Categories
Free Essays

The support worker conducting this research is currently studying at University of Winchester.

Introduction

This dissertation will help the author to increase knowledge about literature review that supports on how to understand and manage clients with Learning Disability and Difficult Behavior. The support worker conducting this research is currently studying at University of Winchester. Taking BSc(Hons) Professional Practice in Health and Social Care. Have been working in a residential home in North London caring for clients with learning disability and autism. Basically we support the client to improve their living and help them live independently as possible. I have been working as a support worker for almost a year now. And as a support worker it is my responsibility to provide best quality care to the clients I am supporting from the very basic such as helping in personal care and domestic responsibilities. We support our clients using their personal care plan, which provides information about client’s preferences that is compiled by the company. To familiarize to the clients support plan and strategies and following guidelines in implementing daily activities. Including medicine protocols, video tracking of structured teaching plans and giving time out strategies in dealing aggressive behaviour. The reasons for these study is to educate people about learning disability, to understand and improve approaches in dealing challenging behaviour and at the same time help these clients to overcome difficult behaviour. The study will also help future researches to update and apply new developments in dealing difficult behaviour with these clients.

The selected topic to be discussed is managing clients in difficult behaviour using effective interventions. Practices that will help manage difficult situations, helping clients with learning difficulty to overcome challenging behaviour and improving support for people with learning disabilities. To start with, there are many kinds of learning disabilities that involve a person’s way of thinking. The manner our brains develop information is compound and make someone marvel about how to figure out things. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act defined learning disability as “a disorder in one or more of the vital psychological development involved in understanding or in using verbal communication, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in a deficient ability to listen, reflect, verbalize, read, write, spell, or do mathematical analogy”(Emerson 2001 p2). It is essential for the support worker dealing with learning disability to find ways in evaluating underlying cause to properly understand on how to manage the client. Especially in cases where individual with learning disability demonstrate aggression due to deficiency in expressing their needs.

The importance of these studies is to understand people with learning disabilities and provide knowledge on how to deal with or manage the condition. “As many as one out of every five people in United States ages six to twenty one has learning disability, and over half of all children who receive special education have the condition” according to (Twenty-fourth Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, 2002). However, a child that has difficulty in reading, speaking, listening, and writing should be evaluated. “People with learning disabilities have a reduced ability to understand new or complex information, and those who experience difficulties when handing out information may find it tough to study new skills”,( DH 2001).

When a person is having learning disability he or she may have difficulty learning the alphabet, rhyming words, or relating letters to their sounds. May make many mistakes when reading aloud, do not comprehend what he reads. May have real trouble with spelling, cluttered handwriting and struggle to articulate ideas in writing. May learn language late with restricted words, difficulty remembering sounds that letters make. May have difficulty following instructions and organizing judgement he needs for writing or discussion. May not follow social policy of discussion and not be able to repeat a story in order. If a person is struggling to do any one of these skills he or she may need to be evaluated to see if he has a learning disability. However, one of those problems faced by social worker and support worker is managing difficult or challenging behaviour. Lack of experience, training or skills in managing carefully and effectively difficult behaviour could cause serious implications. “The recent intervention of choice for challenging behaviour is based on behavioural ideology and should categorize the purpose of the target behaviour and train functionally equal adaptive skills” (Ball et al 2004, Feldman et al 2004 p28).

Through these studies the author may incorporate and provide methods and knowledge to people in understanding learning disability. Find ways in managing difficult behaviour and interventions to be applied and improve support for learning disability clients. Following the introduction of this topic is literature reviews of the chosen topic in managing and understanding Learning Disability with difficult behaviour.

Search engines used

To be able for the author to go through with her dissertation the used of informational tools such as searching related to the topic was carefully selected. The author looks first on defining her chosen topic using previous journals, articles, and researches with the help of online search. By using the words learning disability, challenging behaviour and related issues therefore to answer the authors question in doing the study was searched. The use of academic source and databases online at the University of Winchester, such as British journal of Intellectual Disability, was a big help for the author in doing her dissertation. Going through and reading relevant issues have help in choosing the right literatures which the author had included in her dissertation. The author also focused only on the issues that can be useful which on the future can be used and apply in the area of practice.

Literature Review

Review of current literature regarding managing and understanding learning disability and difficult behaviour was compiled through using previous researches, journals and articles by using online research databases, British journal of Intellectual Disability at the University of Winchester.

This article entitled, Difficulties faced by social care staff when managing challenging behaviour. Upon reading this research article it says that most individuals with learning disability live in community settings supported by social workers and staff. A comparatively high ratio of individual who displays challenging behaviour (Emerson et al 2000) but may not have the practice, trainings or skills to supervise safely and effectively. Will has serious implications for client, for the workforce and eventually for service costs (Feldman et al 2004). Moreover, these issues must be addressed at an individual, group and organisational level (Gentry 2001). Severely challenging behaviour is commonly defined as, ‘behaviour of such force, regularity, or length, that the physical security of the person or others is placed in grave threat, or behaviour which is likely to badly limit, or deny access to and use of ordinary community facilities’(Emerson et al 1988). Though management of a challenging behaviour is based on identifying the target behaviour by educating functionally comparable adaptive skills but they are rarely used in an organized way. Feldman et al (2004) stated that, without formal behaviour al guidelines, staff can use involuntary, controlling and repeatedly intrusive methods to deal with challenging behaviour.

The use of improper, conflicting or reactive intervention strategies may, in turn, perform as contributing factors to an increase in challenging behaviour. In their study, McKenzie et al (2005a) found that sixty five percent of the services had complexity in implementing behavioural guidelines. These may be due to lack of time running to discuss with other staff or some matter of fact issues or dissimilar and not related to the behaviour. It can also be barriers such as lack of communication, attitudes and supervising styles. However, it is suggested to certify lasting changes in practice, improvements in service stipulation requires to be addressed at an organisational level (Gentry et al 2001, La Vigna et al 1994).

One method of doing this is the Periodic Service Review (PSR), this aims to achieve, and sustain, a high quality and constant service and has four components. Periodic Service Review was implemented regularly by an organisation providing residential, respite and family support to people with a learning disability, to help classify areas where provision quality could be improved. Firstly, is the Performance Standards, these are evident and measurable and align with the service quality can be calculated. Secondly, is the Performance Monitoring, these comprise ensuring staff recognition of the monitoring system. Thirdly, Performance Feedback, these guarantee ongoing development and maintenance of quality. Lastly, the Staff Training, this identifies the required skills and awareness staff need. The present study, thus aims to broaden the work of McKenzie et al (2005a), which recognized barriers to implementing behavioural guidelines reported by support staff, by measuring actual staff preparation in relation to these guidelines using Periodic Service Review (PSR). The aim of these article is merely finding a way to improve and compare the difference of services who uses formal guidelines and does who do not to target difficult behaviour and eventually come up to a strategy in dealing with it.

This research explains that in order to deliver a quality service to clients with learning disability we must target specific strategies to the behaviour by implementing behavioural guidelines. By setting performance standard, monitoring and trainings which will support staff to avoid reactive, controlling and intrusive methods in managing clients showing difficult behaviour. Contributing factors such as inconsistent, reactive approach and strategies could lead to escalating the client’s behaviour. Thus, could not help in finding the target behaviour and apply specific strategy as it was mentioned that in order to come up to a way to deal difficulty is to address the need to find the cause of aggression.

Another literature from an article entitled Wide-scale implementation of a support program for parents of children with Intellectual disability and difficult behaviour that in managing learning disability and complex behaviour among children shows an enormous impact on parents. Children with an intellectual disability may exhibit high levels of difficult behaviour, such as hostility, self-injury, or damage to property. Such behaviour can be a foremost source of stress for family members (Hastings, 2002, Plant and Sanders, 2007a). In recent years numerous educational programs have been developed to help parents in supervising their kids with intellectual disability. However, there is a slight enquiry that has been conducted on carrying out of interventions for families with children with disabilities.

The Signposts for Building Better Behaviour program was developed by Hudson et al (2001), and consists of a number of parent and expert equipment. The parent materials include eight guidance booklets about various aspects of managing difficult behaviour of children, a workbook, and a videotape to demonstrate the content of the booklets. The practitioner materials enclose a detail instruction guidebook on program delivery and equipment for the regular assessment of outcomes. The program can be delivered by means of several modes, namely, with face to face support to an individual family, with face to face support to a group, with telephone support to the individual, to the individual or self-directed. Which the extend of release is six sessions over approximately 12 weeks.

The Signposts program is designed to be a universal preventive program for parents of children with an intellectual disability in the age range of 3-16 years. The basic aim is to teach parents skills to direct difficult behaviour of their child before those behaviours rise to a level that require extremely intensive intervention by professional services. The approach is to teach strategies to parents that will facilitate them to develop their own action plan precisely to the individual needs of their child. The wide-scale implementation of Signposts for Building Better Behaviour program (Hudson et al, 2001) was evaluated using the benchmarks recommended by Wiese, Stancliffe, and Hemsley (2005). Which a total of 2,119 parents and carers participated in the program over an 18-month period. Where participants reported that they were less depressed, less apprehensive, and less hassled, were more convinced and satisfied with managing their child, and less stressed by their child’s behaviour.

This article shows how Signposts for Building Better Behaviour program helps parents to manage their children with intellectual disability. By getting support from number of parent and practitioner materials. This will teach them skills in managing difficult behaviour before it escalates and enable them to provide and implement their own action plan in dealing with their children. Though this article is showing how to manage children somehow some similarities to the first article was seen. Such as setting guidelines to manage the challenging behaviour on its onset and getting consistent in treating.

This next literature review discusses workforce development and challenging behaviour, training staff to treat, to manage or to cope. There are lots of new workforce development strategies and frameworks in the UK, in recovering and producing a capable, confident workers delivering high- quality, person-centred, and community- based services. It was exampled in this article some changes made in England, Wales and Northern Ireland the revision of Learning Disabilities Accreditation Framework (LDAF), replacing the current National Qualifications Framework (NQF) to Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF). And related updates are being made in Scotland as to regulate least required qualifications at Scottish Vocational Qualifications Level III (SVQ).

