it states that for Jamaica it is 37% as this is known as more of a assorted economy therefore, the leakages here can be a lot lower then anywhere else. So this in general states that the money paid into the country never actually reaches the Third World Destination itself therefore, this is not a successful way for the country to expand economically.

Another disadvantage is that all the First World Tourists who fly to a Third World Tourist destination- are mass tourists. The reason being for this is that they fly and possibly stay in a hotel which is TNS owned- these tourists may not form a mass or alternative tourism and may not be seeking for, adventure, wildlife and authenticity. This is not a huge factor but, mass tourism is becoming more of a straight focus however, they are being affected by the new, sustainable and alternative forms of tourists.

An disadvantage of having a monopoly firm and the TNC being in control of this is being in contention with the mass tourism being contend of the Third World Tourism which often is different, and causes a lot of problems of dependency, and exchange leakages with under-developed economies by foreign owned enclaves. (Brohman, J 1996)

So the important aspect of this is that the TNC must address the issue of sustainability. Carothers in Mowforth and Munt (1993:15) quoted that the final touches of the Earth Summit (agenda 21) the main focus was to remove the TNCs from the text of the Agenda 21. Agenda 21- is when there is aware of the environment being eco-friendly as well being sustainable. In the Third World Country it had to be clear that they knew what the term “multinational operate”. All the governments also needed to know what a Trans-national cooperation did for them was to gain more stability and have an increase in the legal rights. (Hamed, D 2005)

The impact on all the human resources is an encouragement in employment and as the TNC has an increasing wage levels. The local firms- which are Tourism related (TNCs) make more connection with the suppliers and the distributors which makes a good business when they make the effort to have a better connection with the local suppliers and the distributors. However, there is no proof of how the TNC if they are crowding over the local firm.

(Hamed, D 2005)

Advantage of a TNC is that they are usually very small in most of the developing economies, because much of the involvement takes the non-equality forms. Some of the government assists the main development of the infrastructure itself. The new technology that can be introduced in a developing country and different management skills can make the Less Developing Country a lot better.

(Hamed, D 2005)

Another disadvantage stated by Mowforth and Munt is that the British tour operators are not aware of visiting Burma the reason being for the unawareness is purely the ethical reasons. As hotels were being built by the TNCs- Asia countries of: Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand, with also French and Swiss Interests were very involved. Tourism in Burma is a good example of with a lot of interest to the government itself. But in many Less Developed countries the government and the TNCs and the case of Burma itself (SPDC) enlisted the assistance of this body.

However, the clarity of the human rights and the nature and the culture Tourism and the leaflets of the tourism companies will praise all its virtues.

Mowforth and Munt acknowledge that it is very important that the understanding and the issue of power is transparent strong if the destination wants a development. The TNCs commonly under the impression that the community has a strong and that the locals are in work by the power for the rest of the national government. This is a case some but not all. But the policies of the national government itself are in some situations influenced by the external organisations. The policies for the development of tourism are largely suitable for profits and for First World investors rather then the communities and the government itself.

Another strong case study to support this essay is that the FDI- has been considered towards a strong factor of the economic development. The TNCs in the imports industry especially for Argentina and Brazil, there has been a strong relation of the TNCs being involved in the manufacturing industry just before the recent FDI boom took place. (Chudnovsky, D and Lopez, A 2004)

The TNCs in Argentina and Brazil showed a significant amount of performance with a high level of technology and the productivity which was related to the TNCs. But, for the domestic market they wanted to take advantage of their own domestic markets itself. However, the TNCs did its best and used its own strategies for all different areas for all its economic development for the host country itself.There had been a huge number of arrivals of the FDI itself for all the presences of the TNCs as the economies increased in the 1990s. In this particular case Argentina and Brazil gained a very strong level with all the TNCs which were present.

All the investments made by the TNCs aimed to increase all the assets, and with a better market. ( Chudnovsky, D and Lopez, A 2004)

As competition becomes more of a wider spread- the TNC then has simple integration strategies. All the TNC searches are done very effectively with a range of assets in all the different locations.

More than 50% of the TNCs sales In Brazil as compared with the number of sales itself as these were hardly even 25% the figure seems significantly low. Since the Brazilian Industry- it is not a major surprise to find that the TNCs in the country are more of an export orientated then of Argentina itself.

The TNCs within the groups are Tourist operated with a much of a generally larger coefficients in Argentina and Brazil. ( Chudnovsky, D and Lopez, A 2004)

( Chudnovsky, D and Lopez, A 2004) suggests that the Brazilian Tourist Industry itself has much of a widespread the reason being for this is due to the number of linkages between the elements of being spread around than Argentina. In general this suggests that the TNCs have looked at the domestic market itself rather than the any of the human resources itself. This means that the TNCs have their goods that are more strategic in relationship to the firm’s performance at all national and regional level.

In Argentina the TNCs clearly affect the imports and the exports. This is due to the relationship of all the sales and a result of a down side in the negative foreign trade balances. In Brazil similarly the TNCs for all the domestic firms are at a higher rate and grow incredibly faster.

In Argentina and Brazil there has been an FDI (Foreign Directive Investment) which has helped the TNCs become more recognised as a main leader in Argentina and Brazil. The key linkages between the Foreign Directive Investment and The Foreign Trade show that the TNCs have had a bigger contribution than all the national firms itself. However, there is a higher chance for the imports with the local enterprises. From, the whole research of Brazil and Argentina the TNCs have had a lot less linkages with the local community itself then the domestic firms. From the research Brazil and Argentina has TNCs but with a reduce amount of linkages with the local community itself than the domestic firms. ( Chudnovsky, D and Lopez, A 2004)

In conclusion to this essay despite the fact the concerns over TNCs on the Less Developed Country having TNCs are very beneficial for a host country. Additionally, the government has to make sure that they are fully in power with this and this situation should not be changed around as the government should be powerful enough to help a host country. Every point that was discussed in this essay has some understanding to the aspect of the impacts and the implications of the TNCs in some LDCs. From the understanding of the TNCs it is felt that International Tourists tend to understand better to what TNCs do and how they will profit the Less Developed countries- due to the complications in an Less Developed Country not having enough educated people therefore, the International Tourists will look at the wider focus of the capitalist mode as the product if recognised can not be in separation. (Jenkins, R 1987)

References

Brohman, J (1996) New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development (Online), 23 (1), 48-70 Available from: http://www.stepuptravel.org/downloads/library/new_directions_for_tourism_in_third_world.pdf (Accessed 23 March 2011)

Chudnovsky, D and Lopez, A (2004) Trans-national Corporations Strategies and Foreign Trade Patterns in Mercosur Countries in the 1990s (Online), Cambridge Journal of Economics 28 (5), 1-18, Available from: http://www.law.wisc.edu/gls/documents/foreign_investment_recommended2.pdf (Accessed 21 February 2011)

Hamed, D (2005) What is Agenda 21(Online). Avaliable from: http://www.lbhf.gov.uk/external/la21/index.htm (Accessed 20 March 2011)

Hampton, M. (2011) Lecture Slide 6 on Trans-national Tourism

Jenkins, R, Fist Edition (1987) Trans-national Corporations and Uneven Development. London

Madeley, J. 2003 Transnational Corporations and Developing Countries Big Business Poor Peoples (Online) The Courier ACP-EU no 196 January-February 2003 Available from:

(http://ec.europa.eu/development/body/publications/courier/courier196/en/en_036_ni.pdf) [Accessed 30 March 2011]

Mowforth, M., and Munt, I Third Edition (2008) Tourism and Sustainability Development, Globalisation and New Tourism in the Third World War. Routledge, London

Scheyvens, R. (2002) Tourism for Development. Prentice Hall, London.

Harrison, D., (2001) Tourism and the Less Developed World. CABI, Wallingford.

Categories
Free Essays

Importance and Development of Heritage Tourism in City of Bath (U.K)

Abstract:

This document of dissertation is focused on accessing and analyzing impacts of heritage tourism on inhabitants of an historic city. It gives a brief note on importance of Historic tourism which is otherwise called as heritage tourism. The report initially gives a brief description about the tourism industry and its types. Latter further intensifying the area of focus, it describes the importance of heritage tourism in tourism industry. It explains about the economical and environmental benefits of heritage tourism industry. Few points about potential of heritage tourism in Great Britain were also discussed. Adequate focus is given to broadly classify the industry variables and in what way they shall affect the local resident’s socio-economic life.

Considering the theory of sustainable tourism a primary data samples are collected from local residents of a historic location. This survey is subjective to understand what factors are being responsible for affecting the local residents. After collecting data these factors are classified with respective to the sustainable tourism and are allocated with priority levels that would need attention very immediately.

These factors which are recognized to be a cause of negative impact on local residents are individually studied in reality and analyzed for designing a implementation level strategy which does govern according to sustainable tourism. Practical implementations that are being carried out and strategic concepts that are designed to bring out idealistic environment in the industry are simultaneously discussed. This gives clear picture of reality.

Chapter 1

Introduction:

The United Kingdom is a united sovereign state, where tourism plays a very imperative division in the economic life of the state. Tourism is one of the most important and counted industry among few top industries in the world. Ever since the start of globalization tourism has kept leaping to heights, despite of many setbacks by factors like terrorist attacks. This industry has become most competitive and dynamic industry in rapid growing countries. Likewise U.K does also occupy large grounds on tourism. A report published by team tourism group in 2006 state that the average approximate spent by visitor in U. K. was ? 80 billion. This includes both national and international visitors. In particular the revenue generated by international visitors accounted for about 20% which is approximately ?16 billion.

Here the study is to understand the attitude or the opinion of the residents on the Bath city about the city being a heritage tourist place.

As per the sources of Heritage Lottery fund publishing, heritage tourism industry in U. K. contributes ?20 billion to U. K. economy.(18) This success also states that heritage is a major motivation behind the tourism expenditure of both overseas and domestic visitors. This industry supports an estimated employment opportunity of 195,000 full time equivalent jobs. The historic monuments which are well preserved in U. K. are fixed assets and are identifiable because of their past history and national, regional or religious significance. [18]. Uk is highly rated as a nation brand in view of 6 major measures for tourism which are people, culture, heritage, exports, governance, investments and immigration. Research consistently projects that history, heritage and culture which includes cultural heritage as key strengths. Heritage tourism is a successful way and means for encouraging local people to spend more money on local areas. A successful implementation of heritage tourism can pave way to sustainable development.

Motivation for the Study: 1.1
Why tourism?

Many industries of different scale are widely built purposely following globalization which involves huge inputs in different means. But whereas tourism industry is the only means that has potential of generating huge revenues not requiring major inputs following globalization.(1) Tourism is means of being global extent. It is one of the most important reliable industries that many developing countries are dependent on for their stable economy. It serves as the major purpose for several different segments of industries like logistics and Air travel.

Importance of heritage tourism in U.K.

United Kingdom is one such countries of the world that has been capable of retaining its cultural heritage over since long period of time from 18th centuries. Despite of rapid development in the social life style Britain has always been capable to restoring its cultural and historic integrity. This asset of Britain was capable of generating revenue of ?20 billion/annum approximately (3). This potential made heritage tourism to be one of the key areas to attract my focus.

Problems caused in tourism industry

Though tourism has a major play as huge revenue generating industry it certainly does have few drawbacks which is a setback for itself. Despite of several implementations being carried out to develop tourism on broad scale, in reality this is leading to evolvement of problems associated with social, cultural, economical well being of public residing at tourist place. Some most commonly associated problems that were recorded on study are (4)

1) Economic Problems.

2) Environmental Problems.

3) National Security Problems.

4) Unemployment Problems.

5) Traditional Problems.

These factors which are negative effects of tourism should also be concerned in order to bring out a strategically implementable solution that shall enhance the industry much further and above all it shall ensure the safety and convenience of both tourists as well as the local people residing in historic places. All of these observations have become my primary reasons to choose this particular topic of investigating on problems of tourism.

Hypothesis: 1.2

On the basis of our literature and primary research, we believe that through the development of the heritage tourism industry is there any negative impact on the residents of the city. And will it harm to be the sustainable tourist place in United Kingdom. Sustainability of beach tourism is a facilitator for the growth of the Indian tourism industry as it:

Differentiation.
Attracts high spending tourists
Kindle enabling industries
Stimulates residential tourism
Promotes sustainability of Indian tourism
Will relocate the Indian tourism industry
Research Objectives 1.3

The main focus of this dissertation will be to evaluate the feeling of the local people of Bath about the arrival of tourists, it is concerned to identify the major problems faced by the people due to tourism and to rationalize the changes of growth along with the sustainable development.

Objective of the Research:

1) To bring out an understanding how historic tourism is important.

2) To understand U. K. tourism and it’s potential.

3) To understand the most significant places by means of factors governing them.

4) To finalize a place that is highly prone to be susceptible to have impact of tourism.

5) Impacts of tourism on local areas of historic places.

6) How local residents are affected and how do they feel about tourists

7) To understand and analyze the structure of sustainable tourism.

8) To understand relevance of sustainable tourism to historic places.

9) Economic importance of sustainable tourism.

10) Implementation of Sustainable tourism on local areas of historic tourist places.

11) To design measures that could be taken to enhance the situations better for mutual comfort of both tourists as well as local residents.

12) Predicted outcomes of measures and new strategies designed.

Scope of Study: 1.4

The study relates to the analysis about tourists visiting the city ofBathand ideas about local people living in and around the historic city ofBath. As discussed earlier, The City of Bath was chosen because it is one of the cities that had highest visitor population and more over is one of the places that have been capable of retaining the cultural and historical integrity of different traditions and several buildings. The study concentrates on the sustainable development of the city and the opinion about the people residing in Bath city and the problems faced by them due to the tourism.

Limitation of the Study: 1.5

The study precincts to the understanding of the opinion or the feeling of the people of bath city in concern to tourism, and the problems faced by them being in that city. The study is limited to some major problems faced by the residing public for being residing in the heritage tourist place, as it is in relation to social, cultural and of economical well being of the residents of Bath city. With respect to tourism industry, the country’s government plays a chief role and their offerings and power or of any other private organizations have not been analysed in detail.

Methodology of the Study: 1.6

The overall research consist analysis about tourists visiting the city of Bath and ideas about local people living in and around the historic city ofBath. As discussed earlier, The City of Bath was chosen because it is one of the cities that had highest visitor population and more over is one of the places that have been capable of retaining the cultural and historical integrity of different traditions and several buildings. The research methodology is implemented by means of a Statistical survey method. This method collects data from few samples and the overall majority is found out for each factor that is supposed to be investigated. The implementation of survey is done by means of either of the methods

1) Online survey.

2) In personal Survey.

Online survey is done by subscribing to few web service providers who render facilities to conduct and organize online research and survey. These vendors also provide tools to validate each samples report to get finalize an output differentiated category wise. In personal survey is carried by preparing paper based questionnaire forms and approaching each individual or sample in person and requesting them to fill in the questionnaire form. Other alternative methods can be implemented by distributing the survey questionnaire forms at the counter of each tourist location so that each visitor can be given a form when he or she purchases the tickets. Tools like Quantitative content analysis can be implemented to obtain the final outcome of the survey.

Collection of Data:

Primary Data:

The primary source of data for this report is taken by an individual survey method. The data collected is conclusive statistics that is generated from ranking of parameters done by both tourist and local residents of bath city.

Secondary Data:

Several documentary data was reviewed in order to understand and examine about sustainability frame work. Few research statistics data was taken from survey reports which are conducted previously by standard organizations. The entire data which is necessary to support the survey and back ground reading was taken from sources of books, journals, statistical survey reports from standard organizations, Author’s referencing, Online web forms, magazines and various publication from tourist consultancies and organizations, marketing and promotional web sites. In point of making the process portable all of the mentioned sources are electronic based sources collected from World Wide Web.

Scheme of Chapterisation: 1.7

The study of “sustainable tourism in marina beach” consist of ten chapters

The first chapter deals with the introduction of the tourism, the motivation of the study, hypothesis, research objectives, scope of the study, limitation of the study, methodology, collection of data and the scheme of Chapterisation.

The second chapter deals with the background of the heritage tourism, its significance, the distribution of the heritage places and the overview of bath city

The third chapter deals with the background information of the study, repositioning strategies, the Porter’s generic strategies and Poon’s framework.

The fourth chapter deals with the sustainability of tourism, history and culture of bath, the attractions ofBath.

The fifth chapter narrates about the importance of heritage tourism, key issues of sustainability and its impact of the heritage tourism on the society or community.

The sixth chapter focuses on the sustainable tourism development.

The seventh chapter chooses to be the case study on the heritage tourism ofBathcity.

The eighth chapter tells us about Sustainable Tourism of theBathcity and its findings.

The ninth chapter describes the conclusion of the study.

Finally the tenth chapter on the recommendation of improvements and conclusion

CHAPTER 2

Background information about United Kingdom Heritage Tourism

The primary types of tourism in U. K. are

1) Domestic Tourism

2) Inbound Tourism

3) Outbound Tourism

Domestic tourism:

Domestic tourism is also called internal tourism. In this particular type of tourism visitors are residents of within country. As per data domestic tourism had remained broadly static with respective to number of trips made. Total number or trips have become shorter comparatively where as the overall spend has increased. In UK most of the domestic tourism is captured by four zones London, South East, South west and Scotland. This accounted for 61% of spend in uk. Relatively domestic tourism has increased in importance in the last decade. (53)

Inbound Tourism:

In bound tourism UK ranks 6th in the world tourism with respective of international tourist arrivals. Top 10 countries account for 60% of inbound spend. Of these U. S. A occupies significant margin in inbound tourism which is followed by Germany and France. In last decade most of the inbound tourism came from very limited countries counting from Europe,America. Whereas looking forward towards 2011 it is expected that most inbound trips will be from mature economic countries like India,Poland in terms of new visits.[53]

Outbound Tourism:

United Kingdom ranks 3rd as the largest generator of international tourism expenditure. Most of the trips which are out bound from UK are to Mediterranean countries and European countries. In recent years of decade a significant rise in outbound tourism is seen to Australia and New Zealand. The growth in outbound trips is twice the growth of inbound trips with a ratios of 53% of trips and the average spend is of 59%.

U. K. is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for its rich heritage that has been preserved since decades and has earned huge reputation which attracts many tourists from different parts of the world. Heritage can often be referred to as anything that has been transmitted from the past. Especially like [4]

Original Culture and natural material
A built Environment
The archaeological resource
Intangible heritage
The natural heritage.

The awareness of heritage is sustained by multicultural society has been capable of maintaining significance or quality. This significance or quality is preserved for appreciation of current by future generations. U. K. is once such major contributor to the countries tourism industry. [4]

Central role of heritage:

Heritage acts as an important motivator for tourism within the U. K. by means of natural or cultural heritage. Eg. When we consider snowy mountains, it is an intrinsic part of snowboarding trip to cairngorms. When clubs are considered club scene from Manchester that have existed from very long periods attract weekend tourist mainly from London. This is a representation of cultural heritage. [4]

Economic Significance of heritage tourism:

As per the sources of Heritage Lottery fund publishing, heritage tourism industry in U. K. contributes ?20 billion to U. K. economy.(18) This success also states that heritage is a major motivation behind the tourism expenditure of both overseas and domestic visitors. This industry supports an estimated employment opportunity of 195,000 full time equivalent jobs. The historic monuments which are well preserved in U. K. are fixed assets and are identifiable because of their past history and national, regional or religious significance. [18]. UK is highly rated as a nation brand in view of 6 major measures for tourism which are people, culture, heritage, exports, governance, investments and immigration. Research consistently projects that history, heritage and culture which includes cultural heritage as key strengths. Heritage tourism is a successful way and means for encouraging local people to spend more money on local areas. A successful implementation of heritage tourism can pave way to sustainable development.[17]

NUMBER OF VISITOR ATTRACTIONS IN THE U. K.(Source: Heritage & Tourism locum Destination Review 2:2000)
ATTRACTION CATEGORYENGLANDSCOTLANDWALESN. IRELANDTOTAL
HISTORIC HOUSES AND MONUMENTS448101388595
CATHEDRALS & CHURCHES1851144204
GARDENS1291825154
MUSEUMS & GALLERIES563107399718
WILDLIFE ATTRACTIONS1262094159
COUNTRY PARKS128281327196
FARMS105743119
LEISURE PARKS5712061
STEAM RAILWAYS48211061
VISITOR CENTERS109821912222
WORKPLACES613195106
MISCELLANEOUS ATTRACTIONS171182612227
TOTALS2130426176892821
% OF ATRACTIONS761563

Distribution of heritage tourist places:

From the previous study it is quite transparent that the total potential volume of tourism is measured in terms of the number of arrivals to particular place and the total spend. These factors help to distinguish the regional share of UK tourism spend. Thought there are few discrepancies in allocating the absolute regional share of tourism spend statistics project that North Ireland and North east account for only 1% and 2% respectively. Where as London has 27% share. Among all regions, four regions London, South West, South East and Scotland contribute to 61% of spend by visitors in UK. The figure below shows the regional distribution of tourism. [53] It is quite evident that London, south east and south west of U. K. are the primary areas that are prone to most tourist attraction.

Courtesy: U. K State of Tourism Final Report.

REGIONAL SHARE (2006)

(SOURCES: UK STATE OF TOURISM FINAL REPORT 2008, TEAM TOURISM)PLACETRIPS (% OF U. K. TOTAL)SPEND (% OF U. K. TOTAL)DOMESTICINBOUNDTOTALDOMESTICINBOUNDTOTALLONDON94817114927SOUTH WEST141314121011SOUTH EAST1671418512EAST OFENGLAND868656WEST MIDLANDS756535EAST MIDLANDS736524YORKSHIRE847735NORTH WEST118101169NORTH EAST323322WALES837825SCOTLAND1081013911NORTHERN IRELAND212211

Overview about most popular historic towns in U. K.

A survey conducted by North West development agency commissioned to ask 35,000 people to rank among 1000 places as their preferred category for tourism. This study concluded places with many number of historic buildings and which is capable of preserving heritage on top rank. The York was ranked as first and bath as second close to oxford. The figure below describes the popularity indication reported through survey conducted.

Source: Research for theNorth Westvisitor Research program 2009 -10

(Locum Consulting and Arkenford Ltd)

Selection of Location for Implementing Research & Analysis:

With respective to the study made from above it is understood that the primary factors that decide the potential of a historic tourist place by

1) Number of tourists visiting a historic place. (Inbound visits of a place)

2) Popularity rank of a historic place.

Looking for both factors said above we summarize the area of implementation of research. Londonstays the top priority of the regional share list with domestic share of 9% and inbound share of 48% of trips made in U. K. It has total spend value of 27% in total of both domestic and inbound. South west is 2nd on the list with trips share of 14% in domestic and 13% in inbound where as its total spends percentage is 11 in total.

On the other hand when we compare statistics of total number of historic buildings found in one placeYorkstands on top of the list with 1050 listed buildings and bath stands next in second place with 850 building. With respective to these two statistics it can be concluded that South west which is standing second on number of visits and revenue generation and Bath which located in south west having second most number of listed historic sites to be best place to pursue research on finding the impact of heritage tourism. Bath is not only well noted for its historic sites but is also well renowned for its roman structure of natural bath pools built on natural hot glaciers that exists even till date.

Overview about City of Bath:

City of bath is located in ceremonial county of Somersetin South west of England. It is 97 miles from west of London and 13 miles away from south east of Bristol. In the year of 1889 it was made the county borough. It later became part of Avon when Avon was created in 1974 and it became completely independent in the year of 1996 when Avon was abolished and became the unitary authority of Bath and North east Somerset. Bath was recognized as part of world heritage in the year of 1987 by UNESCO. It is predominantly known for its blend of roman architecture. Most of the historic structures in bath show archaeological evidence of Celtic, roman and Saxon. The City has a wide variety of theatres, sporting venues, historic museums and cultural venues. Site of roman baths which are built on natural glaciers are the predominant attraction in bath. Tourism is one of the principle industries of Bath. It records with more than one million staying and 3.8 millions of day visitors.

Chapter 3

LITERATURE REVIEW

Tourism is defined as a practice or act of travelling to places of particular interest either for recreational, promotional, business or entertainment purposes (Merriam Webster Dictionary). Tourists are the people who travel to a place or stay at a place away from their normal environment of living. (U. N. W. T. O united world tourism barometer; U. N. W. T. O World Tourism). Tourism is regarded as the most efficient means of contributing to national income despite of its minimal number of inputs and investments (The importance of tourism; W. T. O reports 2009). Tourism industry has become one of the most popular activities for global leisure. The overall international tourists grew about 1.9% in the year of 2008 compared to the year of 2007, which is very drought and dry situation for world business call Credit Crunch or World Recession. This indicates the scale of potential levels for tourism industry (The importance of tourism; W. T. O reports 2005). A net revenue of $944 billion US dollars is generated through international tourism in the year 2008 ( UNWTO World Tourism Barometer January 2010; World Tourism Organization. January 2010). It is estimated that there shall be an average growth of about 4% every year in the world.

Among the various industries in the world, tourism is one of the largest industries. The tourism industry has become one of the huge income generation areas in developed and developing countries. And though it is producing huge income from the industry, there is also has its impact on the local communities and its environment if the things are not properly managed. Today tourism is growing in an unbelievable extent. There are various factors which have lead to the growth in the increase in tourism activities. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) have found that tourism and other travel concerned activities have contributed of about 12% of the world’s Gross domestic product in the year 2010. The ecotourism is one thing we need to more concentrate about. According to World Trade Organization has pinioned to make the entire tourism and travelling more sustainable, though attaining this objective is not an easy task, and it is even risky of maintaining Ecotourism. It is in need to be enforced of acclimatize the natural and cultural activities and the resources conservation in most of the nations. The Heritage ecotourism is an evident in the form of nature preserves and ecology programs.

According to David Lowenthal 1996, “the history explores and explains pasts grown even more opaque over time; heritage clarifies pasts so as to infuse them with present purposes….But heritage, no less than history, is essential to knowing and acting. Its many faults are inseparable from heritage’s essential role in husbanding community, identity, continuity, indeed history itself.” (The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History,London&New York). The paper hunts for to analyze the mobilization approach, organizational structure and the process of adaption in the case of heritage tourism. This is to resolve the level headed heritage tourism mission which optimizes the economic benefit on a sustainable manner. Some of the major negotiations and the spat of various instigators on examining and analyzing the heritage tourism and its significance are discussed beneath to append quintessence for the study.

Repositioning Strategies: 3.1

This segment will weigh up an assortment of tourism stratagem mould which demonstrates the recompense of discriminating United Kingdom tourism product against developing sustainable heritage tourism in Bath city. Budding of sustainable tourism market in United Kingdom is an integral step towards the creation of a more differentiated tourism industry. Heritage tourism has got the prospective power to develop the economic vivacity of copious society. The models are to save and improve the alertness, admiration and even the maintenance of the United Kingdom’s corporal and insubstantial heritage. The subsequent models demonstrate about the tourism strategies.

Porter’s three generic strategies 3.2

At fore most the model of Porter has been considered; that it advocates that spirited policy “It is the search for a favourable competitive position in an industry” (Porter 1985). Competitiveness in an exacting field which concentrates on the sustainability of extensive term efficiency. The author Porter has demonstrated that competitive pro be able to be documented all the way through the selection of a basic strategy that best frenzy the industries aggressive atmosphere. Differentiation, cost leadership and market focus are the basic strategies of Porter.[1] The first two that is differentiation and cost leadership are applicable to the whole industry but if is considered to be doing in particular segment analysis then its good and optimal to go for focus through differentiation or through cost leadership.

Differentiation:

Porter’s first generic strategy is differentiation. This differentiation strategy includes of improving the number of customers and their value by allowing the premium to be included in the price of the product or service. There are various government policies revealed to increase the number of customers as of tourists and also in relation to helping the residents by managing the tourists, the tourism in United Kingdom can also be increased by providing the tour offers in special attractive fare or it can be unique in price premium. The United Kingdom has got the having best history and culture it is also in need of sustainability of the heritage tourism but for any country, the sustainability is very much in need to protect the tourism industry in meaningful manner for both overseas people and also for the resident. It can be used as a diagram of an industry-wide differentiation strategy to make up the tourist place somewhat unique. But along with these some of the inherited or followed up values need to be added to give more quality. Porter has demonstrated that when there exists the competition in the prices of tourism and if it becomes cost effective then there he has mentioned that favouritism alleviate struggle since price struggle is ferocious when merchandise are perceived to be close up substitutes. As of by making or bringing out differentiation in the United Kingdom tourism there will be in the prices of the tourism among the competitors, and even reduces the cut off prices.

To enjoin the United Kingdom tourism to achieve a good sustainable growth for more duration, the industry need to face many important situations it may be as of the price competition, or quality competition and even there will be market up gradation and revolution as of to attract the tourists who are the customers here in the industry to accept the offers of the industry to have the sustainable growth in the industry for over a long period of time.

One of the important things is of in case to accomplish the growth in the industry in a sustainable manner the industry need to face many important challenges in the market to attract customers. This can be achieved by the method of diversification process in the tourism industry. The requirement for a Heritage Tourism Strategy has by no means been additional apparent.

The above said concept can be achieved by the process of diversification in the tourism product of theUnited Kingdomby providing the best quality. And we know that the quality can be achieved by bri8nging out development in the process of providing services, the facilities as of spa, infrastructure, the placement of seaports and airports in the city. The convenience facility provided for the tourists and it also add values as of by adding ancillary products and services along with the particular in need things. There is need to develop the ecotourism in a manner to be eco friendly. It needs to be helpful and leading to the sustainable growth of the tourism sector especially the heritage tourism of the country.

Cost Leadership:

By applying the strategy of cost leadership it helps to earn higher profits in the way of charging the same price as the competitors or even below than the competitors within the tourism industry. The cost leadership strategy can also acts as an obstacle for further new entrants in to the industry, which may harm the sustainable growth of the heritage tourism in the country. It also helps to increase the number of tourists and also the increase in profits. The strategy even also helps to gain in the business the leadership by entering the market with the reduced prices of the offering services to the customers and it helps to attract the customers and reduce the cost. It increases the economies of scale.

Differentiation strategy:

This is one of the strategy which leads to attract the customers by means of providing the differentiated products with the premium features included. It will be less price elastic as of compared to the competitors products and services. In this strategy average amount of profits will be earned.

Focus:

And the other strategy is of including any one of the cost leadership process or the differentiation strategy as of need to concentrate on one particular and in need to serve the specific needs. There are two kinds; first one is to focus on to achieve the lower costs as of more than the competitors. It focuses on the unique tourism product as of either the cost related factors or differentiation factors. It would be best effective move towards sustainability of the heritage tourism in United Kingdom.

Poon’s framework:
Poon has postulated that for the travel and tourisms has given four principles to develop competitive strategies.

CHAPTER 4:

Tourism and Sustainability

To develop the sustainable tourism has become the most important factor of any place. Sustainable tourism is one which tries to restrict the causes to the surroundings or the environment, does not affect the culture of the place and increase the economy of the country. Sustainable tourism is to be established with the objective of improving the good experience in the mean time of the tourism both for the local people and also for the visitors. There will not be any particular increase or decrease in the growth of the profit that can be made from the tourism, as of in making the profit activities from the tours and travels, there may be some specific places which will be visited only in certain seasons and even the economy will be high during those seasons.

To have the sustainable growth of the tourism there need to be eco friendly that is said to be ecotourism; it is actually totally concentrating on the wild life and the culture of the community of the region. But one more factor is that such communities may not be able go for any other sources of income, they may totally depend on the tourist activities as their mean source of income in the cultured countries. But still sustainable tourism is not such an easy task as we say but it is an optimistic objective and it is in need to achieve the ecotourism. This kind is in total concentrating on the protection of the wild life, environment and the heritage cultures brought up. Due to the visit of extensive tourists the environment will be disturbed to the maximum extent so it will be difficult to achieve the sustainability, so it will be complicated to get benefit out of such improvements. It is such an attempt to develop all kinds of tourism whether it is nature based or city based or of heritage.

Ecotourism can be called as a type of tourism that spotlights completely on natural world, environment, or “from abroad” cultures.

Heritage is something that has been transferred from past including especially the original culture, the built in environment, tangible and intangible heritage, the archeological resource and even the natural heritage. That ‘heritage’ is professed by means of our multicultural humanity as include a eminence or consequence that formulate it significance safeguard for its be in possession of sake and for the

Pleasure of modern and outlook generations. The UK’s inheritance as such is a most important supplier to the country’s tourism industry. All over again, ‘tourism’ requirements some essential.

A tourist visit is more often than not defined as a journey away from the traveler’s standard put of dwelling eternal at least a day or an all night. In attendance can be a lot of motive or inspiration for the visit. These are by and large categorized as:

• Industry purpose;

• Local holiday complete (A packaged trip);

•Holidaysovereign;

• Visiting friends and relatives;

• Higher Study;

• Other purposes (including checkup visits, pilgrimages, etc).

These are some of the main reasons of visit. It is understood that the business purpose visited person does these categories are the ‘main purpose of visit’. There is nothing to preclude a Business visitor spending part of a visit indulging in heritage-related activities, so all categories are relevant to the heritage. A day visit is defined as a trip away from the place of normal residence for a minimum of three hours, excluding regular trips such as to one’s place of work. Extended shopping expeditions count as day visits – especially where shopping is a leisure activity rather than just a means of acquiring necessary goods. As with tourist visits, day visits may have multiple motivations.

The terms “Heritage” and “civilization” have turn out to be identical and elastic. In the background of the art for instance, the use of the word “culture” relates to a society’s the past, attitude, principles, civilization and picture as apparent in an artistic format. Society will often hold in your arms original and natural heritage, depending ahead the outlook of the advocate. For the principle of this Strategy, the following operational definitions are engaged:

• Heritage Tourism:

Sustainable tourism goings-on with the purpose of are, or can be, associated to material or intangible heritage.

• Physical Heritage:

Counting but not imperfect to build organization and surrounds; enlightening landscapes; momentous sites, neighborhood and confines; carcass, archaeological and marine sites; sites connected with mining, business, scientific and agricultural heritage; sites of significant proceedings and memorial; collection that house or cooperatively uphold objects of legacy significance (eg general Trust attractions, museums, go round, shadow and festivals) and fashioned setting (eg botanic and communal precincts).

The History & culture of bath

The city of bath is one of the most renowned city in the world. It is famously knows for its Roman structures. Some of them are Hadrian’s Wall in the north of theEngland, Roman built baths spa’s. The city is built around the hot spring waters with variety of roman and medieval structures. The historic footsteps of bath start from past dating back 8000BC which was then treated as shrine for many years. This belief started when the banished celtic prince was cured of leprosy after taking bath in the pools ofhot springsand was declared as heir prince again. He latter built a shrine and dedicated it to the goddess Aquae sulis.

This was soon recognized by roman’s latter after 800 years and they built theBathhouse in 43AD. This latter expanded in to series of bath spas at many places where ever a natural spring was found. These were dedicated to the roman goddess Minerva latter on.

Latter after many hundreds of generations the roman baths turned out in to ruins on lack of maintenance and builders. This was again invaded by Saxons Gloucester and cirencester in 6th century along with roman settlers of bath. In 973 AD a mint was built in bath by the first king ofEngland king Edgar. Latter on bath passed in to hands of English.

Since the ruling of bath passed in to many hands of civilizationsBathdoes have a blend of mixed cultures. It consists of Roman, Celtic, Saxon and medieval culture as well. In recent yearsBathbecame the leading focus for fashion life inEngland. Several theaters were established in bath. Currently bath has 5 most renowned theater which are globally recognized and several filming companies and directors have been visitingBathever since then. The city organizes an international music festival every year which is very long tradition sourcing about 20 concerts. Apart from this bath organizes several other festivals likeBathfringe festival,Bathbeer festival in an interval of every two and half years.

Geography & Location:

Bath is located in south west of England. It lies to the outskirts of Somerset County. Its geographical location is 97 miles from west of London and 13 miles from south east of Bristol. Bath is at the south side of the Avon valley on the edges of Cotswolds. Bath was formed range of limestone hills on lansdown plateau at an altitude of 238 meters. The steep hills of bath give it a beautiful look as the buildings of residence appears to climb up the hill. The flood streams of the river Avonrun amid of the city center. This flood streams have kept damaging the city building at some parts till a massive construction works to control the flood streams were built in the year 1970.

The natural Geo thermal springs from the mendip hill covers as showers over the limestone sediments and percolates to a depth of about 2700 to 4300 meters. Here the geothermal energy which is generated due to high pressure and temperatures below the earth’s crust raises the water temperature to 40 to 90 degrees. The high pressure that is created by heated water pushes the water to surface through small fissures. These formed in to natural hot spring spas of bath.

Attractions of Bath:

Roman Bath:

One of the current day attractions that still exist are the Roman baths. These are still preserved and many development programs are being done to take care of these heritage assets. The roman bath complex has the sacred spring, the roman temple, the roman bath house, Findings and remains of the roman bath.

The sacred Spring:

The sacred spring is the hot waters naturally occurring from earth, this is the heart of the roman bath complex. This natural action which happens due to lime sediments present in the hill of Mendip. The spring water comes out at a temperature of 46 degrees. This was treated to be a gift from god in ancient roman ruling. Several objects and remains like large collection of coins were found on the bed which was thrown in to the bath as offerings. People who are considered cursed used to write on sheet of lead and roll them up and throw in to the spring.

The Roman Bath House:
The pool which is converted in to place of bath house is enclosed in a large hall which now turned in to ruins except for the walk way and the huge columns around the bath. The pool is lined with lead all around that contains the spring. Part of walk around used to have benches for the roman’s to relax which do currently not exist.

Left: The Roman Bath Spa, Right: The head of Romano- Celtic Gorgon’s Head in museum

Source: Roman Bath Discovered Barry Conifer

The Roman Findings:

The huge collection that was found on bed of spring included coins, valuables gift items etc these were placed in the museum. Several other large artifacts which were collected from the bath complex were also displayed in this museum. The artefacts included altar corner stones, jewellery, fragments of roman priest’s heads, Plates, bowels and dishes. The art and structure of these items simply boast about the blend of roman art and craft.

The Pump House:

A pump house was built in 18th century slightly above the roman baths which is part of the bath complex. The pump house and the assembly rooms became the centers of bath society in beau nashs time. People were permitted to purchase a glass of water to drink and to prepare tea. Although most of the people did not liked the taste due to high content of minerals they still afforded to purchase believing the legend of holiness.

The New Modern Thermae Bath Spa:

The ancient bath house was closed in the year of 1979 on an account of death of a girl who had swimming in roman bath. On research it was found that the girl was infected with amoebic meningitis caused by a species of amoeba called Naegleria Fowlerii. This was revealed when the waters of bath was tested. This led to a permanent close of bath. But on the demand of the city to have functioning of the Roman Bath funds were raised from the millennium fund. New Baths were opened in the year of august 2006 after postponement from year of 2002 and 2003 with a cost of ?45 million a staggering raise in cost from initial projected cost of ?13 millions.

This new modernBathis called “Thermae Bath Spa”. These are housed and surrounded by modern glass building with a range of facilities and most importantly still having natural thermal waters. The new Thermae included The Royal Bath, Hot and cross baths, spa visitor centers. It won several awards for its design. It was listed and awarded the Best Spa 2007 award after a survey was conducted by the daily telegraph. This was also given a Silver award for the Best tourism Experience – 2007.

Bath Abbey:

Initially a church was constructed very close to the roman bath house in mid of 8th century which was demolished by the invasion of Normans. A big church replacing the earlier was built by Normans in 1090. Since the church is very large enough maintenance had become difficult to upkeep the church. Latter during dissolution of monasteries lead, iron and glass were removed and left to ruins.

The current abbey was built on the land area of these two churches after a national fund being raised by Queen Elizabeth- I. Bits and pieces of construction is still going on till date. During this process the organ has been restored and beautiful bath stone was cleaned which is worshiped since Roman period. This church is officially now called as The AbbeychurchofSaint Peter. This is also commonly called as Bath Abbey. The interior of the church is filled with light coming from 52 windows that occupies about 80% of space of the wall area. This yielded the name “The Lantern of the West”. The blazed glasses lying on one side of the church illustrates about story of Jesus Christ.

This church has been listed as a Grade 1listed building and turned out to be an active place of worship and now turned out to be a huge tourist spot.

Museums:

Bathhouses many number of museum of varied collections. Each of baths museums display a particular genre of items as listed below.

The American museum in Britain: This museum displays decorative arts, furniture, paintings, glass work, textiles, folk art etc belonging to period of 17th century to 19th century. This museum is famous for display of American patch work and quilts.

Bath Postal museum: This museum displays huge collection and history of postal services inBritain. It houses several videos, pictures, visual display models and audio tapes about the postal department ofBritain.

Beckford’s Tower: this is a neoclassical tower built by William Beckford and by architect Henry Edmund in 1827. It stands 120 feet high that helps to have view of the surroundings of the country side. It is just like a watch tower and is very quiet place for study.

The Building of Bath Museum: This displays how town grew from 18th century. It also displays tools, pattern books and architectural fragments.

The fashion Museum: it is located in the assembly room of bath house. It displays collections of both men and women from 18th century to the present day.

Herschel Museum of astronomy: this museum is devoted to William Herschel and his family who are called family of astronomers. William Herschel is the one who discovered planet Uranus in 1781. All work done by family is demonstrated in it.

The Holburne Museum of Art: this museum is located in classic Georgian Townhouse that belongs to sir William holburn. This displays Sir Williams collection of silver, paintings and several other art and decorative. Late after sir Williams more number of art collections dating from roman period to 1900 was added to this museum.

The Museum of bath at work: this museum was founded by J.B. Bowler a Victorian brass founder, engineer and mineral water manufacturer. This museum displays various settings with different machines and some of them with working machinery. Additionally this museum displays work done on bath, a 2000 years of earning, living and mining bath stone.

The museum of East Asian Art: this museum display collectables of ceramic works, jades, bronzes any many craft works carried from chinaJapan,Korea, and south east Asia.

The Royal Crescent: The royal crescent is one of the most fabulous buildings ofBritain. It is marked as Grade 1 building and it is also registered under scheme of developments for 200 year age buildings list. Royal Crescent is currently a residential road of 30 houses. It was built during the period of 1767 and 1774. The royal crescent was designed by the architect John Wood the younger. It is one of the greatest standing buildings of Georgian architecture found inEngland. The royal crescent is symbolism of massiveness which was particular interest for both John Wood the elder and John wood the younger. The residential flats of royal crescent served several notable people for more than 200 years; most predominant and distinguished of them was Frederick Duke the Duke of York who lived in 1 and 16. It is then the crescent foundation was given the adjective ‘The Royal’.

The design done by wood appears to be a great curve of 30 houses of three storeys with similar columns on a ground. Each of these columns is 30 inches wide in diameter and 47 feet in height. The houses were designed and built by different architects hired by purchaser of each facade.

TheRoyal Crescentnow has a hotel and museum with some of the residential flats converted in to office flats. Though many changes were made to the interiors of the crescent building the outer look remained the same as it was initially built. The front ofRoyal Crescentis ‘Ha-Ha’ a trench with the inners vertical and faced with stone. This gives an effect that the fence was sunken.

The Royal Crescent with it is stone engravings and architecture has gained a lot of attraction by several notified people and tourist across. The center garden of crescent is a place for launch of hot air balloons. This added much to its attraction. The royal crescent was chosen as famous venue for many film making and shootings. Some of the movies that were extensively taken at the royal crescent are Catch us if you can (1965), the wrong box (1966), Oliver (1968), who will buy sequence etc.

Sources: The Royal Crescent Society

The King Circus:

The Circus was designed by John wood the elder an architect who is also a son of bath builder. The very first start of construction of Circus added an attractive commentary. When Wood was in his teens he had a passion and vision for bath along with his modern architectural ideas. He came back fromLondonwhile working as an architect to transform his native place. The architecture of bath was primarily inspired from the roman architecture. The whole design of the circus exactly is like a mirror image of the massive colosseum. The tiers of columns exactly depicted the colosseum. He was also fascinated by prehistoric stone circles. But implementing in reality the massive structure of colosseum was reduced to fit in the place of bath. The parapet walls of the circus are designed with acorns which resembled the ancient wonder creations of Druids.

The circus is a circular rim of terrace with houses on top and surrounded by large town houses around. In mid of the circular rim of terrace it was divided in to three segments called facades. It exactly looks like a three lines intersecting in mid of the circle with its other ends forming the triangle around the circle. These straight lines are the Main entrances for the circus. The three are divided such that in whichever way a visitor may enter the circus he sees a Classic facade in front of him. Finally the circus remained only as a vision of John Wood the elder’s vision except for laying out the foundation stone till it started. It was his son John Woods the younger who took over the design and completed its construction in the year of 1768.

In construction of the circus three orders of style were used the Greek, Roman and Corinthian were used one above the other in each facade. The inner set of the circus is decorated with triglyphs and 525 pictorial emblems. These emblems include serpents, nautical symbols, devices representing the arts and sciences and various Masonic symbols.

The Circus, Sources: The circus English heritage

Pulteney Bridge:
Pulteney Bridge is one of the most significant among four bridges having shops in the world. This bridge lies across the river Avon from bath to bathwick. This bridge is named after frances Pultney of bathwick estate. Initially the bridge started with a plan for a new small town latter when adam started designing the bridge these elegant structures lined with shops came in to design and then latter in to life. The bridge latter took many forms of design when it was renovated for extension and latter for floods. The fancy beautiful look of bridge came out when the shopkeepers extended their shops by cantilevering. Gradually the beauty of bridge became of national fame and was considered as national monument. It is one of the best known for its Georgian architecture.

The Pulteney Bridge, Sources: The English heritage.

CHAPTER 5

Importance of Heritage Tourism

The heritage tourism section corresponds to one of the uppermost give up tourism collection, to the front of both customary accumulation market and other location tourism spectators such as arts. Heritage tourists pay out 38% additional per day, and stay 34% longer than customary tourists and expend 20% more and stay 22% longer than fine art oriented tourists.

• As an effect, far above the ground yields and growing numbers produce Employment as of about 10 new jobs for each among the 1000 tourists, and this course even stimulates the selling activities. And the study says that the heritage tourists purchases is more compared to other nature visitors and this in turn leads increase the tax amount and also improves the property values.

• Management venture curriculum has extensively leveraged supplementary endowment starting administration, confidential and humanitarian sources. (E.g. 20 percent return to a state’s financial system for every dollar the situation invests)

• Heritage sightseeing stimulates both profundity and wideness in tourism, creates new-fangled market for local and borough arts and craft, make longer visiting the attraction time of year, and support revision of existing products (i.e. somewhere to live; tours).

• Tradition and momentous visiting the hold is globally gorgeous to management because it has confirmed a capability to make a payment to the reconstruction of provincial and municipal urban areas.

• Contrasting many tourism stuffs, remarkable and inheritance tourism can broaden profitable benefits transversely superior environmental vicinity through themed pursue and motivating routes, rather than fixed in single locations.

• In attendance is a predisposition for heritage tourists to stay and spend on somewhere to stay provided within villages, towns and cities, unlike nature-based tourists who take a trip with larger levels of independence.

• Heritage tourism assets are sustainable from side to side restoration or adaptation processes, usually at noticeably a smaller amount disbursement than compulsory for completely new facilities (i.e. theme parks, galleries, and museums), and keep hold of greater legitimacy.

Significance of activities in decision to come to Britain on a leisure visit:
Visiting ‘heritage’ sites/castles/monuments/churches/etc 37%
Exploring historic/interesting towns/cities 29%
Visiting artistic/heritage exhibits 29%
Attending performing arts, etc (theatre/cinema/opera/ballet)18%
Visiting gardens 16%
Hiking/walking/rambling/orienteering 8%
Pleasure motoring 4%

Source: Overseas Visitor Survey 1996

There are major four key issues for the purpose sustainability of the heritage tourism:

According to Locum’s analysis has provided four key issues in front of heritage tourism development: access and inclusion, sustainability, competitiveness is called as catalysis.

• Access

Access has become one of the very important issues until the central government has some concentration on the tourism sector. The access refers to all the concepts as of in the manner of broader, more enjoyable and all in detail in all concerns of the heritage factors. Including both natural and even the cultural heritage. The accessibility for all the concerned people even including the disabled people will be the great thing. And even in the manner to help the handicapped ones in the service and helpful for other culture background people helpful to understand the language and culture in deep and in detail.

• Inclusion have common characteristics with access as of providing due attention to social cluster that strength not normally advantage from a tradition program, not slightest minority cultural groups.

• Teaching refers and includes the schools and colleges plus all additional characteristic of prescribed learning. Learning and enduring knowledge refer

to all portion of relaxed education and education for oneself, at all ages. Information and communications technology is of growing

significance in providing wider, deeper and wealthier right of entry to many

portion of the heritage and permit it to be seen in wider and

supplementary wide-ranging contexts.

Sustainability

Sustainable tourism can be achieved by including both the natural as well as the heritage tourism and we need to concentrate on the possible negative impacts that may affect by the tourism activities for the local residents or the visitors. It is not such an easy task as we say. According to International

Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) has given up in detail the seven principles for the process of sustainable tourism, especially the heritage tourism in the country. And in deed need to be considering both in the long term as well as in the short term and in the case of economic development and by the case of environmental conservation.

According to him the two principles are as follows:

Two of the principles read:

•There is needed to be managing the proper relationship between the tourism and the environment to get the sustainability access for the long term. The relationship between tourism and the environment must be in need to be maintained for the long duration, without allowing the environment to get harmed.

• In any location, agreement must be required sandwiched between the needs of

The visitor, the position and the congregation community. These principles Conceptualized sustainability in tourism in terms of balance stuck between visiting the attractions and the natural environment, harmony between tenant and guest. Such philosophies are priceless, but target managers need a more tactically and commercially focused come within reach of to the difficulty of sustainability, as shown in the diagram:

• Regeneration: ‘heritage’ be imaginary to not be painstaking in loneliness, but

in the larger social and economic context.

• Conservation: fortification of the supply against dreadful conditions, worsening and injure.

• Manufactured goods regeneration and augmentation, in the case of much tradition based magnetism, to make certain that (at a least amount) they stay behind nice-looking and easy to get to, and if at all probable that admission (of all variety) recover over time. The notion apply not barely to sole Hold, but in adding together to wider target such as country parks and town midpoint.

• Take-home pay torrent are needed to cover the long-lasting costs of Management and renewal to give surety the long-term future of the

resource.

• Manifold use of a heritage resource and/or its associated facilities help in cooperation to bind the supply into a support network and to Generate supplementary returns streams.

• Reproduction visits – expectant by manifold uses and brawny product Restitution – are essential to numerous tradition objectives. Smooth destinations that reach maximum capacity on many days can benefit beginning additional replicate stopover at non-peak times.

Positive impact

1. Financial contributions.

2. Alternate employment.

3. Increasing the environmental awareness.

4. Improving environmental planning and management

Negative impact

Negative impact of tourism occurs when the level of visitors’ use is greater than the environmental ability to cope with the situation within the acceptable limits of change.

Uncontrolled tourism poses potential threats to the natural areas including

1. Depletion of resources

2. Pressure on land and resources

3. Land degradation (owing to natural world trails and other facilities to the tourists)

4. Pollution

Tourism development can put pressure on natural resources when it increases consumption in areas where resources are already scarce.

Water Resources

The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies, as well as generating a greater volume of waste water. In drier regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 litres a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use.

Beach tourism maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources. In recent years beach tourism has increased in popularity and the number of resorts has also grown rapidly. Beach Tourism requires an enormous amount of water every day and this also is a source of natural sources depletion. If the water comes from wells, over-pumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater.

Local resources

Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food, and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Because of the seasonal character of the industry, many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have (proper heating, hot water, etc.)

Land degradation

Important land resources include fertile soil, forests, wetlands and wildlife. Increased construction of tourism facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic landscapes. Direct impact on natural resources in the provision of tourist facilities can be caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision, and the use of building materials. Forests often suffer negative impacts of tourism in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing.

Pollution:

Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry:

Air emissions
Noise
Solid waste and littering
Releases of sewage
Oil and chemicals
Even architectural/visual pollution
Air pollution and noise

Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number of tourists and their greater mobility. Tourism now accounts for more than 60% of air travel.

One study estimated that a single transatlantic return flight emits almost half the CO2 emissions produced by all other sources (lighting, heating, car use, etc.) consumed by an average person yearly. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level, especially from CO2 emissions related to transportation energy use. And it can contribute to severe local air pollution., cars, buses, (+ snowmobiles and jet skis) In addition to causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for humans, it causes distress to wildlife and can cause animals to alter their natural activity patterns.

Solid waste and littering

In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment – rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. For example, cruise ships in theCaribbeanare estimated to produce more than 70,000 tons of waste each year. Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals. In mountain areas, trekking tourists generate a great deal of waste. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus typical of the developed world, in remote areas that have few garbage collection or disposal facilities.

