Free Essays

How has unemployment in Bangladesh resulted from an insufficient effective demand for goods and services in an economy


Unemployment is a great concern in Bangladesh. Every year hundreds of thousands student are coming out from college and university. Though it is one of the major responsibilities of the Government to provide job to those young generation but the Government is failed to meet the job demand among the large population. Only a tiny fraction of total jobless is managed by different government offices and private organization but a majority remain unemployed.

The economic recession causes loss of jobs due to a loss of demand for goods. People basically cut back to basics and eliminate the spending in ways that they can’t afford. They are cautious about over committing so as not to lose what they have. The recession promotes a tendency to save for many and not one of spending excessively. The economic model of the past was to produce all that you can and keep consuming as much as you can and it will all stay afloat (until it doesn’t- like now). So the great majority doesn’t spend and then sales drop and industry reduces its production proportionately. No Sales therefore No production, therefore no need for to give jobs. People are afraid and cautious so they don’t spend unnecessarily. It’s a negative growth cycle and a hard to break once it sets in.

One of major causes of unemployment is greedy and selfishness among some of our politicians, Lack of true democracy due to informal ethnic diversities, Bangladesh is bestowed with potential skilled leaders but social discrimination undermine the process of exercising this leadership. Further unhealthy leadership competition create gaps to unemployment where one leave the job employed in and failure to win put the same person to the hole of unemployment category. However lack of education contributes to unemployment status, also the issues of Gender inequality is another block that hinder one to access jobs based on cultural attitudes. Least but not last lack of Transparency among job adverts from N.G.O as well as Public services commission. People just don’t want to work they expect everything to come to them. Youths are unemployed which has given birth to many crimes which has lead to many innocent youthful loosing their lives, if we can stand up and fight corruption there will be no more cases of unemployment.

Background of the Research

This research is a partial requirement to our academic process. There are lots of issues surrounding us but we have chosen this topic as it is much significant to economic development of our country. The economy of any country largely depends on its proper utilization of human resource but in many of the cases this vital resource is not being used properly. The whole research will go through a Questionnaire session (survey) and then analyzing and interpreting those data based on some specific methods mentioned in the methodology part. The most possible relevant areas and issues will be considered while doing the research. The ultimate purpose of this research is to find some remedies in reducing the unemployment rate of our country.

Statement of the Problem

The whole research paper will be conducted based on some basic assumptions and concepts that will help us to complete the survey. Depending on the sample population we have made a series of Questions that will be discussed with the interviewee. The assumptions and study areas are as follows:

Unemployment results from insufficient effective demand for goods and services in an economy.
Regulations like minimum wage laws imposed on the labor market lead to unemployment.
Structural problems and inefficiencies in the labor market cause unemployment
Lack of education contributes to unemployment status, also the issues of Gender inequality is another block that hinder one to access jobs based on cultural attitudes.
Unemployment is under-reported because the government doesn’t include those who have dropped out of the workforce because they are so discouraged.
Unhealthy leadership competition create gaps to unemployment where one leave the job employed in and failure to win put the same person to the hole of unemployment category.
Least but not last lack of Transparency among job adverts from N.G.O as well as Public services commission.

Purpose of the Research

Broad objectives:

Broad objective of this research is to find out the major causes of unemployment and prospective solutions.

Specific objectives:

The specific objectives to help in explaining the broad objectives are as follows:

Highlighting the present situation of unemployment in Bangladesh.
Identifying the major causes of unemployment.
To analyze the effects of unemployment to our society and economy.
To compare the unemployment rate of Bangladesh with other Asian countries.
To suggest remedial measures for reducing unemployment rate in Bangladesh.

Significance of the Study:

This research paper will help the readers providing knowledge and experience about the following issues:

Present Scenario of Unemployment in Bangladesh and the rate of unemployment comparing to the other Asian countries and the World as a whole
Most studies have two potential audiences: practitioners and professional peers. Statements relating the research to both groups are in order. This paper will help in further detail and large research of the prescribed topic.
This paper will also be very much helpful in finding out the lacking behind the unemployment problem (Educational structure, Economic conditions, and the impact of our political actions).
It will also cover the impact of Unemployment to our society and Economy.
The Design-Methods and Procedures

Type of Research:

This is an exploratory type of research. This research will help us to identify the causes, impacts and affects of unemployment on the society and economy of the country as a hole.

Sources of Data:

In order to attain the objective of the study in this research repot all-necessary information will be collected and prepared using primary and secondary sources of data. We will have to apply survey method by using questionnaire to gather primary data on unemployment.

Sample Selection:

The research proposal will cover the following procedures-

Our survey will be conducted based on Non-probability sampling techniques.
We have used Convenience sampling for the purpose of this research to select our required sample respondents.
Interviewers will have randomly moved toward respondents available at different locations of Dhaka city.

Determine Sample Size:

Using statistical tools to determine sample size would have demanded the need for calculations on various other factors, but for the time constrains & convenience sampling technique none of that will required. So, the total sample size is 100.

Summary of overall Sample Design:

The overview of the sample design that we have considered for our specific research on the selected topic, “Unemployment Situation in Bangladesh and its Impact to our society”, is summarized below-


Identifying survey population is one of the critical parts of the research. If population is not defined properly then we may not get actual result from the research. Population is quite different for different research problems. The people who share common characteristics are called population.
Fresh Graduate
Masters completed
Doing Jobs But not satisfied with their present position
Managing own small Business


We will take interview of 100 selected respondents.

Sampling Procedure:

Non-probability sampling techniques. We have especially focused on Convenience sampling.

Selection of Research Model:

Research Design

This collection of primary data is to be conducted through survey method with written questionnaire. The survey will be performed based on personal interview and select people sample for one-to-one face-to-face conversation. Survey questions will be sought to gather both qualitative and quantitative data about the sample. The nature of questions will be used in the questionnaire is mainly simple-dichotomy questions with few determinant-choice questions, frequency-determination questions, attitude rating scale and open-ended questions.

Objective of using the questionnaire

The whole research is based mostly on primary information, based on which the questionnaire has been designed to collect relevant information. The survey method has been selected as the research tool for following reasons.

Accuracy of Report: Survey is the best way to research. Questionnaire is one kind of tool of survey research.
Time efficiency: We have time constraints, and getting questionnaires filled up by the respondents is also time-consuming, so making short format questionnaire.
Convenience: Questionnaire design is a simpler and easier way to collect responses and conduct the survey. So we think it is convenient for us to use this tool.
Cost efficiency: We found that this method is relatively cheaper as we only need to print a copy and then make copies of it and then distribute them to the respondents.
Less possibility of getting wrong information: Here if the respondent does not understand any meaning of the questionnaire, then we can easily make them understand. So there is less possibility of making mistake.

Measurement Scales:

When we have prepared a questions, at first we have tried to avoid leading and loading questions, double barreled question and ambiguity. We have made our questions relevant that is supportive for us to solve our research problem. To measure the attitude or response of the respondents on questions of research topic, we have used several measurement scales in our questionnaire, like-

Simple Attitude scale.
Category scale.
Monadic Rating scale etc

Developing the Data Analysis:

The collected data will be analyzed in the following steps-


Editing is the process of checking the data for necessary corrections. We may find different types of errors in responses-some of the questions may not be filled up properly, some of them may be left incomplete. We want to avoid missing values as much as possible. We will also try to corrected some of our mistakes in the end which can be made while analyze.


Each question will be coded to a computer readable form. We have to transform the qualitative data into quantitative. Then the data will be entered from the questionnaires. This is time consuming and need much skill. (Code: Yes/ Agree- 1, No/ Disagree- 2)

Data entry:

After entering all the responses from each question, the data entering part is needed o be done. Then we will proceed forward for the final job, which is analysis.

Data Analysis:

By using MS Excel, we will put the formula, and then the software automatically gives us the result. A number of tables, charts can be used by this process. Then we will proceed for the data conversion and interpretation part.

Data conversion:

All the analyzed result sheets will be converted into managerially understandable form. We will convertthem to word documents, make tables, graphs and write the analysis with words.

Limitations and Delimitations

This research is not out of limitations. But as we are students it is a great opportunity for us to know the research methods and procedures in making a proposal. Some constraints are appended bellow:

Time Constraint: As the time constraint and not enough time in hand our research will cover to the Dhaka city and our sample size is not so large as we are only dealing with 100 people. But we think that this will represents the whole structure of the country.
Personal Interest of People: All People may not be equally interested in sharing their opinions and beliefs but we will try our level best in making the research paper successful.
Comparison Status:A research paper is the best paper only when it includes all the relevant issues and compare with other studies and research. As we not skilled and lack of knowledge we will try to compare the unemployment rate with other countries of the world specially with the Asian countries.
Lack of Experience:Though we have prepared many reports before, we had no experience of making a research proposal. So inexperience is one of the main constraints of the study.
Research Areas: Due to our time constraints and lack of experience we will cover only a short region of Dhaka city.
Money Investment: To make a satisfactory research paper sufficient investment is required in a wide range of area for sufficient data but as we are students and without any sponsors, we like to conduct a survey on 100 people randomly based on some specified questions(Mentioned in the Annexure)

Probable Cost

As it is a part of our regular MBA program and the smaller size of the research the cost would not be much. The followings are the major areas where expenses is needed_

I.Expenses During the Survey-printing cost of Questions paper, Transportation cost while moving one questionnaire to another.

II. The expenses in purchasing necessary documents or journals and

III.The cost of printing the final copy of the Research Paper.


The submission date will be fixed by our honorable course teacher and we will try to complete the research within that specific time.


Bangladesh should undertake unemployment surveys on a regular basis with the objective of measuring current levels of employment and unemployment and the corresponding changes. The aim of these surveys should be to provide more detailed information on the structure of the labor market. Such surveys are of longer-term interest, owing to their value in providing essential information for planning and policy formulation at the national level. Owing to the official status and national scope, unemployment surveys are subject to fairly stringent requirements of timing, data accuracy and internal consistency, especially consistency of the time series generated by regular surveys. Keeping these concerns in mind, regular surveys should be conducted to monitor the performance of the economy; to obtain indicators of changes in current rates of employment, unemployment and underemployment; and to measure trends, as well as cyclic and seasonal variations in the rates. From this stand point the findings of unemployment can be used as the benchmark indicators.


American Psychological Association (APA). (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (Fourth edition). Washington, DC: Author.

Armstrong, R. L. (1974). Hypotheses: WhyWhenHowPhi Delta Kappan, 54, 213-214.

Guba, E. G. (1961, April). Elements of a proposal. Paper presented at the UCEA meeting, Chapel Hill, NC.

Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (1990). How to design and evaluate research in education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Krathwohl, D. R. (1988). How to prepare a research proposal: Guidelines for funding and dissertations in the social and behavioral sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.

Text book- Business Research Methodology,


Free Essays

The changes of Phillips curve under global economy, from two aspects of international trade and international finance to discuss Phillips curve —relationship between inflation and unemployment.


During the Great Depression which was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War?, western countries experienced the high unemployment rate. In 1936, Keynes who is a British economist published the famous “The general theory of employment, interest and money”. The theory was helpful for policy makers to tackle unemployment. (Mankiw,G and Taylor,M)

However, after 1950s, inflation became the most concerned economic issue around the world in replace of unemployment. Due to the price rigidity, inflation couldn’t be explained by Keynesian economics.

The Phillips curve is named after a New Zealand-born economist A.W.Phillips. In1958, he published an article” The Relationship between Unemployment and the Rate of Change of Money Wages in the United Kingdom 1861–1957” in the quarterly economic journal Economica. Phillips observed the data of unemployment rate and the rate of wage inflation and concluded an inverse relationship between money wage changes and unemployment in United Kingdom during the period time examined. In the following years, Phillips curve was successfully demonstrated to be found in many countries.

The IS-LM model is a macroeconomic tool that demonstrates the relationship between interest rates and real output in the goods and services market and the money market (Wikipedia).It can explain the aggregate demand and determine the employment. And the Phillips curve can express the aggregate supply of macroeconomics and explain the inflation. Thus, main Keynes’s theory consists of IS-LM model and Phillips Curve from two aspects of aggregate demand and supply. The Phillips Curve also has the significant meaning for economy policy: that is, macroeconomic policy can be trade-off between inflation and unemployment. The government can use higher inflation rate to achieve lower unemployment and vice versa. Therefore, the Phillips curve was considered as the main economic tool to make policy.

However, when people thought IS-LM model and Phillips curve could explain major macroeconomic issues, some economists began to doubt the accuracy of Phillips curve, one typical representative is Edmund Phelps, who is the winner of Nobel Prize for Economics in 2006. He suggested that inflation is not only related with unemployment but also related with the growth of prices and wages expected by employers and workers. His research contributed important insights in the Phillips curve which include adaptive expectation and imperfect information in the setting of prices and wages. Additionally, he presented the concept of the natural rate of unemployment and he thinks that there is no long run trade-off between inflation and unemployment. (Edmund S Phelps,1968).It can be seen from Figure 1,assume that at the beginning, the expected inflation rate is 0 and the natural rate of unemployment is 6%,under this situation, the economy is at point A and the Phillips curve is P1.If the economy is intervened by government, that is the government wants to use 4% inflation rate to achieve 3% unemployment rate, that means reaching point B; assume that the government achieves the goal, workers expect their real wages to decline, thus the nominal wages are required to increase to maintain their purchasing power. On the other hand, employers hire fewer workers due to the increases in wages, therefore, the unemployment rate return to the natural rate of unemployment. At this moment, the economy is at point C. The Phillips curve shifts upwards to P2.As a result, government’s economic policies do not work, that means inflation rate increases, however, unemployment rate does not go down. This is so-called”Phillips Curve with expectation”.

Figure 1 Phillips Curve with expectation

At present, the widely accepted view about Phillips curve is that “because people adjust their expectations of inflation over time, the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment holds only in short run.”(Mankiw, G and Taylor, M)New Keynesian economists modify the Phillips curve from two aspects: firstly, considering expectation; secondly, considering the supply shock.

The purpose of research

The reason why I am planning to focus my research on this topic is that with the development of economy globalization, the proportion of trade between countries or economies increase rapidly. For example, in 2005, the world merchandise trade and services trade account for world GDP respectively 47% and 11%, however, in 1990, those figures are respectively 32% and 8%.During the period of 1990 to 2005, the aggregate amount of world exports has increased annually by 9%, however, the average growth rate of world GDP was only 3%.Thus, under economic globalization, when modifying Phillips curve, the openness should be considered. My dissertation is aimed to analyze how Phillips curve shifts and changes under economic globalization.

The outline and methodology

At present, the major researches about this issue are focusing on NKPC model and put the model into small open economies to do empirical analysis. Then the New Keynesian Phillips Curve can be obtained. There are two methods can be used to modify the NKPC model: the first one is extended model of difference between domestic and foreign prices (Sbordone, 2002; Gali and Monacelli, 2005); second one is extended model of foreign exchange rate (Temple, 2002; Reinhart and Rogoff, 2004).

The outline of my dissertation is that firstly, presenting the theory and general New Keynesian Phillips curve model, then modify it from two aspects of international trade and international finance.

Secondly, analyzing the influences of domestic inflation and employment which are from international factors. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve model is generally written in the form: ?t=??t-1+?Et(?t+1)+?costt. Assume that ?t is inflation rate at time t, ?t-1 is inflation rate at time (t-1), Et(?t+1) is expected inflation rate of time t+1 according to that at time t, costt is cost of production per unit at time t,??(0,1),??(0,1),??(0,1).My research mainly focus on four aspects: 1)inflation effect on unit product cost, considering the formula above, the third part on the right is the changes of unit product cost under economy globalization. 2)inflation effect on international capital flow, the second part on the right of the formula above is expected inflation which makes individuals expect domestic real interest rates to change, people choose to invest in foreign.3)lagged effect of inflation, the first part on the right of the formula above is adaptive expectation.4)effect of inflation on employment ,overall, whether unemployment rate increases or decreases depend on other factors ,for instance, domestic employment rate and trade policy.

Thirdly, choosing two developed countries which are U.S and UK and one developing country which is Brazil and using OECD database or other databases to obtain figures about CPI, GDP implicit deflator, import price index and unemployment rate. The time period selected is 1992 to 2010 .Then using these data to do empirical analysis about NKPC model under economic globalization.