These are made to improving workforce progress generally; most staff working with people with learning disabilities does not have qualifications related to their jobs. This figure may be as high as 75 percent, according to Department of Health (2001). This will make complexity in maintaining a suitable standard in delivering care to clients to meet their needs. It is stated that, community services for people with learning disability and challenging behavior are guided, in the course of policy, training, and cascading of information, to employ recommendations such as those made by BPS/RCP/RCSLT (2007). Thompson and Reid (2002) found that, ‘Behavioral symptomless is extremely persistent’. By using analyst and carer ratings behaviors measured and stereotype, over activity and emotional abnormalities were particularly persistent.

It has been said in these article that BPS/RCP/RCSLT procedures are presently the most up-to-date set of guidelines on improving the quality of life for people with challenging behavior and others around them. The role of training in disparity to evidence based for effective interventions in challenging behavior, evidence of usefulness and outcomes is weak and there is still differing evidence over the years. However, few examples of forefront staff successfully implementing useful programmers following training. ‘Therapeutic interventions to treat and manage challenging behavior are only actually effective when the belief plan and the skills of the staff member matches his performance in relation to service users’ (Ager and O’May, 2001; Campbell, 2008; Grey et al., 2007).

Though the staffs outlook on challenging behavior can be changed on a brief training an advance workplace research is needed to ascertain if change will bring stable change in the practice. Regarding priorities for staff training, the BPS/RCP/RCSLT (2007) guidelines categorized a clear set of the competencies required. And it is mentioned that they are parallel to priorities identified in the BPS Clinical Practice Guidelines: Psychological Interventions for Severely Challenging Behaviors Shown by People with Learning Disabilities (2004). Specific and demonstrable training is needed, which includes carrying out purposeful analysis, implementing and monitoring intricate treatment plans consistently in an extensive period of time. On the other hand, if the staff were to supervise challenging behavior, a diverse training emphasis is needed. The focus must be on how to reduce or prevent challenging behavior when it happens and lessen harm, without expecting that these interventions in potential occurrences are less likely.

In this article, it emphasizes the importance of training, implementing effective programmers to be able to manage challenging behavior. Service providers must be equipped with skills that match in treating the specific challenging behavior. And in addition, the British Psychological Society guidelines can be used as it is one of the most up-to-date set of guidelines on improving the quality of life for people with challenging behavior and others around them. The guidelines were also mentioned in this article which is similar to the first two articles. Although it has different contents, their focuses are the same as to managing difficult behavior.

The inpatient facilities for people with learning disabilities have almost departed over the years and have been moved to a range of community terms and support. However, in recent years a small increase of individuals who present challenge on a community based services which place them and others at danger was noticed. As Kearns (2001) stated that, “there is a distinct need for long-term care facilities for those who have an apparent need and because of the chronicity of their situation, are not suited to present medium-secure services and because of the sternness of their symptoms are not appropriate for general learning disability services”. The problem they create is hard to restrain within a typical community setting. In this article, a survey is undertaken for the need of people with learning disabilities and challenging behavior to be located in a secure care. Where restricted long stay secure service offering a series of security process and focusing on individuals that exhibits aggression and inappropriate behavior.

The independent sector has been rapid in responding to medium secure care beds and improved its short-and long-term care capability. An increasing demand for out-of-area placements by NHS providers for high quality services leads to a costly and out of place as they are distant to the individual’s home. Opposing to a target set by The National Service Framework (NHS Executive 1999) for mental health services to care for people as close to their home and community. A finding shown an almost lack of provision for individuals with learning disabilities and challenging behavior. And evidences suggest that this is a growing and continuing problem. Where it was determined a need for update in the assessment to settle on characteristics of individuals with learning disabilities to be placed in a secure service. And the development of a service design and expansion of a relevant local service, treatment (OATs) or other specialist placements.

With a high response rate to the survey, it was expected that most of the individuals with learning disability and challenging behavior who required secure care were identified. Most of the placements were in private secure setting, several miles away from the Consortium area, while private sector was competent to build up appropriate services to meet the clients need, and none of them are restricted to the consortium area. The obscurity in accessing these services is maintaining associates with families and local services or simple access in monitoring care and progress of the individuals concerned. However, the challenge in the majority of the cases was the need to control the violence and sexually aggressive behavior. And in addition appropriate curative and rehabilitative process is the center, and more vitally, services that provides outreach and sturdy links with community that facilitates regularity.

This article was somehow different from the others, especially in the way of managing the clients who shows challenging behavior. Thought it also deals with treating and managing people with learning disability and difficult behavior by placing

categorizing and placing them in a secure setting. Its focus is on providing secure care for people showing aggressive behavior to facilitate eventual return of some individual in a community-based provision.

Overall the literature sought the necessity in understanding and managing people with learning disabilities and difficult behavior is still a major problem faced by the government, agencies, care providers, and community. As Ball et al (2004), Fieldsman et al (2004) stated that the current intervention of choice for challenging behavior is based on behavioral principles and should categorize the function of the target behavior and teach functionally equivalent adaptive skills. In studying and searching for the enhancement of better interventions, strategies and administration for people with learning disability and challenging behavior was still in progress. But somehow, it was pointed out in the reviews that one of the difficulties in improving interventions is lack of ability in following behavioral guidelines. This causes intrusive, controlling and reactive approach and inappropriate strategies from care providers and carers in dealing the difficult behavior.

All reviews have given all necessary information needed by the author to understand and able to apply in practice. The reviews where helpful in comparing the interventions and strategies applied in the area of practice of the author in managing people with learning disabilities and difficult behavior. Wherein setting of guidelines was mentioned to all articles given to be followed in order to deliver a better way of dealing challenging behavior. Thought still most services fail to properly implement strategy within their area of practice.

The author is aware that all literature review included in these research is finding ways to improve the life of people with challenging behavior. These could be helpful in the progress of managing people with learning disability. As Feldman et al (2004) said that people with learning disability and challenging behavior cannot be managed by an individual alone without the necessary skills, trainings, and set of guidelines to safely deliver care to the client, as it will turn the staff to controlling and displaying a reactive approach.

Two research articles have been chosen for critical evaluation in the preceding literature review. The articles chosen will be critically evaluated in order to identify its effectiveness in helping people especially the carers dealing with learning disability and difficult behavior. First is using Periodic Service Review (PSR) in the article, Difficulties faced by social care staff when managing challenging behavior which extends the work of McKenzie et al (2005a). And the second is using The Signposts for Building Better Behavior program by Hudson et al (2001) in the article, Wide-scale implementation of a support program for parents with children with intellectual disability and difficult behavior. Although both articles were not identified as to weather a qualitative study or a quantitative study, the author finds it still helpful in producing the research assignment. And the studies are still valuable as to be critically evaluated and analyzed using differing research methodologies to compare and contrast.

Title

The Periodic Service Review (PSR) as a guideline used in the managing of challenging behaviour faced by social care workers which extends the work of McKenzie et al (2005a) shows applicable for the research content. It can be beneficial for the comparison of other approach in dealing with behavioural difficulty among people with learning disability. Hudson et al (2001) Signposts for Building Better Behaviour program, can be considerably vital in setting standard in supporting people to manage difficult behaviour. It is considerable that both studies are useful and can be applied in helping the author to find better ways to manage people with learning disability and difficult behaviour.

Abstract

The Periodic Service Review (PSR) abstract has clearly identified its use, aims, limitations and why it is used in delivering effective management for people with challenging and learning difficulty. But somehow at some point it is not clearly expanded as to whether the method was effective. Hence, the present study staff reported that though there is no difficulty in implementing the guidelines, but putting it into practice is low. As comparing the difference between services that implementing formal guidelines and those who did not use guidelines. Comparing it to the Signposts for Building Better Behaviour by Hudson et al (2001), where the study is substantial and contents such aim and question, methodology, results are present. And progress in the study was included as the result of reported response from the participants. Furthermore, it is informative and giving choices for people on how to get support in managing clients with learning disability and difficult behaviour.

Introduction/Literature Review

The Periodic Service Review as it was done randomly selecting staff on shift by the time it was carried out, I found it inappropriate in conducting a research as to disregarding consent. Though all participants’ response was confidential and the organisation assured that participation is voluntary. However, the aim of the study was clearly identifiable and well discussed and limitations were stated. A comparison between formal and informal interventions was mentioned and areas of difficulty were bullet pointed. Basically the research was able to answer aims and question and previous study was included though these article was subject for double blind review. The Periodic Service Review was used to evaluate the staffs’ approach to challenging behaviour and their outcome relevant to the previous study by evaluating the impact of training to staff practice (MacKenzie et al 2002). Somehow the study showed basis of difficulty where staff is lacking in dealing the challenging behaviour. The study was also limited lacking in statistical analysis because staff participation is diminutive to make contrast and all parts of the PSR was not conducted to working setting as to avoid disruption of clients routine. Though it may direct to some score inaccuracy the reviews were completed in a proper setting thus make factors of the study affected to be nominal. The study is typically qualitative as it provides comprehensive discussion of the topic research and explains purpose of the study.

Signposts for Building Better behaviour by Hudson et al (2001), was designed to help parents of children with intellectual disability and difficult behaviour. Partly the study is to indicate whether clinical interventions are considered as efficacy or effectiveness research. But considered as dissemination research as it evaluates strategies in spreading knowledge of new interventions and encourage in adopting the service, Sanders (2003). This research is quantitative as it provides wide survey where large numbers of participants both parents and carers participated in the program. Though the research answer aims/question and a purpose, the study is complex as it is huge type of survey and funded by organizations. As it was a long process of evaluating whether the signposts is effective and helpful in providing parents and carers in developing their own action plan in managing the difficult behaviour. Part of the study also is to evaluate participants that participate in the evaluation. As to compare outcomes from those who completed and not completed pre test, post test and follow up assessment. The research did consider ethical issue as gaining consent and participants were given anonymous identification number for the questionnaire before analysis. Indeed when compared to Periodic Service Review the latter is more complicated as many information and wide discussion of topic is considered.