Sewage

Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities often leads to increased sewage pollution. Wastewater has polluted seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Sewage pollution threatens the health of humans and animals.

Aesthetic Pollution

Often tourism fails to integrate its structures with the natural features and indigenous architectural of the destination. Large, dominating resorts of disparate design can look out of place in any natural environment and may clash with the indigenous structural design. A lack of land-use planning and building regulations in many destinations has facilitated sprawling developments along coastlines, valleys and scenic routes. The sprawl includes tourism facilities themselves and supporting infrastructure such as roads, employee housing, parking, service areas, and waste disposal.

CHAPTER 6

Sustainable tourism development

Sustainable tourism development should be seen as an adaptive paradigm which is part of the parental concepts of development and sustainable development. As a result sustainable tourism development should aim at contributing to the objectives of sustainable development and development. The concept of sustainable development has become a ‘buzzword’ within the international development community (Ahn et al., 2002). The concept developed as a result of a global concern over the degradation of the world’s natural resource base due to economic development. Sustainable development aims at maintaining a balance between environmental quality and economic development. Sustainable development is defined by the World Commission on Environment WCED (1987: 43) as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ The basic principle of sustainable development is inter generational equity: development is sustainable only to the extent that needs, today, can be fulfilled without prejudice to those of future generations (WCED, 1987). This means that the present generation should leave for the next generation a stock of quality-of-life assets no less than those we have inherited (Pearce et al., 1989). Sustainable development promotes development that maintains environmental quality and increased productivity. This suggests a development approach that takes into consideration environmental impacts instead of being controlled purely by market forces.

In relation to tourism development, the meaning of sustainable development has been broadened into a concept that implies long-term viability of good quality natural and human resources (Ahn et al., 2002; Bramwell & Lane, 1993). Sustainable development includes the improvement in the quality of life for host communities, visitor satisfaction, and conservative use of natural and social resources (Ahn et al., 2002; Hunter & Green, 1995; WTO, 1996). Sustainable development is therefore an important concept as far as tourism development is concerned. This is because tourism places additional pressures on the environmental resources upon which it is based and can compromise the future prospects of the local population, and indeed, the expectations of the tourists themselves (Cater, 1991). Tourism as an economic activity is often in danger of destroying the resource base upon which it depends. Plog (1974) states that tourism ‘contains the seeds of its own destruction. Tourism can kill tourism, destroying the environmental attractions which visitors come to a location to experience. Sustainable nature-based tourism should be planned so that both present and future generations should benefit from the same environmental resources.

Sustainable tourism development embodies the interdependence between environmental, social and economic issues (Mybrugh & Saayman, 1999). This means that sustainable tourism should be considered as part of a planning process that integrates tourism with other economic development initiatives in attempting to achieve sustainability. The destruction of tourism resources for short-term gain will deny the benefits to be gained from the mobilisation of the same resources in future (Cater, 1991). Cater notes that both hosts and guests will lose or have no benefits when tourism has destroyed resources that tourists come to see. Host populations will lose in that they will be faced with environmental degradation which will affect their immediate prospects and will also be denied the tourism development potential that the environment offered for the future Cater (1991). Future generations of tourists will be denied the opportunity of experiencing environments very different to those of home (Cater, 1991). Cater (1991), quotes that sustainable tourism should meet the three prime requirements, namely: the needs of host populations in terms of improved standards of living both in the short and long term: the demands of the growing number of tourists; and, that tourism should safeguard the environment. Tosun (2001) acknowledges these prime requirements by stating that sustainable tourism development should achieve the following: contribute to the satisfaction of basic and felt needs in local tourist, destination; reduce inequality and absolute poverty in local tourist destinations; promote self-esteem in local people; accelerate national, regional and local economic growth which is shared fairly across the social spectrum; and, should promote all the mentioned objectives or requirements or objectives renders the industry unsustainable.[1]

World Tourism Organisation and Sustainable tourism – eliminating poverty 6.1

World Tourism Organisation has a mandate from the United Nations to promote and develop tourism on behalf of its 138 government tourist board members and 350 affiliate members (tourism associations, airlines, and hotel groups): it has not explicit interest in reflecting critically on tourism. As noted by Gosling et al. (2004: 145), ‘The WTO currently seeks to establish a positive image of tourism by promoting the industry’s vast job and income generating potential, and by emphasising its pro-environmental and pro poor effects’. Thus the green agenda and the pro-poor agenda have led to new initiatives with the World Tourism Organisation in recent years such as ST-EP but their main motivation is still to promote economic growth through tourism (Regina, 2007).The World Tourism Organisation has identified seven different ways of addressing poverty through tourism which it suggests can be applied in almost every country:

Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises.
Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor.
Direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy).
Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor – for example micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs), or community based enterprises (formal economy).
Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor.
Voluntary giving / support by tourism enterprises and tourists.
Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality, directly or through support to other sectors.

The World Tourism Organisation also refers to how tourism can be used in the ‘war on poverty’ (WTO, 2005). This is interesting language which obviously reflects the ‘war on terror’ waged by the United States government on certain Middle Eastern countries. The two ‘wars are not unrelated (WTO, 2005). Democratic governance and security are seen as key components of a neo liberal poverty agenda. Thus is part the interest of organisations like the World Tourism Organisation in using tourism for poverty alleviation is motivated by the 11th September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, which some analysts interpreted as evidence that ‘endemic poverty underlies instability in many parts of the world’ .Specifically, pro-poor initiatives are attempt to overcome some of the inequalities which are seen since 9/11 as contributing to global insecurity

There is some ‘R word’ which is basically dedicated to suitability of tourism that plays a major part in sustainable tourism

Recognize
Refuse
Replace
Reduce
Re- use
Recycle
Re- engineer
Retrain
Reward
Re- educate

These R’s means the complete meaning in sustainability and a successful sustainable tourism follows these R factors.[3] These are said to be the ten R’s criteria for environmental good practice in tourism business operations[4].

CHAPTER 7

Case Study

Bath is one of the marvellous centres for the purpose of spa work even from the period of the Romans. It is one of the popular historic places from the time of 17th to 18 centuries in the world. It is one of the towns which have been covered by the wall and it has got the narrow streets. It has become one of the heritage place from about 18th century and it is said to be as classical place. The designers of bath were very much influenced by the designers of the Romans and Greeks. Bath is considered to be the little lines of the heritage monumental London in those times itself as of about 18th century. It was in no better state than any other English towns. It was one of the developing recognition of the spa resort that has developed and has got great recognition and has even gone the historic places. And at present bath has the population of more than 85000. And the city has go the biggest employers as of in relation to the health Authority, the ministry of defence and the bath and North east Somerset council.

The study is to take the research steps in relation to the residents of the city and their positive and negative opinions or the perceptions in relation to the tourism activities in the Bath city. Now the study is going to concern about the relationship between the positive and the negative opinions of the residents and the specific policies for the tourism activities.

To understand the perceptions of the activities of tourism of the residents opinion to the residents. The use of the statistical techniques to evaluate the perception data of the residents of the residents. Evaluating the perception of the residents is very complex task. The studies of the local or regional basis would look like the opportunities so as to demonstrate the perceptions of the residents of the city. The study is in relation to provide the clear picture of the methodology by the means of reliability and feasibility of the information accessed about the residents of the city. The statistical analysis is in need to analyse the perception of the local residents of the city in relation to the heritage tourism of the Bath city. The statistical techniques help to evaluate the opinions of the residents clearly. Beyond the economy and the activities of tourism, in the community residents play an important role and they also influence the gain or loss of economy and for the success or failure of the industry. The residents are also acting as one of the major factor affecting the tourism industry. Their participation in activities, their planning and development, their involvement in the tourism industry also influences a lot. They are the stakeholders of their heritage tourist place. They must get a proper balance of the costs and benefits of the tourism industry as of being the resident in such a heritage place. There is in need of the management strategies to say that their willingness to live or not to live in such a heritage tourist place. So as to analyse these attitudes of the residents statistical investigation analysis is in need.

The Georgian city of Bath, built on the cleansing properties of its spa waters, is not quite as healthy as it seems. The air around its main roads is among the most polluted in the UK.

Council monitoring stations across the city’s major road network reveal the stark truth: levels of pollution in the city are at a worrying high. The nitrogen dioxide released in car fumes – as well as cigarettes – is one of the most harmful air

Pollutants around.

Health threat

Government guidelines put safe levels at 40 mg per cubic meter. But this is regularly exceeded around Georgian Bath and in some cases even reaching double the safe level. “We believe that these levels of pollution represent a serious long-term threat to the health of residents,” says Patrick Rotheram of the Federation of Bath Residents’ Associations. “The limit of 40 mg is exceeded all over the city. Bath has a particular problem of geography – it’s surrounded by hills and a lot of traffic comes through,” he continues.

Dangerous fumes

Various surveys over the years have highlighted Bath’s problems. One, in 2004, likened 24-hours on the notorious traffic-hotspot London Roadto smoking 20 cigarettes. Another put Bath in second place in the UK for most polluted city.

“You do notice the exhaust fumes,” says Tony Farrelly, a resident who goes everywhere by bicycle.

“But you do not expect a town likeBathto be that polluted, especially when you get to the edges and you can smell the beautiful fresh air.”

Pressuring the government

Bath City Council has now decided to designate all of its main roads as Air Quality Management Areas. It will not improve the air overnight, but could bring the city the money it needs to find alternative routes for through traffic. “There will not be immediate changes,” says Councilor Charles Gerrish. “Because of the immense cost of coming up with a solution the sort of money required isn’t available from the council in isolation.”Therefore we need to use this as a way to add weight to the bids we have to central government,” he insists.

In the meantime though, residents and visitors alike will have to cope with levels of nitrogen dioxide well above the recommended safe guideline.

Meeting the standards

The government says all cities must comply with this guideline by 2010.

Here for the study, in the process of the quantitative methodological manner, the questionnaire in the form of random has been sent the mail of the questionnaire to the bath residents in random. By considering that the mail survey is one of the quick and also the low cost manner of collecting information from the residents of the Bath city. The limitation of choosing this mail survey method is that the candidate is not in present, there may be some chances of misrepresentation of any confusion may arise while understanding the question of the questionnaires. So a simple mail survey questions has been considered in the study to avoid the confusions for the respondents. The questionnaire has been designed to know about historic cities instrument and also in relation to the socio economic and the demographic characteristics were often significant. The Likert scale has also been applied as of agree, strongly agree, strongly disagree. Each and every part of the questionnaire has been designed for the tourism development.

While selecting the sample of the population the each and every challenges has been considered among the various populations across the various populations of the city.

Bath and North East Somerset is home to some of the most impressive Roman and Georgian architecture in Europe. Bath owes its existence to it shot springs. The remains of the Roman Baths fed by the springs are among the best preserved in the world and a major international tourist destination. Heritage Services is a business unit within the Council which operates at no cost to the local taxpayer. The Service has a staff of 104 full-time equivalent posts and returns a net surplus of ?3 million per annum to the Council. Through its rolling 5-year business plan, the Service maximises the commercial opportunities offered by the Council’s world-class heritage assets. The vision of Bath and North East Somerset Library Service is “to enrich and empower every individual and community throughout their lives by offering access to resources for information, learning and enjoyment”.

Libraries support lifelong learning for all ages from early years activity such as baby rhyme times, story times and Book start, to computer training for adults and a loan service to over 62 elderly people’s homes and over 300 housebound individuals. More than 4,700 children up to the age of 3 have received Bookstart Packs this year and 1,600 children in their first term at school received books distributed in co-operation with the School Improvement Service through the Book time scheme. Over 3,500 children and their carers have attended pre-school activities in libraries during the year. Additionally, in partnership with Children’s Services, library provision to under-fives and their families has been extended by creating mini-libraries in Children’s Centres in Twerton and atSt Martin’s Garden.

The partnership has

increased annual usage of leisure centers and golf courses by 13%
improved overall levels of customer satisfaction across a range of targets, including cleanliness and customer service
improved accessibility by expanding the range of people entitled to concessionary prices
raised membership in concessionary categories from 15% to 51% over three years

Bath Festivals Ltd achieved the following

total attendance for the Bath International Music Festival and Bath Literature Festival was 35,849
more than 3,600 children and young people from over 24 schools inBathand North East Somerset participated in more than 70 festival events and activities
the organization attracted ?922,000 of additional investment, adding an additional ?2 to every ?1 of Council investment

Services provided by Bath Tourism Plus include

? co-ordinating a Tourist Information Centre and retail shop generating over ?160,000 of revenue

? organizing promotional events and co-ordinating public relations and media activity

providing a conference and venues booking service

Visitor survey data has shown the following

In its first full year of operation Thermae Bath Spa welcomed over 130,000 visitors
18% of visitors were local residents, and 20% of these made repeat visits
91% of visitors surveyed were very pleased with their Spa experience
the Spa facilities are used regularly by disabled visitors

There are no surprises about what draws people to Bath. The architecture and beauty of the city score highest mentioned by 34 percent of respondents; next comes the relaxed and romantic atmosphere (19 percent); followed by attractions such as the Roman Baths and sightseeing (8 percent). The choice of shopping, all weather activities and compactness of the city were other positive factors.

In the study it is the 24 item questionnaire with the 120 respondents of the city has been considered. By considering the two factor solution the results of the sample as of specified by the residents. The two factor solution have specified

Results indicate that the domains within sample data signified residents where the first factor of the Eigen value is 6.2 and where as the second factor is the 1.9.

CHAPTER 8
Findings:
Sl.NoParticularsYES NO
1.
Is tourist activity increased by years5763
2.
Born in the city3387
3.
Employed in the tourism industry4179
4.
Do the benefits outweigh the negative consequences8931
5.
Do the tourism improves the appearance of the city7149
6.
Do the increase in tourist numbers improves the economy6456
7.
Is there any increase in the recreational opportunities8436
8.
Do you like your city to become more of a tourist destination3387
9.
Is there any improvement in the quality of life4575
10.
Does tourism provides good job for residents2298
11.
Here the tourism businesses are very much influenced politically4179
12.
Local government should restrict tourism4872
13.
Local government should control tourism6555
14.
There is negative effect on the environment8733
15.
Increases the tax of council9129
16.
Tourism leads to more litter on the streets1155
17.
Need to pay more attractions9624
18.
Increases the amount of crime7446
19.
Increases unfairly the property prices9822
20.
Quality of my outdoor recreation is good7743
21.
Increases the traffic in the city1119

(1) Age of the residents:

AGENumber of Residents
18-257

26-3524

36-4536

46-5541

56 & ABOVE12

TOTAL120

(2) Length of residence in the city in years:

YEARSNumber of Residents
0 TO55

5 TO 1012

10 TO 2022

20 TO 3056

30& ABOVE25

TOTAL120

(3) Employed in the tourism industry:

YES41

NO79

(4) Benefits overweigh the negative consequences:

YES56

NO64

Results of the factor analysis:

Domain Bath Sample Item DescriptorFactor Loadings
POSITIVEBenefits outweigh negative consequences0.71
Tourism improves appearance of the city0.49
Increasing tourist numbers improves the economy0.70
Increase in recreational opportunities0.61
Need to become more of a tourist destination0.66
Improvement in the quality of life0.61
To attract more tourists0.63
Long term planning controls negative impacts0.40
Tourism provides good jobs for residents0.62
Tourism should play vital role in the future0.75
Support local tax for tourism0.29
Influence tourism decisions0.24
When i talk to fellow residents I am positive0.38
NEGATIVETourism businesses too influentially politically0.49
Local govt should restrict tourism0.62
Local govt should control tourism0.40
Negative effect on environment0.41
Increases the council tax0.45
Leads to more litter on the streets0.43
Should pay more attractions0.47
Unfairly increases property prices0.40
Quality of my outdoor recreation0.55
Increases the amount of crime0.64
Increases the traffic in the city.0.40

Mean scores for the tourism Impact Statements

Tourism impact statementsMean scores
POSITIVETourism improving the economy3.94
Benefits of tourism outweighs its negative impacts3.48
Play a vital role in the future3.56
Good jobs for residents3.46
Should not try to attract more tourists2.92
Improve the appearance of the city3.01
Increases recreational opportunities2.92
Should become more tourist destination2.84
Development increases the quality of life2.63
Fellow residents I am positive3.34
A local tax levy for tourism2.24
I can personally influence tourism decisions2.05
Mean for the scale3.19
NEGATIVETourism increases traffic4.27
Leads to more litter3.79
Development increases council tax3.17
Increases property prices3.10
Businesses are too influential politically3.28
Increases the amount of crime3.11
Negatively affects the environment3.23
Reduces quality of outdoor recreation2.84
Local govt should control tourism3.71
Local govt should restrict tourism3.01
Tourists should pay more for attractions3.51
Mean for scale3.35
Mean for all items3.35

The 1st hypothesis (Ho): no underlying dimensions will emerge

From the analysis of the resident responses to tourism development issues within theBath.

The 2nd null hypothesis (Ho): It is not possible to predict residents’ attitudes of tourism development according to their socio economic and the demographic characteristics, and the positive and the negative perceptions of the tourism.

A series of seven regression equations are computed as follows. The dependent variables are selected to assess the residents’ socio economic and the demographic characteristics. The work need to attract more number of tourists in the development of the tourism industry. The decisions in regard to the development of the city.

Independent variablesRegression 1Regression 2
BetaR sqrTPBetaR sqrTP
Income-0.02-3.5-0.0-0.03
Length of residence0.020.360.050.81
Distance of residence from tourism0.051.10.071.5
Born in city0.030.62-0.01-0.08
Home ownership-0.06-1.2-0.09-1.7
Age-0.06-1.30.081.4
Gender0.030.620.023.4
Year round the residence0.07-0.011.70.060.11.1
Importance of tourism to occupation0.050.071.10-0.01-0.24
Employed in the tourism industry0.030.570.7700.030.040.520.03
Positive opinion0.640.612.900.470.418.30
Negative opinion-0.19-3.9-3.10.47-5.40

The significance of the resident characteristics can be analysed that the positive and the negative attitudes of the residents of the city are predicted economic reliance is ( R sqr – 07;p<0.001) the positive scale offers the significant degree of the explanation (R sqr – 0.03; p < 0.001) . These results suggest that the as of the positive attitudes increase and negative ones decrease, they are increasingly in the supportive mode for the further more development of the bath city.

And the regression 2 is that the tourists are not interested to attract still more tourists. The r square being the 47% of these achieved the possible levels.

The positive attitude scale is of explanation of variance is of ( R Sqr = 0.41; p < 0.001) and negative attitudes scale explanation of variance ( R Sqr change = 0.06; p < 0.001). The independent variables accounted for the 65% of variance within equations. Economic reliance was significant. And the negative scale was insignificant. The equation accounted for 44% of variance. Resident characteristics were against insignificant, while economic reliance was significant.

Regression of the one item on resident attitude:
Independent variablesRegression 1
BetaR sqrTP
Income-0.1-1.4
Length of residence-0.1-1.1
Distance of residence from tourism0.193.1
Born in city0.11.5
Home ownership0.050.64
Age-0.13-1.7
Gender-0.020.37
Year round the residence0.020.041.20.018
Importance of tourism to occupation0.090.05-0.880.123
Employed in the tourism industry-0.060.082.80.002
Positive opinion0.210.080.160.873
Negative opinion0.01

Those living away from the centre reporting a greater sense of the influence over the decision making activities are in the process. The positive and negative attitude dimensions appeared to be effective as of in the case of predicting support for tourism development. The regression equation has found that of the 40% of the variance. In bath the length of the residence was again the great contributor to the overall explanation to the variance. Finally the significant residents as it is the people perceived relevance of a significant contribution of the industry. The inclusion of the negative attitude scale is actually intended to act as the check on the data responses of the residents.

Regression of two items on resident attitude:
Independent variablesRegression 1Regression 2
BetaR sqrTPBetaR sqrTP
Income0.020.382-0.07-1.1
Length of residence-0.14-2.0-0.050.747
Distance of residence from tourism0.030.700.020.386
Born in city0.061.00.122.0
Home ownership0.030.56-0.02-0.37
Age0.061.00.040.61
Gender-0.03-5.7-0.05-0.98
Year round the residence0.050.040.990.050.031.00.042
Importance of tourism to occupation0.122.10.20-0.1-1.8
Employed in the tourism industry0.060.111.00.000.030.080.540.00
Positive opinion0.06-0.560.36-10.60.00
Negative opinion-0.540.4-10.60.00

Socio economic reliance and the positive and the negative attitudes of the residents of the city. residents are of positive attitudes and the ability to predict the negative attitudes of tourism in the bath. These results indicate that the potentiality for predicting the attitudes of the historic cities according to certain residential characteristics.

Impact of the heritage tourism;

the purpose of the research is just to evaluate the attitudes of the residents of the city to examine their attitudes in regard to the development of the historic city of Bath. The study is to examined and found that there is the rejection of the null hypothesis. It is the result of the two factors. By increase in the dimensions of the city and with the development of the tourism in the city and with the proper planning and understanding and by the comparative analysis leads to the place for various approaches.

The various group of variables which in concern related to the economic reliance proved consistently predictive with the support of the tourism development. These variable factors are in deed help to support the tourism development and the beneficial economically and it leads to the lower incomes and in the residents were more likely to support increased tourism, and in turn leads to the city becoming one of the favourite visiting place.

It can be stated with the confidence whether or not socio economic and demographic variables are significant indicators of distinct attitudes.

Bath leads to enablement of the rejection of the second null hypothesis by requesting for the some variables, so that the researchers can provide the conclusion of the perceived tourism of the city.

Conclusion:

The purpose of the study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the residents of the Bath city, by the means of the socio economic impact understanding and by the process of fragmentation and by the help of the recommendations have been consolidated. The socio economic impacts are not just enough to make any of the strong conclusions to understand the attitude of the resident of the bath city in United Kingdom. And the study is in turn to push the tourism development. The study has found out the disseminate and even it helps to compete and balance the competing pressures. By the help of the statistical measures as of the regression analysis and the value of alpha and beta. And with the help of the developed questionnaire concentrated generally on the general issues of the city in relation to concern of the residents. The objective is to concentrate on the conduct of the future planning and management of the more particular and the reflective destinations of the country. Socio economic impact of the tourism is to achieve the satisfactory feeling for both the tourists and the local residents of the city.

Heritage tourism stimulates both depth and breadth in tourism, creates new markets for local and regional arts and crafts, extends tourism seasons, and encourages adaptation of existing products (ie. accommodation; tours).

• Heritage and historic tourism is globally attractive to governments because it has demonstrated an ability to contribute to the rejuvenation of regional and inner-city urban areas.

• Unlike many tourism products, historic and heritage tourism can spread economic benefits across a greater geographical area through themed trails and driving routes, rather than concentrating in single locations.

• There is a propensity for heritage tourists to stay and spend on accommodation provided within villages, towns and cities, unlike nature-based tourists who travel with greater levels of self-sufficiency. Heritage and historic tourism is one of the most rapidly expanding tourism Segments in terms of visitor numbers globally.

• Growth is being driven largely, but not exclusively, by the powerful “baby boomer” demographic, an economic force representing considerable time availability, discretionary income and personal interests.

• Visitor attendances, globally and withinUnited Kingdomare consistently higher at historic places and heritage sites than at art galleries, museums, casinos, Arts events and Indigenous cultural activities.

The investigation is in need to come in contact with attitudes of the residents with the strategies of the policy makers in a way that which can be able provide a basis for policies more securely required in the needs of host. Resident attitudes are fully utilized in involving the residents in the consultation of the city tourism development.

The analysis shows that the problems in relation to the heritage tourism and its development in the developed countries resident is being analysed in the study. the tourism includes commercialization and also concentrates on commoditization and even by undermining the cultural authenticity, the problems faced by the local residents of theBathcity are neither adequate nor powerful. They are in the controversial position as of being the residents of such an heritage city. There exist many mobilized arguments in relation to the residence and tourism sustainability and the process of development. In real the local residents are generally in the embracing position of being in such a community and in such a society. The economic benefits are also not such bad extent, as the tourism is providing employment opportunities also for the residents of the city. These are not merely abstract, intellectual problems of legitimacy and authenticity. In actual situation the heritage tourism has lead to some problems like eclipsing of the heritage dimension of heritage tourism, homogenization of tourist products, and dying out of cultural producers, knowledge, and technologies.

These are not merely abstract, intellectual problems of legitimacy and authenticity. Their impact is practical, more culturally sustainable policies and Management are crucial for preventing negative consequences of heritage tourism in Bath city tourism from going into the decline phase of its lifecycle as quickly as other over-exploited heritage tourist destinations do.

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Questionnaire

For the Residents of BATH CITY

Name
Sex & Age :
Place of Residence :
Education :
Occupation :
Is tourist activity increased by years : Yes/ No
What is the length of residence in the city in years :
Born in the city : Yes/ No
Employed in the tourism industry: Yes/ No
Do the benefits outweigh the negative consequences : Yes/ No
Do the tourism improves the appearance of the city : Yes/ No
Do the increase in tourist numbers improves the economy: Yes/ No
Is there any increase in the recreational opportunities : Yes/ No
Do you like your city to become more of a tourist destination: Yes/ No
Is there any improvement in the quality of life: Yes/ No
Does tourism provides good job for residents : Yes/ No
Here the tourism businesses are very much influenced politically: Yes/ No
Local government should restrict tourism: Yes/ No
Local government should control tourism: Yes/ No
There is negative effect on the environment : Yes/ No
Increases the tax of council: Yes/ No
Tourism leads to more litter on the streets ; Yes/ No
Need to pay more attractions : Yes/ No
Increases the amount of crime : Yes/ No
Increases unfairly the property prices : Yes/ No
Quality of my outdoor recreation is good: Yes/ No
Increases the traffic in the city: Yes/ No

Categories
Free Essays

Tourism and hospitality operations management

INTRODUCTION

Operations management in tourism and hospitality refers to the work done in the different fields of hotel industry. Jobs in the hospitality industry, such as hotels, restaurants, catering, resorts and casinos as well as other hospitality positions that deal with tourists generally, refers to hospitality. Hospitality involves the relationship process between the hotel and a guest and the act of being hospitable, such as guest reception and entertainment with friendliness, goodwill and liberality. Tourists who travel for recreation or leisure purposes is related to tourist management. In recent years, tourism has become a popular global leisure activity among worldwide customers. The project is about Ramada Encore London West.

TASK ONE

1.1 Quality and its benefits within the Hospitality context

Quality means, serving in a manner which suits to the tourist within the limits of the industry. It also refers to the quality provided to the people who have visited an individuals’ place. The best of the services provided by the operations team is called quality.

Delivering quality service is one of the major challenges facing hospitality managers in the opening years of the millennium. It is be an essential condition for success in the emerging, keenly competitive, global hospitality markets. While the future importance of delivering quality hospitality service is easy to discern and to agree on, doing so presents some difficult and intriguing management issues.

Since the delivery of hospitality service always involves people, these issues centre on the management of people, and in particular on the interactions between guests and staff, interactions that are called service encounters. In the eyes of our guests, our hospitality businesses will succeed or fail depending on the cumulative impact of the service encounters in which they have participated.

It is easy to check the importance of managing these service encounters.Think back to the last time you visited a hotel or restaurant.Service encounters are the building blocks of quality hospitality service. First, hospitality managers should identify each encounter in the chain that they wish to take apart, and then single out those that are of operational or strategic significance – in effect, focusing in on the few encounters that really make a difference to guest experience and thus to the bottom line.

Second, apply what we have called the 6 S’s to improving these critical encounters through effective redesign.

While the first step may seem obvious, it is important to identify a service chain and then to break it down into the component encounters. Too much detail takes time and resources, and may confuse rather than clarify.Too little and we may miss important problems.The process is iterative, with more detail needed in some areas and less in others, and with an overriding consideration that the chain is assessed not just from the point of view of a manager but also from that of a guest.

Those that add significant value to the guest, those that cost in time or money, those that help to differentiate the business from its competitors, and those where significant innovation is possible or occurring.

Hospitality service encounters run the gamut from those that are very trivial to those that are highly critical. They vary greatly in their nature and may be simple or complex, standard or custom, low tech or high tech, remote or friendly, low or high skill, frequent or occasional, and so on. They can be instrumental dealing with the performance of necessary utilitarian activities or can involve emotion-laden hospitality events.

An initial management task is to understand a service encounter by discerning and dealing with those attributes that are most important to guests. In doing so, pertinent questions must be raised about the specific service encounter(s) under consideration. With respect to a particular service encounter, hospitality managers might raise many questions like the following:

The specific encounter(s) under consideration will, of course, indicate the kinds of questions that should be pursued. It is important to obtain adequate information to understand the situation thoroughly. Determining the context of a situation relating to a hospitality encounter that has gone wrong establishes parameters for improvement.

All this is part of the second step.With the information at hand hospitality managers can organize, and analyze the data and it is here that the 6S approach can help. These are:

Specification Staff Space System Support Style

Specification means clearly detailing information about the what, when, where, and how, of service encounters. It requires giving careful thought to the linkages between particular service encounters and others in the service chain.

When hospitality managers have carried out these two step process they will be in an excellent position to make decisions that will both improve the quality of hospitality services provided and guest perceptions of them. Zeroing in on hospitality service quality in this manner will help hospitality businesses meet the service challenges of the millennium, enhance their market positions, and reap the associated profit rewards.

Staff in the hospitality industry must be trained to enhance all the issues resolved in time, before the consumers enable to dismantle the theory of having been not satisfied with the hotel staff and the services provided.

The hotel must have a very good accommodation to have all its clients feel at home. A good space leads to more impressive and lucrative offers for the consumers to come at regular intervals. Space means a big area being controlled and operated by the hotel management and the staff.

There should be discipline in the work being allotted to each and every department. That means that the system of working as a family and in a healthy atmosphere be supplemented and enhanced to face any number of customers in the hotel.

Support from all the managerial staff makes a real sense of developing the adjustments made by the hotel.

The presentation of the hotel should be in such a way that it attracts the eyes of the clients. The style applied to all the rooms, bar, restaurant, pool side and the lobby must be so much eccentric that the onlookers feel proud to be the part of such an organization.

More than ever it is important for businesses to be offering the best service to their clients and ensuring that their needs are being met so they stay loyal customers. The increasing use of electronic communication benefits business with efficiency gains but can be detrimental with the interaction with clients. We all need to hold onto and look after our customers and one of the best ways to obtain quality time with valuable clients as well as potential clients and top performing employees is to take them to an exclusive or very popular event such as a high profile sporting event demonstrating to them how much you value them. The best way to spend time at an event is going with a corporate package, for many reasons.

Firstly by doing it in style and creating a special occasion people will remember it for years to come and will certainly show how much you value them by going that bit further than buying tickets to the event. Taking employees and clients here will pay you dividends in the future as it will encourage loyalty and continue bringing in valuable income.

Using hospitality facilities will provide you with space to spend time with valuable clients and those contacts that you want to convert into customers. Having that prime location at the event gives you a huge benefit over sitting in a crowded and noisy stadium. It is a much better suited environment to enjoy the event while talking business too.

Going with a hospitality package can often give you the opportunity to network as other companies will be sharing the facilities with their clients. You can find valuable clients and contacts this way.

Supplier selection criteria for a particular product or service category should be defined by a “cross-functional” team of representatives from different sectors of your organization. In a manufacturing company, for example, members of the team typically would include representatives from purchasing, quality, engineering and production. Team members should include personnel with technical/applications knowledge of the product or service to be purchased, as well as members of the department that uses the purchased item.

Common supplier selection criteria:

Previous experience and past performance with the product/service to be purchased.

Relative level of sophistication of the quality system, including meeting regulatory requirements or mandated quality system registration (for example, ISO 9001, QS-9000).

Ability to meet current and potential capacity requirements, and do so on the desired delivery schedule.

Financial stability.

Technical support availability and willingness to participate as a partner in developing and optimizing design and a long-term relationship.

Total cost of dealing with the supplier (including material cost, communications methods, inventory requirements and incoming verification required).

The supplier’s track record for business-performance improvement.

Total cost assessment.

Methods for determining how well a potential supplier fits the criteria:

Obtaining a Dun & Bradstreet or other publicly available financial report.

Requesting a formal quote, which includes providing the supplier with specifications and other requirements (for example, testing).

Visits to the supplier by management and/or the selection team.

Confirmation of quality system status either by on-site assessment, a written survey or request for a certificate of quality system registration.

Discussions with other customers served by the supplier.

Review of databases or industry sources for the product line and supplier.

Evaluation (SUCH AS prototyping, lab tests, OR validation testing) of samples obtained from the supplier.

The Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism serves as a medium to share and disseminate new research findings, theoretical development and superior practices in hospitality and tourism service quality. The journal aims to publish cutting-edge empirically and theoretically sound research articles which advance and foster hospitality and tourism research and practices. Academicians and practitioners explore current and important development information on quality planning, development, management, marketing, evaluation, and adjustments within the field. As a result, this journal will help readers to keep up-to-date on the latest theory development and research findings, improve business practices, stay informed of successful hospitality strategies, maintain profit requirements, and increase their market share in this complex and growing field.

Comprised of conceptual and methodological research papers, research notes, case studies, and review books and conferences the Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism offers readers examples of real world practices and experiences that involve: organizational development and improvement operational and efficiency issues quality policy and strategy service quality improvement and customer satisfaction managerial issues, such as employee empowerment & benefits, quality costs, & returns on investment the role and participation of private and public sectors, including residents international, national, and regional tourism; tourism destination sites; arid systems of tourism

Allowing readers the opportunity to share experiences and thoughts with colleagues in the field, this journal also contains several columns that examine different and valuable information sources, including:research notes– significant findings related to the goals of the journal dissertations and master’s theses abstracts– examine quality assurance & related topics book reviews– recently published works that discuss the strengths & structure of the book, subject matter, readability, and discussions about the work’s contribution to existing practices and knowledge in the field conference reviews– highlighting & discussing specific papers presented at conferences & their importance in the field web site reviews– interesting & helpful hospitality & tourism web sites.

Covering several crucial areas in each issue, this journal provides essential information that can be applied to businesses, the classroom, and new research projects. Bringing together a variety of perspectives from around the world, the Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism has the current, comprehensive, and vital information necessary to evaluate the quality of services and improve customer satisfaction in a cost-effective manner.

1.2 Quality Awards/Systems that Hospitality Organizations operate within

The concept of quality management in hospitality industry is very important. The hospitality industry is one of the most important industries in the world that has been growing at unique rate owing to the increased rate of globalization. The amplified activities in tourism industry and improved international trade are among the factors that have led to increased growth of the hospitality industry. There has been increased trend towards equivalence of services in the hospitality industry and this is being driven by the need for augmentation of quality of services. As the level of competition increase in the industry, the competitive advantage has been created through provision of high quality services. In order to understand the trend in enrichment of quality of services in the industry, this paper will review a number of studies on the subject.

The case of Ramada Encore London West discusses how total quality management has been used in London in the enhancement of quality in thehospitality industry. This acknowledges that total quality management is a concept that has gained increased use in the hospitality industry. In recognition of the importance of quality management in the hospitality industry, the ISO 9000 has been an important step in setting standards for the implementation of total quality management in the industry. Enhancement of quality in the hospitality industry is cited to increase the level of customer satisfaction, increased sales and better profits for business in the hospitality industry.

Total Quality Management (TQM) is however sometimes difficult to implement in hospitality industry owing to the difficult in identifying some of the most appropriate quality measures. This study identified the need to use the quality triangle in hospitality industry including focus on customers, team work approach to unify goals, and use of scientific approach in decision making. Through comparing TQM in manufacturing and hospitality industry, the study gives important review on how hospitality industry can use the TQM concept to improve their services. This study is important since it shows how organization in the hospitality industry can actually use TQM concept to enhance quality in their products and services. It is important to understand that TQM is s wholesome approach which doesn’t only look at one aspect of quality management but concentrate on quality in on all aspects.

HACCP is one of the most important aspects in TQM that defines quality. HACCP defines the important points at which quality should be ensured. Through understanding the important points in the process of food production or offering of service where quality can be enhanced, it become easier to enhance quality. While HACCP is an important factor in quality enhancement process that has been used in large food manufacturers, it has been slowly employed in the small business especially in the hospitality industry. The study found out that there are more than eleven barriers to enhancement of HACCP in enhancement of quality. This has one of the most comprehensive studies in implementation of HAACP in the hospitality industry.The findings of the study are important since they show the importance of HACCP in enhancement of quality of products and services in hospitality industry.

Quality enhancement is important in determining the rating of hotels in hospitality industry. It is also related to princes of products and services in the industry. In their study on Quality and Pricing in the Hotel Industry: The Mobil “Star” and Hotel Pricing Behaviour, Henley, Cotter, and Duncan (2004) argues that price is closely tied to pricing of products. They argue that quality is one of the most important determinants of price not only in hospitality industry but also in other industries as well. However, they concede that it is fortunate that in the hospitality industry, quality evaluation and prince information are availed for consumer and have also been published in consumer guides. They give the example of The Mobili Travel Guides as one of the most important sources of information regarding quality and price of products offered in hospitality industry. To find whether hotels usually do change their pricing and quality strategy when their rating is affected in such consumer guides. This study found out that price is tied to quality of services and products. Most hotels raises their prices when their rating goes higher and lowers the consequently when their rating is lowered, and the same happens at Ramada Encore London West. The results are important to enhancement of quality in hospitality industry. It reveals that quality of service offered has an effect on rating of the hotels and hence the price of their product.

There are different factors affecting the quality of services in the hospitality industry. In their review of different factors affecting quality in the Ramada Encore London West shows that the growth of tourisms industry in different parts of the world have led to increased attention to quality assurance in the hospitality industry. The hotel looked into influence of consumer perception on quality of services, the study found out that different factors like previous acquaintance with the hotel, perception and efficiency, perception of value, type of restaurant services, quality of conference facilities, and staff attitudes are among the important factors that affect consumer perception of quality in a given hotel. It is important to operators in the industry who want to improve their quality since they would focus on these factors. It implies that to enhance quality, hotels must understand the important factors that are used by consumers to assess quality of services and products and henceforth improve them.

Employees of Ramada Encore London West have a lot of influence on the quality of service offered by the organization. Employees are the main point of contact between organization and the customers. Following the HACCP model, this is an important point and there should be efforts to enhance quality at this point. In deed, this point has been reinforced by Kattara, Dina, and El-Saidin their study on the impact of employee behaviour on customers’ service quality perceptions and overall satisfaction. In this study, Kattara et al., (2008) attempted to investigate the relationship between the positive and negative employee behaviour, customer sensitivity of the quality of service offered and the satisfaction of the employees. This study revealed that employee behaviours whether negative or positive are well correlated with customer satisfaction. Through review of past and current literature, the study found out that customer discernment is mainly influenced by the quality of service they received at a given hotel. This study is important enhancement of quality in the hospitality industry since it looked at the relationship between employees and their customers.

Consumers are also important determinant of the quality of service offered in the industry through their reviews.Consumer awareness is an important factor that can be used by consumers to show the level of quality in the industry. While a manager may think that their service are quality, customer many think otherwise. Therefore the author suggests setting up a program that will assist in monitoring go standards of services to enhance quality.

Quality management is not only about ornamental quality of goods and services.

The hospitality industry in has not been keen on integrating occupation health and safety with quality management systems. If OHS is not integrated with quality management system, most organization can degenerate from health participatory process to mere bureaucratic management tool. The findings of this study are important since they show the importance of integrating OHS and quality systems. Both concepts are closely related and enhance each other.

1.3 Internal System within the Front Office Area

The Front Office utility of a Hotel is to act as the public face of the hotel, chiefly by greeting hotel consumers and checking in guests.

It also provides assistance to guests during their stay completes their lodgings, food and beverage, accounts and receives payment from guests.

Department is typically poised of

1. Reception

2. Reservation

3. Concierge

4. PBX (phone service system)

5. Telephone

a) Front Office: Sell guestrooms; register guests and design guestrooms. Coordinate guest services provide information. Maintain precise room statistics, and room key inventories. Maintain guest account statements and complete proper financial settlements

b) Reservation: Receive and process reservation requests for future overnight accommodations. With technology development, the Reservation Department can, on real time, access the number and types of rooms available, various room rates, and furnishings, along with the various facilities existing in the hotel Edgar Dsouz

FRONT OFFICE – is the “nerve center” in the entire hotel operations. All the transaction passes through within this department.

The Front Office Department comprise of the Reception, Guest Service Offices, Bell Services, Reservation, Operators, Executive Club, Health and Recreation Center and Business Center. The purpose of the Front Office Department is to provide guests assistance with luggage, transportation, information concerning the hotel and the city, and any other service arrangements needed during their stay.

Employees of the Front Office Department often provide the first and last impression of the hotel to our guests. It is therefore vitally important that employees display a prompt and courteous attitude to all guests and demonstrate the excellence in service.

The Front Office Manager who comes under the direct supervision of the Director of Rooms and supervises the Front Office Department

Important of Front Office Department to the Hotel

.Hospitality, warm welcome

.Often provide first and last impression.

.Often have longest contact with guest.

.Continuity: Long term service, recognition of repeat guests, remember names, guest histories.

.Acquaint guest with hotel.

.Sell hotel food and beverage outlets.

.Upsell: Suggest deluxe and suites.

.Smoother over disgruntled guests.

TASK TWO

2.1 Supply Chain Management Strategies

For the organizations which are concerned in tourism, competence is conditioned, among other determinants, by the harmonization and synchronization of all participants’ efforts from the unambiguous performance chain: tourism services suppliers, tour-operators, travel agencies and tourists themselves. Among these participants, a special role is assigned to the tour-operators. Going from certain tourism attractions, they take upon themselves the manufacture of those products that are required by tourists, assembling the different basic and complementary tourism services that are offered by numerous services suppliers, and further, distributing them to the retailers, or directly to the tourists. The impact of their activity is very strong because through the realized products they incorporate different types of tourist services. Going from these aspects and analyzing in a similar manner the tourism activity as the material goods manufacturing activity from logistical point of view, it can be said that, successful activity can be achieved when those different participants categories act like a system, into a supply chain. On tour-operators’ level, the supply chain management incorporates, among the others, planning and management activities concerning purchasing suppliers selection, internal logistics’ management, as well as collaboration with all marketing channel partners. Internal logistics involves activities that refers to purchasing, operations’ support and some aspects that are similar with physical distribution, the supply chain being structured by cooperation between a various number of participants, from raw materials suppliers (their impact is visible especially in catering, foods or beverage suppliers services), up to end consumers. Otherwise, the role of the last category is more important because they lend the tourism activity specific nature, through there’s participation on a successful holiday product.

Supply chains evolve in harmony with changes in the market and their ambitions. The fruition of supply chain is correlated to different elements of progress in the business context referred to as performance capacity, innovation and clock speed. These correlations are the starting point of moving the chain towards the higher goals and therefore are of most importance. In order to assure that the chain is moving on the right path in its evolutionary journey, the journey must start based on the most precise data available.

Different firms and diverse supply chains have dissimilar business strategies and value propositions, and answering those questions is often harder than one might imagine. To illustrate, let’s look at some examples of metrics that are mis-aligned: cases in which a company discovered that they weren’t measuring the things that really mattered to their customers.

Companies must always be concerned with their competition. Today’s marketplace is shifting from individual company presentation to supply chain performance: the entire chain’s ability to meet end-customer needs through product availability and responsive, on-time delivery. Supply chain performance crosses both functional lines and company boundaries. Functional groups (engineering/R&D, manufacturing, and sales/marketing) are all instrumental in designing, building, and selling products most efficiently for the supply chain, and traditional company boundaries are changing as companies discover new ways of working together to achieve the ultimate supply chain goal: the ability to fill customer orders faster and more efficiently than the competition.

To accomplish that goal, you need performance process, or “metrics”, for global supply chain performance improvements. Your performance measures must show not only how well you are providing for your customers (service metrics) but also how you are handling your business (speed, asset/inventory, and financial metrics). Given the cross-functional environment of many supply chain improvements, your metrics must prevent “organizational silo” behaviour which can hinder supply chain routine.

Supply Chain Strategies are the critical backbone to Business Organizations today. Effective Market coverage, Availability of Products at locations which hold the key to revenue recognition depends upon the effectiveness of Supply Chain Strategy rolled out. Very simply stated, when a product is introduced in the market and advertised, the entire market in the country and all the sales counters need to have the product where the customer is able to buy and take delivery. Any glitch in product not being available at the right time can result in drop in customer interest and demand which can be disastrous. Transportation network design and management assume importance to support sales and marketing strategy.

Inventory control and inventory visibility are two very critical elements in any operations for these are the cost drivers and directly impact the bottom lines in the balance sheet. Inventory means value and is an asset of the company. Every business has a standard for inventory turnaround that is optimum for the business. Inventory turnaround refers to the number of times the inventory is sold and replaced in a period of twelve months. The health of the inventory turn relates to the health of business.

In a global scenario, the finished goods inventory is held at many locations and distribution centers, managed by third parties. A lot of inventory would also be in the pipeline in transportation, besides the inventory with distributors and retail stocking points. Since any loss of inventory anywhere in the supply chain would result in loss of value, effective control of inventory and visibility of inventory gains importance as a key factor of Supply Chain Management function.

2.2 Supplier Selection Process

Supplier selection criterion for a particular product or service category should be defined by a “cross-functional” team of representatives from different sectors of your organization. In a manufacturing company, for example, members of the team typically would include representatives from purchasing, quality, engineering and fabrication. Team members should include personnel with technical/applications knowledge of the product or service to be purchased, as well as members of the subdivision that uses the purchased item.

Common provider selection criteria:

Previous experience and past recital with the product/service to be purchased.

Comparative level of sophistication of the quality system, including meeting regulatory requirements or mandated quality system registration (for example, ISO 9001, QS-9000).

Ability to meet current and potential aptitude requirements, and do so on the desired delivery schedule.

Financial stability.

Technical support availability and willingness to participate as a partner in developing and optimizing design and a long-term relationship.

Total cost of dealing with the supplier (including material cost, communications methods, inventory requirements and incoming verification required).

The supplier’s track record for business-performance improvement.

Total cost assessment.

Methods for determining how well a potential supplier fits the criteria:

Obtaining a Dun & Bradstreet or other publicly available financial report.

Requesting a formal quote, which includes providing the supplier with specifications and other requirements (for example, testing).

Visits to the supplier by management and/or the selection team.

Confirmation of quality system status either by on-site assessment, a written survey or request for a certificate of quality system registration.

Discussions with other customers served by the supplier.

Review of databases or industry sources for the product line and supplier.

Evaluation (SUCH AS prototyping, lab tests, OR validation testing) of samples obtained from the supplier.

TASK THREE

3.1 Possible issues encountered by Operations Managers

Lack of capital is often the most critical challenge that a successful manager or leader faces as its very success creates this and it quickly becomes a vicious circle. Without very diligent cash flow management and/or mounting of more capital, including debt, the business often is constrained by capital as it grows. Often the profit in one operating cycle is insufficient to fund the extra working capital required for the next operating cycle. Many capable managers cannot overcome the obstacles in their businesses cash flow cycle and cannot understand why bankers and other lenders often cannot provide the financing as the manager often does not have the security to support the debt.

The solution is often easier than most entrepreneurs realize.

It often starts with a plan to see what your cash needs are and when your cash needs arise. Then one is in a position to manage it and focus on the cash management techniques most likely to be successful in his/her business.

Lack of management skills

Lack of management skills is a problem that is very difficult to deal with in most small and medium enterprises as the size of the senior management team is necessarily limited. These areas of weakness could be in finance, human resources, marketing or any area where the current management does not have the expertise, or the time to deal with the issues.

It can be solved by determining the weak areas and then developing a plan for dealing with those challenges. Solutions can be as simple as assigning the responsibility to an existing manager with a requirement to watch for the obvious pitfalls, to hiring a person part-time or a consultant.

• Lack of focus

• Ignoring risks in their assessment of alternatives and opportunities

• Lack of a plan

• Failure to plan for issues absorbing the majority of your time

3.2 Resolving the Issues

An operations manager should be more proficient regarding his/her department when operating a staff of Tourism and Hospitality. The faces of the staff repair the atmosphere in the hotel for the customers. Issues should be handled and resolved with timely interviewing of the needs and responsibilities of the staff.

It is compulsory for the managers to be more precise over the issues and no favours should be given to any particular person on gander basis. It’s the most aspiring issue which hinders the work at the work place and creates a substance of non judgemental circumstances for the front line managers.

Operations manager must be focussed on the resolution and proper usage of time in work. This can be implemented on focussing on the demands of the staff which speak of the customers. By not giving any heed to the needs, the managers sometimes bring a bad and deliberate reputation to the designation and the atmosphere gives no other chance rather than to leave.

Planning is another need for the operations managers. A good plan will lead a good presentation by the staff. A hotel only runs on the presentation of its criteria and backup must be strong to represent its nature. If the planning of the manager does not match the abilities of the staff then it can beheld that the operations manager lacks planning and needs to be refurbished on the planning and strategy building.

Issues only happen when there is a lack of co-ordination amid the staff. While working in the field of hospitality one has to resolve the issues otherwise the presentation of the team will lack a lot of planning and debauchery of the things and conjugally. But if an operations manager will keep on defying the whole lot by giving advices and resolving the issues then his own hard made planning’s wont get much time to be implemented. So an operations manger must be sure on implementing and displaying of his plans in time instead to giving solvents for the problems and issues.

Operations management has acquired great significance in the recent years due to an increase in the number of trans-national companies, whose operations are spread across the continents. It helps in developing the synergies between the various operations that are separated by time and space. OM has made it possible for trans-national companies, like Shell Corporation, to source crude oil from an oilrig in Europe and deliver the oil to a refinery located in Asia Pacific. OM is not limited to Oil Companies only. OM has enabled many companies to set up production and manufacturing at cost effective locations and source the required inputs from locations where procurement costs are low.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR), which takes as its premise that firms ought to justify their existence in terms of service to assorted stakeholders rather than mere profit, has been a subject of much debate. Yet, notwithstanding certain critical voices, more and more businesses, including hospitality companies, are embracing CSR. Some – like Scandic – even embedded it into their business models, which means that CSR underpins their organizational modus operandi. Thus this paper, built around an analysis of Scandic’s Omtanke programme, aims to conceptualize CSR in the context of the hospitality sector. Great stress is laid, therefore, on the implications of CSR for hotel-based human resource management, local community support and promotion of environmental sustainability. Drawing on interviews with Scandic managers and internal documents, we examine the rationale and effects of various CSR initiatives carried out in Scandic hotels in recent years. Building on these insights, the paper concludes by making some recommendations of practical character and highlighting future research directions.

Issues can be resolved in the process of making healthy relations of the staff and the customers in the hotel industry are very important. The selection of the staff depends upon the education provided and enhanced in an able way to product these things in such a way that these cannot be traumatised and bullied to halter the work of the hotel.

REFERENCE LIST

Philip Kotler, John Bowen, James Makens ——— Marketing for Hospitality & Tourism 5th Edition

Robert Johnston, Graham Clark ——- Service Operations Management 3rd Edition

Chris Holloway, R. Davidson, Claire Humphreys—— The Business of Tourism 8th Edition

Nigel Slack, Mike Lewis ——- Operations Strategy 3rd Edition

Robert D. Reid, David ————Hospitality Marketing Management.

Simon Hudson ————–Marketing for Tourism and Hospitality.

Cathy Enz——————– Hospitality Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases.

Categories
Free Essays

Tourism is the activity of people travelling to and staying in places outside of their usual environment for not more than one than consecutive year for leisure

Introduction

Definition of tourism

“Tourism is the activity of people travelling to and staying in places outside of their usual environment for not more than one than consecutive year for leisure, for business and other purposes “(Youell 1998). It is about people travelling internationally to experience different cultures.

Hunziker and krapf, in 1941, define tourism as “the sum of the phenomena and relationship arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent resident and not connected with any earning activity. In 1976 tourism society of England define it as tourism is the temporary, short term movement for all purposes.
According to the UNSRID (2001) there were 567m such travelers in 1995. Therefore any social or cultural chances will have an impact on the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. This essay is focus on the tourisms industry within European context but it will refer some cases to specific countries. It will consider how the economic growth of the 50th influence European society and run the development of tourism as a society activity become an integral part of the lifestyle in northern European.

Social impacts

Since the internet and World Wide Web is invented manyindustries have been steadily disrupted. Many businesses found theirselves unable to compete in the today’s digital world. Moreover social industry makes it easier to gather competitive intelligence than ever before. The companies who are ready to adapt these changes could get cost and differentiate advantages, said by Dess et al…2010. Because of this hotel can achieve benefits on both selling side and buy side. In effect it is more costly and time consuming to maintain the relationship with exchanging information about supplies needed, said by Laudon et al…2007.