Finally, getting the conclusion. The expected results I want to get are that under economic globalization, in the short run, inflation rate and prices of imports shift in the same direction. The lower the prices of imports are, the smaller the slope of Phillips curve is and vice versa. As Figure 2 indicates,

I also expect that Phillips curves with different slopes adjust to different countries. The line ? with flatter slope is suited for developed countries due to the lower imports prices. However, the line ? with steeper slope is suited for developing countries because of its higher imports prices.

The framework of this dissertation consists of four parts:

The theory of Phillips curve

Shifts and changes of NKPC model under economic globalization

Empirical analysis about NKPC model under economic globalization

The significance of the theory and conclusion.

List of References:

Mankiw, G and Taylor, M, Macroeconomics. European Edition, p295


Phelps, Edmund S. (1968). “Money-Wage Dynamics and Labor Market Equilibrium”. Journal of Political Economy 76 (S4): 678–711

Argia M. Sbordone, “Prices and unit labor costs: a new test of price stickiness”, Journal of Monetary Economics, (Elsevier: March, 2002) vol.49 (2), pages 265-292

Jordi Gali and Tommaso Monacelli,”Monetary Policy and Exchange rate Volatility in a small open economy”, Review of Economic Studies, (Blackwell Publishing: 2005), vol.72 (3), pp.707-734 07

Jonathan Temple,”Openness, Inflation and the Phillips Curve a Puzzle”, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, (Blackwell Publishing: May, 2002), vol.34 (2), pp.450-68

Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S.Rogoff, “The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements : A Reinterpretation”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics(MIT Press: February 2004) vol.119(1),pp.1-48

Free Essays

Youth Unemployment and Attitude towards Employment: Comparative Study between Migrants and Non-Migrants

Introduction and Background to the Research Area

The United Kingdom’s youth unemployment refers to the rate of unemployment among those individuals who are aged between 18 and 25. These figures are often used as part of political discussions to measure the general position of the economy, however it is contended in this research paper that there is a lack of understanding in terms of the factors that lead to youth unemployment in the first place. By targeting the background reasons, greater improvements can be achieved. The latest statistics or the rate of unemployment among youths in London shows that there are several individuals under 25 years of age who are not employed, which currently stands at 20% (Glaser and Rice, 2008).

In this research paper it is suggested that there are substantial difference between migrants and non migrants within an area and that this could in fact offer a strong explanation as to why youth unemployment is so prevalent in modern society. Migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another specifically in search of some economic or social benefit. Migrants refer to the people who move from one place to another in search of better opportunities, while non-migrants are the local people. Politically there have been several heated debates on the topic of employment among migrant youths and non-migrant youths, which has necessitated this study to establish the attitude of both sets of groups towards employment.

For example in Hackney, London, the number of employed migrant youths is higher, compared to that of non-migrants. However, the percentage of the migrant youths who are employed is higher than that of non-migrants. This suggests that non-migrants have a higher positive attitude towards employment than non-migrants The high rate of unemployment among young people in the country and London, in particular, has forced some media personalities and politicians to term it the “lost generation” (Hackney, 2013)

This paper aims to look at the attitude of youths towards employment by comparing the migrants and non-migrants in Hackney, London. It is believed that the attitudes of these young individuals might be the major reason why there are high levels of unemployment among young people in this region and more generally elsewhere.

Aims & Objectives of the Research

The rate of unemployment among the youth population has been a problem that has raised several debates among politicians and media commentators. However, it has been argued that the attitudes of the youth in Hackney, London, have been the major reason behind the increasing rate. The main objective of this paper is to examine the reasoning or the suggestion that it is the attitudes of these young people towards employment that makes them miss the opportunities to land some. The research aims to achieve its overall objective by seeking the views of the youths in Hackney, London, towards employment.

Purpose of the Research

The outcome of the research will be based on the findings from the data collected through interviews, which will later be analysed. The outcome will depend on the method of data collection, which will involve interviews conducted with the youth in the area, in order to test the hypothesis. It is anticipated that the results of this study will help the community in understanding what its young people want, in terms of employment, in order to support them in their growth and career development. In addition, the result will also offer guidance to employers when allocating the available opportunities to either migrants or non-migrants.

Importance of the Research

This research is important in the field of both academic studies and career development, as its results will enable the students, their parents and teachers to understand how best to equip these youngsters by focusing the latter’s attention on their future employment opportunities. It will also help potential employers in selecting the right people for various positions in their companies or organisations.

Research Approach

It is suggested that the best method for collecting data in this qualitative study is through the use of interviews. The aim of the interview will be to have the respondents reflect on their feelings towards employment and past experiences, while also attempting to communicate freely with the interviewers in such a manner that both interviewer and interviewee come to a mutual agreement concerning the experiences’ meanings. The format of the interview could involve informal chats or discussions between the researcher and the respondents regarding their responses (Salter, 2010). If the respondents want to give further information or expand upon anything they have said, the interviewer will then ask additional questions and encourage the respondents to give further information or explanations. The interviewer will have to clarify that it will be an open process and that the interviewee is free to question or ask for more detailed explanations, talk in a manner with which they are comfortable, or even pause, if they wish to do so. The responses should not be evaluated as being right or wrong by the researcher. The researcher should make it clear to the respondents that they are free to make any comments or give any information that they wish. The focus of the interview will be on the participants and attempting to ascertain their attitudes, values, opinions, experiences and beliefs.


This research will take the form of structured interviews, which will be used as the method of data collection. The standardised interview or structured interview is typically used in quantitative research. The sample of the study will include 300 migrant youths into the country and 300 non-migrant youths. The migrant and non-migrant youths will be interviewed in order to establish their attitudes towards employment, in an attempt to confirm or disapprove the hypothesis that non-migrants have a negative attitude towards employment. The reason for interviewing the two sets of individuals is to find out whether the problem is confined to the migrant youth population, or both migrant and non-migrants. The structured interviews will take the form of questionnaires, which will be given to the interviewee by the interviewer who, in this case, is the researcher. The questions that will be used in the study will be literature informed. This means that the results will have been compiled and the questions will have a range of options. The formulation of the questions in the survey will be done by considering the existing literature. In addition, interviews will be used as the survey questions will actually be literature informed. The reliability and validity of the research will be measured by using the semi-structured interviews. Another significance or importance of the use of interviews is that they should help in obtaining additional information that may have been ignored by the current literature review.

Ethical Considerations

The safety and confidentiality of the respondents will be the major priority of this research. This will be undertaken by considering the benefit/analysis ration, and also through the use of information that is available to conduct the assessment and supervision of the study as it continues. The participants will be handled with the utmost care and they will be assured of the highest levels of confidentiality. Before any participant is involved in the research, their formal consent will be sought, in writing. The researchers will need to take care not to divulge any sensitive information that might have been provided by the respondents for their own safety. If there are any unpredicted findings in the study, as it progresses, the participants will be informed accordingly. The participants will be reassured that, in giving information, they will not be obliged to reveal any information which they chose not to do so.

Suggested Existing Literature

Several existing texts will be used as part of a detailed literature review to gain a background understanding of the issues facing the region and the general trends associated with unemployment. The following indicative initial bibliography is suggested as a starting point for the research project.

Blaikie, N. (2003). Analyzing quantitative data: From description to explanation. London: Sage.

Ford, M R 2009, The Lights in the Tunnel: Automation, Accelerating Technology and the Economy of the Future, Acculant Publishing.

Glaser, D, and Rice, K 2008, “Crime, Age and Employment.” American Sociological Review 24, no. 5: 679–686.

Greenberg, DF 2009, “The Dynamics of Oscillatory Punishment Processes.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 68, no. 4: 643–651.

Hackney 2013 “Hackney Facts and Figures Leaflet” Available at:

Hochstetler, A, and Shover, N 2010, “Street Crime, Labor Surplus, and Criminal Punishment,” 1980–1990.” Social Problems 44, no. 3: 358–367.

International Labour Office. 2009, Bibliography of unemployment : covering the period 1920-1929, Geneve.

Isabel, T 2008, Bibliography of Unemployment and the Unemployed, Burt Franklin Publisher.

Moss, P, and Tilly, C 2009, Hiring in Urban Labor Markets: Shifting Labor Demands, Persistent Racial Differences. New York: Plenum.

Rifkin, Jeremy 2008, The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era, New York: Tarcher–G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Rusche, G, and Kirchheimer, O 2007, Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Columbia University Press. Reprint, New York: Russell and Russell.

Salter, H. 2010. Interview secrets. London: Collins.

Free Essays

Research Proposal: Youth Unemployment And Attitude Towards Employment: Comparative Study Between Migrants And Non-Migrants


Nigeria’s adolescent & young adult population (aged 15-24) is currently facing a crippling problem that will endanger the future of the nation. The median age data from the website is used to define the term “youth migrant and non-migrant population, or youth population”. The median age of the migrant and non-migrant population throughout the developing world does remain in a late adolescent phase with ages ranging from the 15th birthday until the 24th birthday (, 2013, median age). This study expects to find that youth population attitudes toward unemployment will be similar in the migrant and non-migrant populations. I seek to examine this assertion by carrying out a qualitative investigation on the relatedness of unemployment among the youth and their attitudes based on a population analysis of the youth among the indigenous non-migrant locals and migrant immigrants in Nigeria.

The migrant and non-migrant youth population is primarily located in Latin America and on the African continent to which Nigeria has a median population age of 19.1 (2010 Est.) (, 2013, median age). Global unemployment rates among the youth population are on the rise (indexmundi, 2013, 1). The same case is observable in Nigeria where the number of unemployed youths accounts for more than half of the total number of unemployed people in the country (Youth Speak Community, 2013, 1. It has been suggested that attitudes of the youth may be the main reason behind the high levels of unemployment among the youth.


The global rate of unemployment indicates high levels of unemployment among the youth. The median age data from the website is used to define the term “youth migrant and non-migrant population, or youth population”. The median age of the migrant and non-migrant population throughout the developing world does remain in a late adolescent phase with ages ranging from the 15th birthday until the 24th birthday (, 2013, median age). In fact, the rate of growth of unemployment among the youth population is higher that the case of adults (Alanana, 2003).

The reported incidence of youth unemployment is even higher in developed economies as compared to emerging and developing economies. However, in the recent years the cases have been so sporadic in developing countries especially in Africa (Alanana, 2013). This is because according to Alanana (2013), the numbers of the youth population is increasing at an alarming rate as compared to the rates at which job opportunities are being created. The case of unemployment among the youth in Africa is alarming and is currently a threat to social-economic stability and peace.

Nigeria is also a major immigrant destination in West Africa with over one million immigrant population. The youths accounts for a majority of the immigrant population. This represents about 0.7 percent of the population. The case of unemployment among the youth cuts across both the locals as well as the immigrants (Alanana, 2003). This paper purposes to analyse the case of unemployment among the migrant and non-migrant youth population in the country and how the attitudes affects the rates by analysing unemployment among the local youths and the immigrant youths in Nigeria.

Problem statement

Generally, the rate of migrant and non-migrant youth unemployment in Nigeria is very high. However, the rates of unemployment among the youth are incomparable to the older male working population in the country. Several reasons may be behind the abnormal differences in the unemployment rates between the youth and the adult population. Several studies have associated the differences in the unemployment rates between the migrant and non-migrant youth populations and other adults to the attitudes posed by the youths regarding job specifications. Other studies referenced in Alanana (2013), Youth unemployment in Nigeria: some implications for the third millennium have indicated that the local youth are very selective towards jobs as compared to immigrant youth. This dissertation will examine the extent of truth in this statement by generally observing the link between unemployment among the youths and their attitudes and also examine the attitudes of immigrant and local youths towards employment opportunities in the country.

Research objectives

This research study will be guided by the following objectives:

To analyse the link between unemployment among the youth and their attitudes
To analyse the difference in unemployment rates between local youths and immigrant youths
To examine how attitudes affects the differences in unemployment rates of the local youths and immigrant youths.

Organization of the study

This study will be divided into five chapters. The introduction will provide the background and need to study how attitudes influence unemployment in the country. This will also include a description of the research hypothesis, objectives, questions, limitations, assumptions, significance, and the approach adopted in the investigation. The second chapter will provide a detailed analysis of literature review of previous investigations relevant to the research problem. The third chapter will provide the research methodology that will be used in addressing the hypothesis and the research questions. Chapter four will represent all the data that will be collected and analysed in this planned study. Finally, the fifth chapter will delineate on the conclusions that will be drawn in the study as well as the recommendations.

Literature review

For the development of an effective gap analysis, this study will analyse several previous imperial investigations and authentic statistics on unemployment among the youth in the world and specifically in Nigeria. The literature review will focus on the unemployment among locals and immigrants on a general perspective globally as well as local perspective in Nigeria.

The literature reviewed in this study will be sourced from credible sources such as national and international newspaper sources that cover Nigeria, government publications and other academic journals to ensure that the process of gap analysis is founded on a comprehensive, valid, sound and reliable set of data. The study will focus on most recent studies and publications dating back to a maximum of 7 years ago to ensure the data used in the study represents the most recent situation as far as unemployment among the youth is concerned.

According to Youth Speak Community (2013), Nigeria, which is Africa’s most populated country, has one of the highest unemployment rates in the world. By 2011, the unemployment rate was at about 24 % of which the rate of unemployment among the youths was estimated to be about 50% (Youth Speak Community, 2013). However, the case is similar in many other African countries such as South Africa, Kenya, and Ghana, which have unemployment rates of 25%, 40 %, and 11 % respectively (Youth Speak Community, 2013).

The most critical issue affecting Nigeria and Nigerians today is the issue of unemployment and subsequently the problem in the future of unemployment is with current levels of youth unemployment in Nigeria (Bakare, 2013)Bakare states that World Bank statistical data list Nigeria’s youth unemployment rate at 38% (Bakare, 2013) but Bakare believes the real rate of Nigerian youth unemployment is closer to 80% (Bakare, 2013). The rate of youth population education continues to increase with Nigerian universities producing 150,000 graduates per year (Bakare, 2013), however; the rate of job production has not kept to pace with the production of university graduates per year (Bakare, 2013).

The focus of Nigeria’s future as a result of the youth unemployment problem is also part of the research agenda of the Nigerian Universities. The Department of Business Administration and Marketing, at the Delta State University are in the process of determining how the current youth unemployment crisis will impact Nigeria’s economic and social future. According to Salami (2013), The problems Nigeria faces tomorrow will depend on how the youth population of Nigeria matures as adolescents into adulthood. “Records from the National Population Commission (2001) indicate that youths under the age of 30 constitute over half of the approximately 150 million Nigerians. According to Doreo Partners (2013) unemployment rate in Nigeria is growing at the rate of 16% per year with the youth impacted the most and accounting for three times the general unemployment.” (Salami, 2013) Damilola (2013) describes the rise in unemployment in Nigeria as “one of the major social problems affecting the growth and development of this country.” (Damilola, 2013) The situation is described as so dire the population of Nigerians cannot meet basic needs due to the lack of jobs. Damilola also describes a problem of cronyism in Nigeria that awards jobs to college graduates with political connections rather than based on individual merit. The suggestion by Damilola is for the youth to be “creative and learn different vocational skills.” (Damilola, 2013)

A startling report by the Department of Sociology at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria has indicated that youth unemployment has led to a rise in violent crimes (Ajaegbu, 2012) The overall level of despair of the youth population is blamed for the level of youth unemployment. “By using the deprivation theory proposed by Ted Gurr, this study has explored the proximate and ultimate causes involving the youths in violent crimes. If factors that create the feeling of deprivation and frustration created by unemployment are addressed, Nigeria’s youths will not engage in violent crimes.” (Ajaegbu, 2012)

According to the Christian Science monitor, the youth unemployment problem leaves the Nigerian youth population so despondent that militant groups are better able to prey on these populations and recruit them into criminal organizations. “The vulnerability of unemployed youth in Nigeria’s northeast leaves them open to Boko Harem’s narratives, which have only been augmented by weak governance and the poor delivery of basic services. Boko Haram members, who live in the city’s poor communities, command the loyalty of those who have languished into poverty.” (Parker, 2013) This issue of militant groups in Nigeria leaves the migrant and non-migrant youth population prone to exposure of issues relating to criminality and recruitment into militant groups.


The survey response questionnaire will be of a qualitative research design to measure the subjective response from the migrant and non-migrant youth population in Nigeria. The focus of the survey questionnaire will be to assess the sentiment, or feelings, of the youth population with regard to their current and future employment prospect. Qualitative research involves the use of a subjective inquiry into the survey questionnaire, which is necessary to establish a base for analysis to include meaningful words, observations, stories, individualities, and chromatic renders with minimal consideration of the number of participants (Higgs & Cherry, 2009). This approach will enable the investigation and examination of the youth unemployment issue with a small sample population, and hence allowing the investigation to proceed with a limited budget. Furthermore, since the investigation requires a deeper analysis and explanation on the links between attitudes and unemployment among the youths, the use of qualitative methodology will allow the study to analyse the objectives effectively.