Methodology

The Periodic Service Review study can be considered as cross-comparison research which to compare policies, practices, events and people as stated by Parahoo (2006). As its main purpose of the research is to monitor a consistent implementation of guidelines and service quality could be improved. Through reading this article it was hard for me to identify an appropriate research methodology, without mentioning in the discussion at the beginning even makes it harder. But based from what I have understand a semi-structured interview was conducted and score is calculated and 80 percent or above indicates service quality. Which comparisons are made between services who reported as using formal behavioural guidelines made by health professionals and those who use informal guidelines. But the study suggests that despite having the formal guidelines, still it was not implemented consistently and appropriate. Due to staff lack of knowledge and training in managing challenging behaviour. Though participants were randomly selected a questionnaire or survey was used in the study to evaluate areas where service could be improved. Parahoo (2006) and Burns (2009) suggest that questionnaires are valuable tools for research in both qualitative and quantitative data collection. Variables were not present but figures and statistics are used but groups were not analyse statistically instead descriptive statistics was used to analyse the results. On the other hand, Signposts for Building Better Behaviour by Hudson et al (2001), follows a quantitative approach due to statistical analysis, using numeric values in interpreting results. Using scale to assess and measure participant’s response as Burns and Grove (2006) says that “scale type question are more precise way of measuring phenomena”. For the result of the comparison of two groups who participate in the evaluation those who completed post test assessment and who did not, chi-square analyses and t-test was carried out.

On comparing both research articles it was not easy for the first article to identify methodology. Unlike the latter it was stated in the abstract valuable facts in the research. But thorough reading the Periodic Service Review its facts and contents will enable you to determine research purpose and intentions. As it provides clear explanation of what is the research all about which making it more interesting to read. Although the study is limited not to disrupt clients routine, all participants’ response is confidential as they were selected randomly. Thus, Signpost for building better behaviour where inclusion of only necessary data was collected, control group was not included as to previous study by Hudson et al (2003), which improves the current study.

Sample size from the first research article where 23 participants are randomly selected, thus make it more convenient for the researcher to achieve desired outcome. But none of the service achieved 80 percent acceptable level of performance, due to lack knowledge and training. Unlike the Signpost for building better behaviour where 2,119 participated including parents and carers in the program that lasted for an18 month period. Which desired outcome and result was considered successful.

Result

McKenzie et al (2005a) Periodic Service Review was explained in both descriptive and showing the range in percentage and mean of each guidelines where formal and informal approach was made to able to find or target difficulties. Wherein each care staff participated will identify difficulties by reporting as to whether formal guidelines in the setting are more helpful than those using informal strategies. But was not able to score high and reach a target of 80 percent as the suitable stage of performance, whereas, those who applies informal approach who scores high but does not able to identify difficulty and enumerate it consistently. Comparing to the result of Hudson et al (2001) Signpost for Building Better Behaviour, where intimidating and difficult to understand as it was too immense to thorough reading and interprets results of each table as to different programme stages. The difference and comparisons of tables from those parents participated for pre-test and post tests. This resulted successfully in increasing parenting efficacy wherein signposts program aim is to educate parent’s common skills in managing the behaviour of their child. Thus all family who completed Signpost where able to make and provide their own strategy and action plan in dealing their child’s challenging behaviour. The author of this dissertation was able to understand the useful ways to manage and understand the importance of assessing the level of need in trying to incorporate strategies in the clinical area. And may find it useful not only in the area of practice but people who will be interested in gaining knowledge in dealing difficult behaviour. Moreover, the writer could be able to answer question for the reasons on undertaking this dissertation and therefore share the knowledge and equally give her piece of what has been achieved based on literature reviews taken and compared.

Discussion and Conclusions

In the discussion by Mckenzie et al (2005a) periodic service review considered numbers of limitations, as limit geographical group was participating as not to interrupt clients. It was stated that majority of services that received formal guidelines was able to enumerate and lists down target behaviour. This is essential in allowing a suitable efficient analogy and customized intervention, whereas, monitoring and evaluating usefulness of the interventions. Researchers in these study points out that however there is a formal guideline used widely by the services or care providers it is still difficult to put into practice constantly and properly. Thus the researcher also critically analyse by mentioning reasons why it is not execute consistently, which one of the main reasons was support staff working without enough skills and training, as well as knowledge in working with client with challenging behaviour. The conclusion made was simply suggests that even an existence of a formal guideline is implemented it does not guarantee that they will be executed properly and constantly. That it is essential to develop a need for an innovative approach including organizational obligation, staff training and concerning the entire service group in a collaborative approach. Since in the beginning of this study, the researchers are finding ways and reasons why despite the wide implementation of a formal guideline, services were still failing to apply strategies in targeting difficult behaviour.

Hudson et al (2001) Signpost for building better behaviour discussion was sufficiently discussed providing the positive outcomes of the research and interpreting the results base on the tables of each program. Wherein the program aim is to help parents, carers in providing support for children with Intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. The Signpost is delivery of useful materials such as guidelines including videotape on how to implement strategies in dealing aggression and getting support by a telephone call and enable parents and carers to produce their own action plan specific to the children they dealt with. Although it a long research process was conducted, reports of parents and carers who able to produce their own action plans stated that they are less hassled by the children by the help of Signpost which is appropriately implemented. It was also stated that it was disappointing for the researchers that huge number of participants who are nominated in the evaluation and completed pre tests, did not carry on to completing post tests or go after assessment. Researchers in these study finds it significant to match up the standard cost of delivery of an essentially preventive program such as Signposts to the expenses related with interventions for individuals who previously developed stern behavioural challenges. And in conclusion the association of the current pre-test and post test differences from earlier study is improving considerably bigger than those in the control group in the earlier study. Furthermore, there was no recommendations included, which the author of this dissertation finds it essential in reading and applying into practice. This is essential and could help in looking for the reason that helps in conducting the study.

Introduction

For the final piece of my dissertation, relevant areas and issues will be identified, resulting from the literature reviews that were undertaken. To come up to a discussion of specific areas of interest of the author which applies to the place of work and people who will be reading it. The finding of better ways in managing and understanding learning disability and challenging behaviour, together with underlying issues of failing to acknowledge proper ways to deal with people in the spectrum, despite of numerous support and trainings. These will also help the author to trying to come up to find a preventive measure, making practical solutions and problem solving.

People with learning disability may demonstrate challenging behaviour in various reason and stimuli. It can be difficulties associated with severe communication and social interaction whereas make the individual to show anxiety, feeling of confusion and frustration. And for this reason, they have the difficulty to express their self and have no effective way to respond but instead showing aggression and difficult behaviour. Which by undertaking the literature review that the DoH (2001) explained that individuals with learning disability have deficit ability to comprehend complex information and carry out and or be trained into new skills. Therefore it is essential that carers must be good communicators, allowing them to be more responsive to clients needs and to engage them on therapeutic level. The author of this dissertation will once again introduce area of practice, role and reasons in conducting and finding relevant answers to her question. In addition, relate the different literature reviews to place of practice as to whether it is applicable and happening. The author of this dissertation is a student from The University of Winchester, taking a degree programme Bsc Professional Practice in Health and Social Care. And have been into practice placement as a support worker for people with moderate to severe learning disability and autism. The area of practice is located at North London in a community based residential home. As a support worker for people with learning disability, our main role and job description is to support them in every possible way from the basic such as helping in personal care and domestic maintenance. This includes following the companies written care plan for clients, familiarize with clients support plan and strategies in implementing daily activities. Apart from that, is giving medication, taking and recording of structured teaching plan, and strategies in dealing with challenging behaviour.

Whilst deliberating the topic for my dissertation, the author was trying to incorporate all the given literature review as to whether it is happening in the practice. If such reviews will be able to answer questions the author is looking up to purposely use in the area of practice. Upon thoroughly reading articles related to the topic the author find out that the current intervention in dealing with challenging behaviour for people with learning disability is based on behavioural principles and must be dealt with classified reason of the target behaviour and prepare them for functionally equal adaptive skills as mentioned by Ball et al (2004), Feldman et al (2004). The author could say that in the area of practice support worker and workforce is still finding the best way to understand and come across in implementing strategies that will be suitable in dealing with difficult behaviour. Therefore results from these reviews were conflicting in terms that however there is efficient application of ways to manage challenging behaviour, services was not able to constantly implement it because of carers’ lack of skills and knowledge and carers who does not have qualifications to support clients with learning disability and challenging behaviour. As a support worker it is our responsibility to put into practice whatever trainings and knowledge we can contribute in helping our clients in attending to their needs. Therefore the services were not setting standard as to hiring people to work with enough qualification as to dealing with learning disability. But on the contrary, services looking after for people with learning disability should not be blamed in hiring people without qualification as it will save service cost and it is difficult to hire people who are tough to handle and end up being beaten by the clients during aggression and difficult behaviour. However there is presence of strategies in managing the situation, as incidents and accidents can happen at any time during difficulty takes place.

As a support worker, based on experience the training and support was given to confidently apply strategies to deal with learning disability that shows aggression, still it is difficult to manage them. As to difficult behaviour varied into such intensity and duration of sudden occurrence hence might threaten the safety and welfare of individuals thus preventing them from engaging them to community activities. As McKenzie et al (2005a) said that use of conflicting and reactive strategies may in turn as a contributing factor to the elevation of challenging behaviour. But as a support worker for clients with learning disability, reactive strategy is unintentionally used to manage clients who show aggression and difficulty. For example if clients begins to get impatient for a certain activity and show aggression as to hurting itself and others, even strategies to calm them does not work then cancellation of the activity is done to give to the client the idea that aggression has its consequences. Which in my view could be a form of punishment for the client as punishment could take form of aversive stimuli or taking away of desired item or activity. Thus it focuses on consequences of what had happen after the behaviour. Hence, did not look unto what happened before the behaviour that had trigger to showing the difficult behaviour. This was mentioned in the article the author have read and included in her dissertation. As the result of the Periodic Service Review had stated that thought there is formal guidelines, services still fail to appropriately report the target behaviour.

Upon discussing the results of the articles and literature reviews and making a way in applying them into practice, the author will then once again discussed literature review results undergone in this dissertation to able to compare and can be apply to practice. From thoroughly reading the Periodic Service Review result by McKenzie et al (2005a) the writer can carefully compare its used and application to the area of practice by starting with the similarities of ways in managing challenging behaviour and comparisons to what area it fails. The article had brought me to realize and learn where practice should be improved. As it was mentioned in the article that however there is formal guidelines applied in the service, an enduring difficulty in constantly implement and efficiently used in managing clients, services were still cannot consistently apply it. Due to underlying reason such as staff lack of training and knowledge, thus less experience on how to manage challenging behaviour. It was also emphasize that formal guidelines will not certify if it is properly implemented and it is vital to develop increase innovative approach with the help of organizational obligation, staff training and collaborative approach. As a support worker in the area of my practice however there is support provided by the company in educating all their staff by conducting trainings, seminars and team meetings. Thus all support workers have attended and participated, still failed to correctly implement it to practice as evidenced by incident reports and increase in giving medication for settling the client. Based on observation the author could conclude that support workers fail to recognize the need to assess the reason before the client had showed difficult behaviour. Clients with learning disability as mentioned at the beginning of this dissertation as people who has disorder of one or more developmental which involves understanding and communication by Emerson (2001). Therefore it makes them less able to verbalize, speak and explain insights and or solving problems. And were changes will be difficult to introduce as people with learning disability conforms to sameness. Challenging behaviour could therefore be compared to an iceberg in the sea as what we only see is the visible part and not knowing that underneath the water is a part that is still connected.