According to the chaffey in 209, benefits of e-SCM comprise increased process efficiency and it reduces complexity and cost and also improves data integration and innovation. It is said by Hogast, an Australian purchasing association that it enables the hotels to combine their resources to improve process effectiveness. Now days hotels have to cope with perish ability and seasonality of their service offering. These days more than 70% of households in many European countries internet access. There is always a discussion on negative aspects’ of online intermediaries. However internet enables hotels to take over any intermediary and through developing their own channels online they can cut out the middleman. For example, customers were attracted from France Belgium by website by Austrian wellness hotel. It gives the benefits to the hotels that consumers are now used to this online approach. Nowadays more revelers rely on hotel reviews and their increasing seeks value of money. Some hotels are also accused of providing false reviews and information to increase their booking in short time. But in effect it spoils the hotel image of those hotels that provide fake information. There is no doubt that myriads of hotel reviews can have both positive and negative effects on costumer’s expectations. If hotels implements web software to avoid problems then it is the employee who has to learn properly how to use that service. For example, the intercontinental hotel group (IHG) advertises via Google ADWORDS and enables independent media owner to encourage their products in exchange for commission. Furthermore HIG hotels also increase their sales through mobile advertising and a dedicated mobile version of its website (Google 2011). There is also other online services provide by ebay.com, priceline.com, or groupon.com that can be integrated in yield management initiatives to increase customers demand, yet it must be born in mind that heavy discount might advertise affect brand equity (killian branding, 2011)

Cultural impacts

Culture tourism is the one of the largest growing global tourism market. Culture and creative industries’ are increasingly being used to destination and enhance their competitiveness and attractiveness. Travel for leisure in western European began from minority of privileges classes centuries ago and has develop to mass participation of the people in the post –warera. “In 1950 there were approximately 25 million international tourists and after that it reaches to 616 million in 1997”. This phenomenon was remarkable repaid and has been possible thanks to the economic reforms that follow the 2nd world war. In the UK. The lab our party introduce a massive “reconstruction” program under the supervision of Keynes, an economic adviser. Many locations are developing now for their tangible and intangible culture assets as mean to developing tourism.

The cold environment is not merely a setting in which a rich diversity people live, but rather it encompasses the essential resources upon which the lives and culture depends. Wide cultural differences occur between countries and sometimes between different regions within the same country. Indeed the existence of such difference may be the one principle stimulants of a tourism industry. According to the butler and hinch, 1996 in some developing countries traditional cultural behavior patterns of particular groups of people form one focus of the tourism industry.

The problem is exacerbated because tourists are by definition, strangers in the destination. There dress code and style pattern and behavior are the different to the residents and different from those that the tourist would display at home: shyness “is lean-to and the consequent problems of prostitution, drugs, gambling and sometimes vandalism ensure. All strangers tourist may fall in robbery and crimes perpetrated by the local community who may see these activities. Culture heritage included thought of built tradition building, archaeological heritage, and socio- culture heritage. Architectural heritage may be affected by the climate changing number of ways. The most obvious is the direct effect of rising sea level on those that are near the coast and may be damage by coastal impacts. Cultural change is included both of by factors which are internal and external to culture. Culture would change in the absence of tourism. A serious increase in tourism will cause a “cultural revolution” which result in whole new culture replacing the existing one. The leisure destination concept , with retail as its essential for many people provide a “one stop shop” for all their leisure needs. The sheer number of attracted by such complex give an indication of the importance of the retail tourism enhance by entertainment facilities. Fig 1 shows visitor numbers for retail attraction compared to more traditional UK visitor’s attraction.

Attraction Visitor numbersAttractionVisitor numbers
Trafford centre30 millionChester zoo1.25 million
Meadowhall30 millionBritish museum5.9 million
Blue water 27 millionFew gardens1.3 million
Cadbury world0.5 million

There are a number of reasons for the success of the retail attraction which include the following.

Large – scale complexes which can attract up to 35 million visitors annually.
Open for more than 15 hours per day, 363 day a year.
Free at point entry.
Safe, clean and air condition environment.
Multiple products base- shops, restaurants, bars and entertainment.

Megatrend influences on tourist market

The end of the twentieth century was a great time for transformation in all fields of life. There were many fast paced changes throughout social condition, the economy and technology, which brought many changes with in tourism. The fluxuation and competition within the tourist market not only requires constant observation and the ability to anticipate change, but also being able to react to the new trend before it becomes the norm. This shows the importance of the knowledge in the action of these megatrends which can be classified in to six basic groups; demographics, politics, social and cultural, economics technology and ecology. In each groups there are positive factors, which will either stimulate or dater the development of the tourism, each with variability in strength and effect.

The table of megatrends and tourism development.

In conclusion, with the culture and tourism change tourism industry is growing very fast. Everything is in our hand in which we can solve all the problems. Due to these changes tourism industry day by day and gaining benefits. Also tourist who are out of the country they see different things, different types of people and they also taste different type of food in those countries where they travel. With these companies government take benefits. So these culture and social changes carried many positive and negative impacts on the world which we discuss in my essay.

Bibliography

GLOBEL TOURISM 2ND EDDITION BY William f. Theobald

WWW. OPPAPERS.COM/ ESSAY / EUROPEAN, SOCIAL AND CULTURE RECENT EVENTS.

DR.KRISTIAN J. 2009 TRENDS AND ISSUES IN GLOBAL TOURISM, SPRINGER PUBLICATION.

Archer, B.H.: Demand forecasting and estimation, w: Travel, Tourism and Hospitality [Ed. W.Ritchie & C.Goeldner], Wiley, New York 1989

GEOFFEY WALL, ALISTER MATHIESON TOURISM: CHANGES, IMPACTS AND OPPORTUNITIES.

Kusluvan, S., 2003, Managing Employee Attitudes and Behaviours in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Nova Publishers

Categories
Free Essays

What are the influence of religious factors on pilgrimage tourism in Romania?

Introduction

1.1Aim

The aim of this research is to investigate the religious factors that have aninfluence on Maramures Northern part of Romania in Easter time.

1.2 Objectives

1. To review the literature about religious factors and tourism

2. Carry out the research with questionnaires in northern part of Romania

3. Findings and analysing

1.1Background and Rationale

Tourism and religion are historically related through the institution of pilgrimage, from which later the phenomenon of pilgrimage tourism emerged. Whilst numerous studies (Razaq Raj,2007;Hall,2008;Williams,1998) examined how tourism impacts on destinations and how local residents view tourism, there is a small number of studies looking specifically at how pilgrimage tourism and its religious factors affect tourism.

As Razaq Rai(2007,p.22) cites “there are many reasons why people travel and these motivations have been researched intensively by geographers, sociologists and even by business community”. (Williams , 1998.p.166). At its most basics pilgrimage can be viewed as any travel which involves a religious experience. In view of the fact that such journeys are obviously a combination of a religious experience and travel it would be easy to characterize all journeys to religious sites as religious tourism.(Davies and Davies, 1998. p.179).

I have selected this topic because it is an ample subject and very interesting. In this research project I will try to find out more about pilgrimage tourism, I will look into a particular area from a European country which is Romania and identifying what influences religious factors have on tourism.

There are many researches(Chis and Tarca, 2009;Bower,2004) that were carried out but mine is particular looking into one small but with big potential area from Romania which is Maramures, the northern part of the country and the most well preserved region. I chose Easter time to collect my data as it is a very important religious holiday for all Christians.

Methodology

There are two data collection methods;

1. Primary data collection

Primary data is original data, data that has not previously been collected. Interviews, observations and questionnaires yield primary data. (Hall, 2008)

2. Secondary data collection

Secondary data is data that has been previously collected, usually for another purpose. It includes administrative records, existing statistics, and previous research studies. (Hall, 2008)

For this research project I have selected one of the primary data collection methods which are questionnaire to gather primary data. Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to collect primary data from a potentially large number of respondents. (Hall , 2008).

Often they are the only realistic way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. The questionnaires for my research will contain 30 questions that will be given to tourists who are going to visit Putna Monastery on Easter day and priests as well.

The questionnaires are a better research method because often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. The data will be collected at the selected places in order to reach the exact tourists and priests which are willing to answer the questions.

Plan:

In this study, a questionnaire will be design and asked to approximately 50 visitors randomly at the Putna Monastery, one of the most visited monasteries in the country This place was strategically chosen because of its high importance for the religious visitors and tourists. This monastery is believed to have miraculous powers, healing people of diseases, also it has a frame with Jesus picture crying with blood tears. The monastery is opened for tourists only on Easter period, a holy holiday for all Christians.

This sample will take place between the 24.04.2011and the 26.04.2011.

After the religious ceremonial I will try to interview 2 priests and two monks from the same monastery.

Literature Review

Tourists taking part in religious tourism cannot be classified into a single type of tourism, as too many types of people with a variety of interests participate in religious events, ceremonies, pilgrimages and processions.

Religion as a concept is linked to a variety of issues in the tourism research literature, but is most commonly mentioned in relation to pilgrimage and discussions about the links between tourism and pilgrimage (Cohen, 1992a, 1992b,1998;Din, 1989). Many researchers, Sousa (1988) for example, suggests that the acts of travel described in the Old and New Testaments, whether it is Jesus travelling in the land of Israel or the travels of the Jewish people to discover their god, should be approached as a form of tourism. Shackley (2002) suggests an example of how the boundaries of religion can be drawn widely in the example of the prison that housed Nelson Mandela for almost 20 years in Robben Island.

Religion was found to be a factor linked to the supply of tourism. On the micro level, Brown(1996) in his ethnographic study of the ‘Borscht Belt’, provides evidence of how religious taboos influence the provision of hotel services, such as the variety of food ingredients and the service procedures.

Another branch of research relates to people’s religion as a factor that explains their behaviour as tourists, whether it acts as a motivating force, a constraint, or in relation to aspects of the tourists’ visitation patterns themselves. Fleischer and Pizam (2002) looked at constraints affecting the participation of seniors in vacation activities. They emphasised the effect of a tourist’s religious affiliation as a possible constraint. For example, they observed that ‘Jews do not travel on Saturdays and other Jewish holidays’ (p.114). Evidence for the place of religion as a motivation for tourist activities linked to pilgrimage is commonly given (Constable,1976;Smith, 1992). Jackson and Hudman (1995) studied visitation patterns to cathedrals in England. Although religion was not found to be a motivating factor for the travel as a whole, it was found to be a motivation for the visit to a cathedral during the travel. Mansfeld (1995), in his research concerning the north-west London Jewish community, suggests that a tourist’s religion is associated with belonging to a certain social reference group which may influence the behaviour of the tourist. Fleischer (2000), in her study about pilgrims to the Holy Land, suggests that those tourists who regard themselves as pilgrims have different personal characteristics and visitation patterns from other tourists visiting Israel.

She compared tourists based on their religious affiliation and suggested differences between Protestants and Catholics in terms of their perception of the visit as sacred or secular.

There are a range of historical examples of linkages between religion and travel .Sheratt and Hawkins characterized Islam as a “vital, vivacious and expanding religion”(Sheratt and Hawkins, 1972, pg. 93) in which Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina was the genesis of the rapid spread of Islam throughout the world .

Nolan and Nolan (1992) described the European religious system as being comprised of religious attractions, pilgrimage shrines (both touristic and non-touristic) and festivals. They highlighted the interaction between the pious pilgrims and secular tourists acknowledging that “regardless of their motivations, all visitors to these attractions require some level of services, ranging from providing for the most basic human needs to full commercial development that rivals the most secular resort”.(Nolan and Nolan, 1992, pg. 69).

Nolan and Nolan suggested that visitors who come to visit a famous or very known shrine may represent a gradient from very pious and seriously prayerful, to purely secular and basically uninformed about the religious meaning of the place. (Nolan and Nolan, 1992)

Although visitors representing these extremes usually exhibit different behaviour, there is no contradiction between pilgrims and tourists, many of them being in intermediate categories like Nolan suggests. (Nolan and Nolan,1992,pg 69)

They suggested that despite the potential incompatibility of these different visitors, it is possible to manage potential conflicts. These potential conflicts have more recently been catalogued by Wall and Mathieson (2006), who, through their historical analysis of linkages between the impact of tourism on religious sites and centres , cited meeting of the World Council of Churches (1970),cited in Sheratt and Hawkins (1972), and the Caribbean Ecumenical Consultation for Development(1971) ,as early examples of The Church being worried about how tourism , through the growing commercialization of tourism , might have detrimental sociocultural and environmental impacts in religious centres globally.

Economics and religion have been influential forces in shaping world history. However according to Vukonic (2002), the economic aspects of religious travel have been the least studied topic in relation to the religion- tourismcrossover, only being of interest to researchers when a single sacred site is under consideration. Religious pilgrimage has a history of being economic generator in the areas pilgrims visited, as a services developed to cater to their needs .This is much the same today, where in many places religious sites are the main tourists attractions and sometimes anchor entire economies such as in Santiago de Compostela, Mecca, Romania etc. In many countries and localities, tourism is seen as a way either to divers or rescue a struggling economy especially with current tourism forecasts, as mentioned earlier, showing that religious tourism will increase in the near future (Rusell, 1999). Jackowski and Smith (1992) give the example of pilgrimage sites from Romania where because of Second World War damage and communist repression, a tourism infrastructure was virtually non-existent in the early 1990s.

They point out that this lack of infrastructure limited tourists length of stay, subsequently limiting opportunities for local residents to gain from the economic benefits of pilgrimage tourism. Jackowski and Smith argue for the potential of the religious tourism to become an important source of income and employment in Romania. Tourism development at the El de Rocio , in Spain, has also played a central economic role in increasing employment and local revenues (Crain,1996)

Pilgrimage travel is often less prone to economic ups and downs in the market place. Because faith-based travellers are committed travellers they tend to save for these religious experiences and travel despite the state of the economy. Faith travellers tend to have different motives for travel then do travellers for other reasons. For example, the faith-based traveller often travels as part of a religious obligation or to fulfil a spiritual mission. Faith-based travel can provide a steady flow of income to a local tourism economy. (Crain, 1996)

It is estimated that in the US alone some 25% of the traveling public is interested in some form of pilgrimage or faith-based tourism. When one adds to this the number of people who travel for faith-based conventions, and faith based activities such as weddings, bar mitzvahs or funerals, the number becomes extraordinarily large. World Religious Travel is one of the fastest growing segments in travel today. Religious travel is estimated at a value of US$18 billion and 300 million travellers strong. Major faith based destinations such as Israel, Italy and Saudi Arabia have developed large industries that provide services for people on pilgrimage. (Russel, 1999)

While religious tourism has some positives impacts in economic sense, much of the literature focuses on the negative side of religious tourism in relation to sites and ceremonies. While tourism is seen in many circles as a way of contributing to the preservation of heritage and religious sites and to bolster sagging economies, most observers feel it is a destructive force in terms of cultural unity and degradation of the natural and built environment. Gupta (1999), suggests that the only enduring difference between pilgrimage and tourism is that pilgrimage has not produced the negative cultural, environmental and social impacts associated with mass tourism. However this is not entirely correct. In fact there are many recorded instances where pilgrims , those who should respect holy places the most are just as culpable for breaking off pieces of shrines , churches, mosques, and natural sites as non-religious tourists are (Powell,2003;Timothy, 1994,1999).

Mass tourism, the media, and various social groups have taken traditional pilgrimages and transformed them from a cult ritual to a festival status with international and secular flavour (Crain, 1992).

Cohen (1998, pg. 7) argues that mass tourism has a negative effect on the religiosity or level of spirituality of people who live in tourists destinations. He suggests that the impact is “generally a secularizing one – a weakening of the local adherence to religion and of the beliefs in the sacredness and efficacy of holly places , ritual and customs”.(Madan,1986,257).This pattern may be seen in the secularisation of religion in general, which involves a gradual narrowing down , if not the elimination , of the role of religious beliefs practices and institutions in everyday life.

According to Eliade (1987) the most prominent religious sites in Romania are Catholics and Orthodox shrines dedicated to Jesus, Mary the Mother of Jesus and the saints. In the religious usage of the world shrines are repositories for a revered body or venerated relic. In its broader meaning a shrine refers to a sacred site that house holy artefacts , promotes ritual practice and attracts religious travellers who often mark the time and extend the space of the journey by returning home with mementos.

Shrines differ from other places of worship such as local churches, mosques, temples or synagogues which attract visitors on a more regular basis and from a narrower geographical range.(Eliade,1987;Smith,1995).

Pilgrimage is one of the well-known phenomena in various religious cultures and exists in all of the main religions of the world. It is defined as a “journey resulting from religious causes, externally to a holy site, and internally for spiritual purposes and internal understanding”.(Barber,1991,p.1)

Travel to sacred places may be motivated by a number of reasons, ranging from deeply religious to plain curiosity. Such travel is generally placed within the purely religious domain of pilgrimage or within the profane and hedonistic pursuits of tourism. While the
focus in pilgrimage is on the association with some sacred and numinous supernatural power and the ability to get closer to it by means of religious practices, tourism is mainly about ‘getting away’ to experience a change. However, these two forms of travel are interconnected.
According to Rinschede (1992), modern tourism began with the ‘great religious tour’ organised by Thomas Cook in the mid-19th century. Some scholars take this argument further and describe tourism itself as ‘spiritual journey’ or a ‘sacred journey’ because it exhibits the ‘spiritual quest’ inherent in pilgrimage (Graburn, 2001). But there are others who maintain its difference from religious or traditional pilgrimages. This has generated a lot of debate on similarities and differences between pilgrimage and tourism. Timothy and Olsen (2006) provide a comprehensive review of this debate, and therefore instead of repeating it here it would be wiser simply to recognise that these are two different forms of travel that increasingly overlap in the modern context.

It is generally accepted that people’s religion has been characterised as a key factor that influences individuals’ behaviours as travellers, as reflected in their “visitation patterns” (Poria et al., 2003, p. 238). According to the World Religious Travel Association (WRTA), in 2007 over 300 million travellers undertook journeys to sacred sites, and the industry size was estimated at $18 billion (Wright, 2007). Moreover, sites with religious significance continue to attract millions of travellers every year (Jansen and Kuhl, 2008).

Despite the fact that there are 50,000 religious organisations worldwide that organise pilgrimages (Wright, 2007), some argue that travel agencies have triggered the trend of pilgrimage (Bar and Cohen-Hattab, 2003) as the majority of travellers to sacred places prefer purchasing package tours.

However, travel agencies and other tourism organisations do not effectively manage religious travellers. Collins-Kreiner and Gatrell (2006) have pointed out that travel agencies and the tourist industry in general do not consider the different motivations that inspire travellers to sacred places but rather treat them as a homogeneous market of religious tourists. As Reader (1987)indicated, organisations have tried to attract pilgrims by emphasising the comfort and ease of organised pilgrimage tours. In the case of Hindu pilgrimages, Singh (2002) has provided an example of how the tourist industry mismanages pilgrims. Hospitality companies increase their prices without considering the traditional pilgrim segment, which is constituted by low-income travellers.

In addition, many tourist companies consider traditional pilgrims a low-profit industry, while they ignore the fact that even traditional pilgrims have changed their purchasing and spending habits (Wright, 2007). This changing pilgrim consumption behaviour has been acknowledged by Bar and Cohen-Hattab (2003), who indicated that pilgrim expenditures for shopping are the highest of all other types of travellers.

Tour Packages- Pilgrims’ choice

There are two important features of tour packages that make a marketing plan for travel agencies imperative. First, they are predesigned tourist offers and second, they do not offer flexibility to the purchaser (Enoch, 1996). Moreover, Stone (1990)in the context of package tours indicates that, marketing must start with the investigation of the needs and the perceptions of customers for the suitable and appropriate offering. For example, Weidenfeld’s (2006) study suggested that if hospitality companies want to develop a win-win scenario in the pilgrimage market, they should concentrate on the special needs of pilgrims during their sacred journeys. The effectiveness and success of travel agencies’ marketing activities lies on the motives and needs that trigger the travel decisions of individuals (McKercher et al., 2003). Indeed, motivation has been regarded as the most important aspect and force of travelling behaviour (Iso-Ahola, 1982).

Since, there is a lack of research that investigates the motivations of travellers to sacred sites (Poria et al., 2003), there is need for “an in-depth investigation” of the entire religious market (Fleischer, 2000) and an identification of the types of pilgrims and their influence on the tourist industry (Singh, 2005). A number of comprehensive approaches have been developed based on the different motives that inspire journeys to sacred places.

Six types of pilgrims with different motivations regarding their journeys have been identified by Morinis (1992). Travellers may take pilgrimages varying from “devotional” (p. 10), to “wandering” (p. 13). Adler (1989) and Smith (1992) have suggested that pilgrimages and tourism are opposite polarities along an axis or continuum. The endpoints are marked as pilgrimage-sacredness and tourism-secularism while, in the centre of the continuum, a new type of tourism appears, religious tourism-faith/profane. There are two advantages of this model for segmenting travellers into pilgrims and tourists. First, it takes into account all hybrids of religion and tourist motivations (Park, 2004). Second, it addresses the short-term changes in the traveller intentions (religious to tourism) (Bremborg, 2008) and the long-term development of “goals and beliefs”(Reader, 1987, p. 137). Another, similar model has been proposed by Collins-Kreiner and Kliot (2000). Adler’s (1989), Smith’s (1992) and Collins-Kreiner and Kliot’s (2000) models together identify five general types of travellers to sacred places, namely:

Pious pilgrims.
More pilgrims than tourists.
Pilgrims-tourists or religious tourists.
More tourists than pilgrims.
Secular tourists.

The connections between religion and tourism

Religion plays an important and determining role in every society.(Tomasi,2002). The different religious beliefs and faiths came into being before written records and were parts of the earliest societies (Bowker 2004). The cave paintings, shamanism (some of it still living) and the ancient faiths and beliefs of the native population living on different continents refer to these ancient religions.

“Religious tourism can be connected to almost all the lesser and greater religions (Bowker, 2004). Journeys motivated by religious faith play a significant role in the great world religions, too. A significant majority of the world’s religious pilgrim scenes are connected to mountain ranges or hills. Pilgrims often regard the journey they take as a physical manifestation of an inner spiritual journey, with the path travelled being a framework for the travel within”. (Hall , 2006.p 56).

A recent article concludes “tourism and pilgrimage share many features — the requirements of free time, social sanction and income, as well as the process of transfer from ordinary/profane to non-ordinary/sacred time and place … distinctions remain in the context of quest, between the ‘true’ pilgrim following his or her faith and the secular pilgrim seeking meaning or knowledge. (Sharpley & Sundaram, 2005, p. 164)
In modern societies, many people travel to sacred sites with a purpose of achieving both Religious and recreational needs, which poses great challenges to define such movement as either pilgrimage or tourism. A practical approach is to address this problematic by including it within tourism ‘because contemporary pilgrimages involve such huge numbers of people that they can only be organised in the same manner as mass tourism. Large numbers of pilgrims pass through travel agencies, accommodation facilities, catering services and commercial businesses; they are, that is to say, part of the tourist industry’ (Tomasi,2002, p. 21). Gladstone (2005) prefers to describe it as the ‘informal sector domestic tourism’ as it is a major contributor to the domestic tourism industry in developing countries.
However, travel to sacred sites, at least in developing countries, has an exclusive “religious’ component and therefore defies its categorisation as tourism alone. Almost as a compromise, scholars have found use of composite words such as ‘religious tourism’ and ‘pilgrimage tourism’ more reasonable and less controversial

On a global level

According to Eber(1993) numerous religions in the world cannot be described in a simple definition. Most generally, religion is an organised system of beliefs, ceremonies, and practices and worship that centre on one supreme god or deity, or a number of gods or deities. Religion is primarily an attitude towards the world, and everything is seen in this respect. (Eber , 1993.p.7). On the other hand Ekin (1990) believes that faith is not reason, and thus God cannot be created by reason, nor can faith be explained by it. A believer of one faith may have the same or similar experience as a believer of another, yet followers of each express themselves in different ways on the rational, emotional, and moral and every other plane. Almost all people who follow some form of religion believe that a divine power created the world and influences their lives. (Ekin, 1990,p87)
A general intensification of religious belief seems apparent in many parts of the world, accompanied by a weakening of belief in the established church. Apart from the eight major religions (Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Shinto, Daoism and Confucianism) there is an enormous number of beliefs, cults, myths and sects in the world.(Sizer,1996) To be religious no longer means to blindly follow all that the church says and does. Today, religion can be a personal belief in an entire system, or in the meaning of this or that ritual. A certain degree of alienation, which is so characteristic of the modern societies of the developed world, is reflected in a similar way; by the springing up of new meets and mythologies, assuming specific contents and often adopting dubious values. Theologians have put forward the thesis that it was in religion that free time, rest and travelling were discovered, so it is logical that these should become topical and necessary themes of religious teaching and even pedagogy. (Turner and Turner, 1978).

Bowker(2004,p.65) believes that “religion has found the starting point for its perspective on tourism as a form of free time in the need to explain theologically its meaning in human life and to provide the ethical principles on which tourism should rest, just as it previously expounded the meaning of work for human life as a whole and defined the ethical principles of work.” In ideological views, the attempt is made to rely on original texts in the Bible, the Koran and other sacred texts. These views are founded on the claim that the role of tourism is to provide people with a chance to become familiar with the natural world, with animate and inanimate nature as God’s creation. They are thus able to use their free time for their own spiritual enrichment, even their moral renewal, by exploring the ultimate cause and meaning of their existence. Moreover, the ‘myth of the weekend’, at least in Christianity, enters into the concept of the ‘seventh day’ because this is the day of rest in the Biblical image of the creation of the world. (Wagner,1995,p.45)

In the Christian interpretation, it is impossible to suppose that people will find their realisation in leisure, since that would mean a split personality.(Eliade,1987). According to this view, “free time and leisure are a unique and unified time given to people by God, which should thus be used to serve God.”(Eliade, 1987,p.65). Leisure time, a part of free time in which people will express their most intimate inclinations and devote themselves only to that which satisfied them completely, is the ideal time for people to find the peace they need to give themselves to God and receiveHim.(Wagner,1995,p.32)

The main connection between the religions and tourism can be seen in pilgrimages, the religiously motivated journeys which have been an important part of most religions.(Cruz,1984). Almost every major religion requires its followers to go to holy places. Depending on the degree of their religious belief, people are prepared to undertake journeys covering shorter or longer distances, and sometimes very long ones to follow their religious need or perform an act designated by their religion. (Boile, 2000).This religious nucleus is persistent enough on a global scale to overcome class, national, ideological, age, professional or any other affiliation. (Bowker,2004).

Theories of tourism (Hall,2006;Tomasi,2002) consider this movement as one whose participants are motivated either in part or exclusively for religious reasons. Religious tourism most often appears in three forms(Boile,2000,p34): as a pilgrimage, a continuous group and individual visit to religious shrines; as large-scale gatherings on the occasion of significant religious dates and anniversaries; and as tours of and visits to important religious places and buildings within the framework of a tourist itinerary, regardless of the time of the tour. The most popular pilgrimage destinations in the world are Rome, Lourdes, Compostela, Loretto, Fatima, Einsiedeln, Medju-gorje, Czestochowa, Guadeloupe and others for Christians; Mecca and Medina for Muslims; Varanasi (Benares), Allahabad, Lumbina, Leshan and Mandalay for Buddhists and Hindus; Lhasa for believers in Tibetan Buddhism; and Jerusalem for Christians, Jews and Muslims (see Holy Land).

Religious ceremonies and commemoration days, the climatic location of the pilgrimage sites and the work calendar of the population are the main reasons that religious tourism is bound to a certain seasonality. Religious tourism has also political aspects. Numerous religious places are also national sites. Some authors (Jones, 2000; Morrow, 2001) have tried to determine how and to what extent the phenomenon of pilgrimage and tourism differs. They have even attempted to establish certain similarities between these phenomena and to find arguments to support the thesis that tourism as a kind of pilgrimage of modern civilisation.(Morrow,2001). The more serious forms of tourism, where the motives of the journey are more substantial than pure recreation and entertainment, are analogous to the ecstatic forms of pilgrimage in their spiritual meaning for the tourist, but the symbolic language in which tourists are obliged to express their pilgrimage is different.(Morrow,2001,p.21).On their journeys, they always move towards destinations which are a kind of symbol of their wishes and needs, just as pilgrims do when they head towards the shrine to which the pilgrimage is being made. (Jones, 2000)

Religious tourism is certainly a clearer concept in its secular interpretation. (Hall, 2006).From the perspective of tourism, the religious motive is only one among many which impels tourism movements. Consequences for all categories involved in the process are important: the travellers-believers, the providers of services and the space (region) in which such movement takes place or toward which they are directed. (Hall, 2006.p34)The theory of tourism considers that a part of religious tourist’s behaviour is simply activities which serve to fulfil basic religious needs.

Theological explanations of the concept of religious tourism(Bowman,1993;Prior,1994) have a similar point of departure, but there are differences here between religions. There are those who deny totally such intermingling of the religious and the profane. They attribute tourism as applied to the concept of religion as not even mentioned anywhere in Buddhism, for instance, and Islam avoids this concept or tries to distance itself from it, while Roman Catholicism, although it does not accept explicitly the possibility that a religiously motivated journey may bear the attribute of the tourist, does not totally deny it. However, theologians are reluctant to talk about religious trips as a specific form of tourism. On the contrary, those religious teachings in which the stance toward tourism has been expressed in a relatively strong and well-defined manner, as is the case with the Catholic church and Islam, advocate quite clearly the standpoint that adopting the concept of religious tourism would mean accepting the idea that religion can have another meaning and goal apart from that of faith. In other words, theologians deny that religious motives can be called touristic. By their opinion, the fact that believers on religious journeys have to satisfy their biological needs is not a sufficient argument for the whole phenomenon to acquire a touristic (i.e., profane) rather than a religious character. And on the other hand, the fact that they may have religious needs does not mean that tourists should be seen primarily as believers. (Bowman,1993)

The Catholic Church advocates ‘the religious and moral dangers of tourism’ and the ‘heavy responsibility’ of the participants, which they undertake in contact with other individuals and environments, as well as the conflicts that this can lead to. But at the same time, the Catholic Church recognises the fact that tourism helps to lessen various prejudices among people and leads to mutual respect among nations, as well as creating the objective conditions for the spiritual elevation of individuals. The idea of pastorisation of tourism was born in Christianity and contained in the organisation of religious ceremonies for believers spending their holidays in a certain destination. This idea in its highest form leads to the spreading of religion and the promotion of its teaching. In this sense, tourism is fertile ground for such work because in their free time people are relaxed, they accept debate and they are prepared to meditate and to gain new insights. (Sizer, 1998)

Islamic theologian (Muhammad al Bukhari, 1978) finds it difficult to reconcile Islam with the ‘Western contents’ of tourism, stressing rather its spiritual and social dimensions. He apostrophise especially the negative impacts of the development of modern tourism that are reflected in a marked sexual permissiveness, pornography, voyeurism, nudism and so on, as well as in certain forms of supply that are opposed to Islamic tradition and religious teaching (as regards to food, drink, gambling and the like). But on the other hand, in Islam, hospitality is a major theme in all holy books, writings and teachings. The attitude of Islam towards hospitality was to be expected, considering the fact that the haj[j is one of the fundamental commandments for an Islamic believer.(Sizer,1998).

Buddhism is much more tolerant in this respect. This is reflected especially in the different ways in which foreign tourism is treated in some Buddhist countries.

The standpoints of the tourism theory are somewhat different. In religious tourism, the dominant sacred content of the journey is important, but it is also important that other, so-called touristic, contents should be present at such destination.(Huston,2004).Therefore the very fact that the tourist is a believer is not sufficient for such a person to be called a religious tourist. Tourists who are religious are simply manifesting their personal conviction. Such tourists do not join touristic movements impelled by religious motives; they use their religious needs and rituals in the same way usually done in their permanent place of residence. They also demand that certain religious contents be included in the obligatory range of touristic supply amenities, but these contents or buildings are not crucial to their decision to travel to a certain destination, although they may affect their final decision.

The most visible connection between tourism and religion is the thousands of sacred buildings that are frequented by tourists.(Hall,2004). The reason for their interest is increasingly to be found in the cultural content or historical value of the sacred building, rather than its original religious purpose. These contents are determined by their function in religion. According to Hall,( 2004) what attract (religious) tourists are pilgrimage shrines, defined as places that serve as the goals of religiously motivated journeys from beyond the immediate locality; religious attractions, in the form of structures or sites of religious significance with historic and/or artistic importance; and festivals with religious associations.
(Smith, 1995)
There are enormous numbers of objects which have a religious meaning, and are thus used in religious rituals (prayer books, breviaries, rosaries, crosses and more), which tourists keep as religious souvenirs. In modern tourism one is witnessing a large-scale vulgar commercialisation of religious motives and their use on the most varied objects, which thus become symbols of certain religious sites or content. Today there are probably no orthodox theologians or other theorists who would deny the economic impacts of religious tourism. Believers had to be accommodated and catered for, and they bought various objects as souvenirs of their stay in the place of pilgrimage as well as other kinds of goods and food. This represented a constant source of income for the local population. Rome was probably the first world shrine which not only felt the economic benefits of pilgrimage but also undertook certain activities to increase the impact. It is thought that there were over two million pilgrim and religious tourists every year. (Tuchman,1957)

It is hard to escape the impression today that in most of the places of pilgrimage in the world, the profane impact is more and more on a par with the religious impact. In the religions that are more ‘hardline’ or conservative in their requirements for the strict observance of all the religious duties of their adherents, such benefits are no longer denied.
There is no reason to believe that the religious motive for travelling will weaken. Man has been given reason and free will, so acceptance of God’s law is a question of individual conscience. This view of religious freedom assumes freedom from any religious pressure. It argues in favour of the view that religious tourism will become increasingly individualised, and also that the visits to the religious places will develop more or less with the same intensity as in the past. (Vukonic,1997).…

Religion influence on Christian pilgrims at Easter

Pilgrimage, however, is a pervasive phenomenon in Christianity. For example, up to 70,000 Christian pilgrims travel to Romania every year (Reader, 2007), and the Holy Monasteries have dominated as the most important Christian pilgrim destination. The reasons for visits on the monasteries is that traditional pilgrims are connected with rituals and motives, such as vows to God, prayers for Christians, feeling God’s love, connecting with God, belief, spiritual peace (Collins-Kreiner and Kliot, 2000), “lighting candles”,“having objects blessed”, and “participating in mass” (Bar and Cohen-Hattab, 2003, p. 138).

Collins-Kreiner and Kliot’s (2000) study has suggested that Roman Catholic travellers to Romania emphasise the religious aspects of their pilgrimage and, therefore, they can be positioned at the sacred endpoint of the pilgrimage-tourism continuum. Greek and other Eastern Orthodox Christians are also characterised as traditional pilgrims that travel in the, as they are interested mostly in visiting the Churches where miracles happened in order to cope with death and illnesses, to find lost relatives and to pray for wealth (Aivazian, 1996). Rinschede (1992) revealed another important aspect of Greek pilgrims, namely, their preference for travelling in groups with other Greek Orthodox travellers.

In the context of Christian pilgrimages to Northernpart Of Romania , the study of Fleischer (2000)revealed that this pilgrim market consists of middle-aged and older individuals across all social classes (Cormack, 1998). Moreover, these mature pilgrims are forced mostly by personal, internally derived “pull” motives, while“push” motives provided externally by their local tourist agents are of less importance (p. 60). In addition, they are not interested in high-level services, but they prefer a safe, clean, relaxing and pleasant environment (Handszuh, 1997) that is amenable to their low incomes and sensitivity to prices. It seems that these pilgrims plan their trip to Romania in advance (Fleischer, 2000) in accordance with various religious events and holy days (Bowman, 1991).

Finally, tour guide services are of great importance for pilgrims. Traditional Christian pilgrims are interested in religious trips in the form of package tours (Nolan and Nolan, 1989), and during their religious journey, they prefer to read religious guidebooks (Ben-Arieh, 1997) that are provided by their local priest, who also serves as a tour guide.

Methodology

The nature of this project is exploratory and therefore requires inductive approach.

As the main aim of this research was to identify the religious factors that have an influence on tourism in Northern part of Romania (Maramures), a quantitative research approach was used. The number of the interviewees is 50.

A questionnaire was developed to find out the reasons tourists visit sacred places, holy monasteries etc., and what influence religion has on tourism. The data collection method used was the questionnaire, which is a tool used particularly when surveying a group of individuals. The questionnaire was prepared in a semi-structure, to not confuse or intimidate the participants. The participants were asked to complete a total of 15 questions; all were easy to understand and did not include any jargon. On the questionnaire the topic, the background and purpose of the survey was included.

I decided to collect the data at the nearest Airport (Baia Mare) at the end of the tourists’ visits to Putna Monastery for two main reasons.

First, at this point, the tourists ‘memories of their experiences were fresh. And second, the majority of tourists visiting Maramures, leave from the monastery towards the airport, making it a good location for capturing a diverse range of visitors (Romania Ministry of Tourism, 1996). Also, I interviewed international tourists and local tourists when they were heading towards their accommodation (hotels, guesthouse, tents).The idea of interviewing tourists at the Monastery itself was rejected for three main reasons. First, tourists who were there for spiritual peace and meditation might not be happy to participate in an interview. Second, some of the tourists would be part of a tour group and for that reason; it would be difficult to interview them. Such tourists could be excluded from the study, but they might prove to be a significant segment. Third, some of the tourists were emotionally involved in the tourist experience or were involved in prayer rituals while at the site. I felt it was unethical to interfere in such experiences with the various interview procedures.

The fieldwork was planned for a period when there would be maximum

diversity of tourists in Romania, which meant carrying out the research on specific religious holidays (Easter).The main data collection were collectedbetween 20th April and 26th April 2011.An approach to interview the priest and some monks were unfortunately not successful as they did not have the necessary time for answering the questions.

The interviews were carried out at all times of the day and night, and on both weekdays and weekends to achieve maximum diversity.

The research instrument was a structured questionnaire implemented through face-to-face interviews with tourists at Baia Mare Airport after they had completed their visit to Putna Monastery (Maramures), before they passed the passport control.

The interviews were conducted by me and a friend of mine who already has a degree in Romania in International Tourism.

She was selected based on her knowledge of English, confidence when interacting with people and knowledge of what a research means. The interviewer was not aware of the specific objectives of the research in order to reduce the likelihood that she might lead the interviewees to give certain answers.

It was suspected that the questions dealing with religious affiliation and strength of religious belief might be considered private by the participants. This could also be true for some of the questions about the site itself. It was also taken into account that during the interviews participants were often sitting next to colleagues, friends or family at the airport, a factor that could lead to social pressure reflected in the answers provided. It was decided to politely ask each interviewee to step aside from the group and taken into a quiet and more private site. It was hoped this would elicit the participants’ true opinions. The objective of the sampling strategy chosen (a theoretical sample) was not to achieve a representative sample of all international tourists visiting Romania in general or the Putna Monastery in particular, but to include a diversity of tourists who would be able to provide data relevant for the investigation of the research problem. The reason for confining the population to international tourists was based on the assumption that there is greater diversity among this group than among the local population. The actual population used was individuals who identified themselves as international tourists leaving Romania through Baia Mare Airport who were able to speak and understand English and were above 15 years old (as at this age cognitive abilities are considered to be stable: Apter et al., 1998).

It was decided to frame the tourist experience by studying behavior linked to the time before, during and after the visit. It is suggested that this provides a suitable framework for any future discussion. As far as the period before the visit is concerned, the tourists were asked a series of questions dealing with their reason and motivation to visit the site. Another set of questions dealt with the tourists’ visitation patterns to the site and their perception of the visit as a heritage experience. Other questions dealt with their future behavior. At the end of the interview the tourists were asked a series of questions about their personal characteristics (e.g. age group, gender, the place in which they spend most of their life, present place of residence)

Findings and analysis

In order to answer the research question a number of 50 participants were interviewed.

The questionnaire had 15 questions.

1. Did u choose specifically to visit Putna Monastery?

As seen in Chart 1, 30% said they didn’t chose specifically to visit the monastery, claiming they were near it and spontaneously decided to give a look.

On the other hand 70% of the pilgrims wanted to be there at the monastery, planning that with months in advance for religious purpose.

2. If yes, how important were the following in influencing your choice to visit Monastery?

A) It is a prestigious /popular monastery/protected area

B) Opportunity to touch and observe holy frame of miracles

78% responded that being a prestigious monastery and having the opportunity to touch the relics or holy frame play a very important role as it is once in a lifetime experience.

7% claim it is not important as they go to visit places just for simple curiousity.

15% say these factors are important as by being prestigious and well known gives them the security in advance that it is a place worth seeing.

3. Do you come to visit this monastery every year?

25% responded said they do not come to visit the monastery every year, because of different reasons; some of the Romanian tourists live quite far from destination, the travel is to expensive

27% said yes, they return every year for spiritual peace

48% responded it is their first visit, hearing of it from words of mouth, ads etc.

4.If No, what changes have you perceived in number of visitors?

53% said they have seen real improvement in number of tourists visiting the monastery, yearly counted and seasonally (Easter)

Only 14% said they saw a drop in visitors based on recession

33% think there is no change between the previous years and now

5.What reason brings you here?

15% of respondents came for pure curiosity, they said they visit many places and Putna Monastery is just another one on their list

40% mostly adults and elderly people came with the hope that by praying intensely and touching the holy frame they can be healed

45% responded they visit for religion beliefs, mostly Christians orthodox for whom Easter is a very important event

References

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Ekin, L. (1990), “From pilgrimage to packaged tours: Jerusalem and tourism”, Perspectives,

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ideological distortion”, in Morinis, A. (Ed.),Sacred Journeys, The Anthropology of Pilgrimage,Greenwood Press, Westport, CT,pp. 149-68.

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Free Essays

Health tourism and its impacts on host nation and hospitality industry

Introduction

Growing demand for health services is a global phenomenon, linked to economic development that generates rising incomes and education. Demographic change,

especially the ageing population and older people’s requirements for more medical services, coupled with rising incidence of chronic conditions, also fuel demand for more and better health services. Waiting times and/or the increasing cost of health services at home, combined with the availability of cheaper alternatives in developing countries, has lead new healthcare consumers, or medical tourists, to seek treatment overseas.

This booming growth for medical/health tourism in recent times has had both positive and negative impacts on the global healthcare and on the host nation. Whether health is a motivator to travel or as a contributor to disease transference it can have a great impact on the hospitality and tourism industry. It can influence social, financial, industrial, environmental, business and hospitality sectors in an economy. It’s impact on global healthcare can lead to innovation in healthcare solution, enhancements in healthcare solutions, enhancements in the number of healthcare professional, increased international standards in healthcare solutions and emergence of supporting healthcare infrastructure for example a medical hotel.

A number of tourists are now combining vacation and health care. According to Travel Health Watch (Oct 18, 2010) medical tourism market shows rapid growth. The 2010 Portrait of American Travellers, a study compiled by Harrison Group and Y partnership, found that half of leisure travellers from theU.S.are familiar with the idea of medical tourism. The study also found that the medical tourism market is growing 20 percent each year and leisure travellers will consider having a medical procedure done in a foreign country if they could save some money, the quality is comparable to services provided in the U.S, and/or if their insurance would not cover a particular procedure in the U.S.

In India, health care is one of the largest sectors, in terms of revenue and employment, and this sector is expanding rapidly largely due to health and medical tourists. During the 1990s, the Indian health care sector grew at a compound annual rate of 16%. Today the total value of the sector is more than US$34 billion. By 2012, India’s health care sector is projected to grow to near US$40 billion (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007).

Medical hotels are also in the rise due to the demand and rapid increase in health care from tourists. Consortiums inSingaporeare investing in medical hotels which will boast a 260-room luxury high-rise connected to the east wing of a new hospital inFarrerPark. The hotel will feature a 500-seat conference hall, indoor and outdoor gardens and a spa, as well as a dialysis machine and other medical equipment for patients who don’t want to stay in the hospital. It will add new meaning to the concept of a healing holiday.

Jetting off to a foreign country for affordable cosmetic surgery has been a popular option for years. But now, pinched by rising health-care costs in developed countries, travellers are going abroad for routine required surgeries and procedures, including colonoscopies and ob-gyn exams. According toButler,Sana, by 2012, experts predict, medical tourism will turn into a $100 billion international industry with more than 780 million patients seeking health care abroad.

Travelling overseas for medical care has historical roots; previously limited to elites from developing countries to developed ones, when health care was inadequate or unavailable at home. Now however, the direction of medical travel is changing towards developing countries, and globalization and increasing acceptance of health services as a market commodity have lead to a new trend; organized medical tourism for fee paying patients, regardless of citizenship, who shop for health services overseas using new information sources, new agents to connect them to providers, and inexpensive air travel to reach their destination.

Health tourists constantly prefer to consult doctors of high repute, whose skills have already benefited patients with similar medical conditions. The enormous need for proficient personnel breeds more specialists who cater to this escalating requirement thus contributing to the economy’s employment. Apart from the physician’s status, a potential foreign medical tourist looks at numerous other aspects of the medical establishment, to which he/she entrusts their wellbeing. As per industry standards, accreditations from authorized bodies are recognized and accepted. Other variations which monitor quality and accountability standards are also improved upon and utilized. National accreditations, which have their own stringent parameters, are also improving upon international standards to meet international patient requirements and expectations.

Dispensation, storage & interpretation of available medical records and data files; a process termed ‘Knowledge Processing’ has made the medical system transparent beyond medical authorities worldwide, to respective patients as well. Prior to the global focus on health tourism, the importance of this process was not felt as keenly as it is today. With the advent of the internet and web conferencing, medical proceedings, subject data and case histories of patients around the world is now available and shared online with doctors operating in any country. It provides them with excellent opportunities to interpret, assimilate, improve, collaborate and enhance the overall health services afforded.

Globalization of medicine has brought the emanation of several other allied international sectors like healthcare insurance, vast selection of tourism getaways, varied choices of travelling and unlimited options for hospitable lodging in the country that one chooses to get treated in. Besides, the banking sector has facilitated advancing of loans, comfortable payback schemes, credit card facilities; easy access to internet payment gateways, abundant foreign currency exchange centres and other painless international banking procedure to help foreign tourists. Such programs have completely ruled out affordability or inaccessibility to capital, as a hindrance to disease alleviation. For many nations obtaining medical visas is now an effortless procedure.

When established as an industry, medical tourism is significantly instrumental in moulding the society of a nation. It contributes not just in terms of enhanced, speedier or affordable healthcare, but also lends itself to infrastructural betterments, more employment opportunities with an increased propensity towards overall wealth creation. In nations that are still in the developing stages, such improvisations pave the way towards industrial growth to cater to the burgeoning demands of the foreign health seekers. A developed nation, on the other hand gains prominence as a popular healthcare destination and people start travelling there for medical attention.

According to Weaver and Lawton (2010) manufacturing industries, foreign investments, business exports, agricultural, mineral products or information technology services, are currently among the most prominent and largest contributors to any nation’s Gross Domestic Products (GDP). Therefore, medical tourism will soon top the charts as a key money grosser, contributing significantly in the GDP for a nation which affords such facilities. As more tourists arrive into the country for cheaper, better and faster remedy for their illnesses, the chances of financial gain is guaranteed.

All medical tourists do not visit a country with the express purpose of a treatment or surgery. They also intend to tour the country’s other historical or natural attractions. This trend is growing as tourists tend to invest the amount they save in healthcare, during sight-seeing. This serves as significant revenue for the tourism industry and forms a portion of total profits of the industry.

Another industry very closely associated with the field of medical science is the pharmaceutical industry. When one undergoes treatment or surgery in one country, they are bound to take over-the-counter drugs sold in the same area. This increases the sale of medicines in a directly proportional manner such that, the number of surgeries or treatment conducted directly adds to the profits of the pharmaceutical company of the country that is a prominent medical tourism destination.

The medical tourism industry is served both by private as well as public sector industries. While the public sector contributes to the overall infrastructure and associated processes like permitting medical visa, clearing foreign passports, facilitating foreign exchange etc; the private sector totally takes over the comfort & hospitality department as well as the healthcare facilities. The kind of medical care and amenities provided by private sector industries is generally far more superior to that offered by government establishments. Under such situations, a public-private partnership tends to equalize profits, adds to overall infrastructural benefits and caters to the needs of the foreign medical tourist, in a balanced manner making the overall procedure smooth, rapid and economical. For example The Indian Ministry of Tourism has started a new category of visas for the medical tourists. These visas called the “M” or medical-visas are valid for one year but can be extended up to three years and are issued for a patient along with a companion.

A country that prospers in the healthcare tourism industry will also experience fewer exits of trained professionals from their home country to a foreign nation availing better employment and financial opportunities which is prevalent in developing countries in Asia,South Americaand South Pacific. Medical professionals are content as they get the required job satisfaction and financial fulfilment even when stationed in their native country.

There are also political advantages as well when one country serves as a major tourism destination for another and there is constant exchange of treatment and revenue between them, the political links between those nations are affected in a positive manner. Stronger bonds between those nations are forged when the host nation and provide the foreign tourists with several amenities besides conducive medical treatment.

Along with the positives there can also be some negatives impacts associated with health tourism. With patient travels; there is significant risk of corresponding bacterial travel. All industry professionals must understand the negative impact of communicable diseases. Hence, good strategies should be developed by global organizations to protect spread of such diseases. Understanding and control is vital for all the countries involved.

.For infrastructural growth, the natural greenery or forest cover of a region is compromised in order to accommodate more buildings, hospital facilities, roads, treatment or diagnostic centres etc. To supplement the above, there is a continuous discharge of polluted air, solid -toxic medical waste, litters of sewage consisting of oil and chemicals. Architectural, noise and visual pollution also has a direct negative impact on the atmosphere.

Health tourism also creates a dearth of local resources like power, food stock, fuel and other unredeemable natural resources, which could already be in short supply within the host country. Water, another non-replenishable natural resource, is commonly misused in hotels, spas and swimming pools through careless personal use by tourists. This not only generates large volumes of waste water but also leads to water shortages and depletion of natural water sources.

With an increased number of health tourists, the hospital/hotel adopts the policy of being paid in accordance to an overseas system. Such a structure, even though economical to a foreigner, tends to be expensive for the native. As a result, all sections of people within a particular nation are not able to take advantage of the advanced treatment options available within the country. This creates a negative impact on the health infrastructure of a country.

Healthcare tourism in most countries runs through private institutions. Currently the private sector in most developed countries accounts for a larger number of surgical procedures, treatment operations, and ultimately in the overall number of patients from all over the globe. Thus the revenue generated by this sector is much greater compared to that generated by the government or the public sector. The uncontrolled growth of the private sector can lead to inequalities and profit imbalance across both sectors.

There are significant chances that many medical tourism hospitals would tap into unethical practices to grab international patients, such as organ transplants, restricted regional treatments or several other medical services which are restricted, regulated or controlled in one region. Legal issues are also likely to rise as the health industry presents unique problems and challenges for both consumers as well as providers.

Both positive and negative impacts of medical tourism on healthcare, economic, social and environmental sectors creates opportunities and challenges for this growing industry which require cohesive collaborative work between various stakeholders.

Medical tourism doesn’t only provide benefits to international patients or health/medical tourists but it extends to a wide spectrum of benefits to many industries such as the healthcare industry, travel and tourism, commercial sector, government relationships, and international accreditation sector. There are also negative impacts medical or health tourism can have by attributing to shortages of scare local resources in energy usage including electrical power, food stock, fuel and other unredeemable natural resources such as water and the resultant environmental issues which needs to be considered and controlled by governments of countries in midst of this global phenomenon.

Reference List

Butler, S, 2009, ‘Holidays for health’, Newsweek International viewed 26 May 2011, pp.36. Available from: .

Carrera, P, Bridges M, John F, 2006, ‘Globalization and healthcare: understanding health and medical tourism. Expert Reviews. Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp.447 – 454.

Dr. Prem, J, 2010, ‘Medical tourism impact its more than obvious . Medical Tourism Magazine vol 17, viewed 26 May 2011, Available from: .

Hazarika, I,2009, Medical tourism: its potential impact on the health workforce, Oxford Journals, vol 25, no 3, pp.248 – 251, viewed 26 May 2011.

Mathieson, A and Wall, G, 1982’ ‘Social Impacts’, in Tourism: economic, physical, and social impacts, U.S ed, Longman,London.

McKerchera, B, 1993, ‘Some fundamental truths about tourism: understanding tourism’s social and environmental impacts’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism [online]. viewed 26 May 2011, pp.6 – 16. Available from: .

Otley, T, 2007, ‘Patients without borders: it is now cheaper and easier than ever before for patients to receive good-quality healthcare abroad, but how is this medical tourism affecting the host nations’?(Fit to Fly: Medical travel)’ Business Traveller vol 2 viewed 26 May 2011, pp.36. Available from .

U.S. House, 2007, Market report for Healthcare in India, Government Printing Office,Washington.

Weaver, DB and Lawton, L 2010, ‘Economic impacts of tourism’, in Tourism management, 4th ed, John Wiley,Qld,Australia.