The data will be collected from each participant of the sample population using interview questions derived based on the objectives identified in the introduction. The data will be coded by linking a number (1, 2, etc.) to each survey response question. The investigation will collect data via semi-structured interviews. After data collection is the analysis process. The analysis will be based on the observer’s impression as the main analysis technique. The use of observer’s impression has been proven to be simple and effective in producing in-depth analysis (Higgs & Cherry, 2009).

Ethical statement

Generally, this study will observe all the ethical requirements in all the processes of data collection and analysis as is expected under an Internal Review Board (IRB). Some of the factors that will be considered include protection of participants’ privacy and confidentiality.


From the above introduction, it is evident that unemployment among the youth in Nigeria is a major social and economic issue in the country. Developing a deeper understanding on the reasons behind the high levels of migrant & non-migrant youth unemployment is necessary to ensure effective steps are taken to deal with the issue. This study will provide an examination and render a conclusion to the notion of the assertion that attitudes of the youth contribute to the high levels of unemployment. This will expand the current knowledge on the issue of youth unemployment and hence allow policy makers to have a better understanding of the issue for effective policy development


Alanana, O. O., Youth unemployment in Nigeria: some implications for the third Millennium, Global Journal of Social Sciences, 2 (1), 21-26. 2013

Bakare, Bilikis. “Addressing youth unemployment in Nigeria.” BusinessDay |. 2013 (accessed November 21, 2013).

Higgs, J. & Cherry, N., Doing qualitative research on practice’, in Higgs, J., Horsfall, D. & Grace, S. 2009 (eds.), writing Qualitative Research on Practice, Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publishers

F., J. “Why is youth unemployment so high?.” The Economist. 2013. (accessed November 21, 2013).

Salami, Youth unemployment in Nigeria: A time for creative intervention. International Journal of Business and Marketing Management, Vol. 1(2); pp. 18-26, July 2013. Retrieved from:

Damilola, Saanu. “Nigerian Tribune.” How to tackle youth unemployment in Nigeria. 2013 (accessed November 21, 2013).

Parker, Gillian. “In Boko Haram country, Nigeria’s new crackdown brings mixed feelings.” 2013. The Christian Science Monitor. (accessed November 21, 2013).

Youth Speak Community, Youth Unemployment In Nigeria: Shocking Statistics, Facts And Why The Future May Not Be So Bright Afterall. 2013 Retrieved from

“Median Age – world statistics and charts as map, diagram and table.” Median Age of the World. 2013 (accessed November 21, 2013).

Free Essays

Rising Unemployment in Pakistan

Unemployment is enforced idleness of wage earner who is able and willing to work but cannot find jobs. In societies like Pakistan where most people earn their living only by working for others being unable to find a job is a serious problem. In Pakistan population pressure lower the economic growth rate and resulting in poor or slow growth of country economy. According to the survey report the rate of unemployment in 1998 was 5. 50 percent which increased to 7. 82 percent by the year 2003.

Thus the rate of unemployment in rural areas was 5 percent which increased to 69 4 percent, while the rate of unemployment in urban area was than 9 percent which increased to 9. 9 percent by 2003. In Pakistan 50 percent of our population is composed of women who are treated as out of the work force. Unemployment in Pakistan is increasing due to various causes but if these things can be controlled than unemployment rate can automatically decline. Rapid Population Growth:

Rapid growth in the population is the main factor which is worsening the situation, but Pakistan is one of the most populated countries of the world with annual growth rate being nearly 3 percent. It means that about 1 million workers are added yearly to the existing labour force which calls for creating job opportunities. Increase in population contributed much in rising unemployment rate in Pakistan and if the population growth keep on increasing with the same ratio than it will create more problems. Uncertainty and unrest in the country:

Uncertainty and unrest in Pakistan and the worsening law and order situation has played an important role in transferring the business to other countries, no foreign investors feel secure in investing in such a country in which their businesses are not secure. In Pakistan due to weak political system and unstable government structure. No foreign companies want to invest in unrest environment which become the cause of unemployment because of lack of jobs opportunities in the country. Karachi is the biggest industrial base of Pakistan, but investors are reluctant to invest there because of unrest and violence.

If we really want to reduce unemployment rate in Pakistan so first steps should be taken for controlling the worst law and order situation in the country. Education system of Pakistan Deplorably low rate of literacy and deterioration in standard of education in the educational institutions contributed much in increasing unemployment rate. Our educational system is also responsible for increasing unemployment rate among the educated youth. Education system is divided into different categories.

Students studying in government institutions will be less aware about the new technologies, ideas for surviving in this competitive world and unemployment rate is higher among such students. Besides education the attitude of our youth towards the choice of a career is unrealistic and unproductive. Rapid mechanization and computer technology also causing unemployment. Pressure on one Industry: In country like Pakistan where resources are not equally distributed in all sectors of the industry so in this way pressure on one particular industry and profession is a natural outcome.

Previously for girls medical profession was the best choice and for boys engineering was the best options but now with the industrialization and urbanization things are changing with the boom of new technologies new industries are emerging and making the values in the market, I. T field is one of it and majority of the young generation want to join I. T industry and want to pursue it as a career because of availability of resources and it’s rising scope. So things are not handled in appropriate manner, as the vacancies are less but job seekers are more than.

After I. T young generation are running behind commerce industry and majority of them have the degrees of MBA and BBA but their degrees are not paying them despite of the fact that they had paid huge fees and time in completing the degree and hoping for the better future in this field, but in return they didn’t get the 100 percent results which was expected by them. So, pressure on few industries results in lack of opportunities and work force in other sectors and they become the neglected sectors of society because no one is willing to pursue the career in them.

Importance of all industries should be highlighted and equal opportunities and facilities should be provided in all sectors so that no particular industry or profession face the burden which later on results in job shortage and unemployment. Economic Depression: Another reason why unemployment occurs is when there is a great economic depression, or now becomes famous with the term “global recession”. When economy fall down, many are becoming affected, most especially the employees. During this kind of situation, employer and other business owners will be force to reduce their workers in order to cope up with the right wages of the workers.

There are so many causes why people become unemployed. However, the answer to this problem is still within your decision. Bear in mind that being unemployed can be voluntary or involuntary, thus, you can still make the best choice for your life, and that is to be employed or to remain unemployed and jobless at all. Whatever the cause of being unemployed if a person will still pursues to look for a job and become employed then there is no reason for you to stay unemployed. Some Suggestions:

Economic Revival package should announce by the government for the revival of industries sector, to stimulate production and investment. Government should try to boost exports through broadening the tax base and lowering tariffs. Government should announce multiple packages for the development of agriculture sector. A number of fiscal and monetary measures should take attract industrialists and particularly foreign investment. Technical training facilities should be provided. In this way unemployed people will get a chance to enhance their skills and become able to earn more reason able income.

Free Essays

Graduate Unemployment in Malaysia

Unemployed graduates have become a cause of concern in Malaysia. The findings of a Graduate Tracer Study in 2006 involving 132 900 graduates from institutions of higher learning all over Malaysia indicated that 30.7% of graduates remained unemployed six months after graduation, while 5.7% were still awaiting job placement (Tan, 2007). The Minister of Human Resources revealed that more female graduates in this country were unemployed because they lacked the relevant skills required in the labor market despite having excellent academic results. The number was much higher in comparison to male graduates (Nor Hartini, 2007). As there are so many unemployed graduates at present, we need to find out why this problem exists and what can be done to overcome it.

One reason for this problem is that the focus of higher education institutions and the needs of the labor market for graduates are not as compatible as they were twenty years ago. The labor market is now more competitive and volatile. As a result, graduates, face difficulties in getting jobs because they are not ready for the industry (Tan, 2007). For instance, the knowledge of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) acquired by students does not quite meet the expectations of the industry.

Lack of experience and skills are also causes of graduate unemployment. Generally, most organizations prefer to employ graduates with experience. Furthermore, in Malaysia, the private sector today is not interested in recruiting local graduates because they lack essential skills, such as proficiency in English and interpersonal skills (Nor Hartini, 2007). There appears to be a disparity between what employers require and what skills graduates have.

In view of this, the government has implemented several measures to reduce the problem of graduate unemployment. One such measure is the introduction of several training programmes for fresh graduates. For instance, the Ministry of Human Resources, through their training agencies, has introduced the ‘Unemployed Graduates Training Scheme’ in order to equip graduates with certain skills and experience (Chapman, Chew & Tan, 2007). The Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs Ministry, likewise, has initiated a programme where established retailers have started recruiting graduates and diploma holders as management trainees. This scheme aims to not only provide employment opportunities for fresh graduates but also to expose them to fields in the private sector other than the ones they specialized in (Chin, 2007).

Another measure involves a review of the tertiary education system. Soft skill development should be incorporated into the education curriculum where students can participate in extra curricular activities to enhance soft skills such as personal qualities, interpersonal skills and critical and creative thinking (Nor Hartini, 2007). These soft skills should be acquired through participation in extra curricular activities while they are studying for their degrees. A lecturer, for instance, can develop students’ skills and knowledge by stimulating their minds with discussions and case studies. According to Nor Hartini, these skills will enable them to communicate effectively, manage relationships, lead a team, solve problems and succeed in the job market.

Thus, it is evident that lack of skills and experience are the main causes for graduate unemployment. To overcome this problem, the Ministry of Higher Education must ensure that the tertiary education system is relevant and up-to-date. It should continually evaluate the tertiary programs to help produce quality graduates who meet the needs of industries. Also, industries need to play their part by providing more opportunities for training fresh graduates while the graduates themselves need to be more open and take up these offers.

Free Essays

Understanding the Factors Affecting the Unemployment Rate

Understanding the Factors Affecting The Unemployment Rate Through Regression Analysis An Individual Report Presented to The Faculty of Economics Department In Partial Fulfillment To The Requirements for ECONMET C31 Submitted to: Dr. Cesar Rufino Submitted by: Aaron John Dee 10933557 April 8, 2011 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study B. Statement of the Problem C. Objective II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RELATED LITERATURE A. GDP B. Average Years in School C. Population D. Literacy Rate III. OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK A. Model Specification B. List and Description of Variables C.

A-priori Expectations IV. METHODOLOGY V. EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS A. Regression of the Original Model 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 9 9 9 10 12 13 13 2 B. Summary Statistics C. Testing for Misspecification in the Model D. Testing for Multicollinearity E. Testing for Heteroscedasticity VI. CONCLUSION VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY 15 16 17 18 21 22 3 I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study When we were still kids, we dream of what we want to be in the future. Older people will usually ask us if what we want to be in the future. Most of us will say, they want to be a doctor, lawyer or engineer to name some.

We think and think about our career, but once we are already in the college level, we now dream to become successful in life and have a stable job. But with the rate of unemployment here in country continue to increase, there are no guarantee that once we graduated we will have a job immediately. Unfortunately, many still fail to have stable jobs. Some even can’t find a job even though they graduated from top schools. Then we found ourselves ending in the pool of unemployment. Unemployment is indeed a very important issue all over the world. People are getting laid off, some cannot find a job, and the number is increasing.

Government wants to achieve full employment but we all know that it will never happen simply because there are millions of people in country and the government or even the private sectors can provide for that huge number of laborers. The government cannot just expand and increase total output so that it will provide job opportunities to the unemployed because there also negative impact on the economy. I am aware that our country is suffering from high unemployment rate, because some workers are only on a contractual basis. Sure they can work but usually it is only for 6 months plus there are no benefits included.

After the span of 6 months, they will find themselves unemployed again and they will have a difficult time especially if they did not finish schooling. Companies now a day are more sophisticated and competitive, they don’t just hire college 4 graduate students even if you graduated from top schools. Having a master’s degree will surely be of help in finding a job for companies look only for the best. Some people engage in work that they are not inclined with like for past year, people work as call center agents even though their college degree is not mass communications or anything that has a connection of being a call center agent.

They do this because they don’t want to be unemployed and do nothing for an extended period of time. B. Statement of the Problem Unemployment is very important issue, not just here in our country but also for the rest of the world. This paper will seek to answer whether the literacy rate, average years in school, GDP and total population have a relationship with the total unemployment. Can these exogenous variables explain the unemployment that is happening all over the world? C. Objective The objective of this paper is to (1) find out what are the determinants of unemployment.

For this study, literacy rate, average years in school, GDP and total population will be considered as a determinant of unemployment. (2) Create an econometric model that will explain unemployment and (3) to give the readers idea what should be done to alleviate unemployment 5 II. REVIEW ON RELATED LITERATURE A. GDP Gross domestic product or GDP is considered as an indicator of the standard of living in a certain country. The higher the GDP the higher is the country’s standards of living and the lower the GDP the lower is the country’s standard of living.

According to (Abuqamar, Coomans, & Louckx, 2011), unemployment is an important factor in measuring country’s economic strength like GDP per capita. If the unemployment level is high, then economic growth is very low because they have a negative relationship. A sustainable growth accompanied by macroeconomic policies that promotes employment will eventually cut down the level of unemployment in the economy and growth is considered as a solution to decrease unemployment (Hussain, Siddiqi, & Iqbal, 2010). This is true because when government wants to increase output by building infrastructures and the like.

They create job opportunities for those who are unemployed thus, alleviating unemployment in the economy. More people will get jobs and earn to sustain their standard of living or even increase their standard of living depending on their salaries. B. Average Years in School Education is very important in everyone’s lives. It is our foundation of knowledge which will reflect us. Even though going to school and doing homework are boring, we will still benefit from it because we learn and by learning we become mature and responsible.

According to (Weisberg & Meltz), the higher the level of education or the years in school of a person, the 6 lower will be the unemployment rate. Which make sense since people are educated, they will have decent jobs and they can even create their own firm or business thus promoting employment. C. Population Population in a country is always increasing and that is inevitable. Population is also a determinant of unemployment. Based on the research paper of (Rafiq, Iftikhar, Asmat, & Zahoor) entitled Determinants of Unemployment: A Case Study of Pakistan Economy (19982008), population growth has a negative effect on unemployment.

The results of their tests show that when the population is increasing, unemployment also increases which is bad for every economy. Rapid growth in population is bad because it will only increase unemployment further. There will be pressure in employment since many people don’t have any job, unemployment will increase. Moen (1999) argues that in the competition for jobs, workers will prefer to have higher degree attainment so that they will have an edge over the other workers. With the preference of increasing a person’s educational attainment, the rate of unemployment will decrease. Nickell, 1979; Moen, 1999). D. Literacy Rate Literacy is important just like education. People must be literate in order to fit in the norm. According to the article Literacy and Unemployment, people who are illiterate have disadvantages because they cannot read and right, thus they will be more likely to be 7 unemployed. It is also stated in the article that once people get part of the unemployment cycle, it will be difficult for them to break it and because of long term of being unemployed they will feel discourage and therefore will lack self confidence. 8 III. OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK

A. Model Specification totunem = ? 1 + ? 2litrate + ? 3yearisnch + ? 4gdp + ? 5totpop + ? B. List and Description of Variables Before we proceed to the a-priori expectations of each exogenous variable to the endogenous variable and the discussion of the results, we must describe first the components of the model. The model is comprised of both the exogenous variables and the endogenous variable. The exogenous variables or the independent variables are not affected or determined by any other variables in the model unlike the endogenous variable which depends on the exogenous variable.

Table 1 will tells us a brief description of the variables used in the model Table 1. Names of Variables Used and Descriptions Description This quantitative variable pertains to the total unemployment rate of all the countries in the world for the year 2000. lirate This quantitative variable pertains to the literacy rate of all the countries in the world for the year 2000. yearinsch This quantitative variable pertains to the average year in school of an adult ages 15 and up of all the countries in the world for the year 2000. dp This quantitative variable pertains to the gross domestic product of all the countries in the world for the year 2000. Variables totunem 9 totpop This quantitative variable pertains to the total population of all the countries in the world for the year 2000. C. A-priori Expectations The a-priori expectations capture the effect of an increase in the exogenous variables to the endogenous variable which in out model is totunem. The a-priori expectation are taken from the review on related literature a while ago.