Whereas Signpost for Building Better Behaviour by Hudson et al (2001) were most of the focus are into helping parents and carers of children to actively support and come up to their own action plan in dealing with challenging behaviour. This will help in teaching their children with learning disability to overcome difficult behaviour as parents will taught them to manage by the help of strategies in a guidebook before difficult behaviour come to a high level that requires intensive intervention by professional services. Hence, will help parents and carers to be less hassled and satisfied in managing their child. However this review was focus on managing children with learning difficulty and challenging behaviour the subject matter could be somehow applicable to the practice area of the writer. Thus can be helpful in applying in practice by trying to get to the core of the main reason why clients with learning disability shows aggression, and manage it before it will rise up to a level where need for intensive professional approach is needed. Moreover, this literature review on the writers view in connection to finding answer to her research topic, somehow had given a chance to compare strategies that can be applied to her practice as well as compare the difference and similarities. Wherein Signpost for building better behaviour uses professional guidebook, enclose videos, and equipment for assessment in helping parents and carers to manage children with intellectual difficulty and challenging behaviour. In connection to the authors practice area, upon dealing with clients with learning disabilities and challenging behaviour a series of different guidebook and videos was also used to be able to manage the clients. Of such guidebook which is more particular in showing the clients acceptable behaviours in the level of their understanding. In example were the social stories, daily care plan, and video tracking of structured teaching plan.

The possibilities of the results from the articles, as the author look unto it can be possibly applied in the practice, because based on experience as a support worker for clients with learning difficulties and challenging behaviour, where monitoring of staffs performance is evaluated and as to whether standard application of interventions is maintained. And assessing the need for updating the trainings to help staff refresh their knowledge in dealing their clients. Moreover, in the setting were the author is working, similar to the explanation made in the article where introducing of new innovative approach, organizational obligation and collaborative approach is essential as to seek help from a group of services hand in hand to appropriately implement proper management in dealing clients with learning disability. The British Psychological Society and The Royal College of Psychiatrists (2009) said that co-ordination between services, that in the occurrence of complex needs, it is excellent practice to seek on expertise from mental health experts, older peoples’ mental health, generic dementia, and services for learning disability. Thus, the company where the author is practicing, collaboration between different services is present in helping all support workers to have a constant guide in managing clients with learning disability. This also includes team meetings whenever there is a need for raising concerns that is connected to any difficulties the staffs have been dealing in the workplace. For example, during meetings staff is given the chance to speak out observation and experiences as to whether there is a need to change any interventions or rather update the strategies in the management of difficult behaviour. As a support worker the one who truly have the knowledge in dealing clients are those who works closely with the client.

For the next question that the author of this dissertation will find as to whether results can be applied and the difference could it make in the practice. The author would confidently say that it would be applicable at some point wherein, improving where the literature review results had failed. It is applicable at some point because based on working with clients with learning disability and dealing with challenging behaviour, as a support worker the experience I have gained and realize that while doing this research it made the author understand the necessity to pay attention to better improve the need of her clients. Wherein, applying all trainings that was given by the company and avoid disregarding such into practice and not to be conform how recent practice goes as to avoiding change. As results from the literature reviews that few reasons such as difficulty recognizing the target behaviour. For the authors view and knowledge about challenging behaviour, could therefore be triggered by a disorder in the receptive communication which leads to anxiety and confusion for clients with learning disability. Hence, make them find hard to understand what other people are saying and unable to understand what is happening around them. Thus, showing difficult behaviour could be a way of communicating for them as the most effective manner for them to get a response. Which on the other hand, people who give response could conclude as a form of aggression and make them execute reactive strategies without assessing the need to find what triggers the challenging behaviour. It was stated by British Institute of Learning Disabilities, undated, Jefferies (2009), that intensive contact such as giving massage and therapy may be beneficial for people with learning difficulty who find communication difficult.

The literature review results undertaken in this dissertation therefore help the author to further elaborate applicability and the difference it could make. As the author had mentioned that application of the results can be implemented into practice but with further improving to where it has failed. Therefore includes improving the practice by applying consistently gained skills and trainings, advance response in dealing difficult behaviour as knowing the things that could trigger the action, reviewing of clients record as to care plan, teaching sessions, and preparing activities. Moreover, updating knowledge and skills through trainings and supervisions, and participating giving ideas that could help in producing better ways in dealing with clients during team meetings. Since people with learning disability clients are dependable to their service provider, wherein, individualized planning is essential as Sanderson (2007) stated that individual focus set up forms a basis of government policy and the personalisation programme for Valuing People Now (DH 2009b), which enabling care plans to integrate appropriate individualised interventions and activities. The used appropriate individual planning is used in authors practice in dealing with the clients. As these will help in advance on how to execute daily routines, people with learning disability lives in conformity of routines and sameness hence, make it difficult to introduce new functional activities.

For example, based on the authors experience as a support worker, regarding the video tracking, where clients are being taught of some functional activities such as doing the laundry, making cup of tea, and cooking. Choices are being introduced to the client to find their preferences if the activity will be enjoyable for them or could trigger them to act to violence. If client is willing to do the activity staff to show a folder of pictures for the clients guide on what is going to happen next. Therefore, it will help the client to lessen confusion about the activity. Throughout the course of activity video recording is done, where all staff should follow the same procedures. The aim of video tracking is to see staffs performance and compare prompts that were used to the client. Is all staff follow the given prompts together with the pictures, thus allow conformity to the clients as similar prompts were used by all staff. Moreover, the activity will help client to gain independence in simple daily routines as the companies aim is to enabling people with learning disabilities to lead ordinary lives. In the course where clients are aggressive and show difficult behaviour it is safer to perform non-reactive and restraint-free interventions. As restraint may take many forms which includes physical, environmental, or chemical wherein, The British Institute of Learning Disabilities (BILD 2008) and the Care Quality Commission (CQC 2010) had provided guiding principles on seclusion and restraint and the human rights and dignity of people with learning disability. Whereas, improper physical intervention comprises assault or negligence that can lead to criminal prosecution. It was taught during training that given by the company where the author is practicing, that applying non-violent intervention can be applied in crisis prevention and creation of restraint free environments. There may be times when other strategies, such as continuing verbal intervention, removing dangerous objects, using personal safety techniques and calling for further assistance, would precede and possibly prevent any physical intervention.

Recommendations

Therefore at this point the author of this dissertation will look on the practices and considerations where practice can be further improved. Following a complete review of the literature relating to understanding and managing people with learning disability and challenging behaviour, the Author is able to conclude with recommendations for practice relevant to own area of practice.

Following where the literature review results undertaken on understanding and managing learning disability and challenging behaviour, where most staff had failed to recognized the need to evaluate what triggers the client and focuses on the course of action. Staff should be aware at all times on underlying cause of the actions. Applying all strategies provided by services, companies to where your practice is undertaking.

This recommendation was made with consideration to whether where is the writer or reader is practicing. As we all knew that different services and companies have their own written guidelines on how they dealt with clients with learning disability and difficult behaviour. But most of these services are similar on their aims as to provide quality care and safely provide interventions to help clients cope up difficulty.

Applying all learned skills during trainings, team meetings and protocols within practice area as constant as possible. Avoiding conformity as how things goes within the practice area, and must be open to new set of interventions being introduced. Especially if both staff and people with learning disability will benefit from it.

Some evidence in the literature reviews undertaken suggests that applying individual based intervention can be beneficial as to appropriately manage challenging behaviour where assessment to individual client is done to provide direct action specified to the level of needs and understanding of the client. By creating action plan where staff could used to own advantage to lessen anxiety and stress at the area of practice.

Support workers, carers and other organizational services should help each other in finding a better management of difficulty within the workplace by providing support where staff needed and monitoring the improvement and outcomes during regular team meetings and implementing new approaches which can be useful in the area.

Majority of the article in this dissertation had pointed out that the need for support workers to be fully equipped with knowledge and understanding in managing clients with difficulties includes openness to change. As staff should not conform into provided guidelines as it does not guarantee to be implemented consistently at all times. The development of new strategies and interventions with the help of other organization and collaborative approach will be essential in any area of practice.

Avoiding the use of a reactive approach or physical intervention as to restraint and seclusion, which will bring negative stress sometimes called distress to the client being restrained and or secluded.

Staff should remember that there are risks involved in any reactive and physical interventions. Where specific laws or policies may govern use of restraints, staff must check their organization’s policies and procedure for applicable rules.

The used of therapeutic rapport, or communication as response during the individual’s tension reduction is beneficial in attempting to talk to the person.

If the tension reduction occurs during the event of aggression, it is best to reassure client after assessing that staff are not going to harm them. Then these allow some time for the client to calm and regain rationality. As this form a verbal contract to client and allow them to make their own choices while staffs still maintain control, where should another violent outburst occur.

Conclusion

Understanding and Managing Learning Disability and Challenging Behaviour was indeed made the writer feel frustrated in trying to come up to a better way of presenting it in this dissertation. But through ongoing to the different literature review, critically analyzing evidence based results and finding the applicability to practice. The topic requires careful considerations where application of different interventions and strategies to consistently manage clients with difficulties, had made the writer to compare the review of literature undertaken to the area of practice. Based on the information gathered and researching related topics to my dissertation question, I was able to choose relevant literature reviews. This had created an impact to the authors chosen topic and find answer to her research question. The fact that all review of literature taken had given all process in implementing interventions and strategies to effectively manage challenging behaviour by means of Periodic Service Review and Signpost for building better behaviour which the author had both critique.