Categories
Free Essays

Cross cultural differentiation on hospitality and tourism management

Introduction:

In a rapidly changing environment and continuing insights into organizational effectiveness, tourism industry, as most other organizations thought about that what they do and how they can create and accomplish their goals and objectives. Once goals are defined is culture that is necessary to advance these goals and objectives and ensure the successful implementation of the necessary changes. In addition, the organizational effectiveness literature has been increasingly emphasizing the importance of culture in motivating and maximizing the value of its intellectual assets, particularly its human capital. And it can be say that-

(1) Culture is essential for both successful organizational change and maximizing the value of human capital

(2) Culture management should become a critical management competency, and

(3) While the right culture may be a necessary condition for organizational success,

It is by no means a sufficient condition. An important challenge for managers is to determine what the most effective culture is for their organization and, when necessary, how to change the organizational culture effectively.

The Beach House Maldives has joined Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts. The resort was renamed by the name of ‘The Beach House Maldives. The Beach House is located on the pristine, lagoon-ringed Haa Alifu Atoll which is fringed by powder-white beaches and has un spoilt leafy jungle at its centre, the 35-acre resort comprises 83 Maldivian-style villas, three restaurants, four bars and a luxurious spa. Each villa comes complete with a private pool and butler.

In 2007, this independent branded hotel has built a solid reputation for world-class luxury and quality that epitomizes the Waldorf Astoria name. The Maldives remains one of the most sought-after luxury leisure destinations in the world and it has delighted to be able to offer its guests the unique experience of Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts on the beautifully private and breathtaking island of Manafaru.

Since 2009,1st July Hilton Worldwide management team has been in situ at the resort which has overseen a number of key developments as part of the US$58 million renovation project and now the restaurant are becoming the first Waldorf Astoria property in Asia Pacific.

Their restaurants and three bars have been redesigned to incorporate local heritage and ingredients with global influences. Including over-water fine-dining restaurant Saffron, a Tapas and Sangria bar with a Maldivian edge at the Mediterranean-themed Salt Water and martinis and cocktails inspired by Waldorf Astoria properties around the world that are experience offers a local twist. Source: www. maldives beachhouse.com.

They also introduced a new art gallery with a cafe serving traditional Maldivian High Tea and also offers 30 degrees private dining in a glass floored over water pavilion. The new spa programmers, upgraded villa and restaurant interiors from UK which are based on Aromatherapy Associates, Ayurvedic philosophies are also join in this place with developments to the Kids club, and new designer boutiques.

The opportunity of this hotel has always tried to introduce their tradition and their history. That’s why; thehistory of the Maldives will be on offer with excursions to the nearby island of Utheem which is famous for home to a Sultan’s Palace. The resort has also been improved with a direct 75minute seaplane transfer that they offered as an alternative to a domestic flight and boat transfer. The first ever property of the Waldorf Astoria in the Asia Pacific could be found nowhere but in the Maldives.

In March, 2010, The Beach House Maldives was renamed The Beach House Maldives the collection of The Waldorf Astoria. The Beach House Maldives has affiliated with legendary Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts and in celebration to the newly upgraded resort‘s debut, guests from different parts of the world were invited to join its inauguration ceremony and became part in a chapter of the resort‘s exclusive history.

Marketing strategy of Beach House Maldives:

There is a marketing principle that states that a company cannot survive in the market without its clients. Therefore, the company always destined their significant resource to the design of innovative promotion strategies aimed at attracting new clients. The development of communication systems, especially the internet, has made it possible for products from millions of companies to reach all kinds of audiences in almost every corner of the world. Increasingly innovative and attractive web pages advertising countless products and services appear every day. A Hotel is a company and their guests are its main clients. High occupancy rates must be achieved to ensure success. Many hotels have developed unique products whose high quality standards have contributed to increasing retention and loyalty rates. Customized services offer the possibility of achieving high quality standards, generating positive overall satisfaction levels by turning the stay into a fulfilling experience in itself. All of us have been tourists in one way or another. After a pleasant experience, we have felt the need to share our trip with our family and friends. This is where one of the most important ways of promotion starts: word of mouth. Word of mouth continues to be, according to experts, the most decisive factor when it comes to choosing the destination and the place of stay. One of the main advantages of this kind of promotion lies in its low cost, as it is the guest who bears most of it: the time consumed and the interest in communicating his/her experience to a group of people who might be in turn motivated to go through it themselves. Another advantage is its high impact, as the level of credibility that a member of the family or friend has cannot be matched by any other promotion strategy, thus turning it into a powerful tool. The expectations of the new guest who chose the hotel on the basis of this kind of promotion shall be determined by the level of satisfaction experienced by the person who recommended the hotel & the expectations of the new guest (real or imaginary) regarding the experience promoted. If, before the arrival of the new guest, the identity of the person who recommended the hotel is known, it is possible to determine, through the analysis of the guest’s profile, his/her level of experience and, particularly, the means by which it was attained, so that it can be reproduced or adapted to the new guest, thus ensuring the same level of service or even a better one. Therefore, the expectations of the new guest can be satisfied, turning him/her into another guest who will in turn attract more guests. There are several means by which hotel employees may obtain the identity of the guest who recommended the hotel by word of mouth: from direct questions on the on- line reservation form, polls-questionnaires or through the hotel butler while assisting the guests. This information is valuable for the hotel, as it primarily allows creating customer valuation policies aimed at stimulating the guests’ need to share their experiences after the trip. If a guest checks out from a Hotel feeling that all his/her expectations have been met and even exceeded, he/she will become one of the company’s best allies, as his/her positive comments will attract new guests who are willing to go through the same experience themselves.

Tactics and strategy which should have to be practice for managerial success in hospitality and hotel management across in a cross cultural diversify environment:

Management style:

In international business, culture is a critical factor in a global economy. In that case manager should need to engage in learning processes to develop international cultural competence. That’s why today’s manager has use behavioral approach. From the way managers design motivating job to work with employee teams to way they use open communication. In addition, the system approach on decision and actions taken in organizations and managers coordinate the work activities of the various part of the organization are working together so that the organization’s goal are achieved.

Reputation Management:

Online reputation plays a huge role in the level of success achieve the majority of travelers. Today use the internet to make travel plans, and say the reviews they read from other guests influence their buying decision Reputation management begins by listening to what people are saying about online.. Use tools like Google Alerts, Technocratic, and Radian 6 to track praise and criticism Monitor all important terms for examplehotel name, any old hotel names, restaurants, the names of manager and concierge. Review sites such as Trip Advisor, Yelp, and Qype allow management responses, and this is a good chance to participate in the conversation. A recent survey by Trip Advisor/Market Matrix found that 85% of hotels have no guidelines on how to handle negative guest reviews published online. Developingresponse policy ahead of time, and make an effort to follow up with all feedback Complaints can be an excellent opportunity to improve hotel service. If you get legitimate negative feedback,thank the reviewer for pointing it out… and explain the stepstaking to ensure it never happens again Trip Advisor: The most important thing a hotel can do to improve rankings is provide a great experience for their guests. Effective online reputation management is more than just playing defense – it’s all about proactively building a positive buzz. Social media is a great way to begin doing this.(ISSUE HOSPITALITY MALDIVES 022 ISSUE 26).

Email: Email may have taken a backseat role to social media hype, but it’s still a very powerful tool when used correctly. It is the cornerstone of permission-based relationship marketing. Email usually has higher psychological value than other types of online communication. Email is an effective branding tool for creating top-of-mind awareness Email drives action and profits Messages don’t always have to be sent to guests and customers. Build systems to nurture partner relationships. Fairmont Hotels sends nearly half of their newsletters for other business partners. You must create your lists organically with the explicit permission of your prospects. Always provide a strong benefit for the person signing up for your list. Receiving updates (marketing messages) alone isn’t usually a very strong offer. Exclusive discounts also preferred for attract the customer.

Customs and cultural difference:

Maldives is a place of very hospitable for visit. Here people are always take care to avoid religious offence. They are always concern about religion and culture, they learn about local rules and values even they also keep knowledge about some of language. In a word they are so much sensitive to cultural difference. Their patience, friendliness, and courtesy have won the respect and confidence to the customer. In this hotel, people come from different countries and they discover the beauty and harmony of the country because their staff and manager are always most welcoming.

Entertainment:

The Beach house of Maldives has its own restaurant, bar, water sport facilities, health club, and spa. The hotel also organizes the Maldives traditional folk music and dance.

Environmental Responsibility:

Global warming and increase the sea level pose are great threats for this island people. This hotel management always concern about this issue and that does why they play a role in National Environmental action plan for protect the nation’s coral reefs, marine life, and its land surface.

Government policy:

The Maldivian government has strict anti drugs policy. Alcohol is only permitted only one the resorts island and not in the other inhabited island.

Food and Drink:

Maldives beach house is offer spicy blend of Arabic, Indian, Sri Lanka, and oriental flavors with fish, mainly tuna a favorite dish. This resorts usually have international cuisine and their local dishes as a part of their buffets.

Language and Religion:

The Republic Maldives is a Islamic state and their language is Dhivehi. But English is also widely by the Maldivians to make easy for communicate with visitor. In this beach house staff speaks several other languages including French, German, Italian and Japanese.

Research OBJECTIVES:

I propose to reviewhow managing diversity can create a competitive advantage, with a focus on human resources, marketing success, creativity and innovation, problem-solving quality and organizational flexibility. These six dimensions of business performance are directly impacted by management of cultural diversity.

In this review the following goals and objectives are achieved-

Critically evaluate theories of leadership and motivation.
Critically evaluate theories relating to managing cultural diversity, how these theories apply to the chosen organisation and what can be import end/changed in the light of the theories.

Cultural Diversity:

Definition of culture and organization culture:

There are verities of definitions of culture. According to Sathe(1984;68)”culture is asset of a important understandings that members of a community share in common.” Organizational culture refers to a pattern of beliefs, values, and learns with experience the course of a organization’s history and in behavior of its members.

National culture and Subculture:

National culture defines by that people from different countries may be influenced by cultural difference in their work environment. It is important to understand people’s different cultural backgrounds. Subculture can be identified as understandings, behaviors and culture forms that characterize as distinctive group within an organizations (Trice,1993;85).

In tourism sector, the company motivates each subculture to develop its own cultural life to understanding other cultural grouping so that the subcultures are developed.

Theories of cultural issues:

Culture presents the biggest challenge to businesses working internationally shared by beliefs, norms and values. Culture influences management also including negotiation tactics, decision making, and rewards and recognition programs. According to Geert Hofstede, culture is more often a source of conflict than

sof synergy. Cultural differences are nuisance at best and often a disaster. In that case, such dimensions do explain the behavior with respect to how cultural differtiation interact with this tourism business.

Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions (source: Greet Hofstede cultural dimension website, http://www.greet-hofstede.com)

Culture dimension Value Definition
Power distanceIndividualism

Uncertainty avoidance

Masculinity/FemininityThe degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country’s society.Degree to which a society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationship.

The extent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have created institutions and beliefs for minimizing or avoiding those uncertainties.

The degree to which “masculine” values like performance, success, and material things and “feminine” values like quality of life, caring, service, personal relationship.

Maldives work values:

The Individualism is low and collectivism is high in Maldives culture. Hofsted indicates that a positive relation between individualism and per capita GNP( Gross Nation Product). Individualism may be increase in Maldives.

Uncertainty Avoidance, this dimension define when the workers are respective to different ideas and opinions or feel threats. This dimension is too clear in Maldives because they are traditionally been ruled by men rather than the rules. In Maldives the uncertainty Avoidance with strong desire to maintain social order.

Masculinity/Feminists, this dimension describes how assertive and acquisitive worker were in a materialistic sense In Maldives. Hofsted studies had medium score for this dimension. For example, Maldives managers score high in masculinity.

With high power distance countries like Maldives, managers should make autocratic decisions and they have business structures that are typified by close control of operations and fairly weak work ethic.

However, the biggest problem of this organization is cultural awareness which may cause of problem. If service managers are unaware of core cultural expectations of customers it will result in a gap in performance of service.

Role of Manager in Beach House of Maldives:

Managers are expected to provide instruction, guidance, advice and encouragement to help taem members to improve their performance. The managers in this beach house are always be alert about their duty and they know that their job is specially to guide the employees in order to fulfill their responsibilities and to adjust to the new cultural and physical environment. Managers are concern and respond that handling the uncertainties. They have also ability to checking quality of the product and transferring technical knowledge about product.

Cross cultural management& employee performance and benefits:

Beach house Maldives usually involves service and dealings with consumers from different cultures. The organization has tended to keep a culture alive and measure the cultural fit between the organization and its employees. The human resource practices such as section, performance, training, and career development reinforce the organization’s culture. Beach House of Maldives beliefs also tend to influence the work norms, and communication practices. This research indicates that cross culturally aware management provide their culturally diverse service. They are able to provide their serving styles to meet the needs of their foreign customers. To provide best service for customer they associated the following steps-

Free training programmes for members
Marketing and promotion and implementation of quality.
Management should effort much on different cultural staff and train the staff to hospitalized the guest.
Problem Analysis:

What’s the suit ion being create if the tourism and hospitality related Hotel Company not familiar with a foreign culture?

We know about that how American mega-investor Kirk Kerkorian sued DaimlerChrysler for after their German chairman, Jurgen Schrempf had bragged in a Financial Times interview that the merger between the two companies are officially promoted as a ‘merger of equals’ was really no more than a takeover. The case is still in court but a similar class-action suit by other investors has already been settled by the company for $300 million. Technically, the issue was a legal one but however, what got DaimlerChrysler into trouble was that Schrempf lacked the cultural sensitivity and experience to realize that in the US, they won’t get away with that of their two faced-behaviors. The same act would expectably have much less dramatic consequences in his home country. Microsoft reported losing several millions of dollars in India, the Arab world, and in South America because of cultural mistakes in some versions of their Windows program. Incorrect maps, poor translations that introduced offensive language, and other inappropriate material offended locals and in some cases led to government action. The company had to recall the affected versions, replacing huge quantities of its software packages. A spokesman admitted that “some of our employees, however bright they may be, have only a hazy idea about the rest of the world”. As a consequence, Microsoft now sends their staff to dedicated training classes.

A large high-tech corporation lost more than $10 million in development costs and missed market opportunities when they set up two of their international teams, one in Israel and one in Japan, to directly compete with each other in the same project, developing an important new product. What the division’s manager was not aware of was that in many cultures, such an approach sends a message to the team that it is incompetent and cannot be trusted. Rather than serving as a motivator as it might have in the U.S., the decision led to low morale, increased turnover, and poor results in both countries. The project had to be stopped and re-initiated.

Fortunately, most cross-cultural blunders are less severe, or at least less costly, then in these examples. Nevertheless, the list still goes on and on about how businesses waste money and miss opportunities because of a lack of international experience or preparation.

What Goes Wrong

There are three fundamental ways in which hospitality and tourism hotel business interactions and engagements fail or become more costly these are following in below-

Failure to cross the culture gap: The interaction falls because the parties involved are unable to make a relation the culture gap between them. Many negotiations end at this stage. They asked always too much and expect to optimum service or keep a statement that never trusts others because they lived up their promises. These statements might be provides the end of such failed attempts. Most of the time, these negotiations may be fall in the trace back to poor mutual understanding and faulty initial assumptions rather than bad intentions on either side.

“Competition”: The cross-cultural interaction limps along, but the parties involved fail to communicate effectively and to build sufficient trust between them. As a result, the competitive element outweighs the cooperative one, introducing issues over contracts terms, intellectual property, budgets and payments, and so on. This case is both more common and more devastating than the previous one. Rather than adding value to a company’s global business strategy, such an engagement can become a major distraction from its key objectives and cause a lot of damage.

Limited collaboration: The parties have to involve with each other the ways of communicate and interact. However, they never fully trust each other. In many foreign cultures, people will not make any major business commitments unless a strong business relationship has been established and they feel that the partner can be fully trusted. In this beach house hotel may be more at ease here because its culture encourages a competitiveness that maintains an element of rivalry business partners are used to. Dealing with foreign partners thus represents a bigger challenge if the goal is to achieve extensive collaboration.

Recommendation or suggestion:

Common Causes

Six elements can be identified that make or break the success of a global business in tourism and hospitality sector. All of them are ultimately linked back to people’s to understand the issue of cross culture.

1. Strategic Objectives

Objective is the main power point for any company. However, many international business interactions suffer from poorly defined objectives. Strategy, goals and approach all need to be set with the target in mind about culture. Culture’s values, strengths, and preferences can be a long term strategic objectives and tactics if it being realized that they are well aligned with others culture.

2.Approach

Like any other running business, the properly planning approach has gain a success in cross-cultural interactions. Strategic objectives need to be translated into a plan of action that defines steps, timing, roles, and responsibilities. That plan must also take into account the specific preferences and sensitivities of the targeted culture. Ad-hoc approaches in foreign countries have a very limited chance of success.

3.Negotiation

Negotiating in a different cultural context is one of the most difficult and toughest challenges in international business. What is really effective and what is the most considered inappropriate varies greatly between countries. At the time, the stakes are usually high and make any mistakes which approach costly. Finding someone best and most skilled negotiators won’t help much unless they are well-prepared. If they lack a thorough understanding of the other culture, the company may be in for a business disaster.

4. Leadership

Once a cross-cultural engagement the leadership are more focused because behind this visionary leadership becomes pivotal. Leaders will need to consistently demonstrate that they are serious about the situation and willing to work through the cultural differences. They have to take a strong commitment as well as they have to need the accurate skills to identify the sensitive areas and have to act appropriately to build and maintain trust. Executives or middle managers who maintain an “us-versus-them” attitude can cause huge damage. Extensive communication both within the own camp and with the foreign side is also essential and requires constant leadership attention.

5. Facilitation

The importance of relationship and trust building triggers a need for proper facilitation throughout the engagement. While early in the interactions senior leaders often drive the progress, they may have to become less involved once the engagement is under way. At that point, it becomes essential that a facilitator be assigned who continues to build the relationship. Sending an expatriate who lives in the foreign country can be very effective, but only if he or she is sensitive and well familiar with the specific culture. Companies not paying attention to this aspect frequently find their employees inadvertently triggering confrontations that hurt the business relationship.

6. Team Preparation
Well-defined strategy and good leadership are not enough to make global business interactions successful. It also essential to get support and help from all team member because they are involved in business and they have taken a important part in hotel business sector. Without proper preparation for the engagement, cooperation will likely be poor and concerns may prevail. The objective has to be to get both sides into the right mindset, opening up to the engagement as an opportunity rather than viewing it a threat. Again, it will be very important to understand and address any cultural differences. Aspects such as how to motivate a team can differ significantly and may dictate a new approach in a foreign culture.

Organizational culture must now take into account:

¦ The organization must be proactive, not just reactive.

¦ The organization must influence and manage the environment, not just adapt.

¦ The organization must be pragmatic, not idealistic.

¦ The organization must be future-oriented, not predominantly present/past oriented.

¦ The organization must embrace diversity, not uniformity.

¦ The organization must be relationship-oriented, not just task-oriented.

¦ The organization must embrace external connectivity, as well as promote internal integration.

These fundamental assumptions are key to eliminating obstacles that will inhibit the kinds of

internal and external organizational adaptations necessary for future success. They are not,

however, sufficient. They must be reinforced by values, behavioral norms and patterns, artifacts

and symbols, as well as accompanied by a particular mission, set of goals, and strategies.

Conclusion:

As Globalization accelerates business around the world, companies are realizing that proper preparation for international business is a mandatory step that has a strong positive impact on the bottom line. Effective communication and trust building are the primary factors in making a foreign engagement successful. They are influenced by several elements that take careful planning and orchestration. While this requires significant efforts, it is critical to the business success, and the tradeoff between costs and benefits is clearly favorable. Hospitality and Tourism industry grows globally, as the managers are exposed to more and more cross cultural dealings, as the workforce become more and more diverse, then the cultural values increase, as the customer become more knowledgeable about the environment around them, it all generates challenges for the managers. So managers should recognized and acted upon for the success of business.

Reference:
Alan M. Rugman and Richard M. Hodgetts,(2003). International Business.3rd ed. Pearson education ltd.
Calori, R & Sarnin, P.(1991). Corporate Culture and Economic performance: A French study, Oganization Studies,12(1);49-74.
Chatman, J. A. & Jehn, K. A.(1994). Assessing the Relationship between Industry Characteristics and Organizational Culture: How Different Can You BeThe Journal of Management,37:522-553.
Deal, T.E & Kennedy, A.A.(1982). Corporate Cultures. Menlo Park: Addition Wesley publishing Co.
Geof Lancaster and Lan Waddelow,(1998). Strategic Marketing Planning. Journal of Marketing management.14.853-878
Hamel, G and C.K Prahalad,(1994). C ompeting for Future Boston: Harvard business school press.
Schien, E. H.(1992). Organaizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd Edition. San Francisco; Jossey-Bass.
Stephen P. Robbins/ Mary Coulter.(2004-2005). Management.8th edition. Pearson Education LTD.
WWW. Maldives beach house.com.

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Tourism Marketing Analysis at Wrest Park Gardens

Introduction

Wrest Park is one of the most important Gardens in England. The natural landscape and statues was built during the late 18th century. Wrest Park’s formal gardens provide a fascinating history of gardening styles of 150 years old and inspired by the great gardens of Versailles in England. The gardens are overlooked by a stylish French-style 18th century mansion and contain amazing garden buildings. Visitors looking for an unusual day out will find Wrest Park a wonderful place to explore in the company of our audio tour. The main Theme in this Wrest part is should be implements are market segmentation, targeting and positioning and marketing communications including their Internet presence to capture park atmosphere to the people and improve the continuous visitor to the park for a day. Wrest park has following the different strategy to adopt the visitor Like Event program, Demonstration about the park and all so the beauty wrest park

Tourism marketing communication

In the Wrest Park the important aspect is the marketing mix is a traditional way to understand marketing garden in general. The marketing practitioners consider the Mix as the toolkit of operation of marketing segmentation, target and positioning and marketing communication for the operational planning in the park. The exact role for the Wrest Park to contribute the Mix to the success of commercial organizations is very limited; the several studies confirm that the 4Ps Mix is indeed the trusted conceptual platform of practitioners dealing with tactical/operational marketing issues. The marketing mix has been defined as a mixture of controllable marketing variables that the firm uses in order to pursue the marketing mix have been adapted by many scholars and marketing professional, also within the tourism industry, in a number of forms. Firms marketing strategies use marketing mix variables in order to plan an operational marketing plan are used in the wrest park in different aspects are segmenting the group of peoples and positioning the park according to their age group, Gender. The wrest park has the competitive environment with other parks that bring the Targeting in the Tourism Market. And the tourism marketing has the customer demands and competitors? strategies to capture the segmentation, Positioning and targeting the people for the park and changing The Traditional marketing P’s as product, place, and promotion.

In the wrest park has the multisensory tourism marketing communication has use the term inter medial marketing to the people to understand the tourism market to have the interactive with the peoples in the around areas.

The Wrest Park that provides the marketing to visitors is only part of the job. And the park service marketing must also incorporate internal marketing, Segment marketing and Target marketing. The resources should be allocated to communicating the park mission and values to all members of staff to ensure they share the philosophy of service excellence and visitor satisfaction.

The national is the more successful regional parks, in particular, developing longer-term relationships between the key focus for marketing. Segment marketing programmers are increasingly being used by park to diversify from their traditional audiences. They are employing audience development and product diversification, building unpaid assistant and supporters to offering loyalty incentives and demonstrating their relevance to their communities through wider cultural, social and economic initiatives.

Segmentation and targeting marketing relationship often overlap the park, particularly in the public sector form collaborative partnerships or to contract out some of their ancillary services. The park’s perspective this integrated and holistic marketing strategy approach should ensure that the park brand maintains its qualities, image and reputation; the park is best placed to achieve its mission, and above all, visitors receive a quality experience.

Multiple senses in marketing through Segmentation, positioning and also target the tourism Marketing

In the wrest park, are using to communicate with the public by the Marketing communication that also defined by the new media techniques as the Tourism Marketing for its procedures. With the help of tourism market communication the park association has providing the customers services and the consumer behavioral culture. The wrest park should have to fulfill the public perception of service quality and future behavioral, so the next time the peoples will have the intention to visit the park again, this bring the positioning for the tourism marketing. The wrest park have the different process of senses to depends on age, gender, cultural background and their Behavioral experience about the nature, that the peoples expect from the wrest park to provide to visitor to the wrest park, the that shows the Targeting the visitor in the tourism segment for the Wrest Park.

In the Wrest Park Market segmentation are correctly using to understanding the needs of customers expectation, and Park authorities will decide between one offer and another. Between the customers who have shared their experience with the other peoples will be similar with their criteria. The Park should able to determine the groups of customers have been comfortable with their service should fully satisfy their need and wants of the customer. The primary objective of the park segmentation should have proper procedures and they should have the analytical aim to satisfy the customers.

In the Wrest Park they should creates and maintains a product mix that specifically that fits the needs and preferences of the parks activities. The Wrest Park should have the proper marketing procedures that can be divided into segments that relate the contemporary and traditional. The Park should choose to target the entire customer expectation service and pricing strategy that should accepted by all the customers and also the Tourism visitor to the park.

And the Park should have the target market segment for providing the service to the tourism peoples that gives the entire market popularity between the efficient tools for the park should have the promotion between the income and gaining the benefits to the wrest park authorities. The wrest park haves the greater market share between locals peoples and tourism peoples from other countries that gives the segmentation that the Wrest park has carefully directing the marketing plan that reaches to the right people and the right opportunities that park has to capture park visitor. The Park authorities should have the well planned resources that they can concentrated on their service and package that are offers the customers to visit again and again to the park. In the Wrest park there are marking the restoration of new facilities for the visitor in the formal gardens. The gardens have been completely lost or simplified to make them easier to maintain for the workers and also capturing the marketing between the tourist visitors.

And the park has Targeting the tourist visitor by providing the facilities like a new cafe, new shop and plant centre and a new play area for both young and older children. There will also be space to hold events and a new events programme is created there to targeting the different segment of Gender, Age and Size of the family and looking the Geography factor to attract the visitor for the park.

In the park they are marketing the facilities to the new visitor for the Wrest park by showing the rooms will open and the house with new exhibitions telling the story of the de Grey family who lived at Wrest Park and how they created the gardens. Historical images are showing to Visitor and the rooms are well furnished and creating good atmosphere for the visitor that bring the Marketing about their product, quality and service to the tourism visitor.

The Wrest Park has also opening the Countess’s Sitting Room and this will be the only furnished room in the mansion. Visitors will be able to enjoy the view through to the conservatory and the walled garden just as the Henrietta, Countess de Grey did. Outside, the garden buildings will also have interpretation and a new guidebook, family trail and audio guides are being created. There will also be a selection of activity backpacks for children to borrow with all sorts of games and activities to help them explore and learn about Wrest Park.

Conclusion

Thus the Wrest Park has the appropriate and effective segmentation, Targeting and positioning the marketing activities are likely to be mediocre at best. The tourism sector has traditionally lagged behind the Park in utilizing the concept of segmentation in marketing decision making, there is evidence to suggest that increasingly better market selection in the Wrest Park on the basis of resource allocations decisions are made for developing the Park strategic level according to current trends.

The Wrest Park has too many destinations, attractions and tourism organizations, that they are using well, but outdated and unsophisticated segmentation bases to define their markets. The Park has clearly have an improvement on the traditional, simplistic segmentation bases and can provide more refined visitor profiles in the fact they were initially designed for servicing the visitor, that means they are doing their yield with multi-dimensional benefits of the tourism and Leisure values . Ultimately are decisions are taken in the park to segmenting the visitor market and they have eligible to employ will be dependent upon the scope of the destination’s market planning needs and resources and expertise. The Wrest Park should remember about the tourism to understanding and they should have the distinct and homogenous needs of different visitor that they based on their motivations and attitudes that will allow the destination or attraction to the visitor in the Wrest parks.

The Wrest Park has most successful tourist destinations have undertaken a detailed segmentation, Targeting and positioning the analysis about the tourism marketing. The Park have the targeted those segments that closely matched their strengths before designing a value-added composite visitor experience the all aspects have been extended with marketing mix are integrated with the needs of the selected target segments of the Park visitors.

REFERENCE

1. Armstrong, G. & Kotler, P. (1999). Marketing and Introduction.Prentice Hall.

2. Baker, J., Grewal, D. and Parasuraman, A. (1994). The Influence of Store Environment on Quality Inferences and Store Image. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol.

3.Bitner, M. J. (1992), Services capes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, p. 57-71.

4. Bosmans, A. (2006). Scents and sensibility: When do (in) congruent ambient scents influence product evaluationsJournal of Marketing, Vol. 70(3): 32-43.

5. Coviello. N.E. et al. (2000). Investigation of marketing practice by firm size, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 15: 523-545

6. Davies, B. & Ward, P. 2002. Managing Retail Consumption. Wiley : London EURO Rscg –tutkimus (2004). Viestinnan ilmiot Gronroos, C. (1994).

7. Shift in Marketing”, Management Decision 32/2, MCB University Press Gronroos, C. (2000).

8. Hirsch, A.R. (1995). Effects of Ambient Odors on Slot Machine Usage in a Las Vegas Casino, Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 12 (7): 585-94.

9. Hoffman, K.D. and Turley, L.W. (2002). Atmospherics, service encounters and consumer decisions making. Vol. 10, Nr. 3, p. 33-46.

10. Kauppalehti. (2007) Matkamyynti menee nettiin, 14th May, 2007.Keillor, B.D., Hule, G., Tomas, M. and Kandemir, D. (2003). A study of the Service Encounter in Eight Countries, Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 12, Nr. 1: 9-35.

11. Kennedy, M. (2008). Brand Strategy. London: Jun 9, 2008:34 Kotler, P. (1984). Marketing Management: Investigation, Planning, and organize, Prentice-Hall

12. Kuutti, H. (2006). Uusi mediasanasto. Jyvaskyla: Atena kustannus Oy.

13. Lindstrom, M. & Kotler, P. (2005). Brand senses build powerful brands through touch, Taste, smell, sight, and sound. New York:

14. Lindstrom, M. 2005. Brand Sense, Build Powerful Brands through Touch, Taste, Smell, Sight and Sound. Free Press.

15. Lindstrom, M. 2009. Buyology: Truth and Lies about Why We Buy. Arrow Books Ltd.

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Critical Study of Tourism and negative effect it has on the Environment

Introduction

Tourism is a global industry of great economic importance, driven by human desire to experience new environments, be it the natural environment of a tropical beach or the built environment of an old city. People are travelling regularly to different parts of the world for long term stay on different purposes like vacation, business meetings, and recreation is Tourism. These people are usually called as tourist’s .Group of businesses or services which are dependent on tourism is collectively called Tourism Industry .Tourism industry has become one of the rapid growing industry across the world. The demand is increasing day by day. Most tourism places in the world seem to be France, Spain, USA, China, Italy and the UK. (Charmaine 2010)

Many countries depend heavily upon travel expenditures by foreigners as a source of taxation and as a source of income for the enterprises. Therefore, the development of tourism is often a strategy to promote a particular region for the purpose of increasing commerce through exporting goods and services.

Therefore it provides direct employment for the people associated with occupations in bars and hotels. The average standard of living of people increases well and at the same time unemployment is on the decrease.

However, tourists cause environmental damage through forest fires, destruction of sand dunes and pollution. Consequently this serves negatively as increased pollution disturbs local residents and also it may discourage tourists from further entering the country.

After this, tourism undermines culture by commercializing it and this is often connected with increasing litter, graffiti, vandalism and noise – tourists do not always respect traditional cultures.

There are a number of benefits of tourism for both the tourist and the host destination. On a large scale it offers a good alternative to some more destructive industries for generating income both on nationally and privately. The tourism industry encompasses many different areas, so it also creates jobs in many different areas. With tourism come hotels, restaurants, car rental agencies, tour companies, service stations, souvenir shops, sports equipment rentals, and much more. All of this creates many different levels of employment for people in a given community.

Tourism industry is taking advantage of the demand and working more on the development side, and as a result some rural places are also getting developed. The most commonly seen advantages benefits from the Tourism include new jobs, income, and tax revenue to the government. The tourism is also bringing the knowledge of that particular place to the world, and upgrading the local cultural facilities, or an enhancement of regional conservation efforts .Generally, tourism is very profitable in the terms of income for the countries, especially to those which are in the developing stage, as this industry does not require lot of literacy or capital. And it yields good profits with less investment. (Blake and Albache 2008)

Tourism provides much needed foreign currency and foreign investment .The economy of third world country can boom through this and the population benefits as well .Development should meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs . So the tourism industry should work today for the better life of future citizens. As the country has more economic sources, now it can be used for the improvements of the infrastructures like roads, transportations and communication links which again will be useful for both the local people and to the tourists. As a result of increased demand of tourism, environmental development issues will be considered by the government to attract tourists. Directly or indirectly Tourism will also be responsible for the improvement of the local education standard. (Debbie 2003)

Benefits deriving from tourism development must be balanced against potential negative effects. Jobs in the travel and tourism industry are frequently low-paying and seasonal and often offer limited benefits. In some cases, particularly where tourism strategies are ineffectual, local residents may have to pay for tourism marketing and infrastructure through higher taxes. Tourism can also increase demand for land in rural areas, which may inflate real estate prices, potentially putting the cost of housing beyond the reach of the average local resident. This is the case for some amenity-rich tourism destinations, experiencing growth in recent years stemming from recreation-based activities (Brown and Fazzone, 1998).

Tourism may directly lead to unsightly sprawl in rural areas by creating a demand for development. Other negative side effects include potentially higher rates of crime and greater demand for local services, such as police and fire protection and sanitation services, which can be expensive to provide. Also, tourism can risk changing the rural “sense of place” for some communities. Increased crowding and traffic congestion may also result with an influx of tourists into an area.

Greater demand for local arts and crafts can also potentially lead to a lowering of the quality of these products. Finally, tourism risks degrading natural resources in rural areas unless3 environmental sustainability efforts are undertaken. Many of these risks, however, can be mitigated if proper planning is employed at the outset of tourism development. (Holden 2007)

Sustainable tourism in its purest sense is an industry which attempts to make a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate income, employment, and the conservation of local ecosystems. It is responsible tourism that is both ecologically and culturally sensitive. (Beech and Chadwick 2005)

Sustainable tourism activities have minimal impact on the environment and culture of the host community. According to the World Tourism Organization, sustainable tourism is tourism that leads to the management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. Taking a leaf from the definition of sustainability itself, sustainable tourism is also defined as a process which meets the needs of the present tourists and host communities whilst protecting and enhancing needs in the future Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability. (Goodwin 2000)

Sustainable Tourism refers to a level of tourism activity that can be maintained over the long term because it results in a net benefit for the social, economic, natural and cultural environments of the area in which it takes place.

The United Nations World Tourism Organisation defines sustainable tourism as tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. Rather than being a type of product, it is an ethos that underpins all tourism activities. As such, it is integral to all aspects of tourism development and management rather than being an add-on component

The objective of sustainable tourism is to retain the economic and social advantages of tourism development while reducing or mitigating any undesirable impacts on the natural, historic, cultural or social environment. This is achieved by balancing the needs of tourists with those of the destination. Sustainable tourism is tourism that is economically, socio culturally and environmentally sustainable. With sustainable tourism, socio cultural and environmental impacts are neither permanent nor irreversible. (Butler 1999)

Bibliography

Blake, A., J. S. Arbache, et al. (2008). “Tourism and poverty relief.” Annals of Tourism Research

Available from: http://The Disadvantages of Tourism in Developing Countries | Suite101.com http://www.suite101.com/content/the-disadvantages-of-tourism-in-developing-countries-a292259#ixzz1MQA3Ciue

Butler, W. 1999 ’Sustainable tourism’ London: Rutledge.

Available from: http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/14616689908721291

Charmaine, M. 2010. ‘Land Pollution Effects on Tourism’

Available from: http://www.ehow.com/about_6643366_land-pollution-effects-tourism.html

Debbie, S. 2003.’Travel & Tourism Marketing’.

Available from: http://www.travelandtourism.com/10.1300/J073v17n04_05

Goodwin, H. 2000. ‘Tourism and Biodiversity’

Available from:

http://egis.cefe.cnrsmop.fr/Tourism%20Frontpages/Boniface%20article.htm

Holden, A. 2007. ‘Environment and Tourism’ London: Routledge.

Available from: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415399555/

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The role of social media as marketing tool for tourism in kenya. case study: kenya safari and tours.

INTRODUCTION

With two thirds of the global internet population visiting social networks, businesses are increasingly utilizing these platforms to engage with clients and other businesses, don’t get left behind!

Social Media is an extremely effective form of marketing which can be used to increase brand awareness, brand loyalty, customer service, and lead to increased sales. It can be used to present a business brand to millions of people worldwide.

Social media is not just for large corporations, small businesses can also reap the benefits of implementing a social media campaign and therefore for many businesses, social media is just one more buzz word they have to wrestle with. However, social media isn’t just a buzz word and it’s not going away social media can have a profound effect on almost any type of business. (http://www.housingea.co.uk/an_introduction_to_social_media_for_business)

Coming together with the Web 2.0 phenomenon, the birth of social media is busted out in new marketing era. It is becoming a hot topic for its huge influences. The existence of social media earns the attention of people by making them from being passive consumers to active producers in terms of sharing and contributing via networks (Anderson 2008, 63).

That is explanation why most companies today are thinking of applying social media into their business. Its advantages to and effects on organizations, however, have not been recognized accurately in comparison with other marketing tools.

Using social media as a marketing tool in tourism industry adds profound value to the new media trend. How tourism companies gain the benefits from social media is a worthy phenomenon to be researched

1. Scope of the study/backgrounds

Strategies of social media marketing in an organization are the main factors that contribute to a well-being of the most companies operating in business and customer markets. This is because the use of social media in marketing their products and service create customer awareness. Hence in most situations the customers tend to prefer to the services that are mostly satisfied with.

Planning a successful use of social media marketing strategy involves linking a company mission and business strategy to marketing decision and programs. In the current situation the case study company is using the social media marketing in marketing their tourism company and therefore it important for us to understand how the company is planning its operation and what are the current benefits of the company resulting from the use of social media marketing.

Social media marketing strategy in an organization defines how the organization uses the social media tools such as facebook, twitter and YouTube to achieve a marketing objective for the organization. The social media strategy implements and supports higher-level strategies and provides markets and customer information which is used for development and adjustments of the organization business strategy. the current approach being used by the case study company on the use of social media marketing shows that the company strategy is not fully implemented hence the company needs more decision on how to maximize the available marketing opportunities to win many customers depending on the improve strategy that they are heading to in terms of using social media marketing to market their company. The scope of the study will create proposals on how the case company can utilize social media marketing principles to achieve an effective market for their company. The outcome of the implementation of the suggested social media marketing principle and strategies will allow Kenya safaris and Tours to allocate enough resources strategically, and maximize market opportunities through the use of social media marketing which will increase the company reputation and increase profits of the company.

1.1 Research context

The theoretical part of this research will include various aspects of social media marketing strategies. The research was conducted in a co-operation of case study Company known as Kenya Safaris and Tours. Kenya Safaris and Tours have an office located in Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya and several reservation and booking in different countries. Kenya Safaris and tours is a company owned by the Ministry of tourism in Kenya and the company is specialized in offering tour services to individual customers and corporate customers traveling to Kenya

A qualitative approach was chosen in writing this research. The first part of the research will present the theoretical background followed by the company case company introduction and analysis

1.2 Purpose of the study and research question

Most companies operating in the tourism industry in, Kenya are either locally or foreign owned with majority of the companies having trying to adapt the use of social media marketing in marketing their company products and services. The fact that Kenya is destine to be a popular tourist destination has attracted large number of tourist all over the world. Therefore the introduction of use of social media marketing in advertising the companies across the planet is seen as a possible improve in the Kenya tourism industry. Though the companies doesn’t implement the use of this social media marketing correctly in regardless of the profit they earn by using it.

Therefore the research will try to investigate and generate strategies which will assist tourism companies in developing an effective use of social media strategies. The proposal discussed includes implementing major social media marketing strategies and other minor strategies to help the Kenya Safaris and tours achieve its business and organizational goals.

The final result of the research will present a social media marketing strategies which if implemented will result in Kenya Safaris and Tours gaining a competitive advantage in Kenya tourism industry. In theory, the research will try to contribute and generate new ideas from a holistic approach which may be of help in positioning and attaining competitive advantage by implementing social media marketing strategies. Therefore based on this information the research question for this thesis is work:

1. To find out how tourism companies are integrating social media into marketing so as to boost awareness and generate excitement about tourism destination?

2. What has the adoption and integration of social media strategies done to market tourism?

1.3 Limitation of the research

In this section the main concept are introduced and limitation for the research are presented

It is necessary to highlight assumption and various limitation of the study. The main focus of this study is business to customers. The objective was to prepare a social media marketing strategies that would serve the entire customers whom Kenya safaris and tours plans to appeal to during their period of operation. Social, media marketing strategies that can assist the case study company appeal to cooperate customers have been briefly analyzed in the empirical section. The limitation of this research affects how social media marketing strategies are examined and how an effective social media marketing strategy can be implanted.

The theories used in this research content have an international character. Although relating to marketing strategies , the research emphasize social media marketing strategies which concentrated only on matching companies offering the tour facilities to its customers’ needs. The technological aspect of information systems and application that are used in the social media marketing context are out of the scope but are only discussed briefly in terms of the value they can deliver to Kenya safaris and tours. It also essential to highlight that this study is not an effort to solve one specific aspects of developing a social media marketing strategies in details, but rather a research that would contribute to knowledge about various aspects of social media marketing.

1.4 Structure of the research

The research consists of six sections and the diagram in figure 1 illustrates the various sections it contains. Section 1 includes an introduction and background information of the research; the theories relevant for the research problem are presented in section 2 and 3. Section 4 entails a description of the methodology approaches chosen for the research. The case study (Kenya Safaris and Tours) company is presented in section 5. Sections 6, 7 and 8 include the empirical research and the discussion concerning the case study and the final conclusion is in section 9. The figure bellows shows how the research was planned and conducted and the linkages in the various sections

Figure1; structure of the thesis

2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS

2.1 The evolution of social media in marketing business

The use of social media evolution in marketing business has become fundamentally transformative and is rapidly evolving the architecture of business, communications, and the dissemination of information and influence. To understand what marketing exactly means it define as a process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return (Kotler & Amstrong 2010)

Today, there are businesses that engage in social media and those that do not. Those at least experimenting with the formidable, yet shifting landscape of intelligence and communication are learning how to adapt and connect in a new world of conversation, networking, and influence. Those that have yet to evaluate the opportunities and advantages for socialized marketing, service, sales, and branding will find it increasingly difficult to learn, adapt, and magnetize customers, prospects as well as their influencers.

As markets evolve, consumers gain a greater sense of adeptness and perspective. They too learn and adapt. In the process, individuals and the authoritative communities they form, possess a more sophisticated understanding of media literacy, community support, and prowess in new media communication. Consumers have choices and they’re increasingly practiced through natural selection. . (http://www.briansolis.com/2010/01/the-evolution-of-social-media-and-business/ (accessed 1 April 2011)

Then along came the internet and growing rapidly. Unlike the traditional marketing of mass media, internet broadens the scope of marketing in wider range of audiences. It overcomes the limitations of geography and time zones to send the marketing message very fast to target segments. In today‘s life, when customers are no longer being passive in access of information, the use of social media creates opportunities for both businesses and individuals to find their new audiences. Customers become more communicative and better in control than ever. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 19) The changes of marketing are mentioned in the figure below;

Figure 2; Social engagement spectrum (Armano 2009)

Through the social engagement spectrum showed in figure 2, we can see that marketing is experiencing a profound shift from lower engagement to higher engagement level. If the traditional marketing and tradigital marketing are push‘, then it becomes ?pull‘with social media nowadays. Even tradigital marketing is more interactive with users but it is lacks engagement of customers whereas social media empowers customers to participate in the online community by using social networking sites, for example. It does not mean anymore the technology only but social engagement with people has become a core factor. Thus with higher engagement, it leads to an increase in demand of niche markets, creates new opportunities in the emerging marketplace. (Anderson 2008, 57)

2.2 Social media overview

In this section the author gives an overview of social media and its impact on marketing definition and related concepts.

2.2.1 Web 2.0

The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 (accessed 27 March 2011)

Goossen (2008) in an interview with Klein suggested the key concepts of Web 2.0 are the harnessing of social networking, collective intelligence. It more concentrates on the data collected through computers rather than its own technological factor (Klein 2008).

Web 2.0 is here today, yet its vast disruptive impact is just beginning. More than just the latest technology buzzword, it’s a transformative force that’s propelling companies across all industries toward a new way of doing business. Those who act on the Web 2.0 opportunity stand to gain an early-mover advantage in their markets (Musser & O‘Reilly 2006).

2.2.2 Social media

According to B&C (2010), the term “social media” is widely used nowadays. The first time it appeared was in 2004, after LinkedIn created its social networking application. The applications primarily an online technology tool to allow people to communicate easily, utilizing the Internet to share and discuss information (B&C, 2010). According to Zarrella (2010), social Media is defined best in the context of the previous industrial media paradigm. Traditional media such as television, newspapers, radio and magazines are one-way, static broadcasting technologies. Zarrella (2010) argues that magazines and newspapers are distributing expensive content to consumers while advertisers pay for the privilege to insert their ads into the content.

Readers, in turn, have no possibility to send the editors instant feedback in the case they disagree with something. New web technologies have made it easy for anyone to create, and most importantly, to distribute their own content. A blog post, a “tweet” on Twitter, or a YouTube

Video can be produced and viewed by millions virtually for free. Advertisers do not have to pay publishers or distributor’s huge sums of money to embed their ads; now they can create their own interesting content that viewers will flock to (Zarrella, 2010). Also, Weber (2009), states that traditional media such as television, radio and newspapers are providing one-way communication; while social media, on the other hand, allows everyone to publish and to contribute in online conversations. He defines social media as “the online place where people with a common interest can gather to share thoughts, comments and opinions”.

He further states that social media consists of social networks, such as Facebook, branded web destinations, like Amazon.com and ebay.com and companies, such as IBM and Dell. Additionally, Palmer and Koenig-Lewis (2009), define social media as online applications, platforms and media which aim to facilitate interactions, collaborations and the sharing of content”. The social media is a new world of unpaid media, created by individuals and companies on the Internet (Weber, 2009). According to Zarrella (2010), social media comes in many forms:

blogs
micro blogs (Twitter)
social networks (Facebook)
media-sharing sites (YouTube)
social bookmarking and voting sites (Digg, Reddit)
review sites (Yelp)
forums
virtual worlds (Second Life) Palmer and Koenig-Lewis (2009) also divides social media into the following key categories
Blogs– Comprising individuals or firms online journals that are often combined with audio or video podcasts.
Social networks– Applications allowing users to build personal web sites accessible to other users for exchange of personal content and communication.
Content communities– Websites for organizing and sharing particular types of content.
Forums/bulletin boards– Sites for exchanging ideas and information, usually around special interests.
Content aggregators– Applications allowing users to fully customize the web content they wish to access.
2.2.3. Benefits of social media

Social media marketing experts underscore the advantages of using social media for marketing as the ability to reach a wide audience, two-ways communication, accessibility and viral effect. Social media marketing promises to improve promotional efforts significantly. One of the major advantages of social media marketing is the ability to reach a wide audience breaking down geographic boundaries. Historically communication with others was limited by geographical boundaries and the current technological of the era. Today’s social media technologies enable nearly everyone to reach a global audience for interpersonal interaction and exchanging information (Hank, 2008).Web 2.0 encompasses tools and platforms that enable people from different part of the world to be connected and to exchange information with each other

2.2.4 Social media optimization

Social media optimization (SMO) consists of more narrowly defined activity than social media marketing. Varagic (2008) described social media optimization as a process of optimizing one‘s sites/ blogs to be higher presence in social media searches and sites, more easily linked by other sites and more frequently discussed online in blogosphere and other social media.

Social Media Optimization is in many ways connected as a technique to viral marketing where word of mouth is created not through friends or family but through the use of networking in social bookmarking, video and photo sharing websites. In a similar way the engagement with blogs achieves the same by sharing content through the use of RSS in the blogosphereand special blog search engines to understand this work the diagram below shows how various key social platforms are linked

Figure 3; key social media platforms (source; virtual project consulting 2010)

2.3 Word-of-mouth and social media marketing

Word of mouth is a pre-existing phenomenon that marketers are only now learning how to harness, amplify, and improve. Word of mouth marketing isn’t about creating word of mouth — it’s learning how to make it work within a marketing objective.

That said, word of mouth can be encouraged and facilitated. Companies can work hard to make people happier, they can listen to consumers, they can make it easier for them to tell their friends, and they can make certain that influential individuals know about the good qualities of a product or service.

Word of mouth marketing empowers people to share their experiences. It’s harnessing the voice of the customer for the good of the brand. And it’s acknowledging that the unsatisfied customer is equally powerful.

Word of mouth can’t be faked or invented. Attempting to fake word of mouth is unethical and creates a backlash, damages the brand, and tarnishes the corporate reputation. Legitimate word of mouth marketing acknowledges consumers’ intelligence — it never attempts to fool them. Ethical marketers reject all tactics related to manipulation, deception, infiltration, or dishonesty.

All word of mouth marketing techniques are based on the concepts of customer satisfaction, two-way dialog, and transparent communications. The basic elements are:

Educating people about your products and services
Identifying people most likely to share their opinions
providing tools that make it easier to share information
Studying how, where, and when opinions are being shared
Listening and responding to supporters, detractors, and neutrals

In order to deepen the understanding of social media marketing and word-of-mouth marketing, a comparison is provided in the Table below

Word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM) Social media marketing (SMM
Relies primarily on influencers to spread the word.Spreads by itself through the social web and relies on passing message along from person-to-person.
Requires excellent product or service influencers can use, be excited about and pass along.Message must be outrageous, entertaining or provide exceptional value to attract attention and be passed along
Generates brand-awareness and sustained website traffic.Not always relevant to the brand
Engages customers long-term through the product life-cycle.Usually generates a short traffic spike.
Online and offline (15 – 20% online).Online only.

Table 1; comparison between Word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM) and Social media marketing (SMM) (Rijk 2007)

From Table we can see most clearly the differences between the two types of marketing. Word-of-mouth marketing is based on the drastic involvement of user and empowers the ?influencers’ who play the role of opinion-making leaders spread the word about your products and services both online and offline whereas social media marketing makes interaction merely online through social media channels.

Word-of-mouth Marketing Association (2010) has suggested different subcategories of word-of-mouth marketing techniques such as buzz marketing, viral marketing, community marketing, grassroots marketing, evangelist marketing, product seeding, influencer marketing, cause marketing, conversation creation, brand blogging and referrals programs. Brief explanation is given below;

Buzz Marketing: Using high-profile entertainment or news to get people to talk about your brand.
Viral Marketing: Creating entertaining or informative messages that are designed to be passed along in an exponential fashion, often electronically or by email.
Community Marketing: Forming or supporting niche communities that are likely to share interests about the brand (such as user groups, fan clubs, and discussion forums); providing tools, content, and information to support those communities.
Grassroots Marketing: Organizing and motivating volunteers to engage in personal or local outreach.
Evangelist Marketing: Cultivating evangelists, advocates, or volunteers who are encouraged to take a leadership role in actively spreading the word on your behalf.
Product Seeding: Placing the right product into the right hands at the right time, providing information or samples to influential individuals.
Influencer Marketing: Identifying key communities and opinion leaders who are likely to talk about products and have the ability to influence the opinions of others.
Cause Marketing: Supporting social causes to earn respect and support from people who feel strongly about the cause.
Conversation Creation: Interesting or fun advertising, emails, catch phrases, entertainment, or promotions designed to start word of mouth activity.
Brand Blogging: Creating blogs and participating in the blogosphere, in the spirit of open, transparent communications; sharing information of value that the blog community may talk about.
Referral Programs: Creating tools that enable satisfied customers to refer their friends

(http://womma.org/wom101/2/ (accessed 27 March 2011)

3. SOCIAL MEDIA AND TOURISM

3.1 The different forms of social media

Social media websites come in a wide variety of ‘flavours’, which are all broadly based around the premise of personal interaction, creating, exchanging and sharing content, rating it and discussing its relative merits as a community. In today‘s consumer‘s life, social media have reached the position where very fast-evolving growth and its overwhelming coverage in digital media scene have been recognized. More than 70% of companies have already used social media and many are unresisting of social media‘s increase. Social media is approaching to a large number of active Internet users all the time by its variety of platforms which provoke online customers’ interaction, facilitate the content creation and sharing (Bloomberg BusinessWeek 2009).

Ryan and Jones (2009, 157-169) have developed a list of social media forms which is based on relatively their primary functions.