Note however that the a-priori expectation does not cover the magnitude of their relationship. It only tells the direction of their relationship. A positive sign implies that the exogenous variable has a positive relationship with the endogenous variable and a negative sign implies otherwise. The magnitude of their relationship will be discussed later on. Table 2 shows the relationship if the variables, their signs and the intuition behind it. Table 2. Variables, Sign and Intuition Exogenous Variable: totunem Signs Intuition + Literacy is very important to everyone because it is a social norm.

Therefore it has a positive effect on unemployment because when literacy increases, it implies that people learned and attended school. Companies will hire them so there will be a decrease in the unemployment rate. Variables lirate 10 yearinsch +/- An increase in yearinsch doesn’t necessarily mean that you finished every level successfully. It can also mean that your year in school increases because you always fail in school. If the increase in average years in school is positive, people will be able to work or create businesses that give job opportunities to the unemployed.

But if the increase in average years in school is negative, it implies that people didn’t learn and therefore they will have a hard time looking for a job because companies will only accept people who performed well in school gdp + An increase on GDP will promote employment because when the government expands by building infrastructures, it gives job opportunities to those unemployed thus alleviating the unemployment. totpop – An increase in total population will have negative effect on unemployment.

It means that when the total population increase, more people will now demand for a job creating a pressure towards the unemployment and if the government cannot supply the increasing population with jobs, they will severely increase the unemployment rate. 11 IV. METHODOLOGY A cross sectional data comprising of 65 countries all over the world for the year 2000 was used in the study. All of the data sets were obtained from the World Bank data sets. The researcher will use the software program Gretl to estimate the model. With this software, the coefficients of the exogenous variables will be obtained.

A lin-lin type of model is used in this study and the Ordinary Least Squares approach will be used. After regressing the data, several outputs will be obtained like the coefficients, standard error, p-value and Rsquared to mention some. The model will now be subjected to various tests to check for any CLRM violations namely multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity. Autocorrelation is not present in this model since we are using a cross sectional data. To test for multicollierity, the auxiliary regression and the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) will be used.

To check for the presence of heteroscedasticity, both the Breusch – Pagan Test and the White’s Test will be used. After the tests, if there are presence of multicollinearity and heteroscedasticty, corrective measures should be applied in order to correct the model. The Ramsey’s RESET is a test for misspecification errors in the model. The interpretation of the results will be also showed after every test on the model. 12 V. EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONS A. Regression of the Original Model The regression results shown below are obtained by using the Ordinary Least Squares method also known as the OLS method.

Model 1: OLS, using observations 1-65 (n = 11) Missing or incomplete observations dropped: 54 Dependent variable: totunem coefficient std. error t-ratio p-value ———————————————————–const 14. 6143 6. 02794 2. 424 0. 0516 litrate -0. 344479 0. 129558 -2. 659 0. 0376 yearinsch 3. 48303 1. 04882 3. 321 0. 0160 gpd -1. 34898e-011 5. 94827e-012 -2. 268 0. 0639 totpop 1. 08535e-08 5. 83976e-09 1. 859 0. 1124 Mean dependent var Sum squared resid R-squared F(4, 6) Log-likelihood Schwarz criterion 6. 200000 40. 74309 0. 740853 4. 288221 -22. 80997 57. 60942 S. D. ependent var S. E. of regression Adjusted R-squared P-value(F) Akaike criterion Hannan-Quinn * ** ** * 3. 965098 2. 605862 0. 568088 0. 056084 55. 61995 54. 36586 Excluding the constant, p-value was highest for variable 5 (totpop) The results from the initial regression are shown above. We need to look at several values in interpreting the results for our model. We need to look first the coefficients and the pvalue but what do these things tells us about our model. Since our model is linear, the coefficient basically tells us the effect of a unit increase in the exogenous variables to the 3 endogenous variables. It is interpreted like this, a unit increase in an independent variable will increase or decrease the dependent variable by the coefficient value. The p-value shows us the individual significance of the exogenous variables. For the exogenous variables considered to be significant, the p-value should be less than or equal to the risk level of 0. 05 at a 95% confidence interval. The next thing that we need to look at is the R-squared or the goodness-offit. It tells us how many percent of the endogenous variable are explained by the exogenous variables.

The value of r-squared should be multiplied by 100% to be in percentage form. Interpreting the above model, it shows that a unit increase in litrate and yearinsch, totunem will decrease by 0. 344479 and increase by 3. 48303 repectively. These two variables are seen to be significant to our model with a p-value of 0. 0376 and 0. 0160 respectively. The other two variables which are gdp and totpop are seen to be insignificant in our model with a p-value of 0. 0639 and 0. 1124 respectively. With a unit increase in gdp and totpop, totunem will decrease by -1. 4898e-011 and increase by 1. 08535e-08 respectively. We now look on the Rsqaured of the model, as shown in the results above the R-sqaured has a value of 0. 740853 or 74. 08%. This implies that 74. 08% of the endogenous variables are explained by the exogenous variables. Note that these results and interpretation are only reliable if our model is free from any violation. These violations will be discussed later on and we will apply the corrective measure if necessary. 14 B. Summary Statistics Summary statistics, using the observations 1 – 65 (missing values were skipped) itrate yearinsch gpd totpop Mean 74. 787 6. 9008 3. 3822e+011 4. 5753e+007 Std. Dev. 20. 570 2. 8389 1. 2582e+012 1. 5949e+008 Median 79. 555 6. 8000 3. 7718e+010 1. 0467e+007 C. V. 0. 27505 0. 41138 3. 7202 3. 4859 Minimum 25. 654 0. 83900 2. 1546e+008 7. 8661e+005 Skewness -0. 66121 -0. 080552 6. 9480 7. 0442 Maximum 99. 767 12. 049 9. 8988e+012 1. 2626e+009 Ex. kurtosis -0. 67087 -0. 86711 49. 954 50. 864 litrate yearinsch gpd totpop The summary statistics shows us the details of our model. The mean, variance, skewness, and the kurtosis are the four moments of random variables.

Discussing further, the mean measures the central tendency, it is basically the sum of all the values of the observation with respect to the total number of observation or the average. The variance measures how spread out or dispersed the variables are from the mean. If the values of the variance are far from the mean, then it implies that observation are scattered around the mean. The values of the variance should be small so that the observations are near to the mean. A dataset is negatively skewed if the value of the mean of the model is less than the median. This focuses more on the higher values than the lower ones.

The positively skewed on the other hand tells us the other way around. 15 C. Testing for Misspecification in the Model RESET test for specification (squares and cubes) Test statistic: F = 0. 727289, with p-value = P(F(2,4) > 0. 727289) = 0. 538 RESET test for specification (cubes only) Test statistic: F = 0. 874685, with p-value = P(F(1,5) > 0. 874685) = 0. 393 RESET test for specification (squares only) Test statistic: F = 0. 664374, with p-value = P(F(1,5) > 0. 664374) = 0. 452 Misspecification occurs when there are important variables omitted. If the model is not correctly specified, the estimators will be biased and inconsistent.

Also, the error term is not estimated correctly. Because of the misspecification errors, the statistical significance of the variables will give us misleading conclusions. To be sure that our model is correctly specified, we run the Ramsey’s RESET test. The results above are from the Ramsey’s RESET test, this is the general test to check for misspecification of error in out model. There will be a null hypothesis that will be tested here which is Ho: there is no misspecification and the alternative hypothesis will be Ha: there is misspecification. To interpret the results above, we need to look at the p-values of the three results.

You will notice that all of the p-values are greater than the significance level of 0. 05, therefore there is no evidence that we need to accept the alternative hypothesis and we have no reason to reject the null hypothesis which tells us that there exist no misspecification of error. We can say confidently that the model is not misspecified. 16 D. Testing for Multicollinearity Multicollinearity exists when the independent variables are related to one another (Gujarati and Porter, 2009). It means that there is a linear relationship among the independent variables.

This is one of the classical linear regression violations and this is usually present in multiple regressions. Gujarati and Porter (2009) also pointed out that even though there is a presence of multicollinearity, the estimates are still BLUE. With the presence of multicollinearity, the standard error of the variables become larger than what their values should really be. Therefore the estimation will be difficult to determine whether it is precise or not. To know if the model exhibits multicollinearity, the model should be tested it and the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) must be examined.

If the VIF of the independent variables exceed 10, then multicollinearity exists between the exogenous variables and corrective measures are taken in order to eliminate the multicollinearity between the variables. Variance Inflation Factors Minimum possible value = 1. 0 Values > 10. 0 may indicate a collinearity problem litrate yearinsch gpd totpop 5. 011 4. 724 4. 890 4. 480 VIF(j) = 1/(1 – R(j)^2), where R(j) is the multiple correlation coefficient between variable j and the other independent variables Properties of matrix X’X: 1-norm = 1. 8146616e+024 Determinant = 3. 3597218e+046 Reciprocal condition number = 9. 335124e-026 17

To interpret the results above, we need look at the individual VIF of the exogenous variable whether multicollinearity exists or not. If the VIFs of the exogenous variables are less than 10, it implies that multicollinearity is tolerable and there are no corrective measures to be applied. But if the value of the VIF are greater than 10, then severe multicollinearity exists and the necessary correction should be done. As seen in the results above, the VIFs of the exogenous variables are less than 10 which implies that the CLRM assumption of multicollinearity is tolerable in the model thus, it does not require any corrective actions.

E. Testing for Heteroscedasticity Heteroscedasticity is also a classical linear regression model (CLRM) violation that is usually present in panel data and cross sectional data sets. This problem violates the assumption that the model exhibits constant variance as the sample size increases. Therefore, if anyone still continues with the normal testing procedures even though heteroscedasticity is present, whatever the conclusion one draw from the results may be misleading (Gujarati and Porter, 2009). In order to know whether our model exhibits heteroscedasticity, we need to perform the Breusch-Pagan Test or the White’s Test.

Let us look first at the result for the Breusch-Pagan Test for heteroscedasticity. Breusch-Pagan test for heteroskedasticity OLS, using observations 1-65 (n = 11) Missing or incomplete observations dropped: 54 Dependent variable: scaled uhat^2 coefficient std. error t-ratio p-value ————————————————————const 0. 353903 2. 83863 0. 1247 0. 9049 litrate 0. 0400827 0. 0610102 0. 6570 0. 5356 yearinsch -0. 394681 0. 493903 -0. 7991 0. 4547 18 gpd totpop -1. 46506e-012 2. 07008e-010 2. 80111e-012 2. 75001e-09 -0. 5230 0. 07528 0. 6197 0. 9424

Explained sum of squares = 2. 80998 Test statistic: LM = 1. 404991, with p-value = P(Chi-square(4) ; 1. 404991) = 0. 843327 Ho: Constant Variance vs Ha: Heteroscedasticity exists As we can see from the results above, the p-value is 0. 843327 which is greater than the 0. 05. Thus, the null hypothesis which tells us that our model exhibits a constant variance must be accepted and the alternative hypothesis to be rejected. Let us also use the White’s test for heteroscedsaticity to check whether the results from the Breusch-Pagan test performed above is the same with here.

White’s test for heteroskedasticity OLS, using observations 1-65 (n = 11) Missing or incomplete observations dropped: 54 Dependent variable: uhat^2 coefficient std. error t-ratio p-value —————————————————————const -111. 711 169. 951 -0. 6573 0. 5785 litrate 3. 22957 5. 32033 0. 6070 0. 6056 yearinsch 0. 271900 18. 2904 0. 01487 0. 9895 gpd 2. 20028e-011 9. 24076e-011 0. 2381 0. 8340 totpop -7. 59484e-09 1. 24364e-07 -0. 06107 0. 9569 sq_litrate -0. 0208996 0. 0331887 -0. 6297 0. 5932 sq_yearinsch -0. 142336 1. 28197 -0. 1110 0. 9217 sq_gpd 0. 000000 0. 000000 -0. 437 0. 7639 sq_totpop 0. 000000 0. 000000 0. 2166 0. 8486 Unadjusted R-squared = 0. 470293 Test statistic: TR^2 = 5. 173227, with p-value = P(Chi-square(8) > 5. 173227) = 0. 738911 Ho: Constant Variance vs Ha: Heteroscedasticity exists 19 The results from the White’s test give us the same intuition as the Breusch-Pagan Test. The p-value here is 0. 738911 which is greater than 0. 05. Based on the results, we should accept the null hypothesis and reject the alternative hypothesis. Since both of the test’s that was performed have a p-value greater than 0. 05 which implieas that they are insignificant.

We should accept the null hypothesis which is the model exhibits a constant variance and reject the alternative hypothesis. There is no heteroscedasticity in the model. 20 VI. CONCLUSION Based on the results in the regression, we can conclude that all of the exogenous variables except for yearinsch match our a-priori expectations. The results after regressing the model shows that litrate, gdp are significant thus we can say that they are indeed factors in determining unemployment. The variable totpop is insignificant because when population increase, it doesn’t mean that there will people already available to work immediately.

But the review on related literatures proved that when population increases the unemployment rate will also increase eventually. As for the variable yearinsch, this is most significant variable among the four exogenous variables. The effect of this variable captures the negative effect. As said in the a-priori expectations, years in schooling may continue to increase because of poor performance in school, thus the students will repeat again and again and again, Yes it increases the years of schooling but it implies a negative effect.

People will end up unemployed since they are not doing well in school. The government plays an important role in maintaining a low level of unemployment. They will not be able to achieve its goal of having full employment but the government can provide job opportunities to alleviate unemployment. The people should also do their part in order for them not to be part of the unemployed by simply performing well in school and aim for higher level of education. 21 VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY Abuqamar, M. , Coomans, D. , & Louckx, F. (2011, January).

Correlation between socioeconomic differences and infant mortality in the Arab World (1990-2009). International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 3(1) , 15-21. Gujarati, & Porter. (2009). Basic Econometrics. USA: John Weily and Sons. Hussain, T. , Siddiqi, M. , & Iqbal, A. (2010). A Coherent Relationship between Economic Growth and Unemployment: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences , 332-339. Literacy Fact Sheet. (n. d. ). Retrieved from Northwest Territories Literacy Council: http://www. nwt. literacy. a/litfacts/LiteracyandUnemployment. pdf Rafiq, M. , Iftikhar, A. , Asmat, U. , & Zahoor, K. (n. d. ). DETERMINANTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT:A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN ECONOMY (1998-2008). Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 3. No. 1 , 17-24. The effects of education on the natural rate of unemployment. (2008, 4 1). Retrieved 4 7, 2011, from Goliath: Business knowledge on demand: http://goliath. ecnext. com/coms2/gi_0199-8128098/The-effects-of-education-on. html Weisberg, Y. , & Meltz, N. M. (n. d. ). Education and Unemployment in israel, 1976-1994: Reducing the Anomaly. 22

Free Essays

Employment and Unemployment

The employment rate means the number of people that is presently employed divided by the population of working age. Unemployment is a situation where labour force participants are avaible, willing to work and actively looking for a job but are unable to find any jobs. Labor force is defined as the people above the age of 16 and older who are employed or are actively seeking employment. Unemployment rate can be calculated by dividing the number of unemployed with the labor force.

Changes in unemployment depend mostly on inflows made up of non-employed people starting to look for jobs, of employed people who lose their jobs and look for new ones and of people who stop looking for employment. The cause of unemployment in Malaysia varies. There are four types of unemployments, which include cyclical unemployment, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment and seasonal unemployment. Cyclical unemnployment of Malaysia happens when there is lack of jobs due to the downswing in a business cycle or a recession.

Due to this economy declines, the number of job layoffs crossways the world is rising extremely. The International Labor Organization affirmed that up to 51 million jobs worldwide could be eliminated due to the recession. Malaysia is no exception. Normally with an unemployment rate of 2% to 2. 5%, could rise to 4. 5% in that particular year. Since January 2009 about 10,000 Malaysians have been jobless. Another problem that causes the increasing of unemployment rate of Malaysia is that there are so many new job seekers each and every year.

Research shows that every year there are 600,000 new job seekers in Malaysia. This is when the frictional unemployment happens which people are in between jobs, entering and reentering the labor force. For example when people quit their jobs for a better position or higher wages or when fresh graduates are actively seeking for jobs. Even though these people are not working, but they are counted as part of the labor force because they are searching for jobs.