Upon conducting the whole process of this dissertation, the author had acknowledged that even in the event were services implement guidelines, action plans, reactive approaches, and other forms of interventions in managing and understanding learning disability and challenging behaviour, still it was not guaranteed that all service providers will appropriately and constantly implement it to the work area. Though enough training and support are provided in the service several staff still fail to properly target the reason behind client’s outburst and aggression. Hence the author had compared the reasoning into an iceberg in the sea. Wherein what we see is the only visible part and not the underlying part of it under the water. But then, the whole process of the dissertation had given the author benefits in undertaking this piece. As a support worker for people with learning disability and challenging behaviour, I still consider myself as a neophyte in this field of practice. Thus, it made me fortunate to be in line with this kind of practice, as it raised my curiosity to fully engage and finds way to help my clients in supporting them to overcome such difficulty. Which on the other hand, as the author of this dissertation, I have faced difficulties such as trying to critique review of literature where the author does not qualify expertise on that part of the dissertation. But somehow with the help of guides in producing the dissertation, I was able to make amends on it. Critiquing two studies has enabled the author to be certain that the knowledge acquired and recommendations for practice was made through evidence based.

The author believes that all research is a useful to any services that dealt with people in spectrum though not all research conducted were successful, critiquing allows the author to entirely examine and compare research in order to reveal the best method of practice. However, the need for further education regarding research process to properly understand results is needed as the author had faced difficulties in understanding research methodology. But through conducting this dissertation the author has not only gained extensive amount of knowledge of research processes as well as understanding and managing learning disability and challenging behaviour.

The author of this dissertation had gained knowledge which had brought positive impact upon further improving in the area of practice. And will therefore share the knowledge to her work colleagues to work as a team in implementing evidence based practice in supporting people with learning disabilities and properly execute appropriate and constant intervention in managing difficult behaviour. The author therefore will indicate that this research process had answered her topic question.

REFERRENCES:

Ager, A., and O’May, F. (2001) ‘Issues in the Definition and Implementation of “Best Practice” for Staff Delivery of Interventions for Challenging Behaviour’, Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability,26, (3): 243-56.

Ball, T., Bush, A., Emerson, E. (2004) Psychological Interventions for Severely Challenging Behaviour Shown by People with Learning Disabilities; Clinical practice guidelines. British Psychological Society. Leicester.

BPS (2004) Clinical Practice Guidelines: Psychological Interventions for Severely Challenging Behaviours Shown by People with Learning Disabilities. Leicester: British Psychological Society.

BPS/ RCP/ RCLST ( 2007) Challenging Behaviour. A Unified Approach. London: British Psychological Society/ Royal College of Psychiatrists.

British Institute of Learning Disabilities (2008) Factsheet: Chemical Restraint. BILD, Kidderminster.

British Psychological Society and the Royal College of Psychiatrists (2009) Dementia and People With Learning Disabilities. Guidance on the Assessment, Diagnosis, Treatment and Support of People With Learning Disabilities Who Develop Dementia. The British Psychological Society, Leicester.

Burns, N. and Grove, S. (2006) Understanding nursing research 4th Edition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

Campbell, M. (2008) ‘The Impact of Training on Cognitive Representation of Challenging Behaviour in Staff Working with Adults with Learning Disabilities’, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21 (6): 561-74.

Campbell, M. (2010) ‘Workforce Development and Challenging Behaviour: Training staff to treat, to manage, or to cope?, Journal of Intellectual Disabilities; September 2010, Vol. 14 Issue 3, p185-196,12p.

Care Quality Commission (2010) Control and Restraint. http://uny.cc/qjf6j (Last accessed: July 25, 2011.)

Department of Health (2001) Chapter 8- Quality Services’ in Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century. DH, London.

Department of Health (2009b) Valuing People Now: A New Three-Year Strategy for People with Learning Disabilities. DH, London.

Department of Health (2001a) Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disabilities for the 21st Century. DH, London.

Emerson, E. (2001) Challenging Behaviour: analysis and Intervention in people with severe intellectual disabilities. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, 1995,2001. Printed in the UK at the University Press, Cambridge.

Emerson, E., Cunnings, R., Barret, S., Hughes, H., McCool, C., Toogood, A. (1988) Challenging behaviour and community services 2: Who are the people who challenge servicesMental Handicap. 16. p16-19.

Emerson, E., Robertson, J., Gregory, N., Hatton, C., Kessissoglou, S., Hallam, A., Hillery, J. (2000) Treatment and management of challenging behaviours in residential settings. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 13. p197-215.

Feldman, M.A., Altkinson, L., Forti-Cerias, L., Condillac ,R. (2004) Formal versus informal interventions for challenging behaviour in persons with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 48. 1. p60-68.

Gentry, M., Iceton, J., Milne, D. (2001) Managing challenging behaviour in the community: Method and results of interactive staff training. Health and Social care in the Community. 9, 3. p143-150.

Grey I.M., Hastings R.P., and McLean, B. (2007) ‘Staff Training and Challenging Behaviour’, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, Editorial 20, 1-5.

Hudson, A., Cameron, C., Matthews, J. (2008) The wide-scale implementation of a support program for parents of children with intellectual disability and difficult behaviour. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability; June 2008, Vol.33, Issue 2, p117-126, 10p.

Hudson, A., Matthews, J., Gavidia-Payne, S., Cameron, C., Nankervis, K., Radler, G., and Mildon, R.(2001) Report to the Department of Human Services on the development and trialing of Signpost for Building Better Behaviour, a support package for parents of children with an intellectual disability and difficult behaviour. Melbourne: RMIT University.

Hudson, A.M., Matthews, J.M., Gavida-Payne, S.T., Cameron, C.A., Mildon, R.L., Radler, G.A., and Nankervis, K.L. (2003). Evaluation of an intervention system for parents of children with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47 (4-5), 238-249.

Kearns, A. (2001) Forensic services and people with learning disability: in the shadow of Reed Report, Forensic Psychiatry, 12 (1): 8-12.

La Vigna, G.W., Willis, T.J., Shaull, J.F., Abedi, M., Sweitzer ,M. (1994) The Periodic Service Review: A total quality assurance system for human services and education. Brooks, Baltimore.

McKenzie, K., MacLean, H., Megson, P., Reid, K. (2005a) Behaviours that challenge. Learning Disability Practice. 8. 9. p16-19.

McKenzie, K., Rae, H., McLean, H., Megson, P., Wilson, S. (2006) Difficulties faced by social care staff when managing challenging behaviour. Learning Disability Practice ; March 2006, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p28-32, 5p.

NHS Executive (1999). National Service Framework for mental health, modern standards, and service models. London, Department of Health.

Parahoo, K. (2006) Nursing research principles, process, and issues. London: Macmillan.

Sanders, M.R. (2003). The translation of evidence-based parenting program into regular clinical services. Australian e-journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 2(3). Available at: www.auseinet.com/journal/vol2iss3/sanderseditorial.pdf

Twenty-fourth Annual Report to Congress, U.S. Department of Education, (2002). www.medicinenet.com /learning_disability/article.htm MedicineNet.com. ( Last Accessed: July 6,2011)

Thompson , C.L., and Reid, A. (2002) ‘Behavioural Symptoms among People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities: A 26-Year Follow-Up Study’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 181(1): 67-71.

University of Winchester (2011) Enquiring Into Healthcare Practice (FYP)

Categories
Free Essays

CORE Analysis of WHSmith & the University of glasgow

Introduction
Part 1

Context, overview, ratios and evaluation are regarded as four elements of CORE framework. Indeed, they are crucial for appraisal process. In order to judge the entire performance of enterprise fairly and objectively, it is necessary to focus not only on financial data embodied in annual report but also on other significant sources like company’s strategy. This report aims to employ CORE analysis approach to analyze two companies comprehensively. In the first part, CORE analysis of WHSmith which financed by sources other than taxpayers will be represented. Additionally, University of Glasgow which financed by public funds will be analyzed by applying CORE analysis method.

Private sector: WHSmith

External context:

WHSmith PLC, which mainly sells stationery, books, newspaper, magazine and impulse products, is one of the UK’s famous leading retailers. Its business primarily in the UK, but it has been expanding their business to international locations such as Copenhagen, Oman and Delhi.

WHSmith is the biggest book retailer in UK. Compared with sales of WHSmith (?1,312,000), Waterstone’s Booksellers Limited and Amazon.Co.Uk Ltd. generate ?488,901 and ?147,303 operating revenue respectively in 2010. Consequently, WHSmith has absolute advantage in this market.

WHSmith named Bookselling Company of the Year and General Retailer of the Year in the Bookseller Retail Awards 2009, and then it named Children’s Bookseller of the Year in 2010. These awards witnessed its outstanding competitive force in the market. However, along with internet developing rapidly, shopping online and eBooks are becoming increasingly prevailing in modern society. Although WHSmith has its own website to serve customers online shopping 24 hours a day and started to launch eBooks, internet selling seems not operate as well as stores. Hence, WHSmith is forced to face the transformation of sales model and lack of internet marketing strategy. Whilst, Amazon.Co.Uk Ltd. successful doubled their market share by selling books on their website from 2004 to 2007. That threats WHSmith seriously to some extent. Moreover, some competitors such as dedicated stationery stores and specialist card shops are threatening a part of WHSmith’s business.

Internal context:

Due to travel business and high street business are considered as core business of WHSmith PLC, WHSmith’s reporting segments are structured by that classification accordingly. Compared with 565 high street stores in 2009, WHSmith owns 573 stores in 2010. Whilst, travel opens 26 units (2009:490 units, 2010:516 units) in airports, railway stations, motorway service areas, hospitals, workplaces and bus stations in 2010, and 17units are opened overseas such as India, Oman and Australia. In short, WHSmith has a steady tendency to expand their business in recent years.

WHSmith aims to be Britain’s most popular stationer, bookseller and newsagent by growing travel business, strengthening high street business and delivering sustainable returns to shareholders. To be more specific, the travel business pays attention on distributing value to shareholders by maintaining organic growth in outlets, acquiring new contracts, conducting new formats tests, rising average sales volume and improving the trading efficiency. On the other hand, the high street plan concentrates on building authority in core categories, optimizing margins, controlling costs and ensuring it delivers the retail basics (page 6, Annual report 2010).

There are 10 corporation shareholders, who occupy more than 3 percent of the issued share capital individually, owning approximately 60 percent of total shares. But the biggest proportion which is 9.86% does not exceed the UK disclosure level. Consequently, WHSmith has responsibility to meet shareholders’ expectations.

There are numerous changes occurring on the board in 2010. Firstly, Walker Boyd is assigned non-executive chairman of WHSmith PLC when Robert Walker retired on 31 August 2010. Secondly, Luke Mayhew who is a non-executive director resigned from board and Henry Staunton joined the board with extensive finance and retail expertise. That might have impacts on subsequent operating process.