Social bookmarking

Soacial bookmarking allow users to ‘save’ bookmarks to their favourite web resources such as pages,audio, video, whatever and categorize them using tags labels that help you to identify and filter the content you want later. The idea of social bookmarking services is to stimulate the users to manage their bookmarks using tags instead of having them in the browser-based systems of the computer‘s folder. This also makes them easy to share with friends, colleagues or the world at large, and the tag-based organization means no more cumbersome hierarchical folder systems to remember. Just choose a ‘tag’ and you’ll be presented with a list of all the bookmarks labelled with that tag.

Behind the scenes these sites anonymously aggregate the data submitted by all of their users, allowing them to sort and rank sites according to their user-defined tags and popularity. One favourite social bookmarking site is delicious.com

The advantage for using boomarking in marketing is that it create an exposure to your business through its useful content it makes it easy for visitors to bookmark your pages by providing’ Share this’ links or icons encouraging them to do just that you can harness the social element of these sites to improve your reach, and get valuable, targeted traffic in return. The tags applied to your pages by people who add them to social bookmarking sites can help search engines and visitors to gauge what your site is about more effectively. This can boost its perceived relevance and authority for particular keywords, which can in turn help your search visibility. (Ryan & Jones 2010, 158)

Social media submission sites

Social media submission sites are made for submission and discussion of articles about online marketing, are rather like social bookmarking sites only instead of saving personal bookmarks users submit articles, videos, podcasts and other pieces of content they think the broader community would appreciate. The more people who ‘vote’ for a particular content item, the higher up the rankings it rise. Submissions that get enough votes end up on the site’s home page, which can drive significant traffic. As well as the votes, of course, there also tends to be a lot of discussion and debate on these sites, which means they can offer tremendous insight into the way people think and react. Some favourite social media submission sites are Digg (www.digg.com) and Reddit (www.reddit.com), and niche sites like Sphinn (www.sphinn.com)

There are many advantages of social media submission sites such as amplifying the visibility, traffic and online. If a company have the articles or content rise high in those social media submission sites, that company will get a significant traffic and loyal. Besides that, the opportunities for a company to reinforce its profile and a perceived position within online community are at hand. If you keep on with anything relevant and compelling by joining into the submission and online round-table discussion, audiences will start to pay attention to you, trust you and gain perception of your brand or service. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 159)

Forums and discussion sites

The advent of forums and discussion sites comes at very early in the days of Internet development. Some of most popular discussion boards come up such as Yahoo Groups and Google Groups. Those groups are created with public or only-member access which allows users to post messages and to discuss within the forum. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 159)

Forum and discussion sites are used for many reasons in marketing for example

Forum and discussion sites are used for many reasons in marketing for example

Get closer to your customers: Checking out what consumers are talking about in forums is a great way to find out what makes them tick. The more you can learn about your customers, the better prepared you will be to engage with them in a meaningful way.
Raise your profile: Contribute to the discussion, offer help and advice, and demonstrate your expertise. Pretty soon people will start to respect and trust your contribution to the community – and that can do wonders for your online reputation and profile.
Nip bad things in the bud: By participating in forums you will be able to spot potentially negative comments or conversations relating to your business or brand and be proactive in resolving them before they escalate
Media sharing sites

Media sharing sites are incredibly popular it allows communities of members to upload, share, comment on and discuss their photographs. YouTube (www.youtube.com), Y! Video (video.yahoo.com), MSN Video Soapbox (video.msn.com/) and others do the same for video content. The sites typically allow you to make content publicly available or restrict access to the people you specify, to send content to your ‘friends’, and even to ‘embed’ (seamlessly integrate) the content in your blog post or website for others to find it, distribute it and discuss it. Some favourite media sharing are Flickr (www.flickr.com) and Picasa Web Albums (www.picasaweb.google.com)

Marketers use media sharing site for analyzing the popularity of items on content submission sites and reading the user comments, you can gain insight into your target market’s likes and dislikes and can incorporate that into your own content creation. These sites are the ideal vehicle for rapid distribution of your own digital media content. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 160)

Reviews and rating sites

They allow users to review and rate companies, products, services, books, music, hotels, restaurants – anything they like. They can be stand-alone review sites, like Epinions.com (www.epinions.com), Reviewcentre.com (www.reviewcentre.com) or LouderVoice (www.loudervoice.com), or a review component added to a broader site, such as the product rating and review facilities on e-commerce sites like Amazon (www.amazon.com)

Review and rating sites rely on advertising to generate revenue and therefore offer advertising opportunities for businesses either directly or through advertising and affiliate networks. Even if people aren’t rating your business directly, you can still get valuable information on these sites on what’s working for consumers and what’s not within your particular industry with the use of review and rating sites. It also helps in posting reviews about your business, that sort of feedback is pure gold reinforcing what you’re doing well and pointing out areas where you can improve for marketing the site is a research free tool. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 162)

Social network sites

The purpose of those sites is to allow users participate in a social network by creating their own profile and connecting with friends or other contacts within network or inviting friends and real-world contact to joint into the online community. So, there are vast numbers of users engaged in the social network sites. It is an online meeting platform for people for creating the content, sharing them with others, and interacting with the like-minded people easily (Ryan & Jones 2009, 162).

Talking about social network, some popular sites have come up such as Facebook, MySpace, Bebo and LinkedIn, which attain most attention on the stream of social media marketing.

Social network sites are best places to look for advertising chances based on analyses of users’ profile information. Controversies around the benefit of advertising in social network sites still take place. However, it is undeniable that the advertising is trendy on those sites. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 162)

If a company offers customers transparent information and stimulate their interest in products or services, the long-term relationship is created online and offline. The company should keep eyes on customers and let the influencers within the online community to promote the company‘s brand.

Podcasts

Podcasts are, in many ways, just the rich media extension of the blogging concept. A podcast is simply a series of digital media files (audio or video) distributed over the internet. These can be accessed directly via a website or, more usually, are downloaded to a computer or synchronized to a digital media device for playback at the user’s leisure. They tend to be organized as chronological ‘shows’, with new episodes released at regular intervals, much like the radio and television show formats many of them emulate. Users can usually offer their feedback on particular episodes on the accompanying website or blog. Some fovourite podcast are Podcast.com (www.podcast.com), Podcast Alley (www.podcastalley.com), Podomatic (www.podomatic.com) and even Apple’s iTunes (www.apple.com/itunes) offer a convenient way to find, sample and subscribe to

podcasts of interest.

Podcasts can be a valuable channel to reach target market. Unlike mass media, this social media platform open the new way for companies to be digital conscious players. Companies can create own podcasting services which provide podcasts to prospect customers. Initially, if customers are less tech-savvy, they prefer to view now or listen now with nothing to install or register. However, if the customers find the content compelling and right for them, then they will subscribe the company‘s site. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 165-166)

Micro-blogging

Micro-blogging is a relatively new craze that’s sweeping through online early adopters, and looks set to explode as more people embrace social media and learn of its existence. It is essentially a short-message broadcast service that let’s people keep their ‘friends’ up to date via short text posts (usually less than 160 characters). Some favourite micro blogging sites are Twitter (www.twitter.com) is the biggest player in this space, Google-acquired Jaiku (www.jaiku.com) and Pownce (www.pownce.com). The real value of micro-blogging isn’t necessarily in the individual posts; it’s in the collective aggregation of those mini-posts into more than the sum of their parts. When you receive frequent, short updates from the people you’re connected to, you begin to get a feel for them, to develop a better understanding of what they’re all about, and to feel a stronger connection with them.

Micro-blogging is efficient in improving customer service. On micro-blogging sites, a company can share the information about products and services very quickly. People can post their opinions, which can be positive comments or complaints. Those are like instant feedback for the company to analyse, resolve any mistakes and to improve customer service managing system

Wikis

Wikis are online collections of web pages that are literally open for anyone to create, edit, discuss, comment on and generally contribute to. They are perhaps the ultimate vehicle for mass collaboration, the most famous example, of course, being Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org), the free online encyclopedia. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 168-169)

Wikipedia has become the largest encyclopaedia in the world with more than 3 millions articles in English, reaching the visitors number of 68 million every month. In comparison with Encyclopaedia Britannica – an English encyclopaedia published by experts, Wikipedia has surpassed to be the leader in this field (Wikipedia n.d).

Wikis for marketers

The concept of using wikis as a marketing tool is a very new phenomenon, and their value may not be as readily apparent as with some other forms of social media. However, they are a powerful collaborative tool and, with collaboration between companies and their customers in the ascendancy, look out for increasing use of wikis by innovative organizations in the very near future.

Build a strong collaborative community of advocates around your brand: Wikis can be a great way to encourage constructive interaction and collaboration between people inside your organization and people outside it. Consumers begin to feel ownership and connection with a brand that encourages, facilitates and values their contribution. That ownership evolves into loyalty and then advocacy: powerful stuff from a marketing perspective, especially when you consider that these contributors will often be online influencers who will go on to sing your praises on other social media sites.
Harness the wisdom of the crowd: How much talent, knowledge and experience do you have inside your organizationProbably quite a lot but it pales into insignificance when compared to the massive pool of talent, experience and expertise you can access online. Retired experts, up-and-coming whizz-kids, talented amateurs, undiscovered geniuses – they’re all out there. Wikis give you a simple, powerful and compelling way to draw on and capture some of that collective intelligence. Why not harness a wiki, for example, to help refine the design of your products, come up with your next great marketing campaign, define a more efficient business process, produce and/or augment product documentation, develop a comprehensive knowledge base – or anything else that might benefit from a collaborative approach
Blogs

In the space of a very few years the widespread popularity and adoption of the blog as a medium of self-expression and communication have caused one of the most fundamental shifts in the history of modern media. Barriers to entry have come crashing down, and easy-to-use blogging platforms have liberated millions of individuals, giving them access to a global audience. People all over the world are using blogs to report local news, vent their frustrations, offer their opinions, share their visions and experiences, unleash their creativity and generally wax lyrical about their passions. Bloggers read each other’s posts, they comment on them, they link to each other prolifically, and the best of them have a massive following of avid and loyal readers. These readers go on to elaborate on what they’ve read in their own blogs, and spread the word through their own online social networks. Some fovourite blogs are (www.blogger.com) and WordPress

(www.wordpress.com)

Blog is becoming an important component in the business arsenal too, adding a personal component to the bland corporate facade, helping companies to reach out and make human connections in an increasingly human online world. Blogs also helps to show customers a personal side to your business, give them valuable information they can use, provide answers and improve their overall experience of dealing with your company. (Ryan & Jones 2009, 164-165).

3.2 Definition of tourism

Although many of us have been “tourists” at some point in our lives, defining what tourism actually is can be difficult. Tourism is the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes.

Tourism is a dynamic and competitive industry that requires the ability to constantly adapt to customers’ changing needs and desires, as the customer’s satisfaction, safety and enjoyment are particularly the focus of tourism businesses

3.3 Marketing and Promotion of tourism in Kenya

There is need to change the image or perception of Kenya in overseas markets which has been adversely affected by negative publicity, whether warranted or unwarranted. The Kenya Tourist Board shall be strengthened to continue its key role in promoting and marketing Kenya both internationally and locally. Key policies include the promotion of up market eco-tourism and wildlife safaris; gradual move away from low value package or mass tourism; the diversification of tourism products and markets; and the promotion of regional and domestic, as well as international, tourism. Emphasis shall be placed on obtaining a precise understanding of customer needs, and developing and delivering the products that customer’s desire. The policy endorses the following broad strategies for development of tourism from international, regional and domestic markets:

3.3.1 International Tourism

The main objective (once the current market recovery initiative is completed) is to establish Kenya as the destination of choice in Africa for international visitors. Destination marketing shall be spearheaded by Government through the KTB in partnership with the private sector. The main means of achieving this objective shall be to:

Differentiate Kenya with a distinct market image and positioning in target markets as a quality safari and coastal destination offering a rich diversity of culture, adventure and activity experiences;
Build on the new Kenyan brand image in a manner that reflects the diversity of the tourism product and that has a strong and distinct appeal in the marketplace
Maximize the impact of scarce marketing resources of the government and private sectors by aiming at concentration rather than dispersal of marketing efforts;
Target new segments in established source markets and core segments in emerging markets, particularly in Africa and Asia;
Effectively carry out joint marketing with appropriate partners, particularly with the Kenyan private sector, airlines, KWS, exporters, regional operators; and other tourism and conservation organizations;
Establish overseas offices in key markets and employ marketing representatives through the Kenya Tourist Board on an agency basis in subsidiary markets;
Work closely with EAC partner states to jointly market complementary products and to facilitate multi-destination tourism within the region;
Make full use of, and adapt to, the opportunities afforded by internet and niche marketing to influence consumers and travel agents, and to increase the marketing reach of Kenya in new emerging and niche markets;
Encourage the making of documentary and feature films in Kenya as a highly cost-effective means of increasing destination awareness; and
Support the establishment of a sustainable funding mechanism for tourism marketing and development;

The Task Force (comprising line Ministries and private sector representation) which has been appointed by Government to address media responses to matters relating to terrorism threats and their implications for tourism shall remain in place in order to ensure consistency in Government media communications and to avoid sending inappropriate signals to the generating markets.

3.3.2 Domestic and Regional Tourism Markets

Domestic and to a lesser extent regional tourism have sustained the operation of many hotels, lodges and other tourist facilities during recent difficult periods. The marketing strategy recognizes the importance of these markets, and the need to allocate adequate resources and budgets for the promotion of regional and domestic tourism.

3.3.3 Domestic Tourism

Kenya’s tourism products attract visitors from all over the world. However, most Kenyan nationals have not been able to experience the same attractions due to financial constraints, lack of tourism knowledge coupled with a paucity of programmes and packages that would enable nationals to participate in domestic tourism. Strategically, the domestic market (comprising Kenyan nationals as well as foreign nationals living in Kenya) shall be further developed to form an enduring foundation of the demand for tourism facilities and services, and not just a temporary palliative during times of difficulty. Focusing on tourism awareness education, public relations and publicity, Government shall take a proactive role in promoting domestic tourism to nationals and residents of Kenya as a core strategy. It shall forge linkages between the industry and national and resident domestic segments through ongoing tourism awareness educational campaigns aimed at the local population; sensitizing tourism suppliers as to the value of domestic tourism; and encouraging the development and promotion of tailor-made products, programmes and packages specifically for domestic tourists.

3.3.4 Regional Tourism

Tourism practitioners shall also be encouraged to recognize the importance of, and pay increased attention to, attracting visitors from other parts of Africa to Kenya by developing and implementing specific strategies and action plans aimed at nationals and residents of neighboring countries. Particular attention shall be given to promotions to those African countries with which Kenya has good air links and to which Kenya can offer complementary – rather than similar – products.

3.3.5 Cruise Tourism

Government shall seek to re-establish Kenya’s role and position in Indian Ocean cruise tourism by encouraging KPA to develop improved cruise ship and passenger reception facilities at the Port of Mombasa. It shall also encourage KPA and other stakeholders to actively participate in the Cruise Indian Ocean Association; attend Sea Trade and other cruise industry trade exhibitions, particularly with a view to attracting North European cruise lines to winter in the Indian Ocean using Mombasa as a homeport; and join together in targeted marketing to individual cruise lines. Government shall also encourage and support measures to re-establish cruise tourism on Lake Victoria. (http://www.tourism.go.ke/ministry.nsf/doc/Final_Draft_National_Tourism_Policy.pdf/$file/Final_Draft_National_Tourism_Policy.pdf (accessed 21 January 2011)

4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES

The objective of section (section 3) is to explain how the research was conducted detailing the methods used and evaluating reliability and validity of the research.

4.1 Research approach

Due to nature of the study the study a qualitative research approach was used to examine the study. A qualitative method as pointed by Strauss and Corbin (1998) allows respondents freedom of expression, opinion, views, and arguments that might not have been attained explicitly through other approaches. Qualitative research according to Collins and Hussey (2003) also helps the researcher to discover different aspects during the interview and investigates answers in details

“A major strength of the qualitative approach is the depth to which explorations are conducted and descriptions are written, usually resulting in sufficient details for the reader to grasp the idiosyncrasies of the situation.”

“The ultimate aim of qualitative research is to offer a perspective of a situation and provide well-written research reports that reflect the researcher’s ability to illustrate or describe the corresponding phenomenon. One of the greatest strengths of the qualitative approach is the richness and depth of explorations and descriptions.” Myers (2002)

Main Types of Qualitative Research

Case studyAttempts to shed light on phenomena by studying in-depth a single case example of the phenomena. The case can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution.
Grounded theoryTheory is developed inductively from a corpus of data acquired by a participant-observer.
PhenomenologyDescribes the structures of experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines
EthnographyFocuses on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of sociocultural phenomena. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community.
HistoricalSystematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events. (Gay, 1996)

Table 2; Types of qualitative research methods (James Neill 2006)

4.2 Data collection and Methods

The data used in the analysis was gathered from two main sources. As discussed by the Saunders et al. (1997), for a research to be considered a valid and accurate, both primary and secondary sources of data have to be used

4.2.1 Primary sources
4.2.1.1 Interviews

Primary data was collected in form of interviews with industry experts who comprised of ministry of Tourism in Kenya and established Tour operators in Kenyan Safaris. All discussions were recorded during telephone conversation. The data was then transferred to a Microsoft Word document in order to avoid omitting information or ambiguous errors. Also to ensure that the right information was retrieved over the telephone, the respondent requested copies of the answered as email attachment. The preliminary questionnaires and information was sent prior to the interviews with background information to formalize the respondent in the research area. The duration of the interview was approximately forty-five minutes per respondent

4.2.2 Secondary sources

4.2.2.1 Text books

Text books are written by different professionals and academic staff. They mainly do not have a specific reference to a certain areas and few of them are recently published however, the merit of using text books is that they basically contains generals ideas and a researcher can compare different authors on different topics

4.2.2.2 Newspapers and related journals

The journals used were current or archives. Newspapers contain information researched by journalist who might be biased. Attention was paid to newspapers articles used. Journals have more tendencies to be biased even though they are more practical in orientation. The journals used in this research were mainly in electronic format and downloads via the internet.

4.2.2.3 Past research

Past research constitute research conducted by other students in the past years. In the this researcher, past research was used mainly to gain ideas on how past research was conducted and format of the research

4.2.2.4 Electronic sources

Internet contains the most updated information about the area of researcher. Even though the internet has much information regarding the researcher area, Collins and Hussey (2003) argue that researchers have to be careful that they do not become victims of information overloads where they can spend long time searching for irrelevant information from the internet. The internet was used to retrieved up-to-date information as well achieves relating to the researcher areas. The researcher was aware of information bias and information overload as the main disadvantage of using the internet. As a result of this, Web address from newsgroups, companies’ Web pages and established search engines were the only ones used.

4.2.2.5 Reliability and Validity

Collins and Hussey (2003) argue that four experiments are commonly used to establish the quality of a case study research. The four experiments are constructed validity, internal validity, external validity and reliability. As Collins and Hussey (2003) elaborate, reliability and validity are critical issues in qualitative research since the measures of the reliability may offer procedures rather than end results. Validity in the same way should focus on extracting rich data from explanations and analysis. Internal validity tests concern explanatory cases studies in which only the study with casual relationships is studied. From the results of the discussion of this case study, the study is explanatory by nature which means that internal and external validity tests are not relevant to and thus not applied.

The case study consists of tour and Travel Company categorized under the tourism sector. The study is reliable and the data of this study is based on the data was gathered from the interview

5. CASE STUDY COMPANY

The case was selected because the aim and the objective of this study was to find out how the social media outline the market place situation and the marketing strategies and programmers that would help the case company achieved its business and organization goals. Apart from that, the researcher knows more about case company and the research was needed since the case company had not utilized the available social media strategies in marketing their company.

Kenya safaris and Tours is a travel and tour company providing tour operation services in Kenya. The company was founded in early 2006. Being a Kenyan company, Kenya Safaris and Tours reservations staffs have extensive first-hand knowledge of the country to assist and advise the customers in designing their holiday itinerary. The company provide the following services to intervals customers and business customers: luxury tours, chauffeur-driven and self-drive car hire, hotel and lodge reservations ,conferences, facilities, camping safaris mountain climbing, beach holidays, water rafting and gorilla safaris. In addition, the company is able to offer their customers tailor-made services upon request.

6. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH

The main results that were achieved discussed the importance of a social media in an organization and the factors that contribute to a successful social media marketing strategy for the case company. Since the case study company is still new company the information obtain from the research was used to develop the following paragraphs that constitute the case company use of social media to realize its marketing trends and objectives.

6.1 Background information

Kenya Safaris and Tours began operations on 15th January, 2006 and provide safari adventures, sport and travel packages to planning to travel or going for holidays to Kenya. The Kenya Safari and Tours majority of customers are from Europe and the United States of America, though the highest numbers of customers are particularly from the United Kingdom. The founders and employees of Kenya Safaris and Tours are experienced travel-industry professionals and passionate about what Kenya Safaris and Tours promotes and offers.

6.2 A glance at the Kenya tourism

Kenya recorded the highest number of tourists’ arrivals ever at 1,095,945 tourists as at 31st December, 2010. This was a 15% growth compared to the 952,481 experienced in 2009. This figure excludes the cross border tourists’ arrivals which could add up to another approximately 700,000 tourists once the results are fully tallied by the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics.

The 2010 Tourism performance has surpassed the 2007 record by 4.5 percent the later being the best recorded year in terms of tourist arrivals and earnings. “This performance is impressive and is optimistic to achieving Kenya’s vision target of 2 million international tourists by 2012
the sector has earned $1.8 billion in terms of revenue earnings within the same period. This is the highest tourist revenue ever recorded and it represents an impressive growth of revenue by 18 percent compared to the 2009 revenues.

The Kenya tourism board said the performance was impressive and the sector has shown great resilience in spite of thelocal and global challenges. The board accrued the impressive performance to aggressive marketing in the new markets and efficient utilization of the resources available.

Kenya Tourist Board has continued to reposition the destination since 2009 as a high value for high spending tourists and this is paying good dividends. The table below gives a complete Kenya tourism statistics for visitor arrival and departures by purpose of visit

ARRIVALSDEPARTURES
Year/HolidayBusinessVisitors in 00HolidayBusinessVisitors in00
QuarterVisitorsVisitorsTransitTotalVisitorsVisitorsTransitTotal
1996795.7100.555.8952785.799.259.5944.4
1997820.8103.756.2980800.5101.157.5959.1
1998804.8101.772.3978.8744.394.066.2904.5
1999686.986.8101.9875.6672.985.091.9849.8
2000746.994.4107.4948.7746.593.7106.4946.6
2001778.298.3138.51,015772.297.0103.5972.7
2002728.892.1152.6973.5742.093.2134.1969.3
2003732.686.6163.3895.99744.693.4153.6991.6
2004684.0182.1219.11,085.2606.6164.1198.4969.1
2004885.6246.4162.21,294.2856.2255.8147.91,259.9
20051,063.2206.179.81,349.11,027.1201.671.61,300.3
20061,087.5226.2137.21,450.91,077.9219.5116.81,414.2
20081,278.5242.2130.91,651.61,232.0232.3124.61,588.9
2009936.1109.462.01,107.50891.7108.965.21,065.8
20101,061.2180.698.41,340.21,064.9169.397.41,331.6

Table 3; Visitor’s arrival and departures by purpose of visit (source; ministry of tourism Kenya)

6.3 Results on the company’s market analysis

6.3.1 Market summary

The research found that the travel and tourism market is generally categorized Business and leisure travel are always grouped together. The tourism market is however separated into domestic and international tourist. Domestic tourist comprise individuals from the specified country who purchase holiday packages in their country where international tourists comprise individuals from other nationalities purchasing holiday packages in other countries apart from their country. In Kenya, domestic tourist account for approximately 23% of industry revenues with international tourist accounting for 77%.Business travelers are usually divided into two categories, the medium-to-large corporate account, and the small independent businessman. Leisure travelers are classified according to the types of packages they purchase, income, or age.

For Kenya safaris and tours, the company has four primary safari travel groups that constitute, adventure, special-interest, honeymoons and sightseeing (short safaris) expeditions, high-income travelers, budget-conscious travelers and families, students and seniors

In Kenya tourist industry, adventure safaris travel generate approximately ˆ0.3 billion of the approximately ˆ0.5 billion- annual industry revenues. ˆ 0.1-0.15 billion of these revenues is accounted from UK markets. Based on these and other figures, Kenya Safaris and Tours estimated UK safaris travel, markets to be worth approximately ˆ 100 million annually.

6.3.1.1 Market demographics

Kenya Safaris travel is categorized under the leisure travel category. Safari travel is sub category of leisure and can be further sub categorized into long and short adventure travel. Both long and short adventures might involve physical and athletic activities. Long adventure safari activities, as then name suggests, generally involve long duration of traveling in the wildness where short safaris activities are always short in duration and cheaper compared to long safaris.

Safaris travelers are more likely to be new couples or old couples. Kenya Safaris and Tours’ primary customers are married couples, ages 25-35 with children and household income over $ 50,000. Kenya safari and Tours is panned to be located in the UK.

The Wild animals in the natural habitat, beautiful scenarios and sunny beaches attract many safari-oriented individuals. Per capita the UK has more people than any other nation who actively participate in, the Kenya safaris, such as mountain climbing, hunting safaris, honeymoons packages etc. These are the people in Kenya Safaris and tours market. Kenya Safaris and tours should focus on the sale and promotion of safaris travel primarily to individual through the use of social media. And social media marketing strategies so has to be more successful

6.3.1.2 Markets needs

Kenya safaris travel activities are a specialized products and first- hand knowledge of these activities are necessary in order to effective promote and sell them. Many potentials customers are unsure of the location they wish to reach. Part of the value associate with travel agencies is knowledge they posses about destinations. Customers depend on the agency to provide them with sound advice for a competitive price. Kenya Safaris and Tours should be confident in its ability to do so. Kenya safaris and Tours can safe the customers’ time and money and help to ensure that customers are satisfied with their vacations-

6.3.1.3 Market Trends

One notable trend in the travel industry is increased deregulation. Deregulation has increased competition and the need for differentiation. In many cases, the price of airfare and other travel –related services has dropped. Additional include the limit of agency commission by many of the larger airline, increases in adventure travel, and the reduction of profit margins. The UK markets contributed the highest number of tourist to Kenya and this trend is predicted to continue.

6.3.1.4 Market growth

The Kenya tourism industry is growing. Reasons for this growth include a government initiative to promote the industry in foreign market through the of social media adverts for example the Magical Kenya on BBC news adverts., 5% annual domestic economy improvements has increased business which in turn boosted domestic business travel agencies.

6.3.2 SWOT analysis

The following four sections of the SWOT analysis was obtained from the interviews contacted on the case company and are the most relevant issues to Kenya Safaris and Tours successful operation. From the research it can be outline that Kenya Safaris and Tours strengths include its management, experienced staff, marketing knowledge and targeted focus. Kenya Safaris and Tours should capitalize on these and other strengths to take advantage of opportunities and manage treats. The Kenya Safaris and tours weaknesses are primarily those inherent in a growing venture are discussed in one of the following sections.

6.3.2.1 Strengths

Strengths in this perspective are an internal capability or factor that can help support the organization in achieving its objective. Kenya Safaris and Tours strengths are

Management: Kenya Safaris and Tours manager has a successful record in this industry. His experience and the network of valuable connections he has developed should contribute to Kenya Safaris and Tours’ success.
Location: Kenya Safaris &Tours is ideally located. Kenya is a popular destination with safari enthusiasts who make Kenya Safaris and Tours target audience profile. The company is also located in the UK which accounts most of the highest numbers of safari travelers to Kenya.
Experienced staff: Kenya Safaris and Tours team is experienced in the travel business and in adventure safaris. Most members have over three years experience. Moreover, the members are willing to spend extra time and effort to build a successful business. In addition with the intangible benefits derived from succeeding in an independent endeavor, Kenya Safaris & Tours is ready to offer profit sharing and potential partnership opportunities to its employees.
Popularity of safari travel: safari activities are very popular, and Kenya safaris and tours is aware that the popularity will continue to grow, Many of the safaris activities such as mountain climbing, honeymoon safaris, and game viewing, have had family connections for many years where families tend to go for safaris after they have been recommended by members of the family who have been on safari.
6.3.2.2 Weaknesses

A weakness is an internal capability or factor that may hinder the organization from achieving its objectives or effectively handling opportunities and threats. Kenya Safaris and Tours weaknesses are:

Start-Up status: Kenya Safaris and Tours is a start up business where most of start up companies tends not to perform well.
Limited personnel: Though Kenya Safaris and Tour staff are exceptional, but from the research it shows that the workers had to work long hours with little pays.
Financing: Preliminary estimates of sales and expenditures suggest that Kenya Safaris and Tours will remain financially stable. However, unforeseen expenditures or poor sales will threaten company’s cash position, which will be partially vulnerable during the introduction of social media marketing into the company’s operation
6.3.2.3 Opportunities

Opportunities are external circumstances or factors that Kenya Safaris and Tours can attempt to exploit for higher results. Kenya Safaris and Tours opportunities are:

Growth market: The Kenya tourism industry is growing 8%annully, and preliminary estimates suggest that the UK market is part of that growth rate.
Potential to achieve sales from the UK market: As Kenya Safari and Tours establishes to gains financial stability; it can begin to market its services in other markets. The company plans to begin this effort via a World Wide Web campaign (Internet) as this will help to diversify its communications efforts through the use of social media marketing
Potential to become a premier provider: from the researcher it can be argued that Kenya Safaris and Tours have the management and staff to produce a top-quality service.
Vertical integration: The potential to integrate services and add branches exist.
6.3.2.4 Threats

Threats are external circumstances or factors that could inhibit Kenya Safaris and Tours’ performance if not considered. Kenya Safaris and Tours threats are:

Internet and price competition: when airlines were deregulated, price competition increased. Further, the internet has provided a sales medium for business that competes on price and has also given consumers the ability to plan and arrange expedition for their own benefits. Thus, the traditional agency has greater competition.
Local competition (existing and potential): There are no agencies in the UK region that specialize solely in Kenya safari travel. However, most of the travel agencies can book a safari expedition to Kenya. More over, additional Kenya safari travel specialists may follow Kenya Safaris and Tour’s lead.
Economic downturn: The strong Kenyan domestic economy has been good for the travel and tourism industry continued growth is anticipated. However, unforeseen or unanticipated economic recession would threaten Kenya Safaris and Tours’ existence.
6.3.3 Competition

In the travel industry, as in other industries, there are large national chains, small home-based businesses, providers on the internet, etc. Membership numbers of travel-related associations give some indication of participants in this industry.

The Kenyan Association of travel organization (KATO) reports 500 members in Kenya, most of which are small businesses. In addition, there are many agencies not affiliated with these associations but with one or more of the approximately 30 industry associations in competition in the country. Kenya Safaris and Tours have approximately 15 travel-industry associations in the country. Kenya Safaris and Tours have approximately 30 immediate competitors in the UK the main direct competitors in UK include:

Thomas Cook: A German based in major towns in the UK, Thomas Cook is the most well- known and popular travel agency in the world. The company has provided safaris travel packages over the years and has successful integrated travel agency services and safari travel activities. This offers the company complete control over the entire packages. Thomas cook have the advantages of an established reputation, high-quality trips, economies of scale, and strategic alliances. However, their packages are expensive and appeal primarily to a high-income clients; they also rely on agencies in Kenya to provide services on their behalf unlike the Kenya safaris and Tours which deals directly with its clients

Kuoni travel: The Swiss firm is traditional agency and has been in the business for more than ten years. They have gradually expanded towards becoming a holiday travel specialists even though it offers holidays in 634 countries. Kuoni‘s strengths are experience, reputation, and financial stability. Weakness may include high personnel, fixed dates and lack of a clear plan for future growth.

Samoik safaris: was established in 1980 as a successfully Kenya safari specialists. The company is Kenya- own based in the United States of America. Samoik has positioned itself through successful marketing communications especially through the use of social media and management combined with high-level services. However, the company has added other countries to its destinations which means Kenya Safaris and Tours is the only travel agency offering safari packages to Kenya destinations alone in the UK markets

6.3.4 Services

Kenya safaris and Tours is a full-service agency and sell standard travel agency goods and services, including airfare and travel packages. Additional include assistant with Visas. Providing access latest technology equipments and supplies, and superior offering that includes access to better than average activities, accommodation, and entrainments. The value added for Kenya Safaris and Tours offering is its knowledge and expertise, competitive rates, and specialty focus on adventure travel, which translate into increased satisfaction for the customers

6.3.5 Kenya Safaris and Tours keys to success

For Kenya Safaris and Tours to operate successfully the company has to effectively segment the UK safari travel market and other safari travelers, successfully position Kenya safari and Tours as Kenya specialists in the UK, communicate the differentiation and quality of the company offering through personal interaction and media and develop a repeat-business of loyal customers

6.3.6 Kenya Safaris and Tours critical issues

For Kenya Safaris and Tours to operate successfully the company needs market growth projections for the Kenyan tourist industry and for Safaris travel to be accurate, national economic conditions which are favorable to the travel industry, should not experience decline in the next five years, international conditions remains favorable for services providers and the company should be capable to produce effective , targeted communications that promote the benefits and adventure travel and Kenya safaris and Tours specialty and focus.

7 MARKET ANALYSIS AND STRATEGIES

7.1 Marketing strategy

From the research, Kenya Safaris and Tours’ goal of the business is to create and keep customers. The company’s marketing strategy will reflect this goal as its builds its reputation in the UK region. Though Kenya Safaris and Tours operate in the travel industry, it will provide much more than travel. Company’s customers are thought to spend 50 weeks of the year in an office. Kenya Safaris and Tours offers people the ability to go for holidays and remember how much they love the challenge and excitement of a safari. Kenya Safaris and Tours will promote the benefits and safari travel. These benefits include excitement, personal experience and lots of fun. Kenya Safaris and Tours will also promote the benefits of its services. These benefits include saving time and money, and confidence in successful vacation.

Kenya Safaris and Tours is a travel agency that specializes in Kenya safari travel. The company provides consulting and customized travel arrangements and packages. Kenya Safaris and Tours mission is to become the foremost provider of Kenya safari travel packages to the people of United Kingdom. Company employees and owner are safari enthusiasts, as well as safari travel-industry professionals. Kenya Safaris and Tours seeks to connect Kenya safari travel newcomers and veterans with services providers, adventure activities, and accommodation that match the client’s desires and budget level.

7.1.1 Marketing objectives

Kenya safaris and Tours marketing plan hope to achieve an, annual growth rate of at least 10%, promote Kenyan safaris travel activities through strategic alliance with hotel, department of Kenya tourism board, and other foreign own travel agencies, archived 45% of sales through the internet thus becoming the market leader of safari travel provider in the UK region.

7.1.2 Target market

Target market involves targeting one segment with one marketing mix. It helps the organization understand one segment of customers rather than spending organization resources across multiple marketing activities for multiple segments. From the research, Kenya Safari’s and Tours aim to target the following groups:

Couples and individuals safaris adventure travelers: This is the customers group that meets the demographic profile for safari travelers. They are age 25-35 married and with household income greater than $ 40,000.
Group’s adventure travelers: These are groups that belong to some travel organizations and always as a group to different destinations.
Corporate adventure travelers: Kenya Safaris and Tours will target UK business in an attempt to secure corporate accounts

Kenya Safaris and Tours should plan to focus its initials efforts on the safari travel market in the UK regions. As Kenya Safaris and Tours grow, market efforts can be expanded to other markets. The major purchasers that match Kenya Safaris and Tours target market are located in urban areas within big UK cities.

7.1.3 Positioning

Positioning helps create a compressively distinctive position for a service in the minds of targeted customers. For individuals and corporate clients who wish to participate in safari travel, Kenya Safaris and Tours should be positioned as the premier safari travel agency in the UK regions. Kenya Safaris and Tours experience with enthusiasm for safari adventure travel should be displayed in the exceptional services, value, and advice it provides for the customer. It is however that the company understands that positioning is a decision to; make frequently since markets and customers are not always the same and the company must be prepared to reposition its services if necessary for desirability and deliverability

7.1.4 Market mix

Kenya Safaris and Tours must allocate the promotion budget over to the five promotion tools: advertising, sales promotion, public relations, sales force and direct marketing. It is however important to note an organization, can spend more on some promotion tools if is perceived that the specified promotion tools will have a major impact compared to other promotion tools.

Kenya Safaris and Tours should employ a wider advertising communications and promotion to achieve its marketing goals. Research on the demographics of Kenya Safaris and tours target market suggest that the most effective communication will be come through advertising in several specialty publications and via local media. In addition, direct interaction or promotion at shopping malls, Exhibitions and other should be part of the company’s marketing mix.

Kenya Safaris and Tours sell travel agency goods and services including airfare and travel packages. Additional services will include assistance with tourist visas applications to Kenya, providing access to latest technology equipment and supplies, and a superior offering that includes access to better than average safaris activities, accommodations, and entrainment. The value added of Kenya Safaris and Tours offering is its knowledge and expertise, completive rates, and specialty focus on Kenya safari adventure travel, will mean increased assurance and satisfaction for the customer. The company’s initiative to focus on Kenya safaris adventure travel was made because economic indicators suggest that an increased demand for Kenya n safaris adventure travel services exists. The UK region does not have solely Kenyan safari adventure travel specialists, and members of the company team are experienced and enthusiastic about safari adventure travel activities. It is hoped that this enthusiasm will be communicated to the customers and Kenya Safaris and Tours experience will result to satisfaction and repeat business.

The concept of integrated marketing communication suggests that a company has to blend the promotion tools carefully into a coordinated promotion mix. Companies within the same industry differ greatly in the design of their promotion mixes. Organizations mainly use promotion strategy to communicate with their customers and other stakeholders. During Kenya safaris and Tours first year of operation, the company will hold and opening events and organize several programmer. At the opening event the company will provide with literature information about trips and activities. Negotiations with Kenyan department of tourism and hotel in Kenya have begun and additional promotion will likely occur through these strategic alliances. Specialty rather than national publication should serve as media vehicles for Kenya Safaris and Tours advertising. Local radio station could also be used for promotion purpose. Personal selling could also occur, through telemarketing should be avoided. Kenya Safaris and Tours plans to occasionally station personnel in location around UK and other parts, such shopping malls. The organization’s goal is to develop personal familiarity between its employees and the community.

7.2 Kenya Safari and Tours analysis on the use of social media

The company’s results on the use of social media from different aspects as mentioned and analyzed below.

7.2.1 Social media for Kenya Safari and Tours

According to the research answers, applying social media is quite a new thing for the tourism enterprises in their business. Most of these tourism enterprises include only one to three persons taking all of business operations. Therefore, new ways of marketing might be a challenge for them. Knowledge, time and capability to use social media are factors should be taken into account. In addition, the use of social media in tourism businesses depends on firm‘s target group which is one of the most important elements in marketing.

The research went further by stating that social media can accomplish the traditional marketing. Nowadays more and more people found information on internet and decided to book a hotel after reading many complimentary comments about it for example. Therefore, social media reaches the customers faster and targeted. The results obtained suggested three social media sites for the Kenya Safari and Tours and these are Facebook, YouTube and Twitter

Furthermore, in a new era of online communication social media has influenced on consumer behaviour. They are empowered more than ever in making purchasing decisions. Social media let people speak out loud their thoughts on something they had interacted with. They turn out to find social content from social media outlets to plan of their travel.

Consumers increasingly read feedback of other travellers and compare the prices of service offering because they felt trustworthy of the peer‘s opinions. This changes significantly way of business. It means when your company receiving a lot of negative feedback on social media site, then you sure losing your customers.

7.2.2 Advantages and disadvantages

Applying social media in business particularly in tourism enterprises does bring advantages and disadvantages in use.

From the research it shows that if the tourism business has the knowledge and capability of using social media; it will give a cheap way of marketing especially for current and topical things such as offers, events and packages

It also shows that social media is very fast in reaching customers with large scale of influence. If a company can realize influencers within the online community and stimulate them to brag about the company‘s brand then it will certainly earn attention from the customers.

Customer service is mentioned as an advantage of social media. It is very easy to interact with customers through social networking site. Whenever they raise a complaint about your company, you will get back to comfort your customers at anytime without geographical obstacle.

The feedback also shows that social media helps in finding out who are leading in the market through their comments on these social platforms. Understanding of competitors can be also examined. Moreover, it is useful to predict the trend of customers on what they like and what they expect from the company.

After finding out the advantages of social media it is important also to note its drawbacks. Social media are considered effective in approaching customers and spreading information really fast with huge impact. It is one of its advantages but also its disadvantage. If bunch of negative comments arrive to the company‘s social media site or any misrepresentation is spreading very fast which will definitely ruin the company‘s image and getting out of control. Because of that, keeping track on customers is required to be implemented. However, it is considered as time-consuming and the results of marketing through social media do not come out after one or two days but taking months or even years. The research also stated that when a tourism company considers using social media as their marketing strategy, should improve skills of staff.

7.2.3 Social media target customers for Kenya Safari and Tours

The research also establishes to find out the target customers that the tourism business can reach through social media and it shows that customers‘age is very important thing. Younger and middle-aged people use information technology, not older people. However, target customers are determined depending on what the company is selling. If you are selling group packages for senior citizens, I think that social media is not the best way for marketing.

7.2.4 Social media site for Kenya Safari and Tours

A company profile is evaluated as one of most important attributes. The information providing on social media sites helps to increase more selling. From the interviews different opinions were obtained on how tourism company‘s profile on social media sites should have in order to attract visitors and to get higher engagement from them. The responses from the interviews were dominated by two following suggestions:

In the company‘s social media site, it should especially have current and topical news and offers. Up-to-date information is welcomed by travelers because it plays as information sources for their traveling plan.

Besides that, packaging is one of the major option and agreat way to drive attention of customers towards the company‘s social media site. Packaging is a concept of services and accommodation combination. For example, the company offers a sale of holiday tour including airfare and hotel accommodation without booking separately from different websites. This is also an effective way to get high possibility of reservation of target customers for those packaging services.

8. SOCIAL MEDIA SUGGESTIONS FOR KENYA SAFARIS AND TOURS

8.1 Determining an objective

In any business, a marketing objective plays an important role to outline what is to be accomplished by the company. Setting an objective is to determine an effective marketing strategy which in turn brings the best outcome.

Objectives of using social media might be to build awareness, to increase website visits, to increase ranking on search engine or to attract potential customers. According to analysis on other chapter, author suggest the objectives in the case of Kenya Safaris and Tours are improving the local residents’ awareness as well as people from other parts of Kenya, attracting a stable number of new customers and increasing website traffic. The reasons of setting those objectives are explained as following:

Majority of visitors coming for safaris are from local municipal and they form as visit groups.
In order to expand the image of Kenya safaris and Tours, taking care of visitors from different places is necessary to accomplish.
Getting new customers to raise the service‘s sales is important.

8.2 Appropriate social media tools for Kenya Safari and Tours

The primary research is shown under two different points of view of social media users and a tourism specialist. The responses of answerers had described the customers’ needs and expectations of social media use. Moreover, the expert recommendations helped to choose appropriate social media outlets for Kenya Safaris and Tours. Making sure to apply the right social media channels is a decisive factor because not all social media tools are suitable for all business lines, especially in the tourism sector.

The appropriate social media tools for Kenya Safari and Tours is shown in the table below. The list can be change according to the changes of marketing objective and marketing strategy at certain periods.

Social media channelDescription
FacebookA social networking site was founded in 2004. It allows people to keep up with friends, upload an unlimited number of photos, share links and videos. The site has more than 19 million members.
WikipediaWikipedia is a free encyclopedia that anyone can edit the content. The site attracts nearly 78 million visitors monthly as of January 2010. This site is recommended because it is one of the largest reference websites people come to search for information.
YoutubeYouTube is the world‘s most popular online video community

Table 4; List of social media tools for Kenya Safaris and Tours (Author’s own construction)

An online search on Google was conducted to research whether Kenya Safaris and Tours have its official profile or related-upload articles on the above social media channels. The results were shown that the company did have its profile on Facebook and other social media sites however very basic information was uploaded. The information of the company on Facebook site is copied the same as on other social media sites making no differences and attraction to the audiences. Consequently, the profile of the company should be improved on Facebook. Writing new related articles in Tripadvisor and uploading photos and videos are being considered as next steps for Kenya Safaris and Tours to consider

8.3 Attracting visitors and strengthening the social media objectives

More fanpage or higher rate of visitors to the social media sites of Kenya Safaris and Tours means more people are being attracted by the company. It thereby helps to raise the traveller‘s awareness of Kenya Safaris and Tours.

The content on social media sites is requisite for its site traffic increase. From the received answers of the interview, many opinions are given. The visitors of the Safaris are expected to see travelling tips and lots of photos besides basic information. In addition, the social media site of the company should not have old photography and exaggerated text but being a space in which people can freely talk about what they think of Kenya Safaris and Tours or even anything about travelling experiences of them.

The author opinion, Kenya Safaris and Tours should provide on its official Facebook of online virtual tour which give a lively insight into the Safaris and attract new visitors.

Strengthening the social engagement of people on the social media sites of the Safaris can be accomplished through different ways. On Facebook, Kenya Safaris and Tours may increase the contribution of the visitors by organizing a contest for unprofessional photographers, for instance, with the Safaris-related themes. This not only satisfies members on Facebook with such good photographs but also gives chances for people getting to know about Kenya Safaris and Tours. Kenya Safaris and Tours should also create its account on Flickr and upload those received photographs on the site, and direct the link to other social media sites.

Effectively social media is a new way of marketing for tourism companies. However, it is unable to deny that traditional still plays a very important role in marketing strategy of a business. Therefore, even making the presence on social media site but Kenya Safaris and Tours should use the local networks to connect with people around has this will also helps to promote the company’s safaris package and also the Kenya Safaris and Tours should make sure that all the infrastructure leading to all safaris places are in good condition as this will also raise the number of people going for safaris.

CONCLUSIONS

Social media has become a platform that is easily accessible to anyone with internet access. Increased communication for organizations fosters brand awareness and better customer service and therefore the aim of this thesis was to find out the importance of using social media in marketing tourism.

It is also to address the opportunities for Kenya Safaris and Tours in Kenya for applying social media in order to achieve its business goals. The research question was, therefore to find out how tourism companies are integrating social media into marketing so as to boost awareness and generate excitement about tourism destination.

The use of social media in advertising Kenya Safari and Tours boost awareness and generate tourism destination to various safari visitors. Social media is made up with various platforms of social media submission sites, media sharing sites, forums and discussion sites, review and rating sites, social networking sites, blogs, podcasts, micro-blogging and wikis. All this social media platforms contribute a lot in marketing tourism business as well as boosting awareness about various destinations that the company offers.

Rapidly growing social media have influenced the online consumer behavior. Particularly in tourism, travelers are on their own initiative when coming to information searching and purchase decision-making. In the general view of tourism business, social media is being embraced in relating to marketing and service, consist of identifying and attracting new customers, increasing brand awareness and connecting with customers.

The qualitative research showed the users of social media have not understood these social media channels very well and still restrictive in the use of social media for tourism purposes. The most familiar tool is social networking site Facebook. Some others were mentioned such as Wikipedia, YouTube, and Twitter.

The thesis comes to the conclusion that the use of social media in tourism businesses, especially in tourism sector encompassing both advantages and disadvantages. The target customers of social media outlets are determined depending on what kinds of services the tourism companies are offering. However, the young people are considered as the main users of social media channels while old people hesitate to try new technology.

When applying social media in marketing Kenya Safaris and Tours there are some recommendations should be considered. Firstly, there has to be setting up an objective for Kenya Safaris and Tours what it wants to receive from social media. The objective might consist of increasing the local awareness, attracting new customers and improving Kenya Safaris and Tours official website traffic.

To benefit the social media outlets with positive return Kenya Safari and Tours should also attract more visitors to its social media sites and stimulate their engagement by posting up-to-date information or organizing any online activities for customers and finally the writing of this thesis work was a great learning experience for the author a lot of knowledge concerning the concept of using social media in marketing tourism was acquired while writing the thesis.

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Categories
Free Essays

Human resource management practices that improve the service quality of tour guides in the tourism industry

Abstract:

Service organizations are striving to increase the quality of the services they offer. They are also using a wide variety of people management techniques. These two activities can sometimes come into conflict. This article examines a variety of management practices, particularly from human resource management (HRM),

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction and Background

Service quality has been broadly and firmly recognised in the tourism industry over the past decades to be the critical factor in achieving tourist satisfaction (Ap & Wong 2001; Zhang & Chow 2004). Tour guides are frontline employees in tourism industry whom provide assistance, information and cultural, historical and contemporary heritage interpretation for tourists. They also play an important role to deliver a quality service and experience, not only for business success but also critical to both in shaping tourists’ experience, the overall image of the destination they represent (Huang, Hsu & Chan, 2010).

Tourism is recognised as the most fast growing industry and has the ability to generate the most income and jobs when compared to all the other industries, in particular for those countries without too much natural resources for developing a sustainable primary and/or secondary industries. The tourist industry is also a rapid changing one in nature and structure, researcher has indicated the change is driven by tourists (Grabowski and Wang 2001). It is also believed that service performance relates closely to service quality. Tourist satisfaction is often based on the service quality tourists’ received (Lee, Graefe & Burns, 2004).

For tour guides being the front-line service providers, tourists will then place their judgement on their level of satisfaction on what the tour guides have delivered. On the other hand, it is crucial for tour guides to understand what tourists are expecting and by providing what services will increase their level of satisfaction; therefore training is essential to tour guides to become part of quality assurance mechanism (Grabowski and Wang 2001).

Previous researches have been mentioning how important is to assure the quality of tour guides (McGrath, 2007). Other study has discussed on a growing insight and understanding of the service quality aspect of tour guides (Heung, 2008) but not examining methods on how to assure and manage the quality. Indeed for countries that make wide use of tour guides and “where the guide can be bound to foster sustainable tourism”, tour guiding quality assurance should really be focused on (Wong 2001 and Huang & Weiler, 2010).

However, monitoring and controlling of the service quality of the tour guides has become very difficult. There are a number of reported incidents of rows and conflicts between tourists and the clienteles. Such reflects an alarming signal on the possible degrade of the professional ethics of tour guides while the industry has been pilloried for its poor service to tourists.As suggested by Schuler and Jackson (1987), application of appropriate Human resource practices could result in changing tour guide’s role behaviours and leading to the success of a quality service delivery.

Hitherto, literature has a wide coverage on human resource management (HRM)on the hotel industry and has identified the issues faced, measured the effects of HRM (Alleyne, Doherty and Greenidge2006) and current practice of the HRM is analysed (CetineL , Yolal and Emeksiz 2009). It is believed that the determinants of service quality in the hotel industry are considered in relation to HRM (Worsfold 1999). Tsaur and Lin (2004) have also discussed the role of HRM practices and service behaviours in promoting the service quality in hotel industries.

Unlike the fertile and wide literature coverage on practising HRM in hotel industry, there are not too much focused literature review on how tourist industry could make use of the best human resource practices to boost up its tour guides’ service quality which is beyond doubt an increasing challenge to the tourist industry yet to be managed. In considering the close similarity of hotel industry and tourist industry by nature of their operating environs, the researcher considers that it would be conducive to make reference to the proven HRM practices in hotel industry for boosting up the service quality of tour guides.

1.2 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this literature review is to critically analysis the human resource management practices to improve the service quality of tour guides in the tourism industry and to identify any gaps for future research.

Since the linkage between employee behaviors and the delivery of quality services has been well discussed in the services marketing and hospitality literature (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000; Bettencourt & Gwinner, 1996) but not in tourism literature, the review will perform two main functions. First involves exploring the literature on service quality and to identify service gaps. The second will be implementing appropriate HRM practice to tour guides to minimize service gaps and to improve their service quality.

1.3 Limitations and Delimitations

Limitations of the Study

First, different countries have diverse tourism regulations and statutory control. It is difficult to apply a standard model of human resource practices to the world tourism industry. Different setting in government and tourism council structures necessitates careful consideration. The study is therefore limit to a general human resource management on improving tour guide’s service quality whereas any lessons learned in one destination in terms of implementation of practices may not be fully applicable in the other destination(s). Taking minimum wage and maximum working hours as an example, Hong Kong has just enacted the minimum wage ordinance with implementation date on 1.5.2011 without concurrently cover the maximum working hours. This largely differs from other developed democratic countries.

A second consideration is the possible cultural difference in different destinations. Tour guides in this study are indeed the key stakeholders. The level of general attitude and response towards situations could have direct bearings on the human resource management systems. Having said it, it is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible, to substantiate the direct relevancy of different culture within a particular setting of human resource practice. In the light of this, this study did not probe into cultural factor.

Delimitation of the Study

As to delimitate the above boundaries, an assumption on no cultural change and regulatory controls in the tourist industry environment was made. Accordingly, it is worth to replicate this research work in the future.