It is stated that structural unemployment is when jobs are available but the unemployed does not have the skills to fill these jobs. In Malaysia, the case is quite the opposite. There are many highly-qualified candidates, but they are too embarrassed to take on low-paying jobs, although a local spokesperson says that ‘job seekers should accept whatever job positions they can get’. That would decrease the number of people seeking jobs, which would decrease unemployment based on frictional and structural unemployment. Seasonal unemployment takes place hen seasonal variations happens during the activities of particular industries caused by climatic changes, changes in fashions or by the intrinsic nature of such industries. In Malaysia, there are a lot of opportunities in the plantation sector. With the typical weather of Malaysia, people in the plantation sector are able to grow crops all year round. Nonetheless, seasonal unemployment still takes place. For example, the sugar industry is seasonal in the sense that the crushing of sugar-cane is done only in a particular season. Such seasonal industries are bound to give rise to seasonal unemployment.

Free Essays

Overpopulation: Unemployment and Possible Solutions

To Thi Thu Huong Writing task 2 THE WOLD IS EXPERIENCING A DRAMATIC INCREASE IN POPULATION. THIS IS CAUSING PROBLEMS NOT ONLY FOR POOR, UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES, BUT ALSO FOR INDUSTRIALIZED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS. DESCRIBE SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THAT OVERPOPULATION CAUSES AND SUGGEST AT LEAST ONE POSSIBLE SOLUTION. Due to recent improvement in healthcare system as well as the economic growth, the population is increasing faster and faster. This is laying a heavy burden on the economy, society and environment of both advanced and developing nations.

In this essay, I’m going to explore the main problems caused by overcrowding and suggest some possible solutions. First, overpopulation tends to slowdown the economy because it creates a shortage of public goods such as electricity and water supply, etc. which depend on the government allocation. Hence, the authorities, especially in poor countries have to apply for high-interest loans from abroad to fill in the budget deficit. Consequently, those countries are struggling to repay the long-term foreign debts and unable to escape the vicious circle of poverty. Second, there is a great deal of troubles for the society with too many people.

For example, the appreciation of unemployment rates will cause bad impacts on social welfare; and the education and healthcare system may not be able to meet the needs of the public. Also, the community will be suffered from severe hunger, formidable crime rates and unstable politic situation. Moreover, when the planet gets more crowded, the environment is also threatened. Along with the intensive farming and industrialization to fulfill the dearth of the extra residents, there will be more sewage, redundant fertilizer and pesticide, and exhaust fumes that pollute the water the land the air.

In addition, the exploitation of natural resources will drain the earth’s stockpile to the point that it can no longer supply for our life. Eventually, what awaits humankind is a future of suicide. Fortunately, there are some possible solutions for those problems. The government can promote public-private provision to deal with the needs for public goods. An increase in taxation and industry investment will settle many social and economy troubles such as unemployment and budget inadequacy. We also need stricter regulations on resource usage and pollutant emission.

At the same time, a focus on early education will help untie the knot of overpopulation from the root. The more developed nations and international institutions should help the underdeveloped countries by providing more ODAs and FDIs as well as establishing consultancy councils. To summarize, overpopulation is now a world wide phenomenon that is followed by many negative economic, social and environmental impacts. However, those difficulties can be overcome with the efforts of both the government and the individual.

Free Essays

Respectable Citizens: Gender, Family and Unemployment

Respectable Citizens: Gender, Family and Unemployment in Ontario’s Great Depression By Lara Campbell – A Review Lara Campbell’s, professor of history at Simon Frasier University, book Respectable Citizens: Gender, Family and Unemployment in Ontario’s Great Depression (published in 2009) provides a thoroughly researched look at an often looked over topic in regards to the Great Depression; gender. Her beginning introductory chapter sets the focus of this book and she takes time to consider the strengths and weaknesses of her thoroughly used sources.

This overview of the book provides the reader with a well formatted look into her topics of discussion; namely the aspects of the welfare state, labour, and gender identity and understanding. Campbell divides her book into five primary chapters; each of which discuss a variety of issues and themes supplemented thoroughly with examples of accounts. Chapter one demonstrates the vital role which women, particularly as mothers, played within the home in order to ensure economic survival. Additionally, this chapter discusses the influence and importance of society’s view of just what a “good wife/mother” was including class differences.

Survival through domestic work (e. g. nutrition, clothing, keeping house, budgeting) and informal labour (e. g. taking in laundry, sewing, prostitution, taking boarders) served as staples for women and mothers alike during this era. Campbell also discusses and provides insights on the matters of single motherhood, employed married women – who were largely subject to public ire for taking the jobs of men especially if their husband also had a job– and women deserting their families. This chapter, much like the second focuses on the roles, duties and expectations placed upon women and men in regards to their families.

Chapter two continues on such topic with its focus being on men. This particular chapter demonstrates the stresses placed upon the family as men — the quinticental “bread-winners” — were increasingly unable to fill their role and were forced to endure searches for work and resulted in demands of social entitlement. Campbell spends particular attention to the humiliation of men in accepting relief money and as well as the concept of being unable to provide and fill their role as husbands and fathers leading to suicide.

Chapter three canvases the contributions and involvements of the youth with their families through, primarily, informal and formal labour along with theft and black market dealings. It can be seen in this chapter the weighting of school against economic need; many for going schooling due to lack of clothing, supplies and duty to the family. As the chapter progresses Campbell demonstrates the requirements placed upon the sons and daughters even as they reached adulthood and the conflicts it generated between parent and child through the various acts employed by the state (e. . Parents Maintenance Act). The subject of illegitimate children and abortions is also discussed as Campbell portrays the effect the Depression had upon marriage rates. Chapters four and five, much like chapters one and two, share similarities in their subject matter; both chapters discuss protect, state policy and provision at length. In chapter four Campbell focuses on the stresses and their effects on both men and women in the home, including domestic abuse, and towards the state (e. g. eviction protests, meetings and political mobilization).

Chapter five builds on the themes of protests toward the state and the variables of such things as gender (largely traditional in nature), ethnicity and class that shaped such matters like child welfare and rightful claims. By large Campbell explores the identity of Canadians during the Great Depression through gender and family. She depicts and discusses the traditional notions of the “Bread-Winner” husband and the “Good” wife and mother; both characters that provide and sustain the families in vital ways and the reflection the trials of the era presented such “Respectable Citizens” with.

The main method of asserting these notions being through her extensive use of accounts from government documents, court records, newspapers, memoirs, plays, and interviews with women and men who lived in Ontario during the 1930s. Campbell’s focus on the hardships faced during the economic crisis allows for one to neatly achieve insight into the gendered dynamics that took place within the families of Ontario’s lives. She draws less so on the notion of Canadian “Britishness” but more so on how such a foundation influenced the actions of the people in what was to be perceived as the fundamental aspects of the man and women of the house.

Campbell’s focus on the family-sphere demonstrates not only aspects of class structure and gender norms but the state’s view on them. She reports that often mothers were the unsung heads of house that not only fed, cleaned, clothed and nurtured but took stock of every item and ensured that every penny eared or received was used to its full capacity (this aspect being the chief discussion topic in chapter one). Additionally, she presents the societal view of class standards of women as the consumers of society.

Poor or low class women often lectured on the supposed simplicities of keeping house and, perhaps famously, “making do”, while the middle to high class women were reportedly encouraged to spend what money was available to them for the purpose of keeping the Canadian market going as opposed to their counterparts who praised for “making a dollar do the work of five” (as praised by the father of Mary Cleevson about his wife on page 26 of Campbell’s book). Campbell also goes into detail of the effectiveness of the various acts put in place during the 1930s to supplement earnings and the survivability of a family.

These entitlements, while for a number of men were seen as humiliating to receive as it was a show against their ability to provide , served to identify that which adult (primarily parents) were entitled too by virtue of some nature of service. The Parent’s Maintenance Act is a good example of this; a parent or set of parents were able to call upon the court and demand payment due to them from their adult children under the basis that their sons and daughters owed a debt to them simply for being their parents.

There were of course, as Campbell does not fail to provide examples for, cases in which the adult children were unable to pay due to personal circumstance or out of refusal by way of seeing their parent (particular the father) as lazy—such as the mentioned case of 52 year old Harry Bartram in June of 1937 who was denied by one of his three sons the five dollar weekly payment under such a claim (as seen on page 98 of Respectable Citizens). Finally, Campbell’s demonstrates the somewhat charming penchant Canadians appear to have for complaining.

Within the chapters of Respectable Citizens one is shown various instances in which wives and mothers of all sorts take the community’s moral fiber into their own hands through acts such as calling the police on those suspected of prostitution, theft and selling on the black market and sending letters to the Primers of Ontario of the time George Henry (1930-34) and Mitchell Hepburn (1934-42) of the hardships that must face. It is this activism that becomes a part of the identity that builds into eviction protests, meetings and committees and political mobilization.

Lara Campbell’s book contributes to the understanding of Canadian history and identity of the affectionately named “Dirty Thirties” by taking the opportunity to look past the issues of hunger and job loss alone and onto the people more specifically. While she does take time to emphasize the job loss and economic crisis of the decade, she applies those factors in making an effort to comprehend society’s reaction and how that reaction reflects upon gender roles and family.

This analysis clearly reveals aspects of the Canadian welfare state through well-developed topics and examples, providing a comfortable read for any who should chose to read this book. The discussion of state policy, relief efforts, labour and social movements as well as they altered family dynamic of the era allows for a clear understanding on a human level. Bibliography Campbell, Lara. Respectable Citzens: Gender, Family and Unemployment in Ontario’s Great Depression. (University of Toronto Press: 2009).

Free Essays

Unemployment Problem in Bangladesh

Date: February 15, 2013 Dr. Mahbub Sarfaraj Department of Management Kabi Nazrul Govt. college Dhaka Subject: Submission of Term Paper . Dear sir, It is a great pleasure and privilege the term titled “Impact Of Globalization In Economic Growth ”. I have really enjoyed to prepare this report. I thing this report enrich my knowledge on impact of globalization in economic growth . There may be some mistake I think this mistake in the report will be kindly excused. With Thanks and best regards Sincerely Yours, Marium Akter Roll Number : 961 42 78

Registration Number :165 23 59 Department of Management Kabi Nazrul Govt. Collage Student’s Declaration I hereby declare that the report of term paper namely “Impact of Globalization in Economic Growth” by me a comprehensive study of the Impact of Globalization of Economic Growth . I also declare that this paper is my original worked and prepared for academic purpose which is part of B. B. A. Marium Akter Roll Number : 961 42 78 Registration Number :165 23 59 Department of Management Kabi Nazrul Govt. Collage Supervisor’s Declaration

I hereby declare that the concerned report entitled “The impact of globalization in the economic growth” original work by Marium Akter ; a student of BBA (Hons. ), Department of Management , Kabi Nazrul Govt. College , has completed term paper under my supervision and submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of B. B. A at Kabi Nazrul Govt. College. ………………………. Dr. Mahbub Sarfaraj Lecturer Department of Management Kabi Nazrul Govt. college Executive Summary After studying the theoretical concepts of topic, understanding its practical implication and application is the next step in the learning process. n the process writing this paper , I came to know about different aspects of export as well as the Saudi Arabian market that I have explored with the light of my little knowledge . I have chosen Unemployment Problem in Bangladesh to complete my project on. Bangladesh is trying to develop unemployment sector is one of the most promising one in this process. It will face competition there but it has come distinctive qualities which will face help it to establish itself as a prime sector. However, after all this human being ,I believe everyone is not beyond limitation .

There might have problems regarding lacks and limitation in some aspect and also some minor mistake such as syntax error or typing mistake or lack of limitation please pardon for that mistake . Md. Rasel Roll Number : 961 42 77 Registration Number :165 23 58 Department of Management Kabi Nazrul Govt. Collage Table of Content Letter of transmittal01 Student’s Declaration02 Supervisor’s Declaration03 Executive Summary04 Introduction05 Objective10 The Nature11 Impact 12 Causes 14 Extent17 Type 19 Structural Unemployment 19 Frictional Unemployment 19 Cyclical Unemployment 19

Seasonal Unemployment 20 Possible solution to unemployment 20 Conclusion 21 Bibliography22 “Unemployment Problem in Bangladesh” Introduction Unemployment is a great problem in Bangladesh. Every year hundreds of thousands students are coming out from college and University. Though it is one of the major responsibility of the Government to provide job to those young generation but the Government is failed to meet the job demand among the large population. Only a tiny fraction of total jobless in managed by different government official and private organization but a majority remain unemployment.

Historically for a long time British administration was the main cause of this problem. After ending Mughol regime when the British came in sub continent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh)They started to do business ,They exploited the sub-continent. They did not establish any industry which is helpful to remove unemployment problem. Though some Industry was made but all them were placed in Indian Territory. So Bangladesh region was neglected from the British period. After ending British rule in 1947 Pakistan adopted the same rule they establish all kinds of Industry in west Pakistan not in East Pakistan .

As a result of Pakistani monopoly rule we saw the freedom fighting war in 1971. After nine month continuous war it is divided and named East Pakistan as a Bangladesh. After 1971 Bangladesh has been facing political crisis badly. As a result no government can not take long term massive step to remove the unemployment problem. Within 41 years Bangladesh has experience about eight new government and two assassination Incident at the top level country leader. So now political crisis is one of the major causes of unemployment problems. Among other two major parties BNP and Aowamileague are busy to gain only political power.

None of these parties are trying to do anything to solve the country’s major problems Unemployment problems. Many Asian developing countries are the bright example in the world who is successful to remove the unemployment problem successfully. Korea, Malaysia, Singapore are the news of them, They are growing rapidly because there is no political crisis, Government assured the foreign Investor about political clam environment. So many American, European and Japanese company are investing those regions spontaneously. AS a result they are developing very fast. Bangladesh Government and political leader should leer from those Asian countries.

Recent attitude and activities of political parties are very hateful to the common people. By election if a party goes to power then another party cannot accept that, they do not go to parliament they do not express constructive opinion in the parliament which is helpful for common people . But they should not do it. May be there is some discrimination of the election result but there are overall acceptation for the common people. To think about greater welfare of the country they should keep patient, they should support the government to take long term step to remove unemployment problems.

If we watch towards Japan, Korea, Malaysia what we will see? Due to industrialization they have changed a lot. Without industrialization no nation can expect strong economic basement and solution of unemployment problems. Political settlement the first and forecast thing for Bangladesh is, to build up industry to remove the unemployment problem. If they can assure the political clam and stable situation, then foreigner will to come invest manufacturing sector to build new industry. In this respect transportation, Road and Highway, Electricity should be reconstructed strongly otherwise everything will be failed.

Specially Automobile and Electronics industry are the major items to intensify a country’s overall financial condition. Most of money is spent in this two sector. Lot of population can be employed in these industry. Because by surrounding a automobile or electronics industry hundreds supporting some industry will be build up. As result a lot of people will be employed. In this respect the Government should adopt a strong and strict policy about used car establishing automobile industry they should ban import of all used car. Used car is import is destroying the environment and employment opportunity.

To intensify the overall industrialization our Ambassadors who are employed in different countries specially Japan, Korea,Malaysia and Singapora can help the government to adopt strong effective ,active successful police. Because are well known with those countries environment. Government and people they have practical and expert felling about the development policy in different sector of the respective country. We have already wasted a lot of time. We don’t want to live as the poorest and neglected nation in the world. We want our economic growth ,our honor. We have a lot of workforce lot of money in the bank.

But due to proper utilization and proper planning we are staying in back. In this regard political leader, Intellectual industrialist, planner Ambassador, Teacher, Student and migrated generation in abroad should contribute achieve the economic progress. If we can take proper steps to obtain our economic growth, then we can remove our unemployment problem. God says if you want to love me try to love people first. If you believe in God you have to love people. Ask yourself according your ability an responsibility how much has you done to help country? 80% the people are living in rural.

After a long struggle a village parents educate his children helped them to grownup. They help them to gain college and University degree. Rest duty is yours that is Government. Yes it is Government duty to provide job for our young generation. It is fundamental duty of a government to solve the problem of Unemployment. Objective The rice of unemployment, as has been reported to be case in Bangladesh under a recent study that was prepared by the planning commission for finding out the progress made by the country under the millennium Development goals (MDGs) programme of the United Nation, is a worrisome development.

The rate of unemployment in Bangladesh, according to the study, has now risen to some 11 per cent from what was percent 8. 0 percent in 2002 and 204 percent in 1990. This is only official data. The unofficial but reliable estimates of unemployment are higher. Employment creation needs to be a very important objective in every economy for the simple reasons that unemployment persons pose a burden at every economy for the simple level in society. First of all, they are burdens for their families. Unemployment young ones eligible to work and not finding work are a source of agony for their families.