Some activities changes also happened in 2010. Initially, eBookstore with 30,000 eBooks which have competitive prices and easily accessibility is launched by WHSmith. Additionally, owing to the brands Funky Pigeon and The Gadgetshop are new required, WHSmith will offer a wide choice like some gadgets and gizmos through stores and website. Lastly, WHSmith found exclusive Richard and Judy Book Club in 2010.

Like seemingly all UK enterprises, WHSmith performs well on employee and community issues. It employs approximately 17,000 staff, and it provides learning and development programme to all employees. It also maintains the importance of health and safety in workplace. In addition, their community programme commits the responsibility to make positive effects which donated ?1.1m into local communities. Moreover, WHSmith trust which is a registered charity also contributes to local communities.

Owing to the group concentrates on profitability and cash generation in two core businesses, WHSmith is highly cash generative with a strong balance sheet. Although revenue of WHSmith declined ?28 million from 2009 to 2010 which is approximately 2 percent, like-for-like sales decreased 4 percent at that time. Indeed, that decrease of total sales is caused by ?32 million decline of high street sales in 2010, whilst travel sales have a slight growth from ?448m to ?452m between 2009 and 2010. Additionally, there is nine percent increase of profit before tax and exceptional items from 2009 to 2010. That is worth ?7m from ?82m in 2009 to ?89m in 2010. Moreover, the rise of net funds which is ?11m (2009: ?45m, 2010: ?56m) also proves highly cash generative of WHSmith. Furthermore, a slight rise of total asset, same figure of total liabilities and increase of total equity seems make WHSmith’s capital structure much better in 2010. Also, the underlying diluted earnings per share increased from 41.3p in 2009 to 45.7p in 2010. Lastly, WHSmith focuses on efficient cost control and did successful in 2010. It delivered ?12m savings from all areas of the business.

To coincide with data mentioned before, the increase of ROCE and profit margin also indicate a better efficiency and profitability in 2010. Whilst, low current ratio under 1 might indicate that the shortage of the liquid resources tend to fail to achieve the short-term payments. In addition, slight changes of other ratios prove that WHSmith has ability of sustained growth.

Generally, the group has delivered a good profit performance in 2010.It is noticeable that using distinct strategies on high street and travel business is an efficient way to maximize value creation for shareholders. Hence, based on the performance in decades, WHSmith has enough capacity to operate business sustainably and successfully.

Public sector: University of Glasgow

The University of Glasgow, which was established in 1451, is considered as the fourth oldest university in the English-speaking world. It also is a member of the Russell Group of 20 major research universities. It is ranked amongst the top 1% of universities in the world. Moreover, it has outstanding performance in cultivating talents which fostered seven Nobel laureates, one Prime Minister and Scotland’s inaugural First Minister.

University’s mission which set in “Glasgow 2020 – A Global Vision” is to undertake world leading research and to provide an intellectually stimulating learning environment thus delivering benefits to culture, society and the economy (page 3, Annual Report 2010). Additionally, focus, global reach and multi-disciplinarity are main strategy of that.

There is a crucial change structuring its operations from 2009 to 2010. The university applies a College structure instead of previous Faculty structure from the date of 1 August 2010. The new four colleges are: College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, College of Science and Engineering, College of Social Sciences and College of Arts.

In the world rankings of universities 2010 by Times Higher Education, University of Glasgow placed at 19th in the UK and 128th in the world. To be more specific, it is worth to notice that the value of student satisfaction, research quality, student staff ratio, service and facilities spend, entry standards, completion, good honors and graduate prospects are 79%, 2.2, 13.2, 1377, 412, 86.6, 71.3, 75.4 respectively. These data can indicate its good competitive forces.

From teaching aspect, University of Glasgow has an excellent reputation on the teaching and learning environment from both angles of student and academic. Firstly, 90% of final year students are satisfied with their teaching and learning in 2010 National Student Survey. Secondly, student staff ratio is regarded as a proxy for teaching quality. Compared with University of Nottingham (2010:13.7), students of Glasgow might get more personal attention from the institution’s faculty. Thirdly, 16,588 undergraduate students, 5,366 postgraduate students and more than 5,000 adult learners are educated by University of Glasgow in 2010. Moreover, these students are from more than 100 countries around the globe. Indeed, the University has achieved its goal of home undergraduate recruitment, whilst the number of enrolled postgraduate students has increased 10%. Lastly, University has 6,334 staff, and there are approximately 2,000 researchers included.

Form research perspective, University of Glasgow has an outstanding performance. More than ?116m is annual research contract income, which makes University become UK’s top 10 earners for research. Additionally, according to the latest national Research Assessment Exercise 2008, University which involved 48 subject areas was one of the broadest submissions in the UK, and some of them were ranked in UK’s top 10 or were rated best in Scotland. In short, the University is 14th in Research Fortnight’s Research Power Table in the UK. Furthermore, according to the pan-UK Postgraduate Research Experience Survey, levels of research student satisfaction with university experience rose 5.6% in University of Glasgow.

From international mix angle, the number of international students has a significant 11 percent rise between 2009 and 2010. Also, international applications for entry increase 35% in 2010-11. Those growths indicate that the oversea promotion of the University is successful. In addition, it is obvious that international student community satisfies with the quality of education and support available at Glasgow through International Student Barometer 2010.

Moving to consolidated income and expenditure account, it is worth to focus some values. Tuition fees and education contracts have 10.3% growth which might be caused by the increase income from oversea students. Moreover, owing to a sharply decline of short-term investments and growth of endowment funds, endowment and investment income decrease slightly from 6,612 to 5,526 in 2009-10. In addition, both rise of staff costs and other operating expenses lead total expenditure have a 3.9% increase. Hence, the historical cost surplus for 2010 is 10,949.

Overall, based on all analyses above, University of Glasgow has delivered a good performance in 2010. It performs well not only on its financial aspect, but also on its strategic ambitions which includes academic targets and students recruitment goal.

Part 2

“The accounting profit figure is the only simple and comparable measure of the performance of an organization”

In recent decades, along with economy developing rapidly, some issues about corporations’ performance seems to be discussed frequently. Although a number of indicators can be applied for assessing the performance of an organization, it is misty that how to measure a company’s performance accurately and comprehensively. Accounting profit figure is considered as a simple and comparable indicator for assessment. Employing profit figure might be right and easy for financial report users to some degree. However, it is not accurate and whilst it is necessary to analyze other possible indicators. This article aims to present some factors which might be one of measurement methods of a company’s performance.

Firstly, different sectors, such as nonprofit organizations and for-profit organizations, assess their performance in various ways. As Epstein & McFarlan (2011) point out, owing to nonprofit organizations and for-profit organizations have different missions, it is apparent that they have dissimilar financial metrics. To be more specific, the main objective and mission of nonprofit groups is to achieve their social or service targets. Contrarily, for-profit organizations concentrate on whether they obtain an appropriate return on invested capital for their shareholders or not. However, ancillary services are also offered by them. Consequently, most non-profit organizations insist that assessing whether they accomplish their overall long-term targets or not is more crucial than only measuring their fundraising and budget achievement in short-term. On the contrary, performance assessment of for-profit groups heavily relies on the income statement, earnings per share, profit, growth in market capitalization and other financial data.

Epstein & McFarlan (2011) give an illustration of Dana Hall School. It is a girls’ school which has history of 129 years. Its goal is “committed to fostering excellence in academics, the arts and athletics within a vibrant caring community…[It] provides its students with a unique opportunity to prepare themselves for challenges and choices as women”. Indeed, from financial aspect, it met continuous operating losses for ten years in 1995. Additionally, in order to build a world-class science center, Dana Hall School still borrowed $8 million to achieve its original target in 1995. Several years later, it took on more debt for the sake of building a world-class athletic center. Although the school has financial stress in 2010, it is still flourishing in the academic field. It is evident that the provided social services of one non-profit group have significant impact on its investment. Simultaneously, it also exerts vital effect on judgment of performance. In short, from nonprofit organizations perspective, assessing financial data such as profit is not essential measure of performance.

Secondly, CORE framework which is presented by Moon and Bates (1993) seems like a comprehensive framework to better assess the performance of an organization. CORE framework has four stages: context (C), overview (O), ratios (R) and evaluation (E). This framework is based on numerous previous case studies (see e.g., Simmonds, 1986; Rickwood et al., 1990; Shank and Govindarajan, 1992) which concern about ratio analysis and have significant contribution to the development of strategic management accounting. Through a case study of appraising the performance of Tesco which illustrated by Moon and Bates (1993), it is obvious that CORE is a good and comprehensive measure of a company’s performance by assessing the performance not only from its internal aspect but also from its external angle.

Thirdly, although profit figure is a simple and comparable measure of the performance of an organization, it can be altered by accounting techniques and then mislead the users of financial report. Sharma (1992:1) cited by Weston & Brigham (1991) describes profit as “to the financial management profit is a measure of control and the test of efficiency in the organization; to the investors the profit is the measure of weather worth to invest; to the government the profit is a basis of legislative action”. That is to say, profit figure is essential measure of enterprise’s performance to a large degree. However, the case of Enron exposes the limitation of accounting figures such as profit figure. As Solomon (2007) points out, negative angles of accounting and auditing profession are represented in the collapse of Enron. In addition, Pierce-Brown (2002) claims that each accounting policies are legal and Enron has being obeyed the GAAP. She complements that Enron employs the policies of revenue recognition, off-balance-sheet financing and mark-to-market accounting to hide the growing losses. It declines $600 million profits when the accounts are restated in 2002 (Solomon, 2007). To be more specific, during the period of 1997-2000, the decrease of cumulative profit and increase of debt are $591 million and $628 million respectively. Although Enron’s financial statement seems have a good performance, the figures are unreliable for the sake of removing liabilities and rising earnings per share actually. Hence, under this circumstance, profit figure cannot reflect a company’s performance factually to some extent.

Fourth, although for-profit groups focus on financial data to assess their performance, accounting profit figure is not the only assessment approach to a large extent. As Elliott and Elliott (2008) demonstrate, interpreting a company’s financial statement can apply financial ratios analysis. It is useful to judge the economic performance of an enterprise. They implement that six ratios are considered as key ratios whilst there are lots of subsidiary ratios. The six ratios are operating return on equity, financial leverage multiplier, return on capital employed (ROCE), asset turnover, net profit margin and current ratio. Specifically, the ratios of ROCE, asset turnover and net profit margin tend to reflect the profitability of companies and current ratio intends to indicate the liquidity. Hence, combining these figures might measure the performance of an organization more accurate than just using profit to judge. In addition, cash flow is another crucial account to measure the performance.