2.0Review of Relevant Literature

2.1 Roles of Tour Guides and Their Impact on Tourism Industry

A tour guide is a person who guides visitors in his choice of language in order to point out places of attraction to tourists from or abroad his home country (Sanyal, 2011). They play a multifaceted role in tourism. A guided tour helps to provide quality and safe experience which involves a guide, tourists and the environment. This objective is fulfilled when all of them interact at the same space at the same point of time (Belgradetours.com, 2010). They serve four major functions – instrumental, communicative, social and interactionary. An efficient tour guide is one who strikes the right balance and performs all the above mentioned four functions so that the tourists are extremely satisfied with the services provided (Reisinger & Steiner, 2006).

From the destination’s perspective, tour guides act as an interpreter to translate the culture and value of the destination (Ryan and Dewar, 1995). As from the tourist’s perspective, the development of technology has made them resort to a lot of guide books and the internet to know more about a destination. Most of them refer to these guide books and do not think of shelling out some extra pennies to hire a tour guide. However, tour guides are still very necessary as they can make a trip extremely special by providing tourists a lot of important information about a destination. Moreover most of this information may not be available in any guide books or on the internet. A guide may help tourists to explore some new place of attraction which may not be mentioned in the travel guide (Travellers Destination Guide, 2011). One of the most important functions a tour guide performs is that he or she helps one to plan a trip. Just reading some guides may lead tourists to miss certain tourist spots which may be attracting the attention. Yet, most internet materials promote only places which are well known. If a person wants to visit lesser known places then the best choice will be that of a tour guide. A tour guide has thorough knowledge about the destination. Most of them are locals of that particular area and hence have toured that area thereby knowing very small intricacies which most tourists may not know about.

Well qualified and knowledgeable tour guides can make the guided tour extremely intriguing by providing relevant, organized and entertaining heritage knowledge to tourists. They provide details about the destination which includes its history, artwork, monument, culture and attractions to the tourists and help the tourists to have a memorable holiday experience (sanfranshuttletours.com, 2008). A tourist guide can educate and narrate local folklores, history and culture of a certain destination or a certain monument or a place of attraction. Moreover, they are the best people who can direct as to what is the best item to shop from and where the shops are available. They can even take the tourists to preferable eateries which provide traditional food of the destination (amazines.com, 2011).

Tour guides play an important role in transferring cultural understanding. It is the responsibility of a tour guide to select an itinerary depending on the choices given by the tourists. A tourist may want to visit only national parks or religious places or may be a blend of all sorts of attractions ranging from historical monuments to scenic places. However, the tour guide needs to short list which places would be toured and accordingly the trip is planned. The guide provides and interprets the information about all the possible attractions which are being shown to the tourists. It is also the role of the tour guide to manage time effectively so that a number of attractions are showed within a limited period of time. This also requires to carefully assessing as to how much time should be spared to each attraction (McDonnell, 2001).

Tour guides play a very important role in educating and parting knowledge to the tourists, and they are a critical link between a country, its guests and their experiences. It is also a source of information and informal education and can greatly contribute to a destinations’ image. . An efficient tour guide will always find more tourists as the fame of the guide will reach by word of mouth. Hence, they are an important part of the travel and tourism industry

2.2 Service quality in tour guiding

Satisfaction of tourists is conceptualised to include three aspects or layers, namely satisfaction with the services provided by a tour guide, the tourist must be satisfied with the tour services provided and the overall experience of the tour must be a favourable one. Quality of services provided by tour guides has a direct effect on satisfaction of tourists with guiding services and an indirect effect on satisfaction attained from tour services and overall tour experiences provided (Huang, Hsu & Chan, 2010).

The quality of service provided by a tour guide is of considerable significance to the tourist. Most tourists have a favourable tour experience if the tour guide provides excellent service quality by touring through the most coveted points of attraction (Parasuraman et al., 1988). Also it is the responsibility and the job of the tour guide to give a blend of different points of attractions so that the tourists are not bored by their experience of touring out.

In regards of tour guiding, three major concepts would help in assessing the perceived service quality of tour guide, which are (i) core services delivery, (ii) customer orientation and (iii) communication effectiveness respectively (Heung, 2008).

For core service delivery, tour guide must be rich in knowledge content. The more the amount of information provided by the tour guide, the higher is the quality of service provided as most tourists rate their tour to be favourable if they gain a lot of knowledge about the destination through a tour guide. The tour guide must be able to provide information about the cultural and rich heritage of a particular destination and must be aware of the policies and practises that are followed by a certain country, state or region so as to enlighten the tourists about these aspects.

A tour guide needs to provide quality service and helps in easing the extra efforts of the tourists by obtaining the tickets and making reservations. They also check on the operating hours of a certain tourist spot and will help if the tourist experiences any kind of problem during the trip. Overall tourist logistics are handled by a tour guide and this helps the tourists to attain the rest and relaxation and an overall hassle free trip. Hence the service quality provided in this matter is extremely important for the tourist to have a memorable trip (Independent Traveler.com, 2011).

One of the main attributes that a tour guide must have expertise in is to effectively organize and handle tourist groups. This needs them to coordinate with various vendors and suppliers of goods and services in order to make the overall tourism experience favourable. Moreover they must be adept at dealing with all kinds of people. They mostly mingle with both local people and with foreigners. A tourist group consists of heterogeneous people and a tourist guide needs to tackle all of them including irate tourists. Time management is also an important factor which helps to determine service quality. The tour guide must effectively see to it that all the tourists adhere to the instructions given by the tour guide.

As for customer orientation, it is essential to denote the extent the guide puts tourists’ needs and interests ahead of themselves in providing superior value to tourists (Heung 2008). They need to take tourists to proper shops so that they may be able to purchase items which are locally popular. These may range from an assortment of food items to dress material and antiques. The tour guide must be able to identify the right shops which sell wares which are famous for the particular destination. For example, a tourist visiting an island destination may like to purchase some antiques made of sea shells or conch etc (Scribd.com, 2003). Moreover, tour guides should not focus on short-term self-interest and should not adopt a hard selling approach (Heung 2008).

Effective communication is a significant aspect for tourists to assess the service quality of tour guide (Ap & Wong 2001). The tour guide must be fluent in the local language of the country as well as foreign languages so that the tourists can be explicitly explained about the points of attraction regarding a destination. Language barrier is a very serious factor which can hinder the service quality provided by tour guides (luxury – vogue.com, 2010).

Although previous studies have identified different attributes on service quality (Zhang and Chow 2004) and have discussed the service quality aspect of tour guides (Wong 2001; Heung 2008), the studies are however taken in the tourists’ point of view but not on managerial perspective.

To conclude, a tour guide must have the ability to successfully communicate, interpret, handle emergency situations by solving problems and be polite so as to make the trip a memorable one. They must be friendly with the tourists and at the same time make them aware that it is the duty of the tourist to keep the place clean and not to litter around (Liao, Chen, Chang & Tseng, 2011).

2.3 The service gap

A tour guide is expected to provide diverse services so that the tour is a favourable one. All in all, the tourists expects a hassle free relaxed trip as all the travel logistics are supposed to be handled by the person who is responsible for the guided tour. It is the tour guide incumbent responsibility to coordinate with local vendors and other miscellaneous service agent to ensure that the tourist does not run into any problems in an alien destination.

Parasuraman et al. (1985) has identified the concept of service quality gap between tourists’ perceptions and their expectations. It has been often observed that there is a huge gap between the service provided by a tour guide and the satisfaction attained from the service by the tourist. When quality gaps occurred, it represents quality losses (Zeithaml et al. 1990).

Sometimes the tour itineraries may promise something which is impossible to attain and this puts the tour guide in a difficult position. However one of the main challenges of a tour guide is to meet the tourists’ expectations with limited resources and support provided by the Travel Company or agency responsible for taking the overall responsibility of the tour. Another challenge faced by tour guides is the language barrier and lack of communication skills which lead the customer to be dissatisfied (Prideaux, Moscardo & Laws, 2006).

Some of the critical issues which result in a service gap have been classified into six main categories such as immaturity of a particular tourist market, unhealthy business practises followed by travel agencies, issues related to human resources, exploitative policies of inbound tour operators, role conflict and mechanism followed to provide service quality (Sciencedirect.com, 2011).

One of the main reasons for a service gap between the services provided and the level of satisfaction attained is the fact that most travellers have different expectations which depends on the purpose of the trip. The reason for this gap is there is a lack of understanding in what tourists’ expect (Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons 2008). Take the case of a beach destination – youths may like to go to the beach and have fun whereas elderly people would like to relax and would avoid indulging in loud beach parties. Depending on the kind of people the tour guide has to provide the exact blend of services which satisfies them (Chinese tourists blog, 2010).

Most tourists deem a trip to be a memorable one if the services provided during shopping were excellent. Some of the areas which need improvement by tour guides are providing information, concerns about the tourists’ needs and abilities especially with regards to language barriers and the helpful attitude (Reisinger & Waryszak, 1994).

Low service quality perception will lead to a service gap to an extent of lack of key performance indicators which helps to monitor the performance of a tour guide (Zeithaml et al. 1990; smartdatacollective.com, 2010). Surveys should be conducted and proper resources must be allocated to tour guides to perform their professionalism.

All in all, the tour guide must put in a considerable effort so that the customer has a satisfied trip. Other than this, the travel service providers and other miscellaneous vendors involved should cooperate and coordinate effectively with the tour guides so that they provide a complete travel package to the tourists thereby attaining optimum satisfaction and reducing the service gap between the expectation of the tourists’ and the services provided by the tour guides.

2.4 Implementation of HRM to improve service quality on tour guiding

In the tourism industry, success is largely dependent on customer satisfaction, and much of the customer’s experience is dependent on tour guide’s behaviours (Jolliffe & Farnsworth 2003). As mentioned above, service quality has a direct effect on customer satisfaction (Huang, Hsu & Chan, 2010). Schuler and Jackson (1987) described the appropriate HR practices will result in tour guide’s role behaviours and linked to the success of delivering a quality service.

HRM consists of a range of “practices, spanning the acquisition of employees, employee development and employee retention” (Stone & Meltz, 1993) and is gradually recognized as a key to sustainable advantage (Pfeffer, 1994).HRM can be viewed as connotation which allows grouping together a series of sub – disciplines which are wholly concerned with the management of the workforce, such as industrial and labour relations, employee relations, organizational behaviour and personnel management. One of the main responsibilities of HRM is to provide for a range of people practises which can be integrated to direct a professional approach to employee management. Another important function of Human Resource is to provide for a competitive advantage over rivals by providing training and other people management skills so as to enhance the quality of the services provided to tourists. Also the activities conducted by the HRM should be fully integrated with the external environment demands.

The significance of hospitality and tourism employment in both developing and developed countries is recognised by World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). According to this international body, tourism and travel related activities constitutes for about 8.7% of jobs or 230 million jobs worldwide. However, there is rising concern over the quality of services provided by this industry. Hence there is an increasing need for a proper human resource channel to act and improve upon the quality of jobs and services provided. Riley (1996) reaffirmed that the need for effective human resource to impart training to tour guides so that the quality of services provided by them to the tourists is improved.

Previous research has advocated in which identifying errors is one of the responses to quality service (Fache, 2000). The following discuss the critical aspects which are responsible for enhancing service quality and tackle contemporary and known challenges by implementing effective Human Resource Management to tour guides.

Workforce Planning

One of the critical dimensions for tourism to be successful is its work force. Workforce management is not a new phenomenon. However its importance has been recently recognized particularly in the fields of managerial implications and impacts in tourism in developing countries. One of the critical point of concern is the ambiguity of the work functions and work environments of tour guides and representatives of tour operators. There is an increasing need for human resource managers to effectively strategize and implement the role and functions of a tour guide to provide quality services to potential tourists. Nowadays with new breakthroughs in technology and science, in many parts the role of tour guides is being replaced by flexible and electronic alterations at tourism sites, such as robots that have been programmed to converse in diverse languages thereby imparting knowledge to potential tourists on site environment and historical and current events related to the site (Baum, 2006).
Recently, an experiment was conducted by using a robot to act as a tour guide in the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History. The robot named Minerva, successfully operated for 2 weeks and during the monitored 94 hours of operation provided 620 guided tours visiting about 6228 exhibits in the museum. The introduction of robots to act as tour guides is a challenge and hence there is an immense and urgent need for human resource interaction and implementation of proper training to tour guides in order to enhance performance expectations. However, one must also keep in mind that robots cannot act as tour guides in all tourism sites. Moreover the user friendly information and interaction which a human being can provide cannot be delivered by a robot (Thrun et.al, 2000).

Recruitment

Human Resource Management plays an important part in recruiting and training potential tour guides so that they provide knowledge and information to potential tourists. The tour guides is one of the main determinants of a successful tour experience and hence the quality of service provided is of extreme significance. The starting point for delivering a quality service is that there must be a quality tour guide to produce and deliver the service (Redman & Mattews 1998) and it is important to select tour guide with the right attitude and behaviour and induct them into a quality culture.

The core competencies needed to be inspected during recruitment are knowledge, guest service orientation, personal and professional style and communication skills (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000). When potential tour guides are identified, human resource should also be conscientious on the screening process to pick the most suitable candidates (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000).

Human resource must ensure that the tour guide has diverse knowledge related to the village, state, city or country through which the person conducts a guided tour. This means the tour guide must have knowledge of the history of the place. He or she must know about the culture, climate, geography, economic conditions, ethnic groups, food, well known tourist attractions, flora and fauna and birds.
Also the tour guide must be fluent in conversing with the local language prevalent in the region and the language in which he or she has to deliver his or her speech or oration regarding the tour to potential tourists. The human resource must consider this as one of the main attributes while recruiting a tour guide. The tour guide must have clarity of speech and thought. A tour guide who provides ambiguous information to tourists can result in irking the tourists. Moreover the tour guide must not speak softly and poorly. This will result in a language barrier between the tourist and the tour guide. ]

Another important aspect which human resource personnel should ensure is that the tour guide is an effective communicator and interpreter. The tour guide must successfully interpret the cultural and physical landscape for their clients. Effective usage of techniques of interpretation helps in bridging the gap between cultural differences that may exist between the host and the tourist. (Yu, Weiler & Ham, 2002).

It is important for human resource to recruit the most appropriate tour guides for the job to further enhance the quality of service they delivered by the following sections.

Induction, Orientation and On-boarding

The human resource team is responsible for providing proper induction, orientation and on the job training to newly recruited tour guides. Tour guides must be provided with specific details on organizing and conducting a tour successfully. The tour guides must know that tourists expect their tours to be entertaining, enjoyable, safe and educational. Also the tourists expect good quality comfortable accommodations and varied food which may satiate the gourmet. Other than these, the tour guides must fit into their plan some time for shopping, meeting some local people and photography. It is very important that human resource consistently works to providing training and refresher courses to tour guides. This is very important as a tour guide must be aware of the general and current affairs of the region where he or she conducts guided tours. Therefore it is very important that the guide keeps on studying and imparts historical as well as current information related to the place to potential tourists. Refresher courses must be provided on bus check, no smoking on the bus, seating order, embossing and debussing, free days for the visitor to pursue leisure activities, tour guides’ discussion of specific topics and so on. This is necessary as tour guides should not provide wrong information due to their ignorance. Hence the human resource personnel must also attach a lot of importance to provide on board training to tour guides. (Noam, 1999).
Human Resource also must provide extra attention to the role of tour guides in intercultural settings. It has been observed that there is a cultural gap between the visitor and the visited. Tourists join guided tours for diverse reasons; however there is a wish to acquire rewarding and new intercultural experiences and also to avoid language barriers in an alien country or a region. One of the main determinants is the performance of a tour guide especially in such intercultural environments. The guide influences the places tourists’ visits and the interaction made with the host culture. Almost all tourists rely on the tour guide for language translation and striking the perfect balance between immersion and cultural buffering. The tour guide should act as a successful mediator between social settings and host communities. An effective tour guide is one who uses a lot of comparisons and examples to interpret the foreign world in terms of things which establishes familiarity between the visitor and tries to minimise the effects due to unfamiliarity by emphasising on possible connections. Hence the tour guide plays and important role in imparting potential tourism related information and knowledge to visitors.

Human resource should let tour guides realize all the basic aspects and basic requirements for their job, for example the importance of punctuality, informing visitors of safety regulations and politeness (Zhang and Chow 2004), while tour guides needed to pay attention in the above aspects to maintain and keep up the good service standards.

Skills Management

A tourism industry in an area is successful if the tour guides in that particular area have the skills to provide an enriching tourism experience to the potential client. They act as the front line staffs that are responsible to provide authentic information to tourists. A tour guide must have good communication and interpersonal skills. They are the ones who sell a tour package and are wholly responsible for ensuing satisfaction to tourists. A good tour guide must have the skill to effectively act as a buffer among the tourists, arranging transportation, social environment, problem solving and interpretation tactics, insulating travellers from difficulties thereby establishing a safe haven for tourists. It is because tour guides act as intermediaries between the unknown environment and tourists.

The human resource personnel should apply an importance – performance-based model which stresses the need for tour guides to have proper skills to enhance their level or performance which will ultimately result in producing exemplary services to tourists. The importance – performance model is very effective tool which helps to judge the importance and performance attributes (Zhang & Chow, 2004).

Researches have pointed the problems in which tour guides failed in meeting tourists’ expectations to provide sufficient assistance and advice for solving their problems. Tour guides are the people who are responsible to tackle and solve emerging problems during the tours and tourists have complained that tour guides are no enthusiastic in giving help, or the guides did not have the ability to solve the problems that emerged (Zhang & Chow, 2004).
Therefore human resource should be able to manage the below mentioned skills to enhance the efficiency and quality of tour guides:

a)He or she must have the skills to act as a leader

b)Must impart knowledge to tourists

c) Must act as an ambassador who presents the destination in such a way that the tourist is tempted to revisit the place

d)Must act as a perfect host by creating a comfortable environment

e)Must act as a facilitator of various services by knowing when and how to fulfil the above four roles and

f) Must show confidence on problem solving.

Training and Development

The human resource team plays an important part in developing effective tour guides. Human resources must provide trainings for tour guides to develop them being customer-orientated and focus on delivering quality to ensure service performance (Zeithaml and Bitner, 2000). Previous literature has discussed human resource training can increase employees’ job-related knowledge, skills and abilities and result in higher performance (Bartel 1994) and consistency on quality standards (Zhang, Cai and Liu 2002).

One of the main attributes that a tour guide must have is that of education and proficiency of language. They must have adequate knowledge about the place or region in which they provide guided tours. This includes knowing about the local culture and traditions of that place, tourist attractions, food, shopping, problem solving and decision making tactics, helping tourists in times of difficulty and arranging the entire logistics of travel which includes transportation like arranging tickets, entry passes etc., providing decent accommodation etc. Human resource must train tour guides to act as professionals and deliver impeccable service to tourists by meeting the above criteria. Language training is another important aspect which helps a tour guide to be confident of the language he or she converses with the visitor. Also training and developmental programs should be conducted from time to time so that guides develop good product knowledge, positive attitude with respect to service, help, willingness, empathy, veneration etc. and good communication and interpretation skills which also includes language proficiency. (Ap & Wong, 2001). Human resource personnel also should provide training to tour guides about the conservation and ecological principles so that they can effectively support sustainable tourism in an area.

The third aspect which must be effectively covered by the human resource team is that tourists may prefer different kinds of tour guides who may act as mentors, pathfinders or the official tour guide. The training must be a bit different provided to such tour guides so that they can meet the expectations of tourists. (London College of Communication, 2011). Many tourists would like to explore a region and would like the idea to visit far flung areas which are not visited by most people. For such kinds, the training provided needs to be a bit different from the usual training provided to tourists. Moreover, tour guides who cater particular kind of tourist destination like coastal tourism or adventure tourism needs to be trained on differently.

In most countries the tour operators are stressing on developing high quality tours which caters to provide excellent services to tourists to have an enjoyable tour. An integral part of this is to provide adequate training to tour guides so that they are able to match the expectations of potential tourists (Black & King, 2002). There are niche tourists who may offer the price to avail luxury services be it accommodation and the assorted products outlining the same. One of them is tailor made package which also includes exclusive guide service. For this specific crowd it is very necessary for travel agents to provide flawless service so that the customer chooses to book the next tour through the same operator.

Tour guides should have some attributes which a leader must have. First of all, the guide must have expert knowledge so that he or she can lead by the power of expertise. Moreover, the person must win and sustain the trust of the small group he takes care of when on travel. A tour guide is one who readily answers to the queries put forth by the small group of people he or she has to mentor and guide. (productiveflorishing.com, 2010).

Human resource personnel should ensure that the problems faced by tour guides are resolved. Many times they may get involved in a conflicting role and it is the duty of the human resource team to intervene and resolve conflicts. At times, these people may find it challenging to satisfy the group of tourists with the limited resources available. The human resource team should conduct training programs which makes them adept to handling such untoward situations. The job of a tour guide entails handling varied persons and one may need to be commanding at times. These kinds of attributes need to be developed so that one may find it easy to handle a group of foreigners in a city or region.

Hence, the human resource must see to it that guides are properly groomed and trained and can meet up every expectations ranging from problem solving skills, to establishing two way communication process to friendly behaviour. The human resource personnel should provide time to time training which may help these guides to be updated with the latest information. The tourism industry is volatile and a slightest change affects the same. Hence, these people must develop a progressive and competitive attitude to provide the best services to tourists.

Some tour guides regard training as a waste of time instead of an opportunity to advance their quality and career (Zhang, Cai and Liu 2002). The human resource on its part must ensure that such guides attain job satisfaction and should motivate and encourage them to perform better enable provide the tourists the best holiday experience.

Personnel Administration

Personnel administration should be capable to handle workplace issues such as harassment, discrimination and violence. It is important for the personnel department to work within the law in which the department needs to fully understand laws related to the workplace. Further it needs to follow the right procedures and actions to deal with any upcoming issues. A workplace climate is a fundamental issue in supporting tour guide’s work and service quality and in turn is proposed to be reflected in customer experiences (Schneider, White and Paul 1998).

Salary and Compensation in Wage

The human resource management should effectively implement minimum standards of wages and hours of working to tour guides. Besides, scholars have proposed a potential relationship between the fair treatment of tour guides and excellence in service delivery (Bettencourt and Brown 1997). The department also needs to ensure the tour guide’s working conditions and problems on minimum wage and overtime work and always keep thorough record of all tour guides. They must not be low paid so that they provide good quality services to tourists.

Previous research has identified the problem in which the basic salary of tour guides is rather low, some of the guiding tours even operate without guide-fees, and some tour guides even need to pay a certain amount of money to tour operators to bid tour group (Wong, Ap, Yeung, & Sandiford (1998a). K. Wong, J. Ap, K. Yeung and P. Sandiford. An evaluation of the need to upgrade the service professionalism of Hong Kong’s tour co-ordinators, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (1998).Wong, Ap, Yeung, & Sandiford (1998a). Therefore, tour guides rely heavily on shopping commissions as their major income. The low rating of this factor suggests an urgent need to regulate and monitor the unhealthy industry practices of tour operators and tour guides .A lowly paid tour guide will not be able to obtain optimum satisfaction from the job and this will lead to performance issues thereby leading to poor service quality to tourists (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2006). The tourism industry is a low paid industry and most tour guides are employed on daily wages which are too little for sustenance. This is an area of concern which human resource must intervene and resolve. They must provide for a standard industrial classification for jobs done by tour guides (Christensen & Nickerson, 1995). Nevertheless it is always powerful to align tour guide’s interest by providing them rewards when they have achieved certain performance target as human resource perceive tour guides are always sensitive about the pay decisions (Rynes et al. 2004).

Time Management

One of the important aspects which tour guides must focus on is effectively managing time so that the tourists gets to see and enjoy the best package within a limited period of time. In order to effectively achieve this tour guide must organize the daily schedule and set goals and priorities (time – management – guide.com, 2011). Previous research has done a research survey to investigate the relationship between tour guide performance and tourist’s satisfaction in the context of China’s tourism industry, result has shown that “tour guides are punctual” and “tour guides try their best to follow itinerary and daily schedule” are two of the main criteria in achieving tourists’ satisfaction (Huang, Hsu and Chan 2010).

Employee Benefits Administration

The human resource management which extends in covering tour guides under the program should ensure that they are entitled to certain privileges and benefits so that they derive job satisfaction. When tour guides are working in a good quality of work life, there will be a greater opportunity to affect their jobs, their contributions, overall effectiveness and the service they provide (Champion-Hughes 2001). Tour guides should be provided with Tourist Guide Passes which will avail them to enter tourist attractions including museums and wildlife parks and zoos without paying entry fees. Also during peak tourist seasons they should be entitled to free or discounted fares when they need to use the public transport. Such benefits will help in delivering better service quality to tourists. (Travel Industry Council of Hong Kong, 2010) Other than this the type of tour that a guide conducts also entails him or her certain benefits. An all-inclusive tour will make the tour guide to get more benefits and earnings whereas a day to day tour will result in less benefits and earnings (jobmonkey.com, 2011).

Personnel Cost Planning

The human resource management must strive for effective personnel cost planning. They must aim for strategic planning so as to get the best services at the least cost. The total planning process must entail both management and operation planning and planning the cost incurred for hiring personnel should be effectively stressed upon. The human resource must effectively employ a cost – benefit analysis which helps in finding out the accrued expenditures in comparison with the costs involved. Depending on the costs and the revenues the human resource must effectively draw a balance so that they main attain maximum revenues by minimising costs and proper allocate the costs to other fields such as training and development to improve tour guide’s service quality (Steiner, 1997)

Performance Appraisal

Performance appraisal is a standard practise which is followed in most organizations and industries. Previous studies have suggested that appraisal may play a key role to accomplish in the development, communication and to monitor quality standards (Deblieux, 1991; Fletcher, 1993).

It is one of the most important jobs for human resource to evaluate tour guide’s performance (Behery and Paton 2008). It entails in considering the current state of performance of an employee over a period of time. (Bretz, Milkovich, Read, 1992).The evaluation process is argued to have a larger impact on tour guide’s job behaviour than all the other managerial practices (Behery and Paton 2008). Performance appraisal is used as a widely supportive medium to effectively employ it as a measure for effective human resource management function (Ahmed, 1999). It is very necessary that performance appraisal is extended to tour guides so as to obtain better quality of services.

Researchers have argued that performance appraisal and feedback will directly affect tour guide’s accomplishments, no matter the feedback is positive or negative (Greller and Parsons 1992). The human resource management must effectively implement performance appraisal among tour guides as this will help to motivate the tour guides to give quality services to tourists as they know that their work will be judged on certain parameters. According to the quality of service provided, their wages or / and salaries will be appraised. The human resource management should implement this as a part of the package in order to provide maximum satisfaction to clients.
Besides, the use of reward schemes could also be applied to support quality initiatives. It is discussed that financial incentives have contribution to quality management and is to “risk demeaning the employees and attaching a price tag to their efforts” (Crosby 1980).

Labour Relations

The human resource management must adhere to provide a platform for cordial labour relations which help in increasing the quality of output. The work of tour guides entails emotional aspects of labour. Emotional labour occurs in face to face or voice to voice interactions with tourists, the emotional display has certain rules and display of emotions to influence the emotions of other people’s attitudes and behaviours. Many tour guides may display fake emotions as they think that their job needs this type of emotion to be displayed (Wong & Wang, 2009).Human resource must strategically plan and implement participation, communication and involvement of tour guides by providing them equal opportunities thereby enabling good quality of working life (Leighton & Painter, 2001). The human resource team should effectively attempt to understand the employment relationship with relation to contemporary changes taking place in the country and the society. They must encourage ethics to be a part of the work culture while promoting and implementing this to tour guides (Ackers, 1994).

An employee relation is also recognised as internal marketing, in which it is critical in creating service mindedness for tour guides (Gronroos 1983). The practice will be able to raise a supportive and participative employee relations climate which could lead to positive improvement s in perceived service quality.

Moreover lack of recognition by human resource is a vital issue which tends to affect tour guide’s service quality. Often human resources are not willing to offer tour guides competitive remuneration and treat them as part time or casual employees while they are actually employed as a full-time worker. Lack of recognition will further result in a high turnover rate whereas tour guides will decide to swap to other industries with more favourable pay and working conditions (Mak, Wong and Chang 2010).

Retention

High turnover rate can result in a significantly negative impact to the tourism industry. Turnover represents a loss of skills and will affect the efficiency and quality of service delivered. Reasons of turnover may include the seasonality of the tourism industry, retirement, dismissal and resignation, the challenge for human resource is that they can never predict when will turnover happens (Staw, 1980). To replace turnover tour guides, human resource need to recruit and train up another suitable person for the job to reach appropriate quality levels. Besides high turnover rates will result in low productivity and poor service.

Therefore human resource faces additional challenge and should have implement appropriate strategies for retention. The costs pay for retention such as offering a more attractive salary, improving working conditions and job security will definitely offset the costs for recruiting and training new ones (Berry 1983). Retention strategies will result in quality improvement and only satisfied tour guides can satisfy tourists (Rust et al. 1996).

In most areas licensed tour operators conduct guided tours wherein they educate and interpret information regarding the site to clients. Nowadays, tour guides are being recognized as a potential medium to deliver messages regarding protection and conservation of ecological reserves, minimal impact behaviour and heritage values. Hence, the human resource management needs to research, develop, trial and then refine a tool which aims to monitor the effectiveness of interpretation experiences conducted by tour guides on guided tours in natural as well as cultural environments. Area managers operating in professional and general associations and bodies must intervene and recommend ways to support and manage tour guides and operators. They must focus on identifying a process through which tour operators can clearly transmit messages on focussing on sustainable tourism in a particular area to their clients. This will not only benefit the particular area but will also help in promoting current and future tourists (Armstrong & Weiler, 2003).

Tour guides and operators need to think beyond the limited research that they undertake in order to impart information to clients. They need to devise new and innovative skills in order to satisfy their clients which may be in finding out a new tourist attraction in the same area of a new shopping outlet which may intrigue the tourists. In order to get this done properly, there must be an organization or a body which monitors their performance and this is where experienced professionals in human resource must intervene in order to get the best results achieved from tour guides and operators in meeting the final goal of attaining optimum job and client satisfaction by maximizing their service quality.

3.0Recommendations and Conclusion

3.1 Conclusion

The improvement of tour guide’s service quality relies on the human resources concerted efforts. In the age of competition and fast paced technology it is very essential that tour guides are one of the most visible and critical players in tourism industry. They have the features to provide excellent quality of services so as to make an impressive tour experience. It is the sole responsibility of the tour guides to meet this objective. The acknowledgement of their importance and the effort in raising their level of skill and competence will result in the potential to generate greater profit and efficiency, and benefit the tourism industry as a whole.

Since there are research gaps in which previous studies have not focused on how to manage tour guide’s service quality, and has left human resource management for tour guides an underdeveloped area, this paper has critically discussed the human resource practices to improve service quality of tour guides in the tourism industry.

In particular, there are three main perceptions in assessing the tour guiding service, they are core services delivery, customer orientation and communication effectiveness. Based on the three aspects, the service provided by tour guides will have a direct influence on tourists’ satisfaction and indirect effect on satisfaction attained from tour services and overall tour experiences provided.

This study identifies the service gap often occurs between the service provided by a tour guide and the satisfaction attained from the service by a tourist. The gap represents a quality loss. Human resource is insisted as one of the critical issues causing the service gap, hence there should be a set appropriate human resource practice to minimize the service gap and to monitor the performance of tour guides.

Human resource consists of a range of practices such as recruiting, spanning the acquisition of employees, provides training and development and employee retention. Through all the practices, HRM could direct a professional approach to employee management as well as providing a competitive advantage over rivals by training and skills management to enhance the service quality of employees.

The human resource team must effectively train and manage tour guides especially because they need to develop and hone skills to enhance the service they provided. This is where experienced professionals in human resource must intervene in order to get the best results achieved from tour guides and operators in meeting the final goal of attaining optimum job and client satisfaction by maximizing their service quality.

3.2 Recommendations

It is not overemphasizing the extent of professionalism of tour guides performance in a destination; one poor experience can eventually ruin the former hard-earned reputation. Therefore concerning tour guides’ service quality and professionalism, destination government should help on ensuring a minimum level of service professionalism, to draw up a relevant Code of Conduct and ethic practices for tour guides and to review the disciplinary mechanism in anticipation of additional regulatory function.

To further enhance the service standards, destination government could also set up tour guides association and to design a standard tour guide training course together with an examination system to ensure the quality of tour guides are standardized within the destination tourism industry.

If the above-mentioned recommendations are implemented to destination tourism, it will certainly lead to visible improvements in the training and practice of tour guiding in Hong Kong. Leadership from tour operators and government is also required in taking a intensive and determined effort to improve tour guides’ level of professionalism, as their actions influence, to a great extent, the role and activities of the tour guide.

3.3 Opportunities for Future Research

As this paper limits to a general human resource management on improving tour guide’s service quality, future studies could critically discuss the human resource practice to improve service quality on a particular destination, comprising the cultural change, regulatory control and the overall tourism industry environment. Future studies can also focus on implementing human resource strategy in a developing country arising from the recommendations of its government planning on tourism, to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan and to outline challenges.

Moreover, human resource can specifically train tour guides to promote sustainability of destination tourism. Sustainable tourism is very important as it has the potential to stimulate the implementation of sustained development by following a holistic, interdisciplinary and integrative approach combining different aspects of existing tools to develop sustainable tourism. Future studies could examine the feasibility of implementing human resource management on tour guide to help on promoting or maintaining the sustainability of destination tourism.
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Categories
Free Essays

Research Methodology on Hospitality and Tourism

Introduction:

The main purpose of the research is to evaluate or create exiting understanding, review and investigate existing situation or problems, find out the appropriate solutions to the problems as well explain new idea and generate scope of further research. Research on the issues on tourism sector is to focus on problems of the specified sector and find out appropriate solution of research.

Tourism is now a global industry connecting hundred millions of people worldwide; which been recognised as a fastest rising sectors. These industries make it as a key column of economic development of any destination country. World travel and tourism council (WTTC) find out by their latest research in 2011 that from Travel & Tourism industry’s direct input to global GDP growing by 3.3%, to US$1,770 billion at the year 2010.

Running 2011, this upgrading is forecast to reinforce extra– by 4.5% to US$1,850 billion; where 3 million industry jobs will be created. As per research forecast by WTTC based on Bangladesh; where shows countries GDP is expected to be BDT184.4bn (2.3% of total GDP) in 2011, increasing 6.3% pa to BDT339.2bn (2.3%) in 2021 from the direct contribution of Travel &Tourism .

Royal Danish Embassy (2008) explain Bangladesh as a tourist destination of South Asian region, where the smallest number of tourist arrivals and most minuscule income earned from its travel and tourism sector. As well they identified tourism is one of the rapidly growing for Bangladesh, which can make significant contributions on its economy.

Bangladesh has some significant tourist attraction such as world largest unbroken sea beach Cox’s Bazar, leading world 7 wonder nominated mangrove forest Sundarban etc; but its fails to attract world tourist due to inadequate promotional actions which can bring brand country image on tourism.

(Hossain &Nazmin, 2006) explain that, Bangladesh holding enormous recourses to attract international tourists with affluent traditions, sunny beaches, archaeological attractions, cultural heritages, hills, mangrove forest, wild lives, tribal culture and architecture, colourful festivals etc.

The international media most often focused on countries ongoing political instability, which made huge negative country image as a tourist destination. Instead of political valances Bangladesh has incredible prospects on its tourism sector.

Due to political incidents tourism industry is seriously hampered. Master plan on future tourism in Bangladesh are not maintaining strictly. When the countries tourism got tourism friendly steady environment; the sector flourishes and at the same time increase arrivals.

There are major problems on tourism in Bangladesh and huge opportunities to ensure continued tourism. In this research, I am going to examine how tourism of Bangladesh will thrive in spite of identified problems.

Importance of the Research Topic:

Many countries in the world are dependents on tourism sector for earning of foreign currency. Where, every destination is trying to establish their country image to get more gain by rising tourism sector; Bangladesh is very slow to reach this goal.

In this research, we are going to examine the problems and significant prospects of tourism sector in Bangladesh. As a citizen of the said country; It is an opportunity for me to find out the key barriers of the development of tourism in Bangladesh. It is very important for my country to identify the reasons for downturn of our tourism sector; where neighbor countries tourism growth is highly appreciable.

(Akther , 2001) explain that, Bangladesh is beautiful and wealthy by its own natural attractiveness. Unluckily, the country are not steady to provide tourist friendly atmosphere. Lack of effectual initiatives, appropriate management plan; where countries political volatility is the main key barriers.

Bangladesh has incredible prospects on its tourism sector to make a positive destination image in international tourism. But, at present scenario of tourism in Bangladesh is facing a lot of major problems; where political unrest is the vital issue to make its poor image in international tourism. Lack of socio-political commitments the country still suffering after four decades of independences. Bangladesh has awesome tourism attractions to establish a branding country image in the international tourism industry; regrettably, countries political unrest badly affects its growth on tourism.

Unpleasant security and political disturbances within Bangladesh decrease both domestic and international tourists to explore the country. World tourists are feared to make their visit to a destination with political anxiety. Matter of regret that, even local tourist does not feel free to explore Bangladesh due to political uncertainty; where they found it much safe and secured to make an outbound trip to travel.

The prospects of tourism in Bangladesh are gravely troubled by a number of problems. In this study we are mostly focus on the key barriers of tourism sector in Bangladesh and examine which is the significant way to recover its beauty.

Here, the research findings will drastically expand the range of information on the topic of research and it would be the supplementary literature with the breathing academic literature. The finding of the research would be supportive to any of researcher to consider the more areas; which is not covered in this research.

Literature Review

‘’Tourism: A Community Approach’’; A publications by Murphy’s (1985) which directly focused the basic requirements for the destinations communities to make a bridge between the development of tourism relating to local demands. Afterward many studies developed on the diverse associations amid tourism destinations and its communities (Richards & Hall-2000).

Tourism can be seen financially viable action which produces a variety of positive as well negative impacts. This is identified by his earlier study on tourism Swarbrooke (1999). In order to develop a sustainable plan on tourism and its socio-economic, environmental as well socio-cultural aspects of tourism should be well tacit. The well planed balance among financial profit and social and ecological expenditure; these are key factor of sustainable tourism development.

The development of tourism depended on first-rate sustainable atmosphere. The future trends of tourism marketing should be emphasised on ecological reliability of socio-economic structure, natural resources and cultural heritages. Sustainable tourism will make a huge financial input to the destination and world economy Hassan (2000).

Sustainability is one of the vital concepts of tourism development. Richards & Hall (2000) identify the significance relations between the destinations community and sustainability. Local communities are the crucial motivation for tourists to travel by experiencing the different thought of life.

The development of tourist destinations widely depends on its social responsibilities, political stability and well planned tourism future goal. These things can bring huge socio-cultural reimbursement; upgrade living standards of communities and economic growth come from its superb tourism distribution. An alternative promising approach to avert those expansions is to encourage and spend in sustainable tourism. This is a concept of tourism that can defend socio-cultural and environment of tourist destination; which is called eco-tourism, Shaw & Williams (2004).

Safety and security reasons have changed the world travel & tourism environment. The terrorist attack at September 11, 2001 in USA makes devastating impacts on world tourism industry. Now days the management of destinations closely think and should make their future tourism plan including such solemn issues destination recovery, risk and crisis management.

As per crisis guideline of WTO for the tourism industry aware the tourist destinations that be organized before the emergency, minimise smash up during the disaster and recovering destination image and traveller confidence after the crisis. (WTO, 2003a)

The development of tourism industries depends on destinations calm tourist friendly environment. Beirman (2003) identified a few core reasons that makes destination crisis. 1. Countries long-standing internal political violence. 2. International war or clash. 3. Terrorist attack on tourist and destinations. 4. Major criminal act. 5. Natural disasters such as Strom or Volcano, Flood, Earthwork. 6. Health issues affecting tourist attractions

Lepp and Gibson (2003) find out four key risk factor is seriously harmful for the destination tourism growth. These are Political violence, crime, health concerns and terrorism. International Society of Hospitality Consultants (ISHC) identified global issues and challenges where upward worldwide uncertainty for safety and security got priority.

Tourism industry of any countries would be suffered due to crisis and especially political instability. Tourist never wants to travel certain place where several crisis going on. Country loosing economic growth from tourism as well creates a time long negative impact as a tourist destination. Ankomah and Crompton (1990) state that, any crisis or domestic turmoil makes the country as an unsafe tourist destination where the tourist not to visit that country.

While constraints on tourist movement the politics plays a vital role in the world tourism industry. Destinations positive political stability makes encouraging and involving nations. Political turmoil makes the destination unsafe and as a result imposing travel limits by others nations in that country.

The unintentional expansion of tourism’s has spoilt many of tourist destinations normal nature and socio cultural environment. Unwanted side-effects have lead to the rising alarm for the natural wealth, human interests and extended time economic feasibility of the destinations communities (Akis- Peristianis and Warner, 1996).

Bangladesh is a beautiful tourist destination and it holding potential prospects on tourism sector. The country has significant attraction to catch the attention of world tourism. But in term of world tourism the present condition of this country is not enough for tourism distributions; where the political violence’s is the core issue which seriously affects its tourism Islam and Islam (2006).

Pearson (2002) noted that without well planned risk or crisis management any tourist destination institute cannot escape from crisis. Organisation should take serious effort for its risk management. The way for the tourist destination to decrease crisis smash up to make effective preparation. Country should be taken towering concern for each business concerned in tourism industry.

Bangladesh has got the top ten ranked as the Best Value Destination in the world for 2011by world’s leading travel guidebooks’’ Lonely Planet’’; which is owned by BBC worldwide. Lonely Planet mentioned that if any world tourists choose Bangladesh will be rewarded most and get the maximum “value for his money”.

In the literature review, the distinguish authors has been well descried that the crisis or problems, how it affects countries tourism industry. Where, the following variables are extremely essential to improve tourism sector of the destinations: Safety and security, political instability, branding destination image and way of sustainable tourism.

Research Method:

In this section, we will talk about the methods, which will be used for this study. Research issues such as research design, sample, population, procedure of sampling, questionnaires and numerical examination are presented.

Research is an essential part of academics, “research is the systematic study of materials and sources etc. in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions” (Oxford Concise Dictionary). The process by which a research is written or carried out is very important because it has a huge impact on the conclusions reached at the end of the research. There are two major research philosophies which underpin the research strategy and the method that will be used to carry out a research (Collis and Hussey, 2009). They are the positivism and interpretive research paradigm.

Positivism involves “working with an observable social reality and that the end product of such research can be law-like generalisations similar to those produced by the physical and natural scientists”, the assumption is that “the researcher is independent of and neither affects nor is affected by the subject of the research” (Remeneyi et al, 1998:32). Interpretive is “a philosophical position which is concerned with understanding the way we as humans make sense of the world around us, the underlying assumption is that by placing people in their social context, there is greater opportunity to understand the perceptions they have of their own activities” (Hussey and Hussey, 1997).

Research Design:

In general, the methodology of research and term of research design are seems to signify the equal thing, but actually they are not same. Research design is “a plan or a blue print of how a researcher intends to conduct a study”. The actual significance of research design is to direct the way of data collection procedure and examine the data in order to response for recognized research problem(s); but, the research methodology is to illustrates how something would be done. Research methods are two forms quantitative and qualitative method. Use of countable data is Quantitative. On the other hand, use of non-countable data is qualitative.

In this research, we are using the combination of quantitative and qualitative data methods. Appropriate data collection for this research would be using a questionnaire which well structured open – ended questions. Data related to the previous exiting literature review of the research area were gathered from different secondary sources. Furthermore, Ghauri & Gronhaug (2005: p109) mention that, a quantitative research is more scientific than a qualitative research.

Below, the chart step shows the process of research.

Sampling methods and Size:

It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population. There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of the study.

Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, and the researcher can include the entire population in the study. This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the population. Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability.

The significance of sample is ’’ A portion, piece, or segment of population that is representative of a whole”. For the quantitative research it is highly essential representative sample; where reflects the population completely so that conclusion can be done.

To envoy the whole population sample should be big enough. A small size of will be enough to represent a homogenous population; but, representation of a heterogeneous population requiredlarge sample size. On the basis of population types we need to be more cautious to selecting the sample size.

Data Collection:

The process of data collection is to collecting appropriate data about the research from particular population. There are various way of data collections method such as interviews, questionnaires, group interviews or conference and observation. Each of the individual’s methods has its own and sole features; some advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of questionnaire method is cost effectual, simple association and straightforward analysis predominantly in a quantitative research.

Qualitative Research:

The objective of the qualitative research is to gain qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations of the issue in hand. The procedures of qualitative research are classified either as direct or indirect, based on whether the true purpose of the research is known to the respondents.

A direct approach is not disguised. The purpose of the project is disclosed to the respondents or is otherwise obvious to them from the questions asked. Focus groups and in-depth interviews are the main direct techniques. An indirect approach disguises the true purpose of the research. Projective techniques, the commonly used indirect techniques, consist of association, completion, construction and expressive techniques.

Quantitative Research:

The quantitative primary data in descriptive research. Both these methods require some procedure for standardizing the data collection process so that the data obtained are internally consistent and can be analysed in a uniform and coherent manner. A standard questionnaire or form will ensure comparability of the data, increase speed and accuracy of recording and facilitate data processing. A questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents. Any questionnaire has three specific objectives. (1) Developing questions that respondents can and will answer and that will yield the desired information is difficult. This objective is challenging. (2) A questionnaire must uplift, motivate and encourage the respondent to become more involved, to co-operate, and to complete the questionnaire. In designing the questionnaire, the researcher should strive to minimise respondent fatigue, boredom and effort to minimise incompleteness and non-response. (3) A questionnaire should minimise response error. Response error is defined as the error that arises when respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are misreported or misanalyses.

Struwig & Stead (2001: p 89) stated that questions putted in questionnaires principally come through a review of literature on the area under discussion. On the other hand, Ghauri & Gronhaug (2005: p127) suggest that the questions and question design could be depends on researcher and that would be simplify for analysis purpose; such as open or closed ended, multiple choice, grading system or Likert scale format etc.

Questionnaire Design Process:

Step 01: Specify the information needed; once the research problem is well defined and the objectives of the research are well set, the information needed to serve reaching the objectives have to be specified. A clear idea of the target population is also essential, since, more diversified the respondent group; the more difficult is to design a single questionnaire appropriate for entire group.

Step 02: Specify the type of interviewing method; how the questionnaire is going to be administered influences the questionnaire design. If the respondents see the questionnaire and interact face to face with the interviewer, then lengthy, complex and varied questions can be asked. In telephone interview, the questions have to he short and simple. If the questionnaires are mailed to the respondents, the questions must be simple and detailed instructions must be provided.

Step 03: Determine the content of individual questions; Questionnaire should contribute to the information needed. If there is no satisfactory use for the data resulting from a question, that question should be eliminated. Once the researcher decides that a question is necessary, he or she must decide whether this question alone could fetch the required information or double barrelled questions are required to achieve the needed information.

Research Questions:

The research should be well organized to find out the appropriate data. In this research we have chosen the issues to tourist destinations tourism problems and prospects. Bangladesh tourism development and its barriers of the growth on tourism are our topics. On this study we will attempt to answer the following questions:

1.What are the major and key impacts of tourism in Bangladesh?

2. Which reasons behind the recognized problems?

3. To explore how tourism will thrive in spite of identified crisis.

Main objectives of the research:

Before doing a research it is highly masseur the excepted outcomes or objective of the research.The aim and objectives of the study are given below:

To examine the barriers of tourism growth in Bangladesh.
To investigate the possible ways of improvement of identified problems.
To find out the future development trends in Bangladesh tourism
Data Analysis:

The main objective of data analysis is to facts, identify patterns, build up explanations and test hypothesis. Various methods can be using for data analysis such as content analysis, thematic analysis, theoretical sampling, grounded theory etc. The aim of data analysis is to emphasize crucial information and advocate conclusions which help in result making processes.

Data analysis is a process that aims to describe facts, identify patterns, develop explanations and test hypothesis. All of these help to highlight vital information and recommend conclusions which help in decision making processes. Data can be analysed using various methods such as content analysis, theoretical sampling, thematic analysis, grounded theory etc. Bernard (1952) defined content analysis as “a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of manifest content of communications”. Thematic analysis is an approach to dealing with data that involves the creation and application of ‘codes’ to data, there is a link between this method and the grounded theory method. Grounded theory was discovered by Glaser and Strauss (1967) as a method of analyzing data, it is a systematic analysis of data that aims to develop a higher level of understanding or generate theories regarding a social phenomenon.

Referencing Sources:

University students are expected to refer to the work of other authors to support the ideas. We need to mention whose work are using by citing it in the text of your assignment and also in a list at the end of your assignment.

References must be provided whenever someone else’s opinions, theories, data or organisation of material. You need to reference information from books, articles, videos, web sites, images, computers and any other sources. Harvard referencing style is now the most popular and standard for use in the University research. Reading lists in course handbooks should follow this style of referencing.

The Harvard system has increased in popularity over the years and has the advantage of being flexible, clear and easy to use without the need for footnotes and chapter references as used in other systems.

The importance of the referencing system is to acknowledge the work of other authors/writers. To exhibit the body of knowledge on which you have based your work and enable other readers to trace your sources and lead them on to further information.

During my research works, I need many references and it is essential that to record as much detail as possible and be sure the information is exact. This will save you time later when re-tracing references or when you need to incorporate a reference into the bibliography. Proper referencing will enable the reader to do their further study on different related issues.

Conclusion:

This research study will draw attention to the core problems and investigate key reasons for downwards trends of tourism industry in Bangladesh. In spite of the recognized problems how tourism will flourish towards its development. In the literature review we have got a clear scenario of the problems of tourism sector in Bangladesh as well we focused a few noteworthy attractions prospects to utilize and develop the future trends of tourism. In this case work, we find how the political influences effect the destination tourism growths. Without calm and tourist friendly environment none of the tourist destination in the world can expand their tourism sectors. We can take learning from a few Asian tourists destinations that are enormously affected by their internal political chaos and how it destroyed their tourism prospects and as well how the destination recovered their destination image in the international tourism. The government of Bangladesh should take necessary initiative; where collaborations with the opposition political parties are highly required. To make an sustainable master plan to develop tourism sector of Bangladesh; where political stability is the main and key tools of its success. Bangladesh has holding a huge international attraction as well prospects on its tourism sector to contribute countries economy.

References:

Akis, S., Peristianis, N., & Warner, J., 1996. Residents’ attitudes to tourism development: Thecase of Cyprus. Tourism Management, 17, p. 481-494.

Akhter, Shelina (2001): “Tourism in Bangladesh: An Evaluation”, Journal of

Bangladesh Asiatic Society Bangladesh, December, 2001.

Ankomah, P., & Crompton, J. (1990) Unrealised tourism Potential the case of

sub-Saharan Africa. Tourism Management.

Beirman, D., 2003, Restoring Tourism Destination in Crisis: A Strategic Management Approach, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, Australia. Ghauri, P. & Gronhaug, K. 2005. Research methods in Business studies. Dorset:Prentice Hall.

Hossain, M. A. and Nazmin, S., (2006) “Development of Tourism Industry in

Bangladesh- an empirical study on its problems and prospects” Centre for Tourism

and Hotel management Research, Ga-1, Rashedul Hasan Bhaban, University of

Dhaka, and Dhaka

Lepp, A., and H. Gibson, “Tourist Roles, Perceived Risk and International Tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research,30(3),606–624

Islam, Faridul and Islam, Nazrul(2006).”Tourism in Bangladesh: An Analysis of Foreign Tourist arrivals”, http://stad.adu.edu.tr/TURKCE/makaleler/stadbah2004/makale040103.asp

Struwig, F. W. & Stead, G. B. 2001. Planning, designing & reporting research.Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman.

http://www.lonelyplanet.com/bangladesh/travel-tips-and-articles/76216

Sausmarez N., 2007, “Crisis Management, Tourism and Sustainability: The Role of Indicators”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(6),700-714.

S. F. Sonmez, “Tourism, terrorism, and political instability” Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 25, pp. 416-456, 1998.

S. F. Sonmez, S.J. Backman, and L.R. Andallen, Managing Tourism Crises, Clemson University, London, Sage, 1994.

Vassiliadis, Christos, 1996, “The Geek Tourism Marketing Policy to Foreign Countries through the scope to attract foreign visitors; Model of investigation: the Northern Greece destination”, (in Greek) Dissertation, University of Macedonia-Library, Thesssaloniki, Greece,p.165.

W.J.Cook, “The Effect of Terrorism on Executives ‘ Willingness to Travel Internationally,” The City University of New York Unpublished doctoral dissertation 1990.

World Tourism Organization, Handbook on Natural Disaster Reduction in Tourist Areas, Madrid: WTO. 1998.