Family resources are drained on the maintenance of unemployed young persons. In the overall economic sense, unemployment people are liabilities for te economy because they do not produce only consume. People who do jobs usually produce something or discharge a service and obtain an income in return for their economic activities. Thus, both unemployment and its milder form, underemployment, meaning less than optimum engagement in work, are highly undesirable for the economy and society. Employment means incomes and it is an no way possible to alleviate poverty without creating income-earning opportunities or jobs for those remain unemployment.

It is, therefore, extremely important to put the greatest emphasis on maximizing employment opportunities through meaningful operationalisation of the strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. For this, the government must pursue practical policies to give a stimulus to much greater investment in the economy so that more jobs can be created on a regular basis. The domestic economy may not expand, in the short run, sufficient and proportionality to provide jobs to the rising number of unemployed people.

It, thus, serves the country’s purpose if efforts are made at same time to send people abroad with jobs. In the latter case, the benefits can be multiple. The pressure of the unemployment ones for jobs eases, foreign currencies are remitted in support of the foreign currency reserve and the country is also spared the parasitic existence of people without jobs. Considering all this factors, the government should pursue more energetic policies to help create synergy so that more investment takes places within the economy, on one side and more people can also be sent abroad with gainful jobs, on the other.

Providing training at publicly –run training centre to impact effective training to young persons for jobs which have good demand abroad can be quite useful here, because the returns in remittances from skilled labour are substantially higher than unskilled one. For speeding up employment locally, action like making available training, advisory service, capital support and assistance to the country’s huge unemployment youth at grassroots level should merit a serious attention, in addition to other supportive public policies in areas of infrastructure faculties, investment-friendly regulatory reforms etc.

Training and assistance, are, of course, Vital for expending the scope for self-employment opportunities, particularly in the dairies and livestock, poultry breeding, growing of novel agriculture products for export, etc. The policy objective should be pro-active here particularly for encouraging the labour intebsive sectors to maximize employment. The Nature Unemployment means the state of being without any work both for the educated and uneducated for earning one’s livelihood. Unemployment problem has become a great concern all over the world. But nowhere in the world, this problem is so acute as in Bangladesh.

Thousand of people in our country are without any job. Cause of unemployment: Bangladesh, like other developing countries, suffer form large-scale disguised unemployment in the sense that, even with unchanged techniques of agricultural a large part of the population engaged in agricultural could be removed without reducing agricultural output. Beyond agriculture, disguised unemployment also exists in large industries, offices and organization, particularly in the public sector. Unemployment among the educated youths is one of the major problems in Bangladesh.

The unemployment rate for the population having secondary certificate level education and above is significantly higher than those with a lower level education, The unemployment rate for educated women is higher compared to that for the male population. In Bangladesh salaried/wage employment in the formal sector is not big enough to take care of the huge number of unemployment. Employment promotion, especially , creation of opportunities, continues as the most important function of the Bureau of Manpower Employment and Training, The Fifth Five-year plan for 1997-2002 had set a target of creating additional employment of 6. 5 million persons . of this, a total of 1,60,000 persons expected to be engaged in emphasis had been given on training and credit support to women micro entrepreneurs in cottage industries and other traditional and non-traditional sectors including skill development for service industries and non-farm activities. The private sector and NGO’S are also playing a vital role to this end effect of unemployment problem. The efforts of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh are analyzed to identify a relationship between migration and unemployment, Poverty, unemployment and natural hazards appear to be the main reasons for the rural exodus.

The preference for moving to a large city is found to be determined by the urban bias in planning both national and international authorities, and by the public amenities and resources available in the urban areas. An analysis of the levels and trends in urbanization reveals the notable role of rural-urban migration in the rapid growth of the urban population. Most migrants are young, unmarried males of working age. A case study of migrants in Dhaka city illustrates the reasons for and consequences of migration. It is concluded that rural-urban migration is mainly a survival strategy of rural poor. Impact

According to a study of the international Labour Organization (ILO), the rate of growth of unemployment in Bangladesh was 1. 9 per cent in the decade of the nineties. But the growth in unemployment currently is 3. 7 percent. The ILO Figures also show Bangladesh in the twelfth position among the top twenty countries in the world where unemployment is rising . The number of the unemployed in Bangladesh now is estimated at 30 million. The way the rate of unemployment is increasing, it is feared that at this rate unemployment would soar to some 60 million by 2015. According to another estimate, every year some 2. million young persons are becoming eligible for jobs whereas only about 0. 7 million of them are getting unemployment. The number of the ‘disguised unemployment’ and economic term meaning underemployment people or employed to a degree less than their potential, in some 32 per cent. The huge number of the unemployed and the underemployed in workforce gives an idea of the number of the parasitic ones in the population. Employed persons not only consume from the economy but they also contribute to the economy through production activities and discharge of various services.

The unemployed people in contrast only live of the economy or their families and society. They are an absolute burden on the state. Not only being liabilities in the economic sense, politically and socially they are considered to be a source of tension and turmoil. The linkage between unemployment and crimes is obvious. Therefore, all governments in Bangladesh will need to address the unemployment issue very seriously indeed before it turns worse. The recent floods and the devastating sidor storm plus the restructuring activities leading to retrenchment of workers form state operated enterprises, have added to the unemployment problems.

Government will have to start up urgently different work programmers like road building and repairs, reconstruction oh infrastructures, etc. especially in the rural areas and continue them for sometime, to migrate the worst woes of the jobless ones at the grass road level. But for the medium and longer terms, the present interim government which is doing pathbreaking works in vital areas, should also adopt a plan of action of tackle unemployment. It can start such a plan and leave gradual implementation of it to successor government.

Insufficient investment have been frustrating the creation of employment opportunities of Bangladesh. Government here needs to identify each of the factors that can contribute to a better investment climate. The same would include improvement of law and order, much lowering of the interest rate of borrowing, addition to and up gradation of infrastructures to be supportive of enterprising. Fiscal policies that create level playing fields for local entrepreneurs in relation to foreign competitors, fiscal incentives such as tax reduction and tax exemption, etc.

Government will need to act imaginatively and effectively in relation to each of the above factors and more to improve the investment climate that in turn would accelerate economic activities and make the desired impact on the unemployment situation. However, there is also need to be clear about the policies to be pursued to create employment. New enterprise will absorb the unemployment. But capital intensive enterprise will employ a smaller number than labour intensive ones which will understandably employ a greater number. Thus, enterprise with labour intensive character should be identified and encouraged.

Government can make a big contribution towards reducing unemployment by also building and operating a large number of training institution to train the jobless ones in different vacation for them to be fit enough to take up employment in the country, to go abroad of doing job or to engage in self-employment. Government ample spending for skill development is all more necessary because private sector more prefer not to invest in this area out of consideration of law profits. The high costs of skill training under the private sector is also likely to exclude most seekers of such training on the ground of their inability to pay for the training.

Thus, Government’s role of skill trainer is very important. But government can expect to recover the investment it will make in this area by receiving payments from people who would get jobs after such training. Causes Bangladesh, like other developing countries, suffers from large-scale disguised unemployment in the sense that, even with unchanged techniques of agriculture a large part of the population engaged in agriculture could be removed without reducing agricultural output. Beyond agricultural, disguised unemployment is also existing in large industries, offices and organizations, particularly in the public sector.

Unemployment among the educated youths is one of major problems in Bangladesh. The unemployment rate for the population having secondary school certificate level education and above is significantly higher then those with a lower level of education. The unemployment rate for educated woman is higher compared to that for male population. . In Bangladesh salaried/wage employment in the formal sector is not big enough to take care of the huge number of unemployment. Employment promotion, especially , creation of opportunities, continues as the most important function of the Bureau of Manpower

Employment and Training, The Fifth Five-year plan for 1997-2002 had set a target of creating additional employment of 6. 35 million persons . of this, a total of 1,60,000 persons expected to be engaged in emphasis had been given on training and credit support to women micro entrepreneurs in cottage industries and other traditional and non-traditional sectors including skill development for service industries and non-farm activities. The private sector and NGO’S are also playing a vital role to this end unemployment problems. Effect of Unemployment problems:

The efforts of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh are analyzed to identify a relationship between migration and unemployment, Poverty, unemployment and natural hazards appear to be the main reasons for the rural exodus. The preference for moving to a large city is found to be determined by the urban bias in planning both national and international authorities, and by the public amenities and resources available in the urban areas. An analysis of the levels and trends in urbanization reveals the notable role of rural-urban migration in the rapid growth of the urban population.

Most migrants are young, unmarried males of working age. A case study of migrants in Dhaka city illustrates the reasons for and consequences of migration. It is concluded that rural-urban migration is mainly a survival strategy of rural poor. According to a study of the international Labour Organization (ILO), the rate of growth of unemployment in Bangladesh was 1. 9 per cent in the decade of the nineties. But the growth in unemployment currently is 3. 7 percent. The ILO Figures also show Bangladesh in the twelfth position among the top twenty countries in the world where unemployment is rising .

The number of the unemployed in Bangladesh now is estimated at 30 million. The way the rate of unemployment is increasing, it is feared that at this rate unemployment would soar to some 60 million by 2015. According to another estimate, every year some 2. 7 million young persons are becoming eligible for jobs whereas only about 0. 7 million of them are getting unemployment. The number of the ‘disguised unemployment’ and economic term meaning underemployment people or employed to a degree less than their potential, in some 32 per cent.

The total civilian labour force of the country in 1996-1997 was estimate at 42. 97 million, of which 34. 7 million were male and 8. 27 million were female. These figures, However excluded the female labour force engaged in activities like poultry, livestock, paddy husking, preservation of food etc conducted in rural households and considered as domestic work rather than economic. Since 2000, the U. S manufacturing sector has lost nearly 25 percent of our total manufacturing workforce. Many of those jobs have gone to communist china, where toys for the U.

S market are made is sweatshops by workers paid as little as 36 cents per hour and many white-collar jobs have gone to India where telephone operators cab be hired for $1 an hour. Leading economists are becoming willing to admit that their devotion to free trade was misplaced. Paul Samuelson, Nobel prize –winning economist and a dominating figure in U. S economics decades, faced reality before he died and admitted, “there is nothing in the theory that says trade is always a win-win for every group’’. Dr. Jerome coesi’s latest book, America for sale, is a superb explanation to help the public understand our current economic woes.

He shows that free trade is turning America into a two-tiered country like many foreign countries, with few of the very rich and a lot of very poor, while the middle class loses big time. Extent According to a study of the international Labour Organization (ILO), the rate of growth of unemployment in Bangladesh was 1. 9 per cent in the decade of the nineties. But the growth in unemployment currently is 3. 7 percent. The ILO Figures also show Bangladesh in the twelfth position among the top twenty countries in the world where unemployment is rising. The number of the unemployed in Bangladesh now is estimated at 30 million.

The way the rate of unemployment is increasing, it is feared that at this rate unemployment would soar to some 60 million by 2015. According to another estimate, every year some 2. 7 million young persons are becoming eligible for jobs whereas only about 0. 7 million of them are getting unemployment. The number of the ‘disguised unemployment’ and economic term meaning underemployment people or employed to a degree less than their potential, in some 32 per cent. The total civilian labour force of the country in 1996-1997 was estimate at 42. 97 million, of which 34. 7 million were male and 8. 7 million were female. These figures, However excluded the female labour force engaged in activities like poultry, livestock, paddy husking, preservation of food etc conducted in rural households and considered as domestic work rather than economic. Index Mundi, a web based statistical data provider, the following chat has been published. This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted. Bangladesh-Unemployment Rate (%) |Year |Unemployment Rate | |2000 |35. 2 | 2001 |35. 2 | |2002 |35 | |2003 |40 | |2004 |40 | |2005 |40 | |2006 |2. 5 | |2007 |2. 5 | |2008 |2. 5 | |2009 |2. 5 | |2010 |5. 1 | |2011 |4. | |2012 |4. 8 | Types Economics break unemployment down into three distinct varieties- structural, Frictional and Seasonal. Below we will examine each type of unemployment to see how they differ. Structural Unemployment The glossary of Economics defines Structural Unemployment as: “Structural unemployment is an unemployment that comes form there being an absence of demand for workers that are available”. There are two major reasons that cause of absence of demand for workers in a particular industry: 1.

Change in Technology. 2. Change in Tastes. Frictional unemployment: The Glossary of Economics defines Frictional Unemployment as: “Frictional unemployment is unemployment that comes from people moving between jobs, careers and location”. Source of Frictional unemployment include the following: 1. People entering the workforce from school. 2. People re-entering the workforce after raising school. 3. People changing un-employers due to quitting or being fired. 4. People changing careers due to changing interest. 5. People moving to a new city and being unemployed when they arrive.

Seasonal Unemployment : Seasonal unemployment is unemployment due to change in the season-such as a lack of demand of department store santa clauses in January. Seasonal unemployment is a form of structural unemployment, as the structure of the economy changes from month to month. Possible solution to unemployment In order to eliminate this problem. We have to mobilize all our energies to this grade purpose without west in time. The most essential measure industrialization. A large number of mills, factories in industries should be setup where money of our youths we get opportunity to work.

A grade change should be brought in our education system. More importance should be given on professional, vocational and technical education. These will make a opening to work in different industrial sector both home abroad. The educated youth should change their attitude to life. They must learn to choose independent carrier. They can start small business. In fact self employment in possible solution to this great problem. it is very effective to search jobs on various freelance. Web sites and get desired jobs easily.

Step should be taken to setup property farming, cottage, industries and to open new system of public work to create a job for unemployment people. Exporting manpower can solve this problem to a little extent. If proper measurement is taken this number can easily be increased. But no attempts will dear any fruit unless effect measure are taken to keep the population growth under control. Conclusion in the prime minister questions-answer session on February 17, Prime minister Sheikh Hasina disclosed in the house her government’s plan to bring down unemployment rate to 15% from the existing 40% by the year 2021.

She listed the programs that her government at already undertaken for employment generation to remove the cause of employment these include, imparting technical training to unemployment youth’s through 38 technical training centre, building 30 more technical training centre in this districts with no such centers and upgrading syllabus of 23 courses run by the manpower, employment and training bureau of international standards keeping in mind the demand of international recruiters. In the latest labour force survey (LFS) 2005-2006 published in 2008 of Bangladesh bureau statistics.

The countries labour force (15 years+ population) stood at 84. 6 million. in the LFS of 2002-2003 it stood 80. 8 millions. The populations below the age of 15 years falls into the category of child population and can not as per law be treated as labour force. Even if we stick to the 2005-2006 LFS figure of 84. 6 million. Secondly, according to the LFS 2005-2006 the annual labor force growth rate for the period 2000-2003 to 2005-06 stood at 2. 21 percent which is higher than the annual population growth rate. Have we been able to increase job opportunities at the above growth rate of force.

Thirdly, when the rate of unemployment in the united states is hovering around 10 % (9. 7 % in January,2010) The important of timely and reliable information can hardly be over-emphasized the basis for this information is nationally produce statistic. Statistic provide information or evidence needed for the government daily administration and policy analysis in view of what has been started above. It is high time to as certain the correct rate unemployment in the country and it must be free from political bias in the generator national interest.

Bibliography The Cause of unemployment (Written by Murtaza ali Page no 24, 25, 26) Text Sociology Written by Gorge fayel ( page 13, 14) Unemployment- problem-is-a-great-concern-in Bangladesh (Written by Prof. Abdul Aziz Chapter -5, page 56, 57, 58. ) Unemployment-Problem in Bangladesh (Written by Prabir Ray page 9, 10, 11) http://www. oppaper. com/essays/the-causes-of-Unemployment/529084 http://bangladesh2day. com/newsfinance/2010/march/2/Ascertaining-unemployment-rate-php http://www. financialexpress-bd. com/search_index. php?

Page=detail_news&news_id=23491 http://www. goarticles. com/article/unemployment-problem-in-Bangladesh/2784210/ A Term Paper On Impact of Globalization In Economic Growth Under The Guidance of and Supervision of Dr. Mahbub Sarfaraj Lecturer of Management Kabi Nazrul Govt. College Dhaka Submitted By Marium Akter Roll Number : 961 42 78 Registration Number :165 23 59 Department of Management Kabi Nazrul Govt. Collage ———————– Kabi Nazrul Government College Dhaka Dhaka Kabi Nazrul Government College Dhaka, Bangladesh

Free Essays

Curbing Unemployment Through Skills Acquisition

Curbing Unemployment through Skills Acquisition: A Study of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Kaduna State By AMUPITAN, Oboromeni Federal University, Lokoja Nigeria January, 2011. ABSTRACT The paper “Curbing Unemployment through Skills acquisition: A case of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE)”Kaduna State is about unemployment and how it can be reduced through skills acquisition. This work is aimed at finding out how the NDE has reduced unemployment through its skills acquisition programme.

Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources which include published and unpublished works, journals, internet, questionnaires and interviews. The systematic sampling method was used in determining the sample size of 150 respondents, statistical tables was used in data analysis while the Average Mean Score method was used for the test of the hypothesis formulated. The formulated hypothesis which states “that inadequate skills acquisition has led to an increase in graduate unemployment in Kaduna State” was Accepted.

It was discovered and also recommended that skills acquisition is an effective tool in reducing graduate unemployment. Thus, specific skills acquisition schemes should be included in the curriculum of post-secondary schools to help make graduates self employed. INTRODUCTION 1. 1Background of the Study Unemployment is no longer an alien word to the world’s populace. Even the western world experienced a notable rise in their unemployment rate, as the official unemployment rate in the 16 European countries that use the euro rose to 10% in December, 2009. Deutsche. 2010) Developed countries which hitherto experienced full employment are presently affected. The situation in Nigeria is quite alarming as the unemployment rate tends to be on a perpetual rise. In nations, most especially, developing countries like Nigeria unemployment serves as a major yardstick for development as was rightly portrayed in Dudley Seers definition of development. Seers (1969) asserted that: The questions to ask about a country’s development are therefore: what has been happening to poverty? What has been happening to inequality?

What has been happening to unemployment? If all three of these have declined from high level, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development for the country concerned. If one or two of these central problems have been worse especially if all three have, it would be strange to call the result “development” even if per capita income doubled. As a result of this consequence and the rising rate of unemployment, the Federal Government of Nigeria established a committee in 1986 to proffer solution to the menace (unemployment).

The committee’s recommendations formed the basis for the establishment of the “National Directorate of Employment” in 1986 established to curb and reduce the rate of unemployment through skills acquisition, self employment and labour intensive work scheme. 1. 2Statement of the Problem The International Labour Organisation feels “occurs when a person is available and willing to work but currently without work”. It is unfortunate that such occurrence is prevalent in the nation. Ake opined that “unemployment remains the greatest challenge of the economic wellbeing of the Nigerian Nation” (Daily Trust Newspaper, Jan. , 2010 Pg. 34) Unemployment rate has been of immense interest to the general public and policy makers. The Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) was established in 2003 to promote the development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector of the Nigeria economy. It is to source, process and disseminate business information, develop policy, establish business support programmes build capacity and promote services, enhance MSME access to finance. The question is: how may Micro Small and Medium Enterprises have emerged from this scheme?

The recent crisis in the financial sector which has led to a ban on loan is an obvious limitation to this scheme. Should our graduates then become unemployed because banks are not giving out loans? Another of such programme is the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Limited which is dedicated to financing agriculture at both micro and macro levels, they are to provide affordable financial and advisory services to the farm and non-farm enterprises of the Nigeria economy using well trained and highly motivated staff, back by appropriate technology.

If the NACRDB provided such assistance on time and make their procedures less cumbersome, many people would have been attracted to the scheme. But ironically, such funds more often than not are eventually made available at the end of the farming season. Also programmes such as (the Directorate for food, Roads and Rural Infrastructures otherwise known as (DFRRI), Mass Mobilization Self Reliance and Economic Reconstruction (MAMSER) and the National Agricultural Land Development Project (NALDA) created by the Babangida regime were all scraped by the Abacha regime.

During the 1980’s there was a global recession which became progressively worse for Nigeria because of the inherent weakness in the economy. The sudden reduction in oil prices led to cuts in government expenditure budgets leading to a reduction in employment opportunities especially school leavers. Hence, in order to curb the menace of the rising unemployment rate and considering its political and socio-economic implication; which includes a general increase in crime rates, such as armed robbery, youth restiveness, political thuggery, alcoholism, vandalization of petroleum pipes and electricity cables and prostitution.

Economic wastage such as excessive loss of output which manifests in a reduction of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and gross underutilization of Human Resources were reasons which led to the establishment of the National Directorate of Employment in 1986 to create employment for the teaming unemployed. Unfortunately, unemployment has either been on the rise or fluctuating, this is reflective in the various unemployment rates. As at 1985, unemployment rate was 8. 5%; 14. % in 2005 and as at December, 2009 it became 19. 7% (Wikipedia Encyclopedia). Is the National Directorate of employment living up to its mandate or are there other factors that affect unemployment? This, the researcher seeks to find out. Hence, this study seeks to find out how the National directorate of Employment has helped in reducing unemployment through skills acquisition programmes. 1. 3Objectives of the Study 1) To determine the causes of unemployment in Nigeria. ) To find out whether skills acquisition will help curb unemployment to the barest minimum. 3) To proffer possible solutions to the problems being faced by the National Directorate of Employment and make recommendations that will help improve the Directorate. 1. 4 Hypothesis Tested The following hypothesis was formulated: That inadequate skills acquisition has led to an increase in graduate unemployment in Kaduna state. 1. 5Significance of the Study

The study would provide vital information on the reduction of unemployment through skills acquisition; thereby helping not just students of public administration but the general public, policy makers and politicians, who are either affected in one way or the other or charged with the task of making developmental policies to set their priorities right. On the whole, the work would also add to knowledge. 1. 6Scope and Limitation This study is limited to the graduate scheme of the National directorate of Employment, Kaduna state.

Focus was on two local governments, that is, Zaria and Kaduna north, mainly because they contain the highest proportion of graduate beneficiaries. The time frame used is 2005 to 2009. 1. 7Methodology Data for this study was collected from both primary and secondary sources, which include textbooks, journals, newspapers, article, and the brochure of National Directorate of Employment, National Directorate of Employment annual reports, file documents, internet, and publication, among others.

Primary data were sourced mainly from questionnaires administered to both staff and beneficiaries of the National Directorate of Employment. Population and Sample Size Two local governments (Zaria, and Kaduna South) were picked as the focus basically because they have the highest amount of graduate beneficiaries. Thus, 150 questionnaires were administered to both members of staff and beneficiaries. The Systematic Sampling method in which 1 respondent was picked out of every 8 respondents was used. This gave a sample size of 150 respondents out of the total population size of 1200 people.

The total population size includes both beneficiaries and staff is 1200. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques i. e. Average mean score and tables will form the basic analytical tools. LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2. 1Discussion of Related Concepts 2. 1. 1Unemployment Unemployment as defined by the International Labour Organisation “occurs when a person is available and willing to work but currently without work. Thus ILO agrees that only a person who is willing and available to work can be referred to as unemployed.

This implies that not everybody who is not working is unemployed, To Colander D. C. unemployment occurs when people are looking for a job and cannot find one. This further concurs with the earlier definition where there is a conscious effort by the person or people seeking employment, but fails to point out if the person or people in question have something doing or not, because some people who are working seek new jobs. Form the foregoing definitions, one is forced to ask if anybody willing and available to work could be termed unemployed, evened if the person is a child.

To this Frank R. et al defined unemployment as “adults not holding a job but looking for one. ” Who then is an adult? An adult is one who is 18 years and above, therefore the definition could be said to be “Anyone who is 18 years and above who is not holding a job but looking for one could be termed unemployed. In line with the aforementioned, the Bureau of Labour Statistics USA considers a person who is 16 years or older who has not worked during the preceding week but made some effort to find work (for example, by going to a job interview) in the past four weeks as unemployed.

Unemployment in Nigeria has actually become a menace, a vivid picture of which was painted by former executive secretary, National Manpower Board (NMB) Umo when he said at a seminar that “the problem of unemployment amongst our tertiary gradates is of recent vintage, if situated in a historical perspective, it is not more than two decades since it started, but since then, it has become unabated and cumulative”. To him many young graduates move from long spells of unemployment to high crimes including armed robbery while others have become handy tools for unscrupulous politicians. 2. 1. 2Employment

The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines employment as “the situation in which people have work”. This definition clearly States that when a person has work doing he/she is employed but fails to specify if the person is being paid for the work or not. Operationally, employment could be referred to the act of labour force being temporarily or fully occupied on either wages basis of interest basis for self occupied work. This definition added a new dimension, in that employment could be work based on wages or mere self interest either way, one is employed provided he/she is working.

Frank et al defined employment in terms of being employed. To them a person is employed if he or she worked full-time or part-time (even for a few hours) during the past week or is on vacation or sick-leave from a regular job. In a nut shell, employment could be defined as a person who is currently working for wages or self-interest. 2. 1. 3Labour Force Thomas J. H. et al (1970) defines labour force “as the non-institutional population who are working or looking for work”.

That is, it includes the unemployed, employed, proprietors, the self employed and members of the armed forces. To him, the labour force excludes all person engaged exclusively in housework in the homes or attending school, that is, a student, is not a member of the labour force unless he is working in addition to attending school (it is worthy of note that “non-institutional population” refers to all persons 16 years of age and older including members of the armed services but excluding persons in institutions). 2. 1. 4 Full Employment

To Ackely the concept of full employment is a very “slippery concept” and though “full employment is not definable nor should it be defined”, believes that Henry Hazlutt, it is worth-while analyzing the various views of economists on full employment. The Classical View The classical economists believed in the existence of full employment in the economy. Full employment to them was a normal situation and any deviation from this was regarded as abnormal. To the classical economists “unemployment resulted from the rigidity in the wage structure and interference in the working of free market system.

This comes in the form of trade union legislation, minimum wage legislation etc. On the other hand, Full employment exists “when everybody who at the running rate of wages wishes to be employed”. According to Pigou, those who are not prepared to work at the existing wage rate are not unemployed because they are voluntarily unemployed. To them, there should be no possibility of involuntary unemployment in the sense that, people are prepared to work but they do not find work. According to the classical economists, the above view only operates in an ideal economy.

This far differs from the reality in which involuntary unemployment is prevalent. The Keynesian View To Keynes, full employment means the absence of involuntary unemployment. That is, full employment is a situation in which everybody who wants to work gets work. He assumes that “with a given organisation, equipment and technique, real wages and the volume of output are uniquely co-related so that, in general, an increase in employment can only occur to the accompaniment of a decline in the rate of wages”.

In order to achieve full employment, Keynes advocates increases in effective demand to bring about reduction in real wages. 2. 2Types of Unemployment Economists have distinguished between various types of unemployment which includes Cyclical Unemployment, Frictional Unemployment, Structural Unemployment and Classical Unemployment. The aforementioned types are the most widely accepted by scholars. Other additional types that are occasionally mentioned are Seasonal unemployment, Hardcore unemployment Migrated unemployment. . 2. 1Cyclical or Keynesian Unemployment Cyclical or Keynesian unemployment is also known as Demand Deficient Unemployment. It occurs when there is not enough aggregated demand in the economy. Cyclical unemployment exists when the number of workers demanded falls short of the number of persons supplied (in the labour force). It gets its name because it varies with the business cycle which consists of alternating periods of booms and depressions. Robert F. et al said it could e likened to the most familiar form of musical chairs, in which the number of chairs is always less than the number of players. The Great Depression of the 1930’s is a striking example of Cyclical unemployment. In Nigeria today, the recent economic in Nigeria recession where supply was more than demand, most especially in the private sector is an example of cyclical unemployment. 2. 2. 2Frictional Unemployment Frictional unemployment occurs when a worker moves from one job to another. The time period between jobs is considered “frictional unemployment”.

Frictional unemployment is an example of a productive part of the economy, increasing both the worker’s long term welfare and economic efficiency and is also a type of voluntary unemployment. 2. 2. 3Structural Unemployment Structural unemployment occurs when the numbers of jobs in a labour market are unable to provide substantial jobs for everyone who wants one. 2. 2. 4Classical Unemployment Classical or real-way unemployment occurs when real wages for a job are set above the market clearing level, causing the number of job-seekers to exceed the number of vacancies.

Economists like Murray Ruthbard, suggest that even social taboos can prevent wages from falling to the market clearing level. Some economists believe that this type of unemployment can be reduced by increasing the flexibility of wages (abolishing minimum wages or employee protection) to make the labour market more like a financial market. This suggestion unfortunately, will lead to massive exploitation on the part of employers most especially in developing countries. 2. 2. 5Seasonal Unemployment Bradley R. S. s of the view that some joblessness is virtually inevitable as long as we continue to grow crops, build houses, or go skiing at certain seasons of the year. At the end of each season thousands of workers go searching for new jobs, thereby experiencing some seasonal unemployment in the process. Like in Nigeria, during the raining season, farmers are actively employed to plough sow, cultivate and harvest crops, this include both the aged and young. It is very common to see rural-urban migrants, return to their rural villages to cultivate during the raining season.

And once harvest is over they return to towns to search for menial jobs to carter for their needs. 2. 3Causes of Unemployment in Nigeria The cost of unemployment in any nation cannot be overemphasized, below are some of the costs identified by eminent scholars: individuals, economists, psychological, social socio-political. Economic Causes i)The Legacy of British Rule The bequest of some Nigerians who had high school education after independent and held job felt to be remunerated with high wages was a right.

This made majority of high school graduates at that time expressed their distaste for agriculture and their desires to be “pen pushers” these people were attracted to white collar jobs which were borrowed from the colonial master. This white collar jobs were unlike agriculture which provides employment for about eighty percent of the population. The colonial government fiscal policy with respect to employment also discouraged new entrants into agriculture which was the major alternative for white collar job.

Under the policy, marketing boards were introduced where farmers were heavily taxed by the colonial government. This made agriculture less appealing and killed the incentive that would have made people wish to take it upon as a carrier. Therefore, the mentality of white collar job was built into individuals Nigerian as a future employment. ii)The Oil Boom Era (1974-1980) Agriculture prior to the exportation of petrol had been the main asset of the economy but was neglected during the oil boom. All sorts of things were imported into the country.

The government of the day embarked upon all sorts of “white elephant:” projects e. g Ajaokuta Steel, building of Refinery, etc instead of investing in property with the windfall from oil. Over reliance on petroleum has till today led to fluctuation in government’s expenditures on unnecessary things and wastage of resource. The sudden slump in the international market for oil makes many projects undertaken especially construction come to stand still. Many employment opportunities were forced to reduce their capabilities.

Nigeria found itself in economic mess which it is still battling to salvage. iii)Consumption Pattern This entails the pattern of consumption of Nigerians’ as a relationship to the problem of unemployment. It has contributed to the high level of urban unemployment because the consumption of urban centres’ entails imported goods which attracted more able people from rural areas to search for job in urban centres’. This is due to the fact that Nigerians are to believe their home made goods are inferior.

But the more the demand for goods and services from foreign source the more employment we make available to the nationals of those countries and the reverse is the case for Nigeria. Social Causes i)Rural-Urban Migration The flow of labour force from rural to urban area has been a major cause of Nigeria’s unemployment situation. As a result of the neglect of agriculture and great increase in government expenditure during the oil boom era led to the migration of many young people who would have otherwise stayed in the rural areas to practice agriculture as an occupation.

Most migrants from rural areas were found to have only primary education with few having six years of secondary education. This led to surplus of unskilled workers and shortage of high level manpower. But now that Nigeria’s economy is producing more and more gradates from her institutions of higher learning, in almost all the metropolitan cities the unemployment problem continues to increase. People unable to get job since urban areas became saturated and unable to absorb every skilled job seekers. Table 1

Unemployment Rates, 2003-2007 (as at December) Description| 2003| 2004| 2005| 2006| 2007| National (Composite)| 14. 8| 11. 8| 11. 9| 14. 6| 10. 9| Urban | 17. 1| 11. 0| 10. 1| 10. 0| 10. 0| Rural | 13. 8| 12. 1| 12. 6| 15. 1| 12. 6| Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2007. From the table above the composite unemployment rate stood at 11. 9% in 2005 compared with 14. 6% in 2006, and 10. 9% in 2007. It also shows that the rural unemployment rate is higher, hence, the reason for migrating to the urban areas in search of greener pastures.

Educational Factors The type of educational system inherited from the colonial masters put more emphasis on the production of gradates for white collars jobs at the expense of technical and vocational type. The result is that gradates do not only get unemployed but do not even find “black – collar” jobs to manage. Government policy with respect to university admission for first degrees in favour of the science as opposed to the arts does not still encourage students to study the science and other technological subjects, which Nigeria lacks.

However, the expansion in all educational level ranging from primary to tertiary institutions has contributed more to the unemployment problem. This is because the expansion does not correspond with the job provisioning for future graduates from the numerous schools. Political Causes i)Political Instability Ever since Nigeria got her independence from the British colonial masters in 1960, there has been political instability. A major problem of post independent Nigeria has been conflicts of personalities in politics and unbridled political party rivalries both of which affected government policies in all parts of the country.