To sum up, this essay standing upon the point of view of comprehensive analysis to analyze possible factors for assessing an organization’s performance. In the first section, it represented different sectors have dissimilar judgment standards of performance. Secondly, it was trying to connect CORE with performance measurement. Additionally, it detailed researched whether or not accounting profit figure is reliable to assess an enterprise’s performance. Finally, ratio analysis and focusing on cash flow might help the analysis of performance. Hence, based on above discussion it can be concluded that there is no one specific standard measure of the performance of an organization. As a consequence, it seems that different industries and sectors might choose various methods or indicators to assess their performance. However, due to it considers not only the internal aspect but also the external perspective, CORE framework tends to be the better approach to apply than employing accounting figures solely.

References

Elliott, B. & Elliott, J. (2008) financial accounting and reporting 12th edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited

Epstein, M. J. & McFarlan, F. W. (2011) ‘Nonprofit vs. For-Profit Boards: Critical Differences’ Strategic Finance, 92(9), pp. 28-35

Moon, P. and Bates, K. (1993) ‘Core analysis in strategic performance appraisal’ Management Accounting Research, 4, pp. 139-152

Pierce-Brown, R. (2002) ‘Another nightmare on Wall Street’, Asian Chemical News, September, pp. 30-34.

Rickwood, C.P., Coates, J.B. and Stacey, R.J. (1990) ‘Stapylton: strategic management accounting to gain competitive advantage’ Management Accounting Research. 1 (1): 37–49

Shank, J.K. & Govindarajan, V. (1992) ‘Strategic cost management: the value chain perspective’ Journal of Management Accounting Research. Fall, pp. 179–197

Simmonds, K. (1986) ‘the accounting assessment of competitive position’ European Journal of Marketing, 20 (1): 16-31

Solomon, J. (2007) Corporate Governance and Accountability 2nd Edition. Portland: John Wiley and Sons.

Weston J.F. & Brigham E.F (1991) cited in Sharma akhileshwar ‘profitability analysis of Drugs and pharmaceutical companies in India’ A thesis submitted for the degree of PH.D, in the faculty of commerce, saurashtra university Rajkot

Categories
Free Essays

An investigation into factors which influence international student’s choice of university in Glasgow, UK.

Rationale

It is a fact that studying abroad has become a growing trend over the world. According to Mpinganjira (2009: 358), the number of students studying abroad increased dramatically from 0.6 million in 1975 to 1.3 million and 2.9 million in 1995 and 2006, respectively. Amongst countries that students often select, the UK is chosen by a number of international students. As Larsen et al (2002) state, the number of international students in the UK made up the second biggest number over the world, 16 percent. Vickers and Bekhradnia (2007) also note that the number of international students in the UK increased gradually from 300 thousand in 1995-96 to over 400 thousand in 2004-05. International students obviously bring many benefits for a country. In the economic impact, the amount of money that students pay for tuition fees as well as living cost is valuable. For example, in 2003-04 the revenues that higher education institutions in the UK received were about ?2 billion, and it made up nearly 12% of all higher education institutions’ income (University of Strathclyde, 2006). Apart from the economic impact, other benefits also are created by international students, such as international students have an important role contributing to innovation of a country (Chellaraj et al, 2004). As a result, these benefits can be strong motivation to encourage the government as well as universities try their best to attract more students. Researcher chooses this topic because he is a student, therefore, he is also an insider and have own experience about this topic. This research will illustrate how international students in Glasgow choose their university. It does not only assist universities to attract students but also can bring students important advices in selecting their destination.

Research objectives

To discover the main factors influencing international student’s choice of university.
To explore whether students coming from different countries have different choices.
To investigate the most popular majors among international students in Glasgow, UK.

Research questions

What are the main factors influencing student’s choice of university
Does the cultural background influence factors which affect students in choosing university
What are the most popular majors among international students in Glasgow, UK

Literature Review

International students do not only aspire to improve their knowledge, but also wish to achieve more benefits during and after studying such as, experiencing diversified cultures or obtaining a job, and the UK is known as a suitable destination. While studying in the UK can offer international students many advantages, the contribution of international students in economic and brain-drain impacts for the UK is considerable (Chellaraj et al, 2004). For these reasons, understanding students’ decision-making is necessary and valuable for universities in the UK to broad their market. This research will only focus on international students in Glasgow and pay attention to students among all major backgrounds.

According to Al-Fattal (2010), the process that students choose university has 5 steps. ‘They are needs and motives, information gathering, evaluating alternatives, decision and post-choice’(Al-Fattal, 2010: 32). However, Al-Fattal (2010) still concentrated on the beginning period after students registering to their university, and this could be the explanation why he found the final step, post-choice. In the area of this research, only the process in which students form four first steps will be considered.

The first step, needs and motives, is the time that students have motivation to encourage them to think about university. The motivations encouraging students in reflecting on higher education are various. For instance, they may intend to go to university for their personal reasons or just for receiving more friends (Al-Fattal, 2010). As James et al (1999) concluded, most students consider about university a few years before graduating high school, but they will make over a half of their decision in the year of application.

After the motivation is created, in information gathering step, students gather information about universities and countries that they need to compare (Al-Fattal, 2010). Daly (2005) called the factor affecting strongly students of searching information is ‘formal recruiting channels’. Formal recruiting channels means sources of information such as, information form career guidance, career advisor or information from universities. James et al (1999) said that students in this stage often pay more attention about materials distributed by careers teachers, or events made by universities such as, university open day. However, the research carried by James et al (1999) mainly focused on the behavior of students when they receive the second offer in case their first choice was refused, and this could create the different result.

In the third stage, when students obtain enough data, they will create a list of universities to compare (Al-Fattal, 2010). As Drewes et al (2006) and Shanka et al (2005) noted, students will compare various criterions such as, ranking of the university, budget spent on scholarships and teaching, class sizes, the distance from their home to university, cost of study and safety. However, Shanka et al (2005) only pay attention on students coming from Asia, and participants in the research undertaken by Drewes et al (2006) were all high school students and these students were domestic students. These can generate a lack of clear difference amongst cultural backgrounds. During this evaluating alternatives step, as Daly (2005) said, students can be affected by elements called ‘social influence’ and ‘independent choice’. Social influence mainly includes advice from family and friend, and independent choice is the impression and experience of students. Daly’s research (2005), nevertheless, mostly gathered business students, and this could provide insufficient information because subject background can be an important part. At the end of this third stage, students will narrow the list by refusing universities that do not satisfy their criterions (Al-Fattal, 2010).

Before making the final decision, in the decision step, students attempt to find more details about universities remaining on the list. For example, they can go to university to ask some current students about their emotion as well as program of courses (Al-Fattal, 2010). After applying, if students’ first choice is refused, data will be pondered again, and at this turn, course and field of study are the most important elements that students calculate (James et al, 1999).

Differently from research above, by focusing on international students among all major backgrounds in Glasgow, this research could solve the lack of culture and subject background factors made by Shanka et al (2005) and Drewes et al (2006).

Methodology

This research is an exploratory study because it is to find new knowledge. However, in this study, secondary research will also be used. According to Saunders et al (2009: 140), a search of the literature and group interviews are necessary to carry an exploratory study. Therefore, firstly, secondary data from some literatures will be used to design questionnaires. Secondly, primary research will be carried using questionnaires and interviews. The survey strategy is appropriate to achieve answers for the question ‘what’, ‘who’, ‘where’, ‘how much’ and ‘how many’ (Saunders et al, 2009: 144). Hence, this research will use survey strategy to answer questions ‘what are the factors?’ and ‘how do these factors influence?’ and ‘what are the most popular majors among international students in Glasgow?’

Due to the limitation of time, this research will only focus less than 50 international students in Glasgow. As (Saunders et al, 2009) concludes, if the size of the population is less than 50, non-probability sampling should be used. Thus, this research will use non-probability sampling. It also uses the purposive sampling technique, more specifically, homogeneous sampling, because homogeneous sampling is fit to use on small and particular group (Saunders et al, 2009: 240). Regarding to this research, it only focuses less than 50 international students in Glasgow, so this group is small and particular. Saunders et al (2009: 235) pointed out that in general with non-probability, the sample size should be between 25 and 30 respondents, and he also noted that for homogeneous sampling, 12 in-depth interviews can be enough. Hence, this research will focus on 30 respondents including 12 students for interviews.

To collect data, researcher will use delivery and collection questionnaires, because delivery and collection questionnaires can prevent from forwarding questions (Saunders et al, 2009: 194). They will be designed to have many factors predicted, for example, ranking of university, tuition fees or location of university. These questionnaires will be tested on 5 students to make sure that they are clear and suitable before being sent to 30 students. These students will answer questions based on the importance of factors marked by numbers, namely, ‘1= not important at all, 2= moderately important, 3= important, 4= very important’. During doing questionnaires, non-standard interview will be used in 12 students in 30 minutes for each student to collect more detailed information which is mainly to answer the question ‘why do students choose these answers?’ and ‘is there any other important factor apart from questionnaire?’

In data analyzing process, to evaluate the importance of each factor, researcher will evaluate by percentage.

n – The number of students choosing each level, for example, ‘very important’, in each factor, for example, ‘ranking of the university’

N – The total number of participants; N=30.

Questionnaires and interview will be prepared and designed until 30th of April. After that, collecting data will be done from 1st to 15th of May. When researcher have enough information, data will be classified and analyzed from 16th to 23rd of May, based on cultural and major background in order to answer research questions, and writing report will have done in the last day of May.

Limitation: Due to this research will be carried in a short time, 4 weeks and contain a small size of population, 30 respondents, the result could be insufficient. For example, major and cultural backgrounds among students are very various. Thus, with only 30 participants, this research cannot evaluate exactly the impact of all major and cultural backgrounds. Besides, with small size of samples, the evaluation into the most popular majors among international students in Glasgow could be not objective.

Ethical consideration

During the data collecting process, students have strong right to not take part in this research because interviews and questionnaires can waste students’ time or make students embarrassed to take part. Besides, sensitive questions in interviews can disturb them such as, questions about age, educational performance, the quality of the education system in students’ country. Moreover, students have right to worry about their privacy or their information can be used and pronounced wrongly. For example, they may have some personal and familial reasons leading to their decision.