The Daily Star, Dhaka, Available: http://www1.voanews.com/policy/editorials/a-41-2006-07-10-voa5- 83108392, Sep.

http://www.thedailystar.net/forum/2007/november/tourism.htm

http://www.parjatan.gov.bd/function_nto.php

http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=136220

http://www.espncricinfo.com/icc_cricket_worldcup2011/content/story/501499.html

Categories
Free Essays

Tourism in Rwanda is rapidly increasing since the genocide that took place in 1994.

Chapter I:

1.0 INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND

1.1: General introduction

Tourism in Rwanda is rapidly increasing since the genocide that took place in 1994.
The country is full of history and natural beauty. There are many interesting sights to see, with many guided tours to choose from. Each tour group is led by an experienced guide that specialises in teaching others about the landscape and wildlife of Rwanda. There are plenty of expeditions to places like volcanoes, waterfalls and rainforests which are home to many different African animals. Rwanda is home to a huge diverse population of animals including gorillas and the largest natural park for Hippos – some 20,000 are believed to be there. Although Rwanda is still a developing country it has quite a few hotels and its new international interest in tourism is giving it a comeback.

Tourism is regarded as the fastest growing industry in the world. Rwanda was identified at the World Investment Conference in Geneva (WAIPA, 2005) as one of the countries in east Africa with a significant potential for developing tourism. Rwanda is a low income, landlocked and densely populated country in Africa. Tourism provides the best alternative for economic development to Rwanda which does not have mineral resources unlike most African countries. The development of tourism can contribute a lot to this country through reduction of the level of poverty, creation of job opportunities as well as contributing to the national income. However, the tourism industry in Rwanda is still in its early stages due to the 1994 war. Most of the parks re-opened in 1998/1999, and still concentrate on low volume of tourists. Until now Rwanda is not recognised among the known tourist destinations in Africa; it is believed to be a less developed place for tourists. This study presents barriers to tourism development in Rwanda as perceived by domestic and international tourists as well as workers in the tourism sector of Rwanda. The study was conducted in the four provinces of Rwanda and the capital city, Kigali. A quantitative design using two cross-sectional questionnaires was utilised to establish the opinions of the participants. A sample of 426 participants, including 68 international tourists, 182 domestic tourists as well as 176 workers in the tourism sector was selected to participate in the study.

1.2: Background to the study, history of Tourism in Rwanda

Rwanda is country that used to be situated in Central Africa and now joined East Africa among the rest of the common wealth countries. According to the research from the tourist board of Rwanda which is RDB (Rwanda Development Board) suggests that ‘’Rwanda is popularly known as ‘the land of a thousand hills’ because of its many tourist attractions. The landscapes in this green country are truly incredible. A lot of people who had the chance to visit Rwanda have remarked the country as unique on the African continent. From East to West; and North to South, that you get to discover one of the God’s best creations with a holy climate’’.

Rwanda is a small East African country, that draws visitors from all over the world, primarily to see its rare mountain gorillas. Rwanda faced a horrible genocide in 1994 which still has not been forgotten, the memorial museum in Kigali is a “must-see”. On the surface ‘’and highly encouraged by officials’’ the locals have decided to move on to better things, and now the country is seen to be peaceful and safe destination for visitors. Rwanda’s infrastructure is has improved a lot, since they were destroyed during the war. Most of the roads are paved which makes it easy to get around. The country has banned plastic bags and it certainly has kept it cleaner.

Rwanda has shown strong responsibility in order to promote the tourism sector; the government developed a clear tourism master plan strategy which will help to market the destination successfully, they also involved the private sectors in the policy and in general improved the country’s business environment. The key factors and their role were to ensure that tourism becomes the main source of income/economy towards the government.

Rwanda at glance.

Country What is made of?
RwandaKigali

Official languageKinyarwanda, French, English
PresidentH.E Paul Kagame
Area26,338 km squared
water5.3%
Population (2009)10,117,029
GDP (2010)6%

Source: (Rwanda Development Board)

Chat 1: Map of Rwanda.

Source: (the holocaust centre, 2008)

1.3: Rwanda’s Tourism Economy

Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in mainly subsistence agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda’s breakable economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and battered the country’s ability to attract private and external investment. On the other hand, Rwanda has made significant progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels, although poverty levels are higher now. GDP has rebounded and price increases has been restrained. Despite Rwanda’s productive ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with population growth, requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005-06. Rwanda also received Millennium Challenge Account Threshold status in 2006. Kigali’s high defence expenditures have caused pressure between the government and international donors and lending agencies. Energy shortages, insecurity in neighbouring states, and lack of passable transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap development.

Rwanda’s economy still may be small and predominantly agricultural, but in recent years, with political stability, it has posted an impressive 9.9% GDP growth rate at the same time reducing inflation to 3.2% and currency depreciation to merely 6.5% per annum. Foreign exchange controls have been liberalized and the banking system is sound and successful. According to RDB mission statement or rather vision for the economy of the country, there vision for 2020 objective for combating poverty, Rwanda is embarking on a complete program of privatization and liberalization with a goal to attaining rapid and sustainable economic growth. This goal is to transform the economy from its 90% dependence on subsistence agriculture into a contemporary, largely based economic engine which they think will be welcoming to investors, creating employment and new opportunities which will benefit mostly the locals.

1.3.1: Is Tourism a key factor in the Rwandan Economy?

Tourism is one of the key factors in the whole of the country’s economy but like other sectors, tourism was affected by the genocide 1994 but it is starting to experience a explosion due to the government’s new approach to work together with neighbouring countries which has an impact on the locals and the government.

1.3.2: What is Rwanda’s main source of income?

Rwanda is a rural country with about 90% of the population occupied mainly in subsistence agriculture. Subsistence means that people farm enough for themselves to live with the farmed agriculture but however not have enough to make income out of it and enjoy the luxury item that are taken for granted in the west. As Rwanda is landlocked, it has few natural resources and minor industry.

1.4: Aims and Objectives

1.4.1: Aims.
To assess the strategies that are undertaken by the Government in order to increase tourism in Rwanda.
1.4.2: Objectives.
To assess the role of Gorillas and its contribution toward the economy of Rwanda.
To recommend on possible strategies in relation to the destination.

Chapter II:

2.0: Literature Review

Strategic planning is the set of processes that is undertaken in order to develop a variety of strategies that will contribute towards achieving the organizational direction. A wide range of definitions of strategic planning and models have been expressed within this literature review. Strategic planning is defined as a process that enables an organisation to obtain its goals and objectives. There are five general steps in the strategic planning process: goal/objective setting, situation analysis, alternative consideration, implementation and evaluation” (Crittenden and Crittenden, 2000).

It has also been suggested by Robertson (1995) 199 that tourism companies/businesses which are behind manufacturing firms are in the use of strategic planning. Tourism organisations are to be no less important to the environmental threats than manufacturing organisations, it has been assumed that strategic planning are procedurally adopted by tourism companies and are of equal sophistication to those who used are by manufacturing organisations. Tourism researchers argue that tourism firms/organisations are mostly vulnerable to the environmental threats; this is however a study that was conducted by Rovelstad and Blazer who reports that tourism organisations wait behind manufacturing organisations in the strategic planning efforts.

According to the finding of information in this journal, Robertson keeps on suggesting that people who set strategies view their products and their competitors’ products from the perspective of an objective outsider; he also suggests that it was argued that there are two types of externally orientated planning: which are strategic planning and strategic management. Therefore this means that when an a certain organisation views its external orientated planning, they allocate different resources to the programmes to achieve its business objectives in a self-motivated environment which therefore separates management function, then it is generally referred to as strategic planning. But on the other hand, if externally orientated planning is viewed as an integral part of the management function, it is then generally referred to as a strategic management.

It’s been established that the marketing strategies to be used by organisations should be able to target overseas visitors, Taylor L, Allardyce M and Macpherson N (1992) 52 also suggest that it important to recognise the influencing variables which may in the long run have an affect towards the tourism product choices that maybe offered to these tourist coming from abroad. The above authors keep on suggesting that identification of motivating factors is not always straight forward and can conclude the main factors in an organisation’s marketing strategies which does not ensure success meaning that the strategies which the organisation decide to market on may not be successfull.

A study by WTO (world tourism organisations) suggest that governments should be involved in tourism in order to follow these four main functions, coordinating, legislative, planning and financing. On top of that the WTO also identified the main five objectives of tourism development which the governments should be responsible for in the management of tourism, which are to fulfil the rights to leisure and holidays; to prepare citizens for tourism; to develop the economy through tourism; to increase social and cultural development and last but not to ensure that there is enough protection towards the nature. According to the argument by Jenkins and Henry (1982) 499-521, they think that most developing countries, active government involvement in tourism is much required to compensate for the absence of a strong and a promising tourism experienced private sector.

Baum (1994) 185 suggests that the formulation and implementation if tourism policies/strategies at a national level reflect a diversity of priorities and circumstances. Also Hartley and Hooper says this diversity when they state that ‘’public sector policy objectives which may be needed from tourism in order to include the creation of income and wealth; job creation; maintaining and the quality of life; maintaining and improving links both within and between nations; and contributing to the nation’s balance of payment position.’’ In consideration of a published national tourism policy documents positively confirms this as a multifaceted agenda, an example is given in chapter 4 of my findings, the Rwandan Tourist Board (ORTPN) introduced their objectives by providing a tourism master plan by stating that the policy must include the need to be able to sustain and promote the country’s culture and heritage, to be able to protect and enhance the physical environment of Rwanda and last but not to ensure that the economics and social well-being of the host community is maintained at a high standard.

Fayos-sola (1996) 408 suggests that tourism policy huge impact and it should continue to be used in organisations and destinations. Fayos-sola continues to suggests that in most countries, tourism has not been truly integrated in economic policy, whereby many tourism organisations focus their strategies in a tourism communication policy, launching aggressive promotional programmes, where tourism administrations acting in greater or lesser coordination with private initiative or try to reach out a market niche for the tourism destination in question by making what is considered to be on occasion an amateurish use of communication tools.’’ These types of policy are likely to cause issues in terms of efficiency, this is because they regularly focus exceptionally on promotional methods and messages but rather not have enough on measuring and improving the issues that may occur.

B.Teye (1992) 408 presents ‘’A normative strategic planning model for local tourism management and development.

Table 1.

This table above explains the planning framework that involves the preparation of an agreed agenda for strategic planning. This includes the identification of the participants, the establishment of structures which would enable them to undertake the process, the formulation of mission statements and objectives and the agreement of a time frame for the completion of the various planning stages. This model should enable a tourism organisation or destination to develop a clear vision of the nature of the local economy. B.Teye states that this model was put together 1990 December as strategic planning process with a public meeting in ishmore.

2.2: Below are the frameworks that show different types of strategic planning models

The development of a strategic tourism plan for a destination is an expression of the strategic direction that has been acknowledged by stakeholders for the planning, development, management and marketing of an area. Strategic Plans for destinations has been called Destination Management Plans, Tourism Action Plans or Sustainable Tourism Plans in different areas around the world. Rwanda used all these types of strategic planning model in when drafting a tourism master plan. A strategic plan for destination management is important because it determines the success and the sustainability of a destination for the near future.

Table 2.

This diagram above identifies a performance measurement of an organisation; it also investigates the impacts of performance measurement in strategic planning. Performance measurement was found to be one of the four main factors that clearly show the modern practice of strategic planning. When evaluating the performance measurement, there are major influences in supporting the achievement of the company’s aims that they set and the effectiveness of its strategic planning process that were revealed at the end of the measurements.

2.3: Five basic strategic planning models that are mostly likely to be used in tourism organisations

2.3.1: Basic strategic planning model

This process is followed by organisation that are really small, busy, and have not done much strategic planning before. The process might be implemented in the first year of the non-profit to get a sense of how planning is conducted, and then overstate in later years with more planning phases and activities in order to make sure well-rounded direction for the non-profit. Planning is usually carried out by top-level management.

2.3.2: Issue based planning

This is a process where Organisations that begin with the “basic” planning approach described above, regularly develop to using this more comprehensive and more effective type of planning.

2.3.3: Alignment Model

The main purpose of this model is to certify strong alignment among the organisation’s mission and its resources to successfully operate the organisation. This model is very important for most organisations that need to adjust its strategies or even find out why they are not working. Most organisations might also choose this model if it is experiencing an outsized number of issues around internal efficiencies. The Overall steps in this model includes: The planning group outlines of the organisation’s mission, programs, resources, and needed support, Identifying what’s working well and what needs improvement within the organisation, Identifying how these improvement should be tackled. Last but not least include the improvements that were made as strategies in the strategic plan.

2.3.4: Scenario planning model

This model is mostly used in combination/together with other models to make sure that the planners are seriously undertaking strategic thinking where by it will be useful, most especially in identifying strategic issues, aims and objectives.

2.3.5: “Organic” or Self-Organising planning model

This model is identified as a traditional strategic planning. “Mechanistic” or “linear” are processes that are sometimes considered, for example they sometimes begin by conducting a broad assessment of the external and internal environments of the organization and also conducting a strategic analysis (“SWOT” analysis) as shown in chapter 4, this model would help reduce to identify and listing issues of developing exact strategies to deal with the specific issues taking place.

Fayos-Sola.E, Marin.A and Meffert.C (1994) 13 suggests that tourism organisations must adapt to the new market conditions, improving their tourism information systems, and strengthening their company culture and other competitively useful business tools for the future. On the other hand they think such improvement must be made in permanent contact with the markets that are chosen with improvements which will help them enable to obtain competitive advantages and will also help to avoid others lead to unnecessary spending, inflexibility or even incorrect positioning. They then suggest that the strategic business decision-making task is very important in the new age of tourism which yet becomes more complex. The main point of this is that these needs no longer refer not only to sales function, or rather to the integrated marketing function. Most tourism companies/industries respond strategically to their competitive environment with the lowest information which helps gather costs and optimal possibilities for using a quick feedback mechanism.

Athiyaman.A, (1995) 449 suggests that strategy implementation is the process or way of implementing a sound strategic decision that can make an ineffective or alternatively make a debatable strategy successful. The implementation process contains a series of activities which are primarily administrative. Some of the activities include developing an information system that provides timely information on a variety of strategic activities to all apprehensive and rearranging the performance measurement and incentive systems in order to match the kind of behaviour needed for efficient strategy implementation. The boundary of tourism and strategy research will explored by way of a literature analysis which is conducted to be a major reason to assess the attempts made by researchers in order to understand the functioning of tourism businesses. Some other reasons include identifying the research gaps in tourism strategy research and lastly to highlight the possible areas of strategy research that are open for examination. A strategic management model was chosen by Tregoe and Tobia in order to show that strategy has been used rather casually by both management authorities and executives which unfortunately seem to be the case in tourism. There are four components that are involved in this model. These are: Analysing the environment– this is where this part of the strategic management process needs research into two part or aspects of the environment: task or market environment and societal environments. Planning direction– this part of model is concerned with determining the where the organisation is going in the future. In more words, determining the overall direction for the company where it’s heading to and want to be in the near future. Planning strategy- this is a process that deals with identifying ways of achieving the objectives. More often a number of alternative strategies are measured, for example simulation game theory, linear programming and statistics are definitely used to select the optimal strategy. Implementing strategy- this is a process whereby once a strategy is selected, each of the operations within the company such as marketing, manufacturing and human resources is associated in a way as to be able to contribute toward the efficient implementation of strategy.

Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (2005:10) defined strategy as ‘the direction and scope of an organisation over the long-term which achieves advantage for the organisation through its configuration of resources within a changing environment and to also fulfil stakeholder expectations’. This statement contrasts with views made by Ansoff (1969:7) that a set of management guidelines which specify the organisation’s product-market position, the directions which the company is looking forward to grow and change, the competitive tools it will employ within the business, the means of how they will enter the new markets, the manner in which it will build its resources, the strengths which it will look for in order to develop, on the contrary the weaknesses it will seek to avoid. Ansoff then rounds up by identifying what is strategy, he suggests that strategy is a concept of the firm’s business which then provides a unifying theme for all its activities.

Tribe (1997) 110 suggests that there are generic strategies that are involved in porter’s model which are designed to promote a lasting competitive advantage for an organisation. The model is made up of three generic strategies which are cost leadership, differentiation and focus.

Cost leadership strategy involves an organisation becoming the lowest cost provider within the industry. That one of the key ways to achieve this is by offering a basic, standardised, mass produced, no frills product or service with inessential aspects stripped out. A differentiation strategy is where by an organisation seeks product exclusivity. The company will then attempt to establish real products or perceived differences between its products and those of its competitors so that a premium price can be charged without loss of customers. The logic for this strategy is that an organisation will be an industry above average performer and that’s if the price premium exceeds the extra costs of providing differentiation. Lastly focus strategy– this model mostly occurs where strategy is customised towards a particular market segment instead of the whole market and this may take the form of cost focus or differentiation focus.

The following chapter will focus on different methods used, in order to complete this project:

Chapter 3:

Methodology

3.1: Introduction to the chapter

In this chapter, I am going to state down all the types of methodology that I will be using in this project. The main type of methodology that will useful to this project will be conducting a secondary data, whereby I will have use qualitative analysis, also analysing, identifying and evaluating what is in the main recent master plan of tourism in Rwanda. I will then use different analysis of series of findings found by different authors/researchers in textbooks, journals and other search engines which will include dissimilar internet sites. Continuously I will do a presentation of appropriate sources which will include statistical indexes, graphs and tables of my findings which will support the views of the literature review above and the personal assumptions on the subject that I am discussing within this project. The reason why I will not use primary data is because my subject area/business sector is Tourism in Rwanda where as it will be complicated for me to collect any information.

Secondary data research is a method that is commonly used for data collection. It is used by most service organisations worldwide. The process of collecting data may involve accessing information that is already collected by the organisation that maybe seeking information within the company or sometimes by a distributor of primary data research. When collecting or on-going secondary data research, people tend to use third-party sources which may include internet websites, sales and accounting records, the press which may include news papers and magazines, last but not least, marketing research reports are commonly used. Internal and external sources can also be used following up a information that was put together by the marketers. (prescott, 2008)

3.2: Using secondary data

Saunders. M, Lewis. P and Thornhill. A (2007) suggests that secondary data uses both raw data and published summaries. In most organisations/companies tend to collect and store a lot of data in order to support their on-going operations: for instance the company’s payroll details, copies of letters, minutes of meetings taken and accounts of sales of the company’s products and services, this helps the organisation know or even get track on where they stand.

3.3: types of secondary data used in an organisation

They are different types of secondary data that most organisations can choose to use but most importantly they tend to consider Quantitative and Qualitative data which is used in most cases when collecting information. This data is used in both descriptive and explanatory research. Farther more, in collecting or use secondary data, most tourism organisation may consider Documentary, Survey-based and multiple-source secondary data research.

3.3.1: Documentary secondary data:

Are sometimes used in research projects that may include using primary data collection methods. Nevertheless this type of research can be used by its own or with other supported secondary data sources, for instance, an organisation’s history research within its archival research strategy. When using this data, the organisation uses written materials; e.g. notices, correspondence, minutes taken in the meetings, reports to shareholders, diaries, transcripts of speeches, administrative and public records which may include customer’s complaints etc. journals, newspapers, magazine articles and books are also included in this research. (Saunders.M, Lewis.P and Thornhill.A 2006)

3.3.2: Survey-based secondary data:

Are used to collect data, more especially when using a survey strategy which includes questionnaires that have been analysed by the company for their original purpose. This type of data is likely to not be used in a tourism industry because it is mostly used to collect data such as censuses, continuous or regular surveys or even Ad hoc surveys which is usually collected by the Government. I think it is not beneficial for any hospitality industry to use this type of data. (Saunders.M, Lewis.P and Thornhill.A 2006)

3.3.3: Multiple-source secondary data:

This type of data can be a documentary or a survey data. But on the other hand it can be combined together in order to form a data set. E.g. 800,000- 1,000,000 Tutsi minorities were killed in just 100 days. (Statistics on Rwanda, 2008) this data clearly indicates the statistics of all people who were killed in the Genocide that took place in the year of 1994 in Rwanda. (surf surviours fund, 2008)

3.4: Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary data

3.4.1: Advantages of Secondary data

Easy to access information because the information required already exists, therefore it saves time. (Mark Saunders, 2007) Suggests that secondary data sometimes provide a source of data that is both permanent and available in order to be easy for the readers and researchers.

Low cost to obtain meaning that it is a lot cheaper when collecting information compared to primary research.

Can sometimes result in unforeseen discoveries meaning that it may allow you to access information or collect data that you could not otherwise get from anywhere else.

Source: (prescott, 2008)

3.4.2: Disadvantages of Secondary data

Access to data collection maybe difficult or expensive. Sometimes the information needed may not be available free of charge on the website or even not available in books etc, therefore the person that need the information may be need to either spend some money in order to gain access towards the information they may need, this can also include organisations.

No control over data quality which means that you may have less control over how the data was collected.

The data may be out of date which may result in misleading the researchers.

3.5: Evaluation of the main tourism master plan of Rwanda and what it consists

The tourism master plan is very important because it outlines the strategies and plans that the Government want to implement or rather put in place in order to increase tourism in the country.

RDB (Rwanda Development Board) developed a Tourism master plan that will enable them to transform the country into a leading tourist destination in the world. The aims of a master plan were to come up with strategies that will cover all the aspects of increasing tourism among the tourism industry in Rwanda.

3.5.1: Strategies that was set

One of the strategies that they came up with was to improve infrastructure and facilities such as roads, hotel facilities, airports, shopping centres, tourist attractions and recreational facilities.

Additional products and service to attract tourist besides the Mountain Gorillas which is known as the key tourism product of Rwanda.

Improve customer service within the tourism industry.

Human resources management and policy regulatory frameworks and competitiveness needed to be improved in order to attract more domestic and outbound tourists. (Times, 2009)

Chapter 4:

Findings

In this chapter I am going to present the findings of analysis models referring to Chapter 2. I will do this by analysing different models and also explain what the strategic plans of the Government of Rwanda are and how they are trying to implement these strategies in order to increase Tourism and how tourism strategies are prepared. Furthermore I will conduct a SWOT analysis and product development in order to show how the Government may tackle problems that may occur while trying to increase its tourism.

Rwanda’s tourism sector has been a relatively fast growing part of the economy in the last 10 years especially the last quarter of the decade. Generally, the hospitality and tourism industry consists of two main sectors – the Hospitality sector and the Travel and Tourism sector, each consisting of different sub-sectors and each consisting of specific jobs and job opportunities which require qualifications and skills obtained either through formal pre-service training or through continuous on-the-job and in-service training. Rwanda faced a horrible civil war that caused so many problems, besides killing over 800,000 to 1 million lives but also destroyed its tourism. Over the past years Rwanda has worked so hard in order to bring back its image. (Murangwa, 2010)

4.1: Analysing different models

The types of strategies and models that Rwanda used when preparing a tourism strategic master plan are: Destination management plan, tourism action plan, Alignment model and Scenario planning model.

4.1.1: Destination management plan:

As explained in chapter 2, destination management plan is used when preparing strategies of a destination. Rwanda used this type of strategy in order to determine the success of the country. After the country lost its image straight after the war that took place in 1994, in order to gain its image as a destination, they had to come up with strategies that will help the country restore its name. For example, they had to make effort in developing a cleat tourism strategy, mainly focusing on high-end tourism with conservation as one of the main key. They also had to involve an international marketing campaign in order to be known abroad and make improvement towards the country’s image.

4.1.2: Tourism action plan:

This model is very important to Rwanda because it helps them take action when preparing a strategic plan. They get to know what problems tourism is facing and they find solutions to the problems. An action plan or sustainable tourism plan also prepares to develop actions that will be taken in the near future in order to solve issues that may occur or may not go according to the strategies that were set during planning.

4.1.3: Alignment model:

This model is very important and useful for Rwanda when drafting a tourism master plan, this is because they were strategies that were set in order to improve tourism in Rwanda and the Government is following them, however they might come up with changes that they may find to be beneficial and that way they may include them. For example, the YouTube link shows how Rwanda will look like in 2020 whereas they didn’t not include all aspects that they will touch on when drafting the 2010 tourism master plan. Changes may occur when trying to meet up with the strategies.

4.1.4: Scenario planning model:

Rwanda’s Tourist Board should be able to find this model very useful to them most especially when trying to implement strategies because they will be able to identify issues that may occur during the setting of the strategies or even after, then will be able to know what actions to take on solving the issues that may occur. Set aims and objectives may not go according to plan, so that is where this model is very useful. It helps the strategy planners plan ahead, meaning what actions to take if they do not meet there target goals that were set.

4.2: what are the strategic plans of Tourism in Rwanda?

Currently Rwanda suffers from an under-resourced manpower in tourism and technical skills are limited. In the past the tourism legislation regulating and protecting the industry has been non-existent, which has undermined the country’s natural historic and cultural heritage. However in the last 6 years a master plan has been drafted to help address these issues as well as expands the industry. The country famously nicknamed ‘the land of a thousand hills’ which therefore makes it a destination for adventure tourism. Rwanda is blessed with a temperate climate supporting a range of fauna, and a flora beautiful scenery. Perhaps the most iconic of the being the heckling visits of the mountain gorillas, which at its peak had 17,000 visitors in 2008.

Another of the future destination is the Lake Kivu, with a potential to be a major tourist amenity. Currently the road network in Rwanda is considered amongst the best in central and particularly the east of Africa. In the last 3 years the government has made optic fibre connectivity a priority installing more than 2500 km of fibre optics nationwide, making internet connectivity dependable. This in turn helps consolidate a reliable and productive tourism industry communication wise. Another of the government strategic plans is to increase investment in the leisure industry by increasing the number of hotels, resort and motel rooms, particularly on its (730 rooms) of available stock considered to be at international standard.

The Government of Rwanda also managed to come up with a tourism policy/plan and they called it vision 2020. They implemented that the country should focus on preparing a recovery plan which will enable tourism to increase by restructuring the national tourist office in Rwanda and also ensuring that the private sector is strengthened in order to encourage eco-tourism. Since Rwanda is seen as a natural beautiful country. The policy also should include the development of the tourism sector which will lead to fair distribution of the country’s income. The tourism industry will have the responsibility of ensuring that the tourism sector adds on/contributes towards the creation of the image of Rwanda, since the country is known as a country that Genocide in 1994 which gave the country a bad image.

The Government of Rwanda conducted a study on tourist arrival statistics in 2008 which indicated a substantial growth of the industry than previously assumed. With an estimate of around $600m per annum projected to be the annual revenues in a decade’s time, more than quadruple at current rates. For these figures to be achieved in the future, the focus of the government will not be only on the tourism sector but rather to diversify the wider economy. To do this the government is looking to develop the agri-business on an international scale, increasing manufacturing and in particular the service sector, to which tourism is the key sub-sector in regards to economic growth. The above stated that it will help the tourism sector with a growth rate of 4.8% annually to the year 2016. This is in line with the country’s vision 2020 to increase the services sector from 7% to 11%, of which 6.5% will be the tourism sector as mentioned above. (Economy& Envestiment)

Table: Rwanda’s economic growth.

yearpercentage
20164.8%
20173.2%
20187%
202011%

6.5% is conducted to be the tourism sector.

Source: Rwanda’s Economy and Investment.

The banking and financial services also project strong growth as Rwanda aims to be the financial hub of central Africa and east Africa, for this to happen Rwanda is looking to out-perform African neighbouring countries with a growth rate of 5% per annum, especially starting from a much less development tourism segment. In figures this translates as $130million tourism receipts by 2012, excluding transit and others indicating a growth rate of 300% from 2007-2012. Another major asset in the tourism expansion has been the local population in particular individuals with a high net worth have been sensitised to the business opportunities in an expanding and dynamic tourism sector. On the international scale, the government has upped its marketing strategies by organising a major tourism investment forum in Kigali 2009 with official backing from the government. Thereafter a follow event up is to be mounted in the Middle East in one of the GCC states given the region’s interest in investing in major tourism assets in Africa, such as the Dubai world in Rwanda. High profile international assistance has also been sought by Rwanda to help mobilise investment flows in the tourism sector. An example is the former British prime minister who has in the past used his contacts in business to network on Rwanda’s behalf to attract investment within the country.

4.3: SWOT analysis Rwanda

Strengths.

1.Excellent tourist attractions. E.g. Mountain Gorilla
2.Country is safe and friendly.
3.Excellent temperature throughout the year.
4.Colourful landscapes, mountains and lakes.
5.Excellent road networks.

Weaknesses

1.Lack of quality tourism products and services.
2.Rwanda can be an expensive destination.
3.Poor development of cultural heritage.
4.Visitation to the national parks is quite expensive yet it’s poorly marketed.
5.Poor customer service among staff in the tourism industry.

Opportunities.

1.Resorts and potential activities offered at the national parks.
2.Rwanda is seen and also aims to be the financial hub of central Africa and

east Africa.

3.Product and climate well suited to niche markets, e.g. people aged 50’s

and over

4.Increase of the country’s profile and economy.
5.Bird-watching and wildlife experiences are seen to be available.

Threats

1.Accidents affecting the Gorilla’s.
2.Destruction coming from built and natural heritage causing issues.
3.High cost of imported products.
4.Recession affecting some of the key markets in the country.
5.1994 Genocide still causing bad image to the country.

Source: Rwanda’s Master Plan.

4.4 The main role of Gorillas and its contribution toward the economy of Rwanda

Gorillas are the main key tourism product of Rwanda. It contributes a lot toward the economy of Rwanda. Mountain gorillas was made famous in the 1990’s after a release of a movie called ‘’the gorillas in the mist’’ in 1988 by an American zoologist and gorilla conservationist called Dian Fossey. Thereafter gorilla tourism became one of the major attractions that helped contribute towards the economy of the country/Government, but from 1991 to 1994 this tourist attraction didn’t have any use towards the economy because of the war. However after the war, when the country was stable, the Government of Rwanda did what it could possibly do in order to restore its economic sectors by putting the gorilla tourism before other attractions and that is how it became to be the main key product. Mountain gorillas are situated in one of the volcanoes National park of the country called Virunga. Mountain Gorillas is seen to play a critical ecological, economic and political role for the Government of Rwanda.

4.4.1: Benefits of Gorillas towards the Government of Rwanda

As mentioned above, gorilla tourism being put as a most important tourism product in the government’s strategy, it has benefited the country in so many ways, by promoting the country and conservation of natural environment which helped or lead to sustainable tourism development and decreasing poverty reduction of the community by providing job opportunities. In terms benefits towards the locals, the park has employment opportunities, so therefore it employs the locals as guides, trackers and rangers. Besides the locals, private sectors also benefit a lot, those that have restaurants and hotels around the park, this also helps the locals to gain employment, skills and experience in these hospitality sectors which has made a major improvement towards the living of the locals. Following up is the Gorilla naming events that takes place every year in Rwanda and put together by Rwandan Tourist Board.

4.4.2: Gorilla naming ceremony

Gorilla naming ceremony/event was introduced in 2005 in order to create recognition/awareness for the conservation of the mountain Gorillas. This is a process where they give baby gorillas names. The event is called ‘’KWITA IZINA’’ each and every year this event takes place and every year it has a theme. 2010 KWITI IZINA theme was ‘’ Many Species, One planet, One Future’’. This event brings in a lot of international, regional and local visitors to Virunga mountain ranges where the gorillas live. This event is also beneficial towards the economy of the Government as it brings in a lot of tourist to the country. Another reason why this event takes place is ensure that the people of Rwanda and the international are able to participate in environmental protection and help look for possible solutions and ways to reduce incoming threats to biodiversity of the mountain ranges. This event also helps to promote the culture of Rwanda, during the event, speeches take place by the members of tourism committee, and Rwandan people are also able to explore their culture by dancing, singing and poem telling. Ever since this event was introduced, 103 baby gorillas have been named. In 2007 when this event launched, the director General ORTPN Rosette Rugamba, suggested that “The new event brand Identity has been developed to incorporate the evolution of the Gorilla naming event from a local event into an event of international stature while keeping a national identity that is distinctively Rwandese, and also she added on that every birth of the gorilla is a confirmation of a successful conservation and protection program that aims that one day it will achieve its principle objective of removing the mountain gorilla off the endangered species list.

Source: (Rwanda office of Tourism and National Park, 2007) (Lawler, 2010)

4.4.3: images of the Gorillas at the event of KWITA IZINA in Mountain Ranges

Image 1

Image 2

Image 3

Image 4

Source: (Lawler, 2010)

Chapter 5:

Conclusion/Recommendation

To conclude this, the strategies that have been implemented by the government to increase tourism in Rwanda have had an impact on the government and the local people. The reason for this is because people that work in tourism organisation have been forced to take on the strategies that can help increase tourism, therefore employees and employers are trying to follow these strategies in order to see that Rwandan Government can increase its tourism, doing this will help the country be reorganised the developments/changes they have done in order to increase tourism in Rwanda.

Following up on some of the strategies that the Government of Rwanda want to implement, such as country’s infrastructure, hotel facilities, tourist attractions and customer service within the tourism industry. After the strategies were put together on how to improve infrastructure, the roads were really bad, a lot of tourist were complaining, but now talking from experience, the roads are being maintained now and then since the country is working hard to ensure that they meet there aim for vision 2020. For airports, the Government is currently building a national airport in a place called Nyamata which will be bigger than the one they had. Their main objective for this is to ensure that they promote and establish the new airport that is currently being built as a regional hub, last but not least to promote the development of air transport.

Tourist attraction has been also improved and still improving straight after the policy was set. Rwanda has several attractions, the major one is the mountain Gorillas, the memorial sites, etc. Besides the gorillas being the main key tourism product of Rwanda but also the memorial site is seen to be another tourism product. The site also helps generate income towards the country and also has a huge impact on the locals who lost their relatives during the 1994 genocide. The main strategy for the memorial sites were to ensure that it is built and well maintained for both out-bound and in-bound tourists. The aim for building these sites in each region within Rwanda was to ensure that it is beneficial and it will help transform the lives of those who survived.

Customer service within the tourism industry was one of the key issues that was raised and put in the strategies that the Government want to improve. Again talking from experience, Rwanda is still facing a problem with lack of customer service both in private and public sectors. The strategy that was taken in order to improve this issue was to ensure that tourism organisations introduce training for the employees. This aim would help both the organisations and employees. Tourism organisation will benefit by first of all success and also providing the best customer services they want towards their consumers. Employees will benefit by gaining the best skills and life experience that they can use in any organisations they may go to. Customer service is very important mostly for tourism in Rwanda because it provides excellent and memorable support towards the consumers/tourist that may feel that Rwanda cannot provide, most especially tourist that go to Rwanda having an impression that the country is one of the third-world country.

5.1: Will tourism in Rwanda develop as planned by the government?

Tourism in Rwanda will develop as planned by the government and this is because since 1994 when the genocide ended, the government had tried to do a lot of changes to the country in order to increase tourism, firstly by drafting a ten year tourism master plan that contain strategies that will be followed in order to increase tourism, so far the government of Rwanda is continuing to follow its strategic plan in order to see whether Rwanda is recognised within world for its tourism development rather than being recognised for the civil war that took place.

Besides the tourism master plan that was drafted by the country’s tourist board, they have what is called vision 2020. So far Rwanda is building new roads as mentioned above, new homes and business buildings which they think it will contribute towards the success of the economy and the plan where they want Rwanda to and look in 9 years time.

Below is a short YouTube website that demonstrates 2020 master plan of how the strategy makers want Rwanda to look like.

5.2: Possible outcomes

Conclusively, Rwanda is certainly reaping from the gorilla tourism and contributing to poverty reduction that was caused by the civil war. The image of the country has seriously improved straight after the strategies were put to action; first and foremost they had to ensure that gorilla tourism promotion was done since the gorillas are there main tourism product that generates the country’s economy. However, In order for the country to ensure that they are doing the right thing, the government of Rwanda should diversify its tourism products by establishing other tourism products that will complement the gorilla tourism. Such as Lakes, the national parks, mountains and the memorial centres. More conservation efforts and community involved is also needed to ensure sustainable tourism development as mentioned in chapter 4.

Focusing mainly on the internal and external issues that are affecting tourism in Rwanda, since Rwanda is seen to have excellent tourist attractions, one of the weaknesses seen is that they lack quality tourism products, for recommendation, Rwanda should provide more products and services to collaborate with its fascinating attractions. For example they should sell more and more traditional handicrafts, gametes and other products that would eye-catch mostly international tourist. As for services, hotel and other hospitality organisations nearby these attraction should ensure that they offer a high standard service towards the tourist because they deserve what they paid for and also by providing what the customers want, in order for these organisations to know what customers want, they should create customer feedback forms and provide them after each visitation of a tourist and then they will be able to know what customers want, do not want, what they prefer most and what they think should be changed in terms of improvements. That way tourism organisations should be able to know what they need to change in order to provide quality products and services.

References

Journals

Mazimhaka J, ‘Diversifying Rwanda’s tourism industry’ a role for domestic tourism (September) 2007 24 (3) 491-504

Athiyaman, A and Robertson, R W ‘Strategic planning in large tourism firms; an empirical analysis’ Tourism management 1995 16 (3) 199.

Taylor L, Allardyce M and Macpherson N ‘Attitude measurement for development of tourism marketing strategies’ Tourism attitudes and motivators (march) 1992 13 (1) 52.

Dexter J.L. Choy ‘Alternative roles of national tourism organisations’ Government role in tourism (October) 1993 14 (5) 362

Baum T, ’The development and implementation of national tourism policies’ Tourism management 1994 15 (3) 185

Fayos-Sola E, ‘Tourism Policy: a midsummer might’s dream?’ The development of tourism policy 1996 (17) 408

B.Teye.V, ‘Case study’ Strategic planning at the local level (December) 1992 13 (4) 408

Fayos-Sola.E, Marin.A and Meffert.C, ‘The strategic role of tourism trade fairs in the new age of tourism’ A strategy for the future (February) 1994 15 (1) 13

Athiyaman A, ‘The interface of tourism and strategy research: an analysis’ The subfields of strategy 1995 16 (6) 449

Books

Chadwick.S, Beech.J, (2006) analysis of the business environment and strategy in tourism, what is strategy and why is importantChp 9 pg 204/ Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (2005:10) Exploring corporate strategy.

Tribe.J, (1997) Corporate strategy for tourism, Cost leadership, chp 5 pg 110

Electronic

Ngenzi, Yves Kome, “Perceived barriers to tourism development in Rwanda as a tourist destination” (2009). CPUT Theses & Dissertations. Paper 29.

Economy& Envestiment. (n.d.). Retrieved 03 16, 2011, from Rwanda today: http://www.rwandatourism.com/economy.htm

Lawler, G. (2010, 06 05). The Kwita Izina Event. Retrieved 03 18, 2011, from World Environment day & annual kwita izina: http://www.kwitizina.org/

Murangwa, F. (2010, 11 01). Tourism issues and developments. Retrieved 03 18, 2011, from Adventure tourism, Gorilla trekking, the golden product for Rwanda!: http://www.tourism-master.nl/2010/11/01/adventure-tourism-gorilla-trekking-the-golden-product-for-rwanda/

Park, R. o. (2007, 04 24). Official lauch of Kwita Izina. Retrieved 03 18, 2011, from Rwanda Virtual Tours : http://www.rwandatourism.com/kwita_izina.htm

Mark Saunders, P. L. (2007). Research Methods for Business Students. London: Pitman .

prescott, a. (2008, May 14). Advantages and Disavantages of Secondary Research. Retrieved 03 10, 2011, from http://prosandconsofsecondaryresearch.blogspot.com/: http://prosandconsofsecondaryresearch.blogspot.com/

surf surviours fund. (2008). Retrieved 03 10, 2011, from statistics on Rwanda: http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/resources/history/statistics.php

Times, T. N. (2009, 03 12). RDB drafts Tourism master plan. Retrieved 03 10, 2011, from Government Supporting Daily: http://allafrica.com/stories/200903130234.html

Categories
Free Essays

Historical aspect and development of tourism in Paris

Introduction

This essay will firstly analyse the historical aspect and development of tourism in Paris. Secondly it will also identify the positive and negative aspects of socio-economic, cultural and environmental impacts. Finally it will explain an academic model related to Paris. In particular, it is worthwhile to know exactly the meaning of the terms tourism, recreation and leisure. Recently, The World Travel and Tourism Council had made an approximate judgement that, the tourism has become the world largest activity and industry within the business market. But an understanding of tourist waves is important for dealing with the environmental and the social effects of tourism and also to secure the lucrative viability of the tourism industry and to plan for new development.

In addition the tourism can be defined as an entire place of people, businesses, and places with a purpose, to self associate in a common way, to discover a travel experience in a multidimensional activity. Economically it is vital to describe the tourism as a demand or a supply, which can be stated precisely in terms of the motivations or other typical moral strength of travellers. From some conceptual argument, it can be seen as an activity for persons moving from an area to another. For instance, the tourism can have both direct and indirect effect and displacement effect, but in most of case, it is locally and economically beneficial Cooper et al (1998).

To begin with, in the light of recent national media attention regarding tourism, it seems that a touristic region have to be more attractive to persuade visitors in many of its different aspects, such as historical, regional image and many thing to discover. Historically, Paris has a long standing past of more than two and halves millennium, during which it grew from small people to multicultural inhabitant, and also the history of Paris was most dominated and divided into dynasties and kings such as, the Capetians, the Valois, the Bourbon who had built many castle and monumental status. Geographically, Paris is the capital city of France and one of the famous cities in the world.

This city has gone past through so many bad moment and the better days. Firstly, the imperial period which was dislike because of its political instability and corruption. Secondly, the French revolution event which took place in 1789, however, its universal aspiration will made France the country of human right. Thirdly, the bloody wars which the City welcomed as an opportunity to obtain revenge for the battle lost in 1870 and left the city brutally damaged. Finally, the better days came when Francois Mitterrand was elected as president of France in 1981 which brought so many changes to the city’s appearance and the political aspect and also made Paris to attract many artiste and intellectual from all over the world.

When considering Butler’s Tourist Area Life-Cycle Model, which particularly talk about the tourism Exploration, Development, Decline, Rejuvenation, it seemed that the tourism in Paris had started in about 1848, when the rail network came into effect, the city became one of the most visited destinations and the public were most attracted by its museums and monuments, especially the Eiffel tower which was built later in 1889 and also since its construction it has been visited by more than 200 million peoples, then come the Basilique du sacre Coeur and Notre Dame de Paris, with more than 12 millions visitor a year and also the Disneyland Paris has been visited by more than 14millions visitors in 2007 followed by the Louvre museum which is the famous and the largest and also it has so many art displays, moreover many hotels and restaurants in Paris depend on the tourism. Pioch (2002)

Unfortunately, due to the global economic crisis, the tourism in Paris had decreased significantly during 2008 and also in 2009 the demand for visitor in Paris had slowed down due to the Swine flu outbreak, miraculously that demand bounced back at the end of 2009 as France came out of recession, but that recovery was still showing some negative effects but now things have come back to normal.

Nowadays, Paris is still one of the most visited cities on earth, because of its beautiful architecture, romantic cafes, spectacular monument, the old churches, the art galleries. Its transport system and communication are so sophisticated to facilitate people to get place such as the Charles de Gaulle airport and the Euro-Disneyland as well as a number of sports events that attracted worldwide TV coverage. In addition the majority of People, who came to visit Paris, are from Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and most British tourist travel by car and through channel tunnel.

It is clear that, the tourism always plays a vital role within the economic aspect of the world and a considerable activity of global value and also a high influential position. For many years, Paris can be classified in the top tourist destination, particularly as regards the hotel and catering sectors. Briefly, among the sectors which contribute to Paris success in tourism are : Its country is the largest in western Europe, it is also unique in its altitudinal and latitudinal position, its culture has been largely imitated, its French language is most spoken worldwide, France is among the world’s leading economic powers due to is technological advance. Furthermore, a touristic destination must be attractive and give reassurance to the tourist as their security and safety will make the location more desirable to the comers. Jenks (1998).

Apparently, Paris is one of the beautiful and a vibrant city in Western Europe, with an estimated population of more than 2 million, its development history, started with a major industrial change in methods creation of railway network, which has brought an unknown flow of many people to the capital in the early 1840. Even though, It seems nearly hard not to see tourist studies as an enthusiastic and an interesting course these days, as It has grown very quickly. Indeed, the core reason is that the tourism studies, has been dramatically dominated by a general plan of action and the industry sponsored by priorities and perspectives, made by people whose the disciplinary provenance do not contain the necessary tools to examine and scrutinise a complicated cultural and social process which is spread out.

Despite the lack of resource in the tourism studies, there is a large sort of conceptual and concerning approaches to tourism which should be rigorously monitored as it is no longer a typical consumer product or a style of consumption. However, from its beginnings the tourism had broken relatively away from its minor and short time ritual of actual national life to be a significant model. Nowadays the tourism has become such a relevant aspect to social life worldwide to which its recent agenda have to reflect this rising significance. Moreover, people have been able to experience new aspects of identities, their familiarisation with nature and their personal relations and also to use the relevant cultural competence of their dream and mind to travel. Boniface et al (2005)

Apparently the tourism industry has to be made as flexible as possible, as suggested by Miossec’s Model of tourism Development, which looks more structural and practicable with any kind of tourist in the sense of actual evolution and the development of the destination. In addition the beneficial impact of it model can be classified in particularly as follow: transport, saturation, and tourist’s behaviour. It is wise to understand why the tourism is among the fastest developing part in the global market, as any kind of industrial development will always bring so many positive and negative impacts in which it takes place. However, as longer as the tourists tend to visit a place to consume the supply, inevitably the tourism Industry activityhasto be associated with positive effect such as the local economic activities boost. Firstly, there will be a high demand on transport and Paris has the most sophisticated transport in the world, which serves its local residents which means, in Paris the transport has much developed these days than in the past.

Furthermore Paris has improved its transport network, the road are well build to facilitate the traffic and many more, some network train serve Paris and Charles de Gaulle airport and also the Disneyland park. The tourist can use taxis, buses, metro to reach their final destination and to discover many places. Secondly, hotels and restaurants may employ extra new staffs to satisfy their customer needs, all local shops will take advantage, leisure and cinemas will have the frequentation of their customer raised, exchange office will also benefit from the foreign currency, which means, enhances taxation and licence revenues will generate employment for local people.

In addition, each year the tourist in Paris bring 8.5 billion Euro to the economy at same time the local council earn more or less 30 million Euro, from the tourist tax. For instance, the tourism is always much more helpful to the economic growth of Paris, however it is necessary to take into account the beneficial impact occasioned by direct productive activity. In meantime, the economic impacts linked to tourism development, can sometime be direct or indirect and also the tourism activity which require a massive quantity of the production of supply from different range of industries, including those who are not directly supplying tourist service and goods. Moreover, the tourism in Paris has also its negative aspects; such as the saturation impact which will affect the environment and the nature. Pearce (1995)

Dramatically there will be an overgrowing population and a huge pressure on urban life, which create the desire to change or to move in to a different area, a high level of the religious beliefs, sudden change in behavioural patterns and high level of crime. Although, the environmental stress created from the tourist activities, can always be considered in terms of their negative effects by local resident. In spite of this issue, the impact may be direct or intern which can be forcibly caused by the political involvement of some countries in war and it can also be a terrible nightmare with a catastrophic concern or even a serious threat to some state, especially the terrorism, which has became now an imminent threat worldwide; constitute a serious menace not only to the tourist but also to the travel companies. Youell (1998)

The real scope of environmental impacts must not be underestimated, as most forms of industrial progress impacts upon use of land, energy consumption and other direct or indirect forms of physical impacts are critical. In addition the panoramic environment, whether it is artificial or natural, it is one of the most fundamental parts of the tourism productivity. However, as soon as the tourist travel to a destination, the environment can change inevitably or even being modified either. However, tourists have also a considerable impact on the wildlife and their wastes constitute a vital concern of polluting water and the atmosphere, particularly at some coastal areas and mountains. In order to consider the physical impact of tourism in Paris, it is important to establish its effects on the natural environment especially, an immediate change in floral and faunal composition, natural resources, pollution and erosion. In the other hand, the built environment is also impacted such as the urban environment, visual impact, car park, litter, infrastructure and a competitive restoration. In fact, there is a wide range of environmental impact which can be used or being expanded to allow a careful study or to facilitate future development planning used for resources. Ryan et al (2005)

In the other hand, the tourist must be fully aware of what makes Paris worth visiting, regarding its culture, lifestyle, panoramic views such as Eiffel tower and the public area, while rude behaviour such as pickpocket and threat rising from local people may result the tourist to change their mind or cancel their visit. Given that, basic motivations for tourist are highly concerned with cultural and social experiences, such as meeting new people and visiting different cultural sites, from that point the tourism can have positive impacts on travellers. Also a large number of people within the can benefit from the social and the cultural impacts of tourism in so many ways, which means they can take advantage by mixing people from diverse culture, with different kind of lifestyle and also from their linguistic different backgrounds. In the other word, the tourism can improve the quality of human life especially to the local residents, by offering and sharing with them the programme of social and cultural events. The culture of Paris is today marked by socio-regional and cultural aspect of different tendencies, which consists of beliefs and values learned through the socialisation process and interactions between member of the society and also the personal influences such as languages and religions. However, the behaviour of tourist in Paris may appear irrational within the space of a few minute. This has become an obligation to know how to react to the new priorities of tourist and this involves re-thinking the role of management, strategy, organization and marketing.

In conclusion, the tourism industry and the environmental preservation have, to improve the strategies with an integral part of many development programmes, which will be treated with much respect than it was during the beginning of this century. In fact, the environmental indicators in Paris should not be limited to what should be done, but instead what action people should take just in case. However, the physical plan and the visual aspects can take place together, with a strict measures created to protect the economic benefit of tourism in line with environmental policy. Although this stage required the government of most countries worldwide, to implement the project that can be monitored in terms of its future environmental impact and the integration of its economy.

Likewise, the environmental and the economic impacts is essential if tourism strategies and choices of the destination arewell informed and steps taken, to prevent tourism development exceeding the capacity of the destination. Furthermore, not all of Paris’s areas are attractive, due to their bad reputation, which constitute a slight loss to the local council. Nonetheless, the tourism will be much more influenced by a number of tourists disappointed by their experience and also the changing world situation or the impacts of globalisation. Along with these changes, are other influences which can have moderate impacts or considerable impacts and also possible detrimental effects to people such as the soil, water, air, peace and quiet, landscapes, cultural sites and many more. Therefore, as long as the tourism grows in Paris, much complex system and transport network will expand dramatically, which bring the rejection of the tourism by the local citizen and protecting the environment can give a shape to tourism. Cooper et al (2005)

Bibliography

Boniface, B. Cooper, C (2005) The Geography of travel and Tourism 4th ed. Butter-Heinemann, London.

Cooper, C. Fletcher, J. Gilbert, D. Wan hill, S. (1998) Tourism Principles and

Practice 2nded. Addison Wesley Longman, New York

Cooper, C. Fletcher, J. Fyall, A. Gilbert, D. Wan hill, S (2005) Tourism Principles

and Practice 3rd ed. Pearson: Harlow

Jenks M G (1998) impressionist Paris: the Essential Guide to the cite of light

Libra Journal V 123 Iss 12 Pg 119

Pearce D (1998) Tourist Development, Harlow: Longman

Pioch, N ( 2002) Web Museum, Paris [ online]

http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paris/hist/ Accessed on 20th Nov 2010

Ryan, C. Page, J. Stephen, Aicken M (2005) Tacking Tourism to the limits Issues, Concepts and Managerial perspectives. Netherlands

Youell R (1998) Tourism, Longman Singapore

Categories
Free Essays

Tourism: An Attractive Industry For Economic Development

ABSTRACT

Tourism is widely recognized as an important catalyst for economic growth. According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the tourism industry is amongst the biggest industries that make substantial contribution to the economy in terms of its contribution to the GDP, the revenue generated, increased employment and other benefits.
The success of the tourism industry begs the question what are the characteristics that make it an attractive industry for economic growth. In order to respond to this question, this analysis will explore on the various tourist attraction sites including natural and cultural attractions, heritage sites, national and wildlife parks, theme parks, gardens and museums, beaches and coastal regions, and entertainment and events. This will include examining how these attractions contribute to economic development. UK will be used as the case study.

INTRODUCTION

Tourism is widely recognized as an important catalyst for economic growth. According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the tourism industry is amongst the biggest industries that make substantial contributions to the economy in terms of its contribution to the GDP, the revenue generated, increased employment and other benefits (Business tourism 2003).
Take for example the UK, the 6th largest destination in the world attracting over 32 million overseas visitors yearly (Williams et al., 2010). UK’s tourism industry is the 5th largest industry and contributes to a large proportion of the GDP. In 2007, the industry was valued at ?114 billion representing 8.2% of GDP and employing over 2.65 million people (Williams et al., 2010). In 2009, the industry was valued at ?115.4 billion of the UK economy, hence representing 8.9% of UK GDP (Williams et al., 2010). The tourism industry is further anticipated to grow yearly at 2.6%, a growth rate similar to that of retail and construction industries (Williams et al., 2010).
Indeed, tourism increasingly continues to become an attractive industry for economic growth with an increasing number of visitors. This begs the question what are the characteristics that make tourism an attractive industry for economic developmentThis analysis is thus intended on exploring on these characteristics with a focus on the factors that lead to economic development. Before giving an overview of the fundamental aspects of the economics of tourism, we will first define what we understand by the term “tourism”

WHAT IS TOURISM?