Apart from the fact that the country had to go through a civil war form 1960 up till 1970. There has also been series of coups which have often resulted in abrupt changes in government up to date like that of June 12, 1993. This political environment which is unstable has negative effects on investment thereby creating problem of unemployment in the country. ii)Migrants from Neighbouring Countries People from neighbouring countries such as; Ghana, Benin Republic, Ivory Coast and Togo move down to Nigeria in search for jobs.

They feel that the Nigeria economy is better and more promising. As a result of this the Nigerian Labour Market cannot absorb all the job seekers, since it has too many factors to contend with. Foreign job seekers especially those from the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS), those countries are often prepared to accept lower wages than Nigerians for the same type of work. And as employers are looking forward of cutting costs, they have no choice but to absorb these foreign seekers. Socio-Political Causes

The political independence Nigeria got from Great Britain was more of a flag independence and not economic Independence. Nigeria even today remains subservient to the whims and caprices of countries like Britain and United States of America. Despite the effort made to gain total control of the economy through the promulgation of the indigenization decree of 1977, Nigeria’s economy is still dominated by multinational corporations that employ a substantial number of Nigerians, thus, the fact remains that the profit is fleeing Nigeria to foreign countries head quarters.

The profit flight is supposed to be ploughed back into the country for provision of more jobs and development. Furthermore, external participation in the domestic activities of Nigeria by foreigners which is not reciprocated by similar Nigerian participation in their own domestic affairs militate against development efforts. All these slow down the economic growth and cause unemployment problem. Ethnicity Problem Nigeria is made up of many ethnic groups. Each of this ethnic group had the fear that another group may dominate it.

Apart from this, some ethnic groups which tend to be closer to neighbouring countries identify more with the than with other ethnic groups in the country that they are not familiar with. It is a fact that some northern States in Nigeria prefer to recruit Pakistani, Egyptians, and Indian professionals other than Nigerians from other ethnic group. Such discriminatory policies no doubt cause more unemployment in the country. 2. 4Theoretical Framework Various scholars have propounded theories relating to employment and unemployment.

These include those of the Classical view who believe that full employment was a normal situation and any deviation from this was regarded as abnormal. Okun’s law which was propounded by an American Economist named Arthur Okun (1926-1980) who looked at the US GNP during the 1950s and 1960s. Thus, for the purpose of this work the KEYNESIAN THEORY was adopted. It was propounded by John Maynard Keynes, a British Economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macro economics, social liberalism and economic policies of government. 2. 3. 1The

Keynesian Theory In the Keynesian theory which was propounded in 1936, Keynes argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity, and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. He opined that if aggregate demand is not high enough to sustain full employment level of economy, then a gap is created between aggregate demand and aggregate supply known as the deflationary gap. To him this gap must be closed through concerted government programmes if not, the situation could degenerate into chronic unemployment.

The Keynesian prescription for reducing unemployment includes the following: 1) Increase in aggregate total demand through direct increase in government expenditure 2) By government policies that indirectly encourage more private investments (e. g. investment subsidies, tax allowances, low investment rates on business loans, establishing of institutions, etc). 2. 3. 2Its Application to this Study Looking at its applicability to this work, the Keynesian theory States that: inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment.

It is no longer news in Nigeria that the demand for labour is on the decrease, as industries (e. g. textile) which hitherto where major employers of labour have been closed down due to unfavourable working conditions such as poor electricity supply, financial institutions have been hit by global recessions and the public sector have also resorted to downsizing thus making aggregate demand grossly inadequate thereby leading to a high rate of unemployment. Nigerian unemployment is a typical case of shortage in aggregate demand; the supply by far supersedes the demand.

With thousands of graduates leaving the higher institutions each year, the demand for time in the labour market depreciates. To Keynes, if aggregate demand is not high enough to sustain full employment level of the economy, then a gap is created between aggregate demand and aggregate supply known as the deflationary gap. This gap manifests itself in chronic unemployment which is been witnessed in Nigeria, with an unemployment rate of 19. 7% as at December, 2009. He further propounded that this gap must be closed through concerted government programmes so as to avoid unemployment.

From the foregoing it is evident that the Keynesian theory of unemployment not only explains the unemployment problem but has proffered solutions or ways of eradicating it. An Overview of the National Directorate of Employment 3. 1Introduction The worldwide economic depression of the early 80s caused a rapid deterioration in Nigerian’s economy. Industrial output shrank to an all time low and commercial activities were consequently reduced, leading to the loss of employment opportunity for many Nigerians.

By the end of 1985 the unemployment situations in Nigeria had reached desperate and alarming proportions (about 8. 5%). In the urban areas, where the educated tend to congregate, the unemployment rate was especially high. In the rural areas, it was no less severe. Graduate unemployment, which hitherto was unnoticed, emerged and was growing rapidly. The effect of such large-scale unemployment spelt disaster for both the society and individual victims. Deviant behaviours expressed in crimes and other anti-social behaviours were frequent among the frustrated youths.

The increase in crime rates and riots further created an atmosphere of general insecurity. Unemployed youths were easily susceptible to such manipulations and incitement by unscrupulous elements in the society or even politicians. It is in line with this that president Babangida appointed a committee on 26 March 1986 to deliberate on strategies for dealing with mass unemployment under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Employment, Labour and Productivity. The report of the Chukwuma committee, as it became popularly known, was approved by the Federal Government in October 1986.

Based on its recommendations the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) was established on November 22, 1986 and its initial core programmes were formally launched on 30th January 1987. The president in his 1987 budget speech directed the new body to concentrate its effort on the reactivation of public works, promotion of direct labour, promotion of self-employment, organisation of artisans into co-operatives, and encouragement of a culture of maintenance and repairs.

To ensure effective implementation of the President’s directive, a board of Directors representing a cross section of all interest groups from industry, commerce, agriculture, finance, employers, labour and government was set-up to define policy and supervise operations. This board articulated four (4) practical programmes nationwide, each operating as a separate department. They include: a) National youth Employment and Vocational Skills Development Programme. b) Small scale industries and graduate employment programme. c) Agriculture sector employment programme d) Special public works programmes.

These programmes were backed by the necessary administrative, monitoring and support personnel, thus enabling optimum use of resources and prompt response to the requirement of the public. 3. 2Objectives of the National Directorate of Employment The objectives of the NDE were clearly Stated in Decree No. 24 of 1989 [i. e. NDE Decree (1989)] section 2 of the Decree provides for the objectives of the directorate. Thus, the NDE mandate is as follows: i) To design and implement programmes to combat mass unemployment. ii) To articulate policies aimed at developing programmes with labour intensive potentials. ii) To obtain and maintain a data bank of employment and vacancies in the country with a view to acting as a clearing house to link job seekers with vacancies. iv) To implement any other policies as may be laid down from time to time by the Board established under section 3 of its enabling act. NDE’s main function is to combat mass unemployment through skills acquisition, self-employment and labour-intensive work scheme. 4. 1Summary of discussions and findings It is no longer news that salaried jobs can no longer cater for the teaming graduates turned into the labour market from various higher institutions in Nigeria.

This has led to the search of alternative means of lively hood. One of such is the acquisition of specific skills to make graduates self-employed. It is against this backdrop that the hypothesis which States, “That skills acquisition is a prerequisite to a reduction in graduate unemployment in Kaduna State” was formed. In order to ascertain the hypothesis above, respondents were asked questions bordering on their level of acquisition vis-a-vis unemployment. The questions were answered by checking one position on two point scale of “Yes and No”. 4. 1. 1Skills

Acquired apart from Western Education Here respondents were asked if they have acquired any skill apart from the regularly western education. The responses gotten are shown in table 4. 1 below: Table 4. 1 Acquisition of Special Skills apart from Western Education Response| No. of Respondents| Percentage| Yes | 86| 59. 7| No| 58| 40. 3| Total | 144| 100| Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2010. The table above indicates that 86 respondents representing 59. 7% have acquired specific skills other than the western education while 58 respondents which represent 40. 3% have not.

This shows that specific skills acquisition is not alien to graduates in Kaduna State. 4. 1. 2Self Employment The respondents were further asked if they were presently self-employed. The following were the responses gotten: Table 4. 2: Self Employment Response| No. of Respondents| Percentage| Yes | 55| 38. 2| No| 89| 61. 8| Total | 144| 100| Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2010. Table 4. 13 depicts that 38. 2% of the respondents are self employed while 61. 8% are not. This shows that some respondents are utilizing the skills they have acquired. 4. 1. 3Nature of Self Employment

The respondents who claimed to be self-employed were asked to specify the nature of their self-employment and the following responses were gotten. i) Fashion designing ii) Farming iii) Electrical works iv) Wood work/carpentry v) Mechanized farming vi) Forest trading 4. 1. 4Acquisition of Specific Skills by Graduates in Kaduna State Many people agree that depending solely on salaried jobs is not the best. Thus, people should learn to acquire alternative sources of income. Hence, the respondents were asked: Do you think that most graduates in Kaduna State have acquired necessary skills to make them self employed?

Their responses are given below. Table 4. 3: Acquisition of Special Skills by Graduates in Kaduna State Response| No. of Respondents| Percentage| Yes | 36| 25| No| 108| 75| Total | 144| 100| Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2010. The table above shows that 36 respondents signifying 25% agreed that graduates in Kaduna State posses the necessary skill of being self employed while 108 respondents representing 75% were of the contrary view. , this shows that most gradates in Kaduna State have not acquired necessary specified skills to be self employed. 4. 1. 5Self Employment an Alternative to Salaried Job

The respondents were further asked if they agreed that self-employed in an alternative to salaried jobs. The following responses in table 4. 15 below were gotten. Table 4. 4: Employment an Alternative to salaried Jobs Response| No. of Respondents| Percentage| Yes | 136| 94. 4| No| 8| 5. 6| Total | 144| 100| Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2010. The table above indicates that 94. 4% of the respondents agreed that self-employment is an alternative to salaried jobs while 5. 6% do not agree that it is an alternative. Based on the responses gotten, it clearly shows that most people take self-employment as an alternative to salaried jobs. . 1. 6Skills Acquisition Schemes Established by the Government and Self Employment In a bid to make people become self-employed, government has put in place various schemes among which is the NDE. Thus, respondents were asked if the skills acquisition schemes put in place by the government have helped beneficiaries to become self-employed. The following were the responses gotten Table 4. 5: Skills Acquisition Schemes and Self Employment. Response| No. of Respondents| Percentage| Yes | 120| 83. 3| No| 24| 16. 7| Total | 144| 100| Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2010. From table 4. 16 above, 120 respondents representing 83. % agreed that the skills acquisition schemes put in place by government have helped beneficiaries to become self-employed while 24 respondents representing 16. 7% disagreed. 4. 1. 7Inclusion of Specific Skills Acquisition Programme in Post-Secondary School Curriculum With regards to specific skills acquisition, respondents were asked if skills acquisition programmes be included in Post-secondary schools’ curriculum and the following responses were gotten: Table 4. 6: Inclusion of specific skills acquisition programmes in post-secondary school curriculum Response| No. of Respondents| Percentage| Yes | 140| 97. 2| No| 4| 2. 8|

Total | 144| 100| Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2010. For table 4. 17 above, 140 respondents representing 97. 2% opined that specific skills acquisition programmes should be included in all post-secondary schools curriculum while 4 respondents representing 2. 8% held a contrary opinion. 4. 1. 8 Opinions about Skills Acquisition Schemes in Nigeria Respondents were asked to state their opinion on the skills acquisition schemes put in place by government and the following opinions/views were gotten: i) That the skills acquisition schemes have helped reduced unemployment not only in Kaduna State but in the country as a whole; ii)

That loan should be made available to the unemployed so that they can utilize both funds and skills together; iii) That skills acquisitions schemes should be fully implemented so that it’s aims and objectives can be accomplished; iv) That skills acquisition scheme should be well funded; v) It was also expressed that the skills acquisition schemes in Nigeria is too small compared to the population of the unemployed, thereby making it insignificant; vi) That, the skills acquisition schemes are sub-standard and need to be improved so that it can compete with those in other nations; vii) That skills acquisition helps graduate to become self employed; viii) That for skills acquisitions to succeed an adequate system that ensures the monitoring and evaluation of the scheme must be put in place; ix) That the skills acquisition schemes have been bedeviled by poor management plan, indiscipline and corruption; x) That the culture of skill acquisition should be inculcated into the citizens right form primary schools; Finally, that there should be more awareness and funding of the schemes available The table below shows a summary of the questions asked and responses gotten. 4. 2Test of Hypothesis using the Average Mean Score Method. The average mean score was used to test the Hypothesis which States: “That inadequate skills acquisition has led to an increase in graduate unemployment in Kaduna State”. Formular: X = ? p x where X=Average mean score ?p=Summation of percentages x=Total number of variables

Decision Rule: Accept Ho if average means score is 60% and above, reject Ho if average means score is less than 60%. Variables 1) Acquisition of specific skills other than western education 2) Self employment 3) Acquisition of specific skills by graduates in Kaduna State. 4) Self employment and alternative to salaried jobs 5) Skills acquisition schemes and self-employment 6) Skills acquisition and post secondary curriculum Table 4. 7: Highest Responses Variables | Responses | 1| 59. 7% of the respondents opined that they have acquired specific skills other than western education. | 2| 61. 8% of the respondents said they were not self employed. 3| 70% of the respondents were of the view that most graduates in Kaduna State have not acquired specific skills. | 4| 94. 4% of the respondents agreed that self-employment is an alternative to salaried jobs. | 5| 83. 3% of the respondents agree that skills acquisition schemes have made their beneficiaries self employed. | 6| 97. 2% of the respondents agreed that specific skills acquisition programmes should be included in post-secondary school curriculum. | Source: Researcher’s Survey, 2010. No. of Variables Percentages 159. 7 261. 8 375 494. 4 583. 3 697. 2 Total 6471. 4 ?p=471. 4= 78. 6% x 6 X = 78. 6% From the above calculation the average mean score of the Hypothesis is 78. 6%.

Going by the decision rule which States that Accept Ho if average mean score is 60% and above, our Ho which States; “that inadequate skills acquisition has led to an increase in graduate unemployment in Kaduna State” is Accepted. This implies that adequate skills acquisition will lead to a decrease in graduate unemployment in Kaduna State. 4. 3Major Findings It was discovered that Skills Acquisition is an effective tool in the reduction of graduate unemployment in Kaduna State. The researcher found out that most unemployed graduates in Kaduna State will opt for self-employment through the acquisition of specific skills, rather than wait for the non-existent salaried jobs. The researcher found out that “skill acquisition schemes” when effectively implemented will go a long way to reducing graduate unemployment not just in Kaduna State but in Nigeria as a whole.

It was also discovered that skills acquisition gives birth to small scale enterprise which in turn boost individual and national economy. As in the case of developed nations like China, Japan and even USA who started from small scale enterprises and they are world powers today. Thus, the importance of skills acquisition in unemployment reduction and by extension poverty reduction cannot be over-emphasized. 5. 1Conclusions and Recommendations As established by the study, the importance of skills acquisition cannot be overemphasized. Thus, it is recommended that learning of specific skills should be inculcated into the curriculum of the post-secondary schools of not just Kaduna State but Nigeria as a whole irrespective of the course of study.

In developed countries like the USA courses are courses such as fashion designing, automobile repairs, traffic control, animal husbandry, typesetting, catering, horticulture, swimming, memo writing, satellite installation, wood work and even cooking are included in formal school curriculum. Such compulsory electives should be imbibed in the nation thereby creating the spirit of entrepreneurship. There should be a diversification in the activities of the National Directorate of Employment. New challenging and innovative skills should be introduced from time to time. This will make it more enticing appealing for gradates to enrol, as young people like to explore new grounds. Also, specific organisation or institution should be established with the sole aim of tackling graduate unemployment.

Since unemployment cuts across various barriers (gender, class, age) and the National Directorate of Employment which is saddled with combating unemployment cannot effectively manage graduate unemployment as its resources (time, finance) are divided among other classes. Thus, giving more attention to graduate unemployment by establishing a body with the mandate of combating graduate unemployment will go a long way. References Bradley R. Schiller (2004) The Macro Economy Today 9th ed: New Delhi; McGraw Hill Irwin Companies. D. Rudiger et al (2004): Macro Economics: New Delhi; Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. David C. Colonader (2001) Macro Economics 4th ed. : New York; McGraw-Hill Irwin.

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