The term “tourism” was first defined by Hunziker and Krapf (1942), the main pioneers of tourism research. They defined tourism as a sum of relations and phenomena that resulted from travelling and staying of non-residents. In this context, a stay does not result into permanent residence of the individual and is not in any way connected to permanent or temporary earning activity. This conceptual definition was for a considerable time generally accepted but had certain flaws. For example, a visit to the hospital could be considered as a form of tourism. Furthermore, under this conceptual definition, non-residents were only identified with foreigners; hence domestic tourism had no place in it.
In the later years, a more succinct definition of tourism was put forth by the British Tourism Society. Based on the work of Burkart & Medlik (1974), the British Tourism Society adopted the following definition.
Tourism is deemed to be inclusive of any activity concerned with short-term movement of people to destinations other than their neither main continuous domiciles nor place of work (Burkart & Medlik 1974).
Within this conceptual definition, activities involving a stay or a visit to the destination are included. It also allows for domestic and day visits as well. This definition still applies up to date.
Another conceptual definition that deserves special attention is that put forth by Gilbert (1990). Gilbert (1990) posits that tourism is a part of recreation that involves travelling to other destinations for a short term-period with the aim of satisfying a consumer need. This definition places tourism in the overall context of recreation. Recreation according to Cooper et al. (1993) refers to the pursuits engaged in during leisure time. However, it should be noted that tourism is not only confined to activities carried out during leisure time. Part of the tourism (business tourism in particular) takes place during working time including conventions and business meetings.

TOURIST SECTORS

Tourism comprise of five main sectors:
a) THE ATTRACTION SECTOR: – this sector comprise of the natural and cultural attractions, heritage sites, national and wildlife parks, theme parks, gardens and museums, beaches and coastal regions, and entertainment and events (Anon 2004).
b) THE ACCOMMODATION SECTOR: – this sector comprise of the hotels, motels, apartments, villas and flats, guest houses, holiday villages, campsites, marinas, touring caravans and condominium timeshares (Anon 2004).
c) THE TRANSPORT SECTOR: – Consists of the airlines, railways, shipping lines, car rental operators, and bus and coach operators (Anon 2004).
d) THE TRAVEL ORGANIZER SECTOR: – the sector covers tour operators, travel agents and incentive travel organizers among others (Anon 2004).
e) THE DESTINATION ORGANIZATION SECTOR: – this includes regional and national tourist offices, local tourist officers and tourism associations (Anon 2004).
In order to answer the question: what are the characteristics that make tourism an attractive industry for economic development, we will explore on the attraction sites discussed above. This will also include exploring on business tourism and its contribution to economic development.

CULTURAL AND HERITAGE ATTRACTIONS
Cultural and heritage attractions play a significant role in the tourism industry. Most of the world heritage sites have a cultural significance that transcend national boundaries and of importance to the present and future generations. Currently, there are 890 world heritage sites reflecting a rich diversity of the world’s cultural heritage (Endresen 1999).
In the United Kingdom, sites as diverse such as the Giant’s Causeway, City of Edinburgh, Blaenavon Industrial landscape, and Manchester City help make up the UK’s heritage (UNESCO 2009). In this context, Manchester city, one of the most vibrant cosmopolitan cities has a thriving art and cultural scene that attracts a large number of visitors. The city’s attraction centres include the sports stadiums, museums and galleries, and music venues (UNESCO 2009).
The rich cultural heritage, vibrant arts scene and the multicultural population in UK makes it a very attractive tourist destination. Museums which showcase the best of Britain’s culture and history attract millions of international and domestic visitors. Britain’s culture and heritage is estimated to attracting ?4.5 billion worth of spending by inbound visitors annually (UNESCO 2009).
NATURAL LANDSCAPE SITES
Another popular attractive site in the tourism industry is the natural landscape. Natural landscapes such as Stonehenge, the most famous and mysterious landmark in the UK, attracts a vast number of tourists (Mieczkowski, 1990). Built over 650 years ago and consisting of a ring of monolithic stones, the landmark is a very popular attractive site.
Scenic landscapes such as the Wye Valley, an internationally protected landscape straddling the border between Wales and England also attracts a large number of visitors (Mieczkowski, 1990). This area that covers parts of Hertfordshire, Gloucestershire and Monmouthshire is widely recognized for its gorgeous scenery and dense native woodlands as well as for its wildlife and archaeological remains (Mieczkowski, 1990).
NATIONAL AND WILDLIFE PARKS
National parks also play a huge role in the tourism industry. Britain’s finest national and wildlife parks, zoos and animal attractions such as the Animalarium attract a large number of visitors (Mathieson & Wall 1982). The national parks offer a variety of activities ranging from walking, exploring on the rich and cultural heritage to pursuing other activities such as cycling, rock climbing, and absailing among others (Mathieson & Wall 1982). An estimated 110 million people are estimated to visit national parks in England and Wales annually (UNESCO 2009).
ENTERTAINMENT AND EVENTS
Entertainment and events also play a major role in the tourism industry. Majority of the concerts and music festivals taking place in the UK attract more than 7.7 million visitors, domestic and overseas combined (ICTHR 2010). The significant amount of revenue generated from entertainment and events is used in boosting the UK’s economy. A great majority of these tourists are UK residents who travel outside of their regions to attend events and see their favourite artists perform live in another region within the UK (ICTHR 2010).
London dominates as the destination for live music tourism in the UK. Music tourists at the capital outnumber the local music fans. Its dominance can be attributed to the high number of domestic music tourists attending concerts. With a population of more than 7 million people, the region is host to the O2 Arena, the most successful concert venue in the world (ICTHR 2010). London region is also a host to Wembley stadium and Royal Albert Hall as well (ICTHR 2010). Its parks, mainly Victoria Park, Hyde Park and Clapham are home to a growing number of music festivals (ICTHR 2010).
BEACHES AND COASTAL AREAS
Beaches and coastal areas are also a huge attraction site for tourists. Tourism in the south of Wales, for example, is primarily focused on the coastal areas in order to attract its visitors. The Welsh tourist industry which is worth ?3.5billion and makes a significant contribution to Wales’ GDP relies largely on its excellent coastal scenery in attracting tourists (Williams, et.al, 2010)
BUSINESS TOURISM
Another important, yet least acknowledged component of the tourism industry is business tourism. It is one of the most lucrative components of the tourism industry with various benefits that stimulate the growth of the economy. In the UK, business tourism is a wide sector encompassing
• Conferences and meetings – the British Conference Market Trends Survey 2001 estimates this to be worth around ?7.3 billion annually (Business report 2003).
• Exhibitions and trade fairs: – these are listed as the 5th largest marketing medium in the UK attracting 11% of the media expenditure and are estimated at ?2.04 billion annually (Business report 2003).
• Incentive travel: – the value of inbound incentive travel market is estimated to be around ?165 million annually (Business report 2003).
• Corporate events: – estimates for this segment are between ?700 million and ?1billion annually (Business report 2003).
• Outdoor events: – a rough estimate of the outdoor events is around ?1billion annually (Business report 2003).
In the past few decades, business tourism has grown significantly exceeding the overall tourism growth rate. According to the International Passenger Survey 2001, business tourism accounted for 29.7% of all overseas visitors to the UK and 31.7% of the inbound earnings (Business report 2003).

From what can be discerned, investment in business tourism can significantly stimulate the growth of the economy. It may lead to regeneration of urban and inner cities as evident with Birmingham, Glasgow, Cardiff, Belfast and Manchester (Business report 2003). Its resilience during the great recession makes it even more an attractive industry for investment. The business tourism proved resilient, being less affected by economic downturns and by disasters such as the Foot and Mouth Epidemic unlike leisure tourism (Business report 2003).
With the above in mind, it is worthy examining some of the main elements that make attractions to be appealing to many.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURIST ATTRACTIONS
It is important to recognize that tourists’ attractions are not all equal. Some may have more potential to draw visitors than others. The main elements that set attractions apart include quality, uniqueness, authenticity, drawing power and activity options.
QUALITY: – high quality is a key principle for tourism development. This means offering smooth customer oriented operations and procedures and ensuring that attractions have a pleasing appearance and that they are visitor friendly (Merchant 2005). This includes asking these questions
• Is the attraction visitor friendly?
• .How does it rate in terms of the appearance, hospitality, operations and resource protection?
AUTHENTICITY: – authenticity refers to originality. For example, if it is a cultural heritage attraction, authenticity would imply letting the distinctive local flavour of the community to shine in ways that create a “sense of place”(Merchant 2005). We can consider:
• Whether the attraction reflects the natural and cultural heritage of the community?
UNIQUENESS: – this is the “edge” that sets attraction apart from competition. It involves asking the fundamental question:
• Is the attraction unique?
Take for example, The London Eye which is sitting on the South Bank of River Thames. Hanging like a gigantic wheel, this landmark is instantly recognizable. It is currently the biggest Ferris wheel in Europe standing 135 metres high and supported by a giant A-frame which juts the spindle (UNESCO 20090. This makes it unique from other Ferris wheels which use two A-frames and axle support method.
DRAWING POWER: – this is a measurement on the power to attract a large number of visitors (Merchant 2005).
ACTIVITY OPTIONS: – this is an important characteristic of attractions (Merchant 2005). It involves assessing whether the attraction site offer a varied and changing set of activities.
CONCLUSION
Indeed, tourism is an attractive industry for economic development. Major attraction sites including the scenic landscapes, cultural and heritage sites, national and wildlife parks, landmarks, theme parks, gardens and museums, beaches and coastal regions, and entertainment among others attract a large number of visitors. There is no doubt that the industry contributes to a large proportion of the GDP and is responsible for employing millions of people. This makes it an important industry for investment.
(2,070 words)

REFERENCES
Anon, 2004. Economic characteristics of the tourism sector,
http://v5.books.elsevier.com/bookscat/samples/9780750666374/9780750666374.PDF
{Accessed 21st January 2012}
Burkart, A.J. and S. Medlik, 1974. Tourism. Past, Present and Future. London: Heinemann.
Cooper, C., J. Fletcher, D. Gilbert and S. Wanhill, 1993. Tourism. Principles & Practice. London: Pitman Publishing.
Business tourism partnership report, 2003. Business tourism briefing: an overview of the UK’s business tourism industry. London
http://www.businesstourismpartnership.com/pubs/briefing.pdf {Accessed 20th January 2012}
Endresen, K., 1999. Sustainable tourism and cultural heritage: A review of development assistance and its potential to promote sustainability
http://www.nwhf.no/files/File/culture_fulltext.pdf {Accessed 20th January 2012}
Gilbert, D.C., 1990. “Conceptual issues in the meaning of tourism”. In: C.P. Cooper (ed.), Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Vol. 2. London: Pitman Publishing.
Hunziker, W. & k. Krapf, 1942. Grundriss der Allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre. Zurich: Polygraphischer Verlag
International Centre for Tourism and Hospitality Research (ICTHR), 2010. The contribution of music festivals and major concerts to tourism in the UK. London: Bournemouth University.
http://www.ukmusic.org/assets/media/UK%20Music%20-Music%20Tourism.pdf{Accessed 22nd January 2012}
Mathieson, A. and G. Wall, 1982. Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts. London: Longman.
Merchant, R., 2005. Tourism attraction characteristics. Community tourism handbook: Minnesota Extension.
http://nercrd.psu.edu/entrepreneur_what_works_wksp/Handouts/MerchantCharacteristics23.pdf
{Accessed 20th January 2012}
Mieczkowski, Z., 1990. World Trends in Tourism and Recreation. New York.
UNESCO, 2009. World heritage sites. http://www.unesco.org.uk/world_heritage_sites {Accessed 20th January 2012}
Williams, et.al, 2010. An assessment of UK heritage coasts in South Wales: J A steers revisited. Journal of Coastal Research.
http://www.griffith.edu.au/conference/ics2007/pdf/ICS087.pdf {Accessed 20th January 2012}

Categories
Free Essays

Entrepreneurship And Special Interest Tourism

Abstract

Special Interest Tourism (SIT) has in the recent years been the focus of attention of tourism development. SIT has come to be recognized as a key contributor to the growth of the tourism sector. In the UK, research indicate that over one-third of British consumers have either participated or engaged in a special interest holiday. The growth in special interest tourism reflects the change in trend of tourism from the traditional mass tourism to one that is driven by specific interests.

The evidence suggests that Special Interest Tourism (SIT) is dominated by small businesses’. This paper explores on the Special Interest Tourism sector and the growth of Small business in this sector while drawing on examples from the world. The purpose is to identify why SIT might appeal to small business enterprises. Further, this paper highlights the management problems that might face such businesses when establishing their operations.

Introduction

Tourism has over the past few decades been recognized as a key contributor to the GDP of many countries. According to estimates by Cooper & Sheperd (1996), as of 1995, the tourism sector contributed 10% of the world GDP. Its contribution to GDP in the US was estimated to be 10.5% and 12% in the UK (Cooper & Sheperd 1996). A recent research by the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) showed that the travel and tourism industry contributed more to GDP than most other sectors, contributing ?101 billion in 2011 (an equivalent of 6.7% of GDP) (WTTC 2012).

A key segment of the tourism sector that has gained increasing importance over the past few years is Special Interest Tourism (SIT). SIT has come to be recognized as a key contributor to this sector. According to estimates by Mintel (2002), over one-third of British consumers have either participated or engaged in a special interest holiday. Evidence by Shaw & Williams (2002) has also shown that SIT is dominated by small businesses.

Page et al. (1999) has further pointed out that small business are at the cornerstone of tourism development in local economies and that most travelers would come into SMTEs operating services. This raises a fundamental question: why does SIT appeal to small business enterprisesThis paper seeks to address this question by exploring on SIT and SMTEs operations in the industry. The paper also details some of the management problems that might be facing such businesses during their early operations.

Before exploring further, it is worthwhile defining the terms: Special interest tourism and Small Tourism Enterprises.

Special interest tourism concept

SIT has been given a varied set of definitions. Hall & Weiler (1992) proposed that SIT occurs when the decision and motivation to travel are primarily determined by a particular special interest. Derrett (2001), Swarbrooke & Horner (1999) and Douglas et al. (2001) expanded on this definition by characterizing SIT as a form of tourism:

motivated by the desire to engage in new or existing interests
undertaken for a distinct purpose or reason
That is line with the principles of sustainability.

In simple terms, Special Interest Tourism refers to the provision of customized tourism activities that cater for the needs and interests of individuals and groups. Ecotourism is a prime example of special interest tourism. For example, in Brazil, ecotourism has become very popular due to biological and scenic diversity. Ecotourism and special interest travel is experiencing a rapid growth in Brazil as the two major aspects of segmented tourism (MacDonald 2012). This new class of travelers has in the recent years transformed the tourism industry and changed the trend in tourism from the traditional holidays that characterized mass tourism to more specific prestige holidays (Poitevin 2012).

Global warming has also given rise to a new niche in tourism. With the melting of icecaps and vanishing of coral reefs, a new nice tourism has developed (Climate tourists) whose primary motives to travel are driven by a special interest (Poitevin 2012). “Antarctica Diving Expedition” is a prime example of this particular special interest tourism package offer. This type of special interest tourism appeals mainly to tourists whose motives of travel are educational. The ‘Antarctica Diving Expedition’ offer tourists with a unique opportunity of sightseeing above and below water insights into the white continent (Poitevin 2012). The “Antarctica Diving” experience also allows tourists to explore the subjective components such as the wildlife and the associated adventurous features.

As noted by Trauer (2006), the growth of the SIT sector reflects the changing trend of tourism from the traditional mass tourism to one driven by specific interests. Its importance in the tourism market is evident by its remarkable growth in various countries. Studies by McKercher & Chan (2005) have shown that 81% of US adults who travel are historic /cultural travelers. The number of SIT tourists has been found to be more than other tourists, with their stays even longer (Mackay et al. 2002).

Small and Medium Tourist Enterprises (SMTEs)

Having defined special interest tourism, it is equally important to understand what we mean by small business tourism enterprises. For the purpose of this analysis, we define SMTEs as comprising of all business in the tourism industry which are small by nature, owned and managed by sole operators and which employ up to 50 employees (Buhalis 1996).

There is now an emerging consensus that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have an important role to play in the tourism industry. For example, in New Zealand, SMTEs play an important role of economic development, contributing to the social fabric of the local communities (MacDonald 2011). Similarly, the Australian tourism industry is dominated by small businesses that employ not more than 20 workers. 88% of the businesses in hospitality sector (restaurants, cafes and accommodations) comprise of the small businesses.

Also, the cultural and recreational service sector in Australia is dominated by small businesses, with over 96% of the businesses comprising of the SMEs (Breen ). These small tourism businesses have a sizeable influence on tourism experience and the ability to offer personalized products to Niche markets (Macleod 2003).

Why SIT appeal to small businesses

Ecotourism and other special interest travels are known for their connection to nature. It is precisely this reason that special interest tourism appeal for many of the small business enterprises. Larger organizations are known to be profit driven, often have little regard to sustainability development. On the other hand, the very fact that SMTEs are small by nature and locally owned implies that they are more sustainable. With regards to this, small enterprises are viewed one of the vehicles through which sustainability issues can be spread in the STI sector. The focus on small-scale, environmentally sensitive and locally owned developments has led to the development of small business enterprises in the SIT sector.

The priori assumption is that given their relatively small nature and local ownership, then SMTEs are viewed as contributing towards sustainable development. Whilst there is some indication in tourism literature that small business enterprises improve sectoral linkages, there seems to be no comprehensive mechanism for evaluating their contribution to sustainability objectives. Researches which expressly address this connection are noticeably lacking (Roberts & Tribe 2008). The priori assumption is that by being small and locally owned, SMTEs are automatically more environmentally focused than the larger enterprises.

This is not necessarily true and in fact, some authors have questioned this automatic conclusion. Hamzah (1997) argues that despite the growing demand for small-scale accommodation in Malaysia, these small scale developments have deteriorated into grotesque enclaves, adversely affecting marine life and ecosystems. Nonetheless, there are many positive examples where small tourism entities have proved to be environmentally benign such as in the Maho Bay Resort in the US (Roberts & Tribe 2008).

Market liberalization and other aspects of globalization also play a critical role. Globalization impacts and the increased market liberalization have provided small business entrepreneurs with opportunities to tap into the growing SIT sector. Large businesses enterprises have always ignored market niches. On the other hand, the small business enterprises have reaped the benefits of market niches by identifying customer needs and tailoring new niche products for potential future customer segments in the tourism industry (Peters & Buhalis 2004).

Niche markets provide SMTEs with an attractive opportunity to compete with the larger enterprises and to dominate the SIT sector. Their desire to tap the latent consumer demand in niche markets is what has led to their dominance in the SIT sector. In fact, Hall & Weiler (1992) conceptualizes SIT as a predecessor of ‘Niche Tourism’. However, the choice to pursue a niche market does not necessarily imply the success of the business. Similar to other business decisions, this decision requires critical assessment. Whilst niche markets may provide opportunities to tap into new and untapped resources, it requires different management skills in order to ensure success.

Small business enterprises are also more flexible and can react quickly to the changing market demands. Their typical flat hierarchy management structure provides them with the opportunity to make decisions faster and to react promptly to market changes (Peters & Buhalis 2004). And given the rapid changes of the SIT sector, it is not surprising that the sector remains largely dominated by SMTEs.

However, McKercher & Chan (2005) have challenged the importance of the SIT sector as a potential growth sector for SMTEs. They argue that whilst tourists participate in a range of activities at a tourist destination, this rarely translates into strong commercial opportunities. They also point out that tourists who visit certain destinations of special interest may do so for secondary reasons. For example, tourists who visit museums may not necessarily be cultural tourists and their visits could only be part of their wider tour. Although these arguments may have some relevance, there is need for further research to be done to confirm their assumptions.

Challenges facing small business in early operations

Indeed we have identified the vital role played by SMTEs in the tourism sector. We’ve also identified the reasons why the SIT sector is dominated by the SMTEs. Equally important to highlight are the challenges that these small business face in their early operations. Whilst, SMEs play a critical role in the growth of the SIT sector, it should be noted that they are more vulnerable to failure especially during their early years of operation.

According to a study by Buhalis (2011), 40% of SMTEs fail within the first 3 years and close to 60% over the 10 year period. Despite their unmatched abilities to stimulate the growth of the tourism industry through rapid injection of cash into the sector, SMTEs are often typified by a lack of management expertise and strategic vision (Buhalis 1996). Their inability to utilize managerial tools to address their strategic problems is their major weakness.

A key characteristic of SMTEs is their informal organizational structure. SMTEs operate informal organizational structures, wherein both the management and operations are run by the family of the proprietors. As such, family principles usually prevail over business practices, thereby causing managerial problems. The lack of management expertise in SMTEs inevitably originates erratic production and delivery procedures which may impact negatively on customer satisfaction and jeopardize the image of the business (Buhalis 1996). With such informal organizational structures, irrational decisions may be made which may adversely affect the business.

Marketing is yet another point of weakness. Not only are SMTES usually unaware of the marketing tools and techniques but are also product oriented, failing to understand the changing consumer needs. The lack of marketing research debilitates their knowledge of the changing needs of consumers and prevents them from improving their services (Buhalis 1996).

Further, promotional activities of small businesses are usually ill-targeted, inconsistent and uncoordinated (Poitevin 2012). Most SMTEs thus tend to rely upon tourism intermediaries to promote their offerings. Their dependence on these intermediaries limits their control over their businesses. For example, European tour operators control accessibility to tourism destinations, especially given that they own most of the airlines. As such, intermediaries tend to reduce the bargaining power of SMTEs within the distribution channel (Buhalis 1996).

Further, these weaknesses are magnified by the fact that most SMTEs are illiterate in IT, hence are not able to take advantage of opportunities in the emerging electronic markets. The illiteracy of SMTE’s in IT can be seen with their under-representation in most computer reservation systems and global distribution systems (Buhalis et al. 2011). Their illiteracy prevents them from benefiting from emerging electronic markets and this ultimately endangers their competitiveness and market share.

Perhaps the greatest weakness with SMTEs is their deficiency in managing the human resources. The small size and the seasonal nature of problems experienced by SMTEs provide little opportunities for employing professionals, offering staff training and competitive salaries (Poitevin 2012). As such, most of the SMTEs would tend to rely mostly on personal skills and staff enthusiasm and thus face competitive disadvantages over the larger enterprises which have all the required resources for employing proficient personnel.

In light of these management problems, there are political issues that also come into play and which cannot be ignored. Despite the growth in demand of special interest tourism, it is striking to note that SMTEs have not been accorded the necessary support from the government. For example, a UK study by Simpson & Docherty (2004) identified distrust of government agencies as impacting on a large number of SMTEs.

Governments have a critical role to play in order to support SMTEs. As Elliot (1997) suggests, government is a marker of economic influence and plays a mandatory role as regulators in the market. Page (2003) further points out that governments should help SMTEs enhance their competitiveness through stimulation of new ideas and innovations, and by providing them with support and assistance at a fledgling stage.

The reality however is quite the opposite. For example, in the UK, SMTEs are poorly treated. Whilst the UK government is pinning all its hopes on SMTEs and entrepreneurs to pull the local economy away from a double-dip recession, it is striking to note that these small businesses are poorly treated. Almost every year, SMTEs are overcharged by ?3.6bn for basic products and services, compared to what the larger enterprises are charged (Poetvin 2012).

Robert & Tribe (2008) further notes that in many special interest tourism destinations, little is known about the critical role played by SMTEs in the sustainability progress. In addition, SMTEs are generally politically weak, lacking a strong lobbying voice for protecting their interests (Poetvin 2012). Clearly, the challenges facing SMTEs are enormous.

With the tourism sector growing more professional and given increased emphasis on quality management; SMTE’s typical lack of a strategic vision, management and business expertise and their illiteracy in IT may become a liability to these businesses (Buhalis 1996). This necessitates the need for more strategic management schemes for SMTEs, strengthening their political voice and government support.

Conclusion

It is clear that the past few years have seen the growth of Special Interest Tourism. Over one-third of British consumers have either participated or engaged in a special interest holiday. A key feature of the SIT sector is the dominance of small business enterprises. The SIT sector has appealed to these businesses for a number of reasons. First, the focus on small-scale, environmentally sensitive and locally owned developments has led to the development of small business enterprises in the SIT sector.

Second, small business have targeted market niches, identifying customer needs and tailoring new niche products for potential future customer segments. On the other hand, the large business enterprises have always ignored market niches. And thirdly, SMTEs are more flexible than large organizations and thus can react quickly to changing market demands. However, a recent study by McKercher & Chan (2005) has argued that whilst tourists may participate in a range of activities at a special interest tourist destination, this rarely translates to strong commercial opportunities. These assumptions are yet to be confirmed.

SMTEs face a range of management challenges especially in their early operations. SMTE’s typical lack of a strategic vision, management and business expertise and their illiteracy in IT are a major hindrance to their success. There is need to have in place strategic management schemes for SMTEs, establish a strong lobbying voice and government support. Nonetheless, SMTEs remain the cornerstone of tourism development. With tourists evolving toward seeking individualized and unique experienced as opposed to the traditional mass holidays, Special Interest Tourism will continue to gain more prominence.

Reference

Ali-Knight, J.M., 2011. The role of niche tourism products in destination development. Sunderland: Business Education Publishers, pp. 1-14.

Breen, J., Bergin-Seers, S., Jago, L. and Carlsen, J., 2005. Small and medium tourism enterprises: the identification of good practice. Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism.

Buhalis, 1996. ‘Enhancing the competitiveness of small and medium sized tourism enterprises’. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol.6 (1)

Buhalis, D., Leung, D. and Law, R., 2011. Etourism: critical information and communication technologies for tourism destinations. CAB International

Cooper, C. and Sheperd, R. 1996. Educating the educators in tourism. 1st ed. Surey: World Tourism Council.

Derret, R., 2001. ‘Special interest tourism: starting with the individual’. In: Douglas, N. and Derett, R (eds) Special Interest Tourism. Australia: Wiley.

Douglas, N., Douglas, N. and Derrett, R., 2001. Special Interest Tourism. Sydney: John Wiley & Sons.

Elliot, J., 1997. Tourism: Politics and Public Sector Management. London: Routledge.

Hall, C.M. and Weiler, B., 1992. Special-interest tourism. Canada: John Wiley & Sons

Hamzah, A., 1997. ‘The evolution of small-scale tourism in Malaysia: Problems, opportunities and implications for sustainability’. In M.J. Stabler (ed.) Tourism Sustainability – Principles to Practice. Oxon: CAB International.acKay, K.J., Andereck, K.L, and Vogt, C.A., 2002. ‘Understanding vacationing motorist niche markets’. Journal of Travel Research, 40(4), pp. 356-363.

Macleod, D.V.L. (Ed.), 2003. Niche tourism in Question – Interdisciplinary perspectives on problems and possibilities. Glasgow: University of Glasgow, Crichton publication.

McKercher, B., and Chan, A., 2005. ‘How special is special interest tourism?’ Journal of Travel Research, 44(1), pp. 21-31.

Mintel, 2002. Special Interest Holidays, Leisure Intelligence.

Page, J., 2001. Tourism- a modern synthesis. 1st ed. London: Thompson Publishers.

Page, S.J., 2003. Tourism Management – Managing for change. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Peters, M. and Buhalis, D., 2004. Family hotel businesses: strategic planning and the need for education and training. England, UK: University of Surrey

Poitevin, M., 2012. Following Antarctic’s tourism product: the general management challenges and issues facing small tourism enterprises (STE’s). [viewed on 22nd July 2013] available from http://interestmeonit.weebly.com/1/post/2012/7/following-antarctics-tourism-product-the-general-management-challenges-and-issues-facing-small-tourism-enterprises-stes.html

Roberts, S. and Tribe, J., 2008. Sustainability indicators for small tourism enterprises – an exploratory perspective. University of Surrey, UK, Taylor & Francis publishers.

Shaw, G. and William, A., 2002: Critical Issues in Tourism: A Geographical Perspective. 2nd Edition. England: Blackwell Publishing.

Simpson, M., and Docherty, A. J., 2004. ‘E-commerce adoption support and advice for UK SME’s’. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11, 315-328.

Swarbrooke, J., and Horner, S., 1999. Consumer Behavior in Tourism. Great Britain: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Trauer, B., 2006. ‘Conceptualizing special interest tourism – frameworks for analysis’. Tourism Management, 27(2), pp. 183-200.

World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), 2012. Tourism in the UK contributes more to GDP than automotive manufacturing. [Viewed on 22nd July 2013] available from http://www.wttc.org/news-media/news-archive/2012/tourism-uk-contributes-more-gdp-automotive-manufacturing/

Categories
Free Essays

Sport Tourism in Manchester, United Kingdom

Abstract

The evolution of Urban Tourism has provided a wide range of opportunity for the city of Manchester, UK. Alongside this opportunity Manchester has determined to employ a sport centred economic plan in an effort to bring in revenue. This study begins by assessing the underlying policies alongside the economic and social context in order to establish the overall direction of the rebranding effort of the focus on the area of sport. Next, this work examines the competing interests with the advent of the policy records in order to produce a credible series of results. Employing these results illustrated a wide range of benefits for the sport centred urban tourist effort. Alongside the positive elements is a strong residual argument that further study of the often volatile market segment will be needed in order to fully assess every opportunity.

Policies

Current statistics illustrate the UK tourism market is centred in urban areas by a wide margin (Beioley 2002, pp. 1). This revenue stream can be utilized to reinvigorate a local or regional economic outlook in a variety of manners. Analysis demonstrates that city tourism differs from national tourism in that it is shorter, higher spending and far more reliant on the underlying public services (Beioley 2002, pp. 2). This is a positive component to the effort by Manchester, suggesting that there is a fundamental shift in policy to accompany this approach. Beginning with an initial report on the feasibility of transforming Manchester into a tourist destination, the concept of a sport centred industry has been favourably looked upon by the city (Law 2012, pp. 1). Lacking the infrastructure support would hamper the overall implementation of this avenue, making regulatory partnership vital. Manchester has found itself in positive area by building a partnership with both the social and legislative elements.

Manchester has recognized that the area of sport is a very popular cultural draw with the potential to spread good will towards the entire city and region (Tallon 2010, pp. 239). This facet of their plan not only built a solid foundation, but expanded the accompany revenue base. Regulators instituted policies that have resulted in the construction of the City of Manchester Stadium, with the explicit goal of revitalizing the entire district. This approach to the revitalisation effort has been heralded as a solid foundation upon which to build the regeneration of Manchester’s entire infrastructure (Tallon 2010, pp. 239). Underlying policies that are conducive to the sport arena are credited for energizing the tourist trade, transforming the image of the city itself as well as creating a sustainable form of industry that can serve to propel the city into the next era. Each of these components adds value, yet, the potential for a substantial lack of cohesiveness does exist (Tallon 2010, pp. 239)

Employing governmental assistance that designated Greater Manchester an ‘Enterprise Zone’ in 1987, there has been a sustained drive to capitalize on the potential for urban tourism centred on the area of sport (Tallon 2010, pp. 52). This on-going assistance has been a tremendous benefit to the implementation of the urban renewal plan.

As a result of the on-going campaign to build economic progress, regulators have actively worked to instil a tourism friendly element that is a continual boon to the urban recovery process in Manchester (Weed 2010, pp. 187). Alongside the recognition of the potential revenue to be found in the tourist trade, Manchester has worked unceasingly to put itself in a better strategic marketing position. It is the combination of forward thinking policy in conjunction with an adaptable industry that demonstrates Manchester’s long term commitment to the area of urban tourism.

Economic and Social Context

In a very public effort to rebrand the city in the 1990’s, Manchester adopted the new motto “The life and Soul of Britain” (Spirou 2011, pp. 112). A demonstrative first step allows a positive perception to begin. This rededication was a precursor of the effort to improve the social and cultural perception of Manchester as a destination. Acting on the potential for an increase in revenue, Manchester rightly pursued the industry of sport as a method to address this deficiency (Weed 2010, pp. 187). Succeeding in attaining their goal of the Common Wealth Games of 2002this economic activity served to lift the city above the dismal outlook with the further positive ramification of being judged relied upon to do the same for many similar progressive endeavours (Weed 2010, pp. 187). This is a positive element in that each project further strengthens the infrastructure.

Manchester’s demonstrated the widely felt social imperative to look beyond the current methods of creating revenue in order to make the most of the possibilities (Ashworth and Page 2010, pp. 1). This approach is in line with the working recognition for the need to employ an approach that connects the infrastructure of social sciences, with a focus on the element of urban studies to industry. Manchester’s ability to embrace the social science aspect has led to a tourism industry that has the potential to continue to expand (Ashworth and Page 2010, pp. 1). An associated increase in revenue and visitors is a positive credit to the underlying effort.

The implementing of the urban tourism plan has yielded substantial benefits to the social and cultural fabric of Manchester (Law 2010, p. 129). Underlying infrastructure such as road and regional travel has drastically improved as a result of the urban tourism drive. The establishment of stronger underlying elements enables the wide variety of non-sport related activities to benefit from the industry as well (Law 2010, pp. 129). Through the increased capacity to travel easily, more visitors have been attributed with coming to the city, providing a wealth of revenue for many of the industries that rest well outside of the sport focus. Yet, this also brings in the potential for related issues that could detract from the sport centred focus of the city (Law 2010, pp. 130.) The lack of proper application has the potential to result in the splitting of vital resources to the detriment of everyone.

Manchester was able to learn from their bids for the Olympic Games, adapt and make a successful bid for the Commonwealth Games (Cook and Ward 2011, pp. 2519). This is clear demonstration that the legislative and social perception was ripe for the development of an industry mechanism with the capacity to help them succeed. Combining the element of politics, social responsibility and ethical practice Manchester has managed to achieve a state of relative prosperity that will lend credence to the spirit of urban tourisms vital capacity to lend aid to struggling economies.

Competing Interests

Alongside the development of Manchester as ‘SportCity’, there are the separate industries that must compete in order to survive (Smith 2013, pp. 385). This recognition requires that any successful long term plan must include the capacity to bring in each of the disparate elements in such a manner that it promotes the whole. Modern studies on the benefits of creating a sport centred industry have been found to be beneficial, although the lack of adequate planning has the inherent capability of hobbling the industries that have little to do the with sport (Smith 2013, pp. 385). In the drive to enable the full range of economic benefits, ill-considered actions can have a tremendous impact on the remaining components of any cities combined industry.

An emerging market that has found turbulence in Manchester sport is the market for the gay community (Hughes 2003, pp. 152). Many argue that the perception of the gay lifestyle is in direct contrast to the effort to establish a sport destination spot. Targeting a market with substantial revenue, yet possessing potentially negative aspects when interacting with sport centred marketing, there is a real need to develop an overall approach that provides an inclusive element for progress (Hughes 2003, pp. 152). The ability to include the often contrasting positions of the competing groups in the city provides an ample illustration of the capability of the regional government to conduct large scale tourist attractions.

In an effort to address the diverse industries vital to the city, Manchester created a council referred to as the Employment in Construction Charter with the focus of linking the public sector to the private companies in order to distribute the growing revenue (Spirou 2011, pp. 206). This is a direct reflection of the effort to balance the division of power in order to promote a policy of growth for each of the separate factions. During the bid for the Commonwealth Games, Manchester was credited with not only appealing to the larger international community, but providing substantial providence for the local retailers as well (Cook and Ward 2011, pp. 2525). This demonstrates that Manchester learned from the prior Olympic Games Bid and adjusted to meet the requirements of the diverse elements in a successful manner.

Effectiveness of Policy

The City of Manchester efforts to revitalize the region through the utilization of the urban tourist area of sport has yielded significant results. The cities recognition that tourism is one of the highest revenue producing streams available has created a viable window of opportunity (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 269). This approach has begun to yield a substantial return in both the financial and social perception areas. Sports tourism has the unique ability to both unlock the heritage elements that benefit that region of industry and the underlying natural and cultural depth that lies alongside the city (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 269). These outcomes serve to illustrate the veracity of the path taken by Manchester in the effort to rejuvenate their city on every level.

Working towards goals that include the International Olympics and the Commonwealth Games are a very effective policy for a wide variety of reasons (Ritchie and Adiar 2004, pp. 269). Even the unsuccessful bids produce a litany of economic resources for the city. With national entities such as Tomorrows Tourism, Britain’s National Tourism concern, actively participating in the drive to establish a positive outcome, the underlying infrastructure benefited on every level.

Many of the internal improvements to the city are reflections of the efficacy of the urban renewal efforts. With the increased amount of visitors, the number of museums in Manchester is on the rise, with the subsequent impact of improving the outlook for the Greater Manchester Museum of Science and Industry (Law 2010, pp. 76). This is a direct result of the effectiveness of the policy in place. Manchester has successfully raised its profile to an international level that has the capacity to fuel the cities entire economic engine (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). Forging trade alliances in several fundamental industries outside of the sport centred world served to broaden the Manchester business base, which in turn will balance the long term sustainability outlook for the cities programs.

Currently, Manchester boasts ultra-modern constructs such as the Lowry Centre, which alongside the rapidly developing art and culture industries have evolved into a very credible, and well balanced economic environment (Di-Toro 2010, pp. 1). This is a very apt demonstration of the ability of a savvy electorate to forge a business environment that is perceived to be beneficial by the majority of the populace. This concerted and progressive policy implementation has vaulted Manchester to third in the most visited cities in the UK, following London and Edinburgh (Di-Toro 2010, pp. 1). Together with the foundation of sport centred tourism, Manchester is rapidly becoming a well-rounded destination that has an appeal to many separate social levels, thereby increasing the cities overall value in terms of urban tourism potential.

Areas of Improvement

The ambitious drive by Manchester to lift their economic outlook via the instrument of sport centred tourism has not been without its significant detractions (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). With the most glaring error being the single minded approach to the marketing method, the availability of associated markets in Manchester has been deemed to be small as compared to other regions. As a consequence, there is not a strong central or primary community that will allocate the overall distribution of income (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). As the sport industry continues to thrive without proper planning, there is the real potential for the other un-associated industries to flounder. Davies (2010, pp. 1238) argues that there needs to be a far greater development of the role of sport within the underlying infrastructure before implementing any long term planning. The often volatile nature of the field itself can hamper the successful proliferation of progressive policy, instead hampering the growth due to poor performance.

The focus on the building of ‘Sportcity’ in Manchester, while producing an economic viability option, has taken over much of the city itself, irrevocably altering the face of the city forever (Berg, Braun, and Otgaar 2002, pp. 56). This fact has the potential to diminish the historical or creative aspects of the city’s tourism potential. The overall effort to instil a sense of long lasting progress will be reached through the development of a strategic plan that brings together the disparate elements of both the sport and tourism industries (Ritchie and Adair 2004, pp. 274). The arena of tourism is dominated by the area of commercialism, bringing the very real potential for the base interests of the commercial industries to begin to take precedence over the needs of the local population. The addition of the sport element, with its series of oversight mechanisms enables the creation of a credible system of checks and balances with the depth to take the city forward into the next era.

References

Ashworth, G. and Page, S. 2010. Urban tourism research: Recent progress and current paradoxes. Tourism Management, 32 (1), pp. 1-15.

Beioley, S. 2002. Metro land-The urban tourism market. Tourism Insights, 1 (1), pp. 1-3.

Berg, L., Braun, E. and Otgaar, A. 2002. Sports and city marketing in European cities. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate. pp. 1-125.

Cook, I. and Ward, K. 2011. Trans-urban Networks of Learning, Mega Events and Policy Tourism. Sage Journals, 48 (12), pp. 2519-2535.

Davies, L. 2010. Sport and economic regeneration: a winning combination?. Sport in Society, 13 (10), pp. 1438-1457.

Di-Toro, M. 2010. Britain’s hip new tourist destinationsManchester, Glasgow, Birmingham and Liverpool. Visit Britain, 1 (1), pp. 1-3.

Hughes, H. 2003. Marketing gay tourism in Manchester. Vacation Marketing, 9 (2), pp. 152-163.

Law, C. 2002. Urban tourism. London: Continuum, pp. 1-200.

Ritchie, B. and Adair, D. 2004. Sport tourism. Clevedon, England: Channel View Publications. pp. 1-300.

Smith, A. 2013. The Development of “Sports-City” Zones and Their Potential Value as Tourism Resources for Urban Areas. European Planning Studies, 18 (3), pp. 385-410.

Smith, A. 2013. REIMAGING THE CITY: The Value of Sport Initiatives. Annals of Tourism Research, 32 (1), pp. 217-236.

Spirou, C. 2011. Urban tourism and urban change. New York: Routledge, p. 1-200.

Tallon, A. 2010. Urban regeneration in the UK. London: Routledge, pp. 1-200.

Weed, M. 2010. Sport, Tourism and Image. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15 (3), pp. 187-189.

Categories
Free Essays

Management issues facing small tourism enterprises (ste’s) A case of german concentration camps

Abstract

Special Interest Tourism has in the recent years gained increasing importance. Over the past few years, there has been a growth in Special Interest Tourism products in what is currently a highly competitive tourism market. The popularity of concentration camps as tourist attractions signifies the emergence of Special Interest Tourism. This trend which has rapidly developed over the past few decades has placed pressure on managers of German concentration camps to transcend these sites into more mainstream tourist attractions sites. But with this transformation has emerged several management issues which continue to confront small tourism businesses.

This paper examines some of the general management issues facing operators at concentration camps in Germany. The paper examines the extent to which managers of these sites identify with these problems and issues, and explores on the extent to which they have addressed such issues. Issues identified include pressure to commercialize developments, competition, interpretation, authenticity and ethical concerns over commodification of such sites. These challenges necessitate the need for more strategic management schemes. The paper concludes by suggesting the need for tour operators to harness managerial skills and adjust to all sorts of changes in order to overcome these challenges.

Introduction

Special Interest Tourism has in the recent years gained increasing importance. Over the past few years, there has been a growth in Special Interest Tourism in what is currently a highly competitive tourism market (Ritchie et al. 2003). The growth of attractions in the former German concentration camps signifies the emergence of Special Interest Tourism and reflects the changing attitudes towards such sites associated with war, death and tragedy. This trend has developed rapidly in the recent years such that it has placed pressure on managers of German concentration camps to transcend these sites into more mainstream tourist attractions sites (Ritchie et al. 2003).

With this transformation have emerged a number management problems similar to those suggested by Thomas (2007) and Shaw & Williams (2009). This section explores on these management concerns which continue to face operators at concentration camps in Germany. The paper examines the extent to which managers of these sites identify with these issues, and explores on the extent to which they have sought to address them. Before examining the specific issues relevant to concentration camps, the paper will first explore on the general management challenges and issues facing Small Tourism Enterprises (STE’s).

Small Tourism Enterprises and general management issues

STE have received support from governments owing to their employment-generating potential and their contribution to economic growth (Sharpley & Stone 2012). Many governments have avidly supported STEs, although it is only in the recent years that emphasis has been placed on the importance of having right skill set for managing such enterprises (Stephen 2012). Nonetheless, STEs play a major role in most countries.

As argued by Page et al (1999), STEs are the cornerstone of tourism development in local economies. Buhalis (2006) further explains that STEs contribute to a considerable proportion of economic production and provides employment to a large number of people especially those located in the peripheral and insular regions. However, a range of management problems and issues face small tourism enterprises.

Some of these issues have been identified by Ken & Mountinho (2000). The two authors suggested that small tourism enterprises are confronted with a number a number of issues including political changes, competition, environmental concerns, new consumer trends, globalization, fragmentation of markets and economic integration. Carter (1996) argues that irrespective of the relative size of the Small business sector, the management issues faced by STE in many countries are enormous. However, these may differ depending on the STE product.

Also many of the tourism SMEs tend to have a limited knowledge of the business environment. Many of them tend to have little experience of the business environment. What is more interesting with SMEs is that their sources of venture capital are varied, with a significant proportion coming from families (Stephen 2012). STEs are undercapitalized, product led and family owned such that management function is only confined to a few key individuals (Stephen 2012). These small enterprises also tend to have a short-term planning horizon and their marketing functions are peripheral to the management task of running the business (Stephen 2012). Many of these characteristics are borne out in the studies by Thomas (2007) and Shaw & Williams (2002).

The challenges facing STE’s necessitate the need for more strategic management schemes. Without proper management, tourism development is bound to decline. To overcome these challenges, STEs need to harness managerial skills. Management of STEs must adjust to all sorts of changes to ensure sustainability of tourism activities and a continuing outward flow of services (Poitevin 2012).

Management challenges relevant to German concentration camps

One of the management challenges that is particularly relevant to German concentration camps is pressure to commercialize developments. Many decades after the end of the Second World War, concentration camps have transformed into tourist attraction sites and are facing demands from tourists for associated facilities and commercial development (Ritchie et al. 2003). This changing nature of concentration camps from being memorial sites to tourist attractions has presented management with a significant dilemma.

Managers of concentration camps are faced with a dilemma between either preserving the site as a memorial site or developing it for commercial tourism (Ritchie et al. 2003). This management concern has further been made even more complicated by the reduction of government funding for many of the former German concentration camps (Ritchie et al. 2003). Dachau concentration camp is one such camp site which has been facing increasing pressure for commercial development of its facilities.

This memorial site presents the history of Dachau concentration camp from 1933 to 1945, illustrating how it came into being during the Nazi era (Johannes 2004). The Dachau concentration camp was first developed as a training centre before it became a model camp for Hitler’s Secret service and a training ground for the extermination camps of Treblinka, Majdanek, and Auschwitz (Johannes 2004).

Since its opening as a memorial site in 1965, this former German camp site has not undergone any renovations or commercial development. There seems to be no retail or ancillary service such as restaurant or a cafe (Ritchie et al. 2003). Cinema video technology and traditional static exhibits with poor orientation and layout are used (Ritchie et al. 2003). Such settings could lead to mindlessness as visitor connections and interest of the Holocaust may wane (Ritchie et al. 2003).

However, half of the museum was closed for renovation as of late 2001 (Ritchie et al. 2003). The reconstruction of the museum is expected to provide a substantial improvement to the setting factors such as orientation, display and interaction. Such improvements are expected to provide more mindful experiences to the visitors. However, only time can tell whether the renovations of Dachau camp memorial will enhance tourist experience or whether such commercial developments will detract from the site’s authenticity (Ritchie et al. 2003).

In transforming the memorial sites into tourist attractions, managers of these sites have also faced conflicting political, religion and personal ideologies (Jangula 2004). The transformation of the site to a tourist attraction has generated controversy with ethical concerns arising over the commodification of such sites associated with death, war and tragedies. But this ethical concern is debateable. These memorial sites would be meaningless if no one was to visit. We derive the significance of such sites from their explanatory inscriptions and knowledge that we learn through visiting such sites (Jangula 2004). It is impossible to discern whether the Dachau camp site or the Auschwitz would retain their significance if no one was allowed to visit (Jangula 2004).

Another major challenge facing management at these memorial sites has been the changing nature of relationship between commemorative agents, owing to political and socio-economic changes (Jangula 2004). It is important to note that numerous stakeholders are involved in the process of orientation of memorial sites with the most obvious group being the victims. The local and regional authorities are also involved in the orientation, often funding operations at memorials.

Managing this complex relationship between the various stakeholders remains a major challenge in these former German Camp sites. Whilst the managers of these sites are granted the legal and legislative authority to manage the memorials and the ties between the locals and tourists, managing such relationship is often made more complex by changes in political, social and economic environments (Jangula 2004).

Competition is yet another management challenge facing operators at these sites. In a world of information age where the Holocaust has become a well-known event, commemorative agencies are challenged by external groups that seek to transmit the legacy of these sites through different medias (Jangula 2004). For example, movies have re-enacted or have made attempts to re-enact history. Works of such popular culture compete with ‘official’ agencies in Germany who have infinite mandates to commemorate such sites (Jangula 2004).

Additionally, the managers of these sites face additional competition from other agents abroad who transmit the legacy of the Holocaust within religious, cultural and commercial realms (Jangula 2004). Recreation of commemorative aspects of such sites is made easier by the site’s historic relevance. The significance of the Holocaust is comprehended by people and cultures across the globe (Ateljevic & Stephen 2012). The site is more than just a domestic historical site as people from all over the globe tour the site.

Extent to which tourist operators have addressed these concerns

Given these challenges, we sought to investigate the extent to which tour operators at Dachau concentration camp have addressed these concerns. In addressing the ethical concern, we found that the management provided for guided tours (Ritchie et al. 2003). Guided tours are available in different languages including German, English, Spanish, and French. During the tour, visitors are reminded of the historical significance of the site as a place of memory and pilgrimage and the importance of behaving with respect while at these sites.

However, despite such guided tours, there is still an ethical concern over the commodification of such tourist sites. Many of the victims and survivors of the Holocaust are still infuriated and deeply concerned that the death and horror of their brethrens is treated as a commodity and sold to tourists (Jangula 2004). Some commentators have in fact pointed out that some of the tours offer little educational component and that visitors often film, photograph and chat in these memorial sites as if they were in a zoological garden (Sharpley & Stone 2012).

Responding to the pressure of commercialization of developments, we found that operators of Dachau concentration camp had made renovations to the concentration camp. The reconstruction of the site had been made with the aim of improving the setting factors such as display, orientation and interaction; and ultimately improving the tourist experience. But whilst some challenges seem to have been addressed, majority of these concerns remain largely addressed.

To address the issue of competition, management would need to explore on the visitor motivation to such sites associated with tragedies. Understanding the motivations behind such visitations can be useful in further promoting the site. For example, if education is found to be the key motivator, managers would need to focus on the teaching aspects in order to promote the site (Yuill 2003). This could be as simple as interpretive design or as complex as offering additional services such as workshops, seminars and lectures (Yuill 2003).

Site interpretation can be better designed to cater to the visitor’s needs. Should commemoration be the key motivating factor, management would need to ensure a quiet environment for contemplation (Yuill 2003). However, where visitors are motivated by nostalgia, then highly sensory exhibits would be best suited to these visitors (Yuill 2003). Understanding visitor motivations would help management to tailor services to meet their needs thereby increasing visitation which in turn would generate higher revenues for the site. The revenues generated can then be used to preserve the site.

To address the complexity of balancing the concerns of the locals, visitors, entrepreneurs, politicians and other stakeholders involved; there is need for managers to have a right skill set for managing such relationships. Operators of such concentration camps need to harness managerial skills. They must adjust to all sorts of changes to ensure sustainability of tourism activities and a continuing outward flow of services (Poitevin 2012).

Conclusion

It is clear that the operators managing these sites are confronted with a number of management issues including issues of commercialization, competition, interpretation, authenticity and ethical concerns over commodification of such sites. Managers are confronted with the challenge of providing an accepted interpretation as far as victims, survivors, friends and relatives of victims the Holocaust and historians are concerned. Balancing the concerns of the locals, visitors, entrepreneurs, politicians and other stakeholders involved pose another challenge to managers at these sites.

Managers are also under pressure from tourists to commercialize developments in order to enhance tourist experience. They face a significant dilemma between either preserving the site as a memorial site or developing it for commercial tourism. The task of site managers is further challenged by additional external agencies that seek to transmit the legacy of these sites via different Medias.

In overcoming these challenges, tour operators must harness managerial skills and adjust to all sorts of changes to ensure sustainability of tourism activities and a continuing outward flow of services. The challenges necessitate the need for more strategic management schemes.

Reference

Ateljevic, J. and Stephen, J.J.P., 2012. Tourism and entrepreneurship. London: Routledge publishers

Buhalis, D., 2006. Progress in tourism management: twenty years on and 10 years after the internet: the state of eTourism research, Elsevier

Jangula, C., 2004. The holocaust and dark tourism. The University of British Columbia

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Poitevin, M., 2012. Following Antarctic’s tourism product: the general management challenges and issues facing Small Tourism Enterprises (STE’s). [viewed on 2nd July 2013] available from http://interestmeonit.weebly.com/1/post/2012/7/following-antarctics-tourism-product-the-general-management-challenges-and-issues-facing-small-tourism-enterprises-stes.html

Ritchie, B.W., Carr, N., Cooper, C.P., 2003. Managing educational tourism. Channel View Publications.

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Shaw, G. and Williams, A., 2009. ‘Knowledge transfer and management in tourism organisations: An emerging research agenda’. Elsevier Tourism Management, Vol. 30 (3), pp. 325-335

Shaw, G., and Williams, A., 1998. ‘Entrepreneurship, small business culture and tourism development’. In: The Economic Geography of the Tourism Industry, London: Routledge,

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