According to Saunders et al (2009), this research will use some solutions below to deal with ethical issues. First of all, in order to achieve students’ consent, the researcher will send students a document containing the clear purpose of this research, and let them know this research can effectively help universities as well as international students. Researcher will let students know that they have right to not answer sensitive questions and their information will be used correctly, lawfully, and in anonymity. The time for doing questionnaires and interview will be considered carefully to be suitable with students’ time. Interviews will be carried face to face, but in case this has to do by telephone, a reasonable time of a day will be set. After achieving the consent of students, students will be required to sign a consent form which clearly tells the right of the researcher and participants. Moreover, in order to make respondents comfortable in interviews researcher will avoid over-zealous questioning and pressing them, and interviews will be designed to be not too long.

References:

Al-Fattal, A. (September 2010). Understanding Student Choice of University and Marketing Strategies in Syrian Private Higher Education. University of Leeds, School of Education

Chellaraj, G. and Maskus, K. E and Mattoo, A. (September 14, 2004). The Contribution of Skilled Immigration and International Graduate Students to U.S Innovation. Washington: Policy Research Working Paper Series from the World Bank, No 3588

Daly, B.A.(2005).Color and gender based differences in the sources of influence attributed to the choice of college major. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 16, 27-45. USA: Elsevier Ltd.

Drewes, T. and Michael, C.(2006). How Do Students Choose a University: An analysis of applications to universities in Ontario, Canada. Research in Higher Education. Trent University, Canada

James, R and Baldwin, G and Mclnnis, C. (August 1999). Which universityThe factors influencing the choices of prospective undergraduates. Australia

Larsen, K and Martin, J and Morris, R.(2002). Trade in Educational Services: Trends and Emerging Issues. Working paper. OECD

Mpinganjira, M.(2009). Comparative analysis of factors influencing the decision to study abroad. African Journal of Business Management, 3(8), 358-365

Saunders,M. Lewis, P and Thornhill, A.(2009). Research Methods for Business Students.( 5th edn). England: Pearson Education Limited

Shanka, T. Quintal, V. Taylor, R.(2005). Factors Influencing International Students’ Choice of an Education Destination-A Correspondence Analysis. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 15(2), 31-46

The University of Strathclyde. (March 2006). The economic impact of UK higher education institutions. London: Universities UK.

Vickers, P. and Bekhradnia, B.(2007). The Economic Costs and Benefits of International Students. Higher Education Policy Institute.

Categories
Free Essays

Barclays Bank believes that university students are an extremely valuable segmentation for business banking markets.

Introduction

Barclays Bank believes that university students are an extremely valuable segmentation for business banking markets, but the business of banking services is intensely competitive. In order to Barclays Bank attract more university student customers and to keep them in a long term, Barclays requires understanding the target market, what are universities students in the UK “needs and wants”. By describing the research process, the objectives of this market research will be notified. Following with the research questions and research design and method details will be formed. In addition, this research proposal is helping Barclays to increase its market share, and using market research to ensure Barclays provide the right product and services to the UK students target market.

I. Research Objectives

The main objective of this research proposal for Barclays Bank is to achieve the target which can provide the right products or services to university students in the UK and understand what are their “needs and wants” for bank account. Otherwise, we will add value propositions to attract more students for Barclays and keep these customers over time.

This has divided into the following objectives:

To understand the reason that students choose Barclays as their first bank account.
To investigate what feature would be considered when university students start a new bank account.
To inspect the property for Barclays banking services can attract new university students.
To increase university student account market.
To ensure the graduate students will continue obtain their bank account.

Research Process

According to Kumar (2005), a well managed severe, systematic, reliable, demonstrable, experimental, and critical is substantial research. In the next parts, it will describe the following research process for Barclays Bank.

Kumar (2005) has defined those eight steps for process of research, which is shown in Figure 1:

The following research will be chosen some parts for the proposal.

Figure 1 Research Process (Kumar, 2005)

II. Research Questions

Defined the Research Questions

According to Saunder et al. (2007) research design questions are related for many aspects:

? What intrigues me?

? Why am I doing it(Is it a contribution to knowledge?)

? What models, frameworks, etc?

? How am I going to collect data?

Research Questions for this Proposal

In this research, the title “Barclays Bank and targeting University Students” is being chosen the object of research and analysis. Otherwise, the questions are to understand student customers’ needs and wants. By using questions can get information that can utilise on market decision. There are four main research questions that can be developed and easily to understand this research objective.

Which bank is your first account
What bank features would attract university students
What bank services would customers need
What reason would affect customers to continue their account

III. Methodology

Grinnell (1993) has pointed out that the word “research” can define as ‘a structured inquiry that utilises acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and creates new knowledge that is generally applicable’. Methodology sections will separate into two factors which are research philosophy and research method.

Research Philosophy

In research philosophy area, the research methods are discussed ontology and epistemology commonly. According the theory, both of methods are related to philosophical perspectives.

? Ontological perspective: The researchers can discover the essence of knowledge which exists in the world (Snape & Spencer, 2003).

? Epistemological perspective: The perspective is to discuss what knowledge can be believed (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

Research Philosophy for this Proposal

For this research, it utilises the epistemological aim to help the proposal to find out the right services, which may provide Barclays Banks to attract more university students. In addition, to understand the purchased behaviour by students, it may use EKB model on research survey to realise Barclay’s customers.

? EKB model: Engel et al. defined EKB model in 1978. EKB model will be the method for survey, and it can help to realise customers buying behaviour on decision-making. Engel et al. (2001), defined five steps that consumers decided to purchase the products, which are shown in Figure 2. These steps are showing the process of purchase behaviour by customers.

Figure 2 EKB five steps (Engel et al. 2001)

Research Method

In order to find out the value propositions for Barclays Bank, the main two research methods which are qualitative research method and quantitative research method will be considered in this proposal. Quantitative and qualitative research methods are the two ways usually use in the research area.

? Quantitative research method: This method is to collect quantifiable data and make it from objective views to produce the final results (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

? Qualitative research method: This method is focus on understand and describe peoples’ perspectives to create a logical outcome (Snape & Spencer, 2003).

Creswell (2003) point out that how to choose a research method in the analysis research, which is based on the target audiences or past experiences.

In addition, customers’ behaviour may affect their purchase decision. According to Engel, Kollat and Blackwell theory, EKB model is the basis of decision-making process for customer behaviour, and this process is referred to the actual consumers’ cognitive thinking when they purchase products. That is to say, EKB model is one of important elements to understand what customers’ thinking when they have decision-making situations.

Research Method in this Proposal

?Quantitative research method was identified to be more suitable for this research.

? Quantitative questioning will be used in the proposal. All quantitative questions will be shown in Appendix.

? Using EKB model in questionnaires and it will be shown in Appendix as well.

? Likert scale will be one of the parts in the questionnaires, Likert scale will be used in most of questionnaires. The typical five levels for Likert item are: Strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, strongly agree.

IV. Research Design

Defined Five Research Design

There are five kinds of research design different purposes such as,

? Experimental design: This main concept of design is to analysis of qualitative or quantitative research which can examine the differences and form the foundation (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

? Cross-sectional design: This design is usually used in quantitative research (Kumar, 2005).

? Longitudinal design: Longitudinal design is a study to determine the amount of changes (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

? Case study design: Only single instance will be studied in the most case, and details related to that case will be collected. This model is suitable for qualitative research (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

? Comparative design: The research can be seen as the comparative design which has consisted of more than one case and to compare or evaluate the differences or similarities (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

Research Design for this Proposal

As for Barclay’s research, the aim is to add value propositions that can utilise in marketing decision. To consider of this research design, this research is to find out the customers behaviour for university students in the UK and to the collect a certain number of different information is needed to support for this research.

This research would follow case study and collection data in order to have a deeper understanding of the impact on value propositions from the research, obtaining the appropriate strategy by the UK university students’ requirements. Moreover, the EKB model and Likert scale discussed previously will be the fundamental theories to analyse the survey data.

V.Data Collection Design

Defined the way of Data Collection

According to Kumar (2005), data collection can be use in observations, interviews, and questionnaires these possible ways. The advantages of interviews are that when researchers are helpless to fulfill participants, researchers still can see specific information from interviewees, and interviewees can describe “history” which is suitable to the research case of topic to wider and deeper understanding (Creswell, 2003). In addition, researchers can be more flexible by asking questions which is comparing with interviews questionnaires (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

For research, the direction we need to see is the students’ consideration when they opening a new account. Qualitative research strategy in interview is too unstructured than in the quantitative research design. Researchers can an unstructured interview, which is more like a general chatting and more similar to having conversations with interviewees; researchers have to make a discussion guide with which has listed questions to understand (Bryman & Bell, 2007).

Data Collection Design in this proposal

The collection of the information is to be the first step of data collection. The data focus on the bank services and marketing decision. In addition, there are three methods that will be use to collect the require data.

? First approach :Face-to face

? Second approach :Telephone

? Third approach :Mail by post or email

However, using three methods are too complicated to this research; Table 1 is shown the compare results.

Compare Mail by postTelephoneFace-to-face
BudgetLowLowHigh
FlexibleNeed addressNeed phone numberGo to every university
Ask QuestionsLess questionsLess questionsMore questions
ValidityLowLowHigh
Non-response errorHighLowLow
Collect TimeLongShortLong

Table 1 Comparison ofthree kinds ofinvestigation methods.

After the compare evaluation, the mail survey approach is most appropriate to investigation of this study, these reasons are:

? This study research has budget consideration and restriction. Mail by post may be the lowest cost for the required questionnaires.

? The mail or email address from interviewee is easy to obtain.

? The questionnaires cannot be too long, but it is clear to see on mail.

? The validity by mail questionnaire is low.

? The mail questionnaires may have a high rate of non-response bias, but it can improve by send more mails. This action may help to reduce the rate of return non-response bias.

? The mail survey, takes a long time, but it may not influence the data results.

VI.Sampling

Sampling method

According to Patton (1990), the sampling method can be defined like ‘criterion sampling’ and the sampling is adopted in this research. It will find samples from criteria that receive research objectives. This sampling method also can ensure that the interviewees are supplied with complete information feedback that is required in the research (Patton, 1990).

Using the Sampling method in the qualitative research can be same as in quantitative research, for instance, random sampling method. Most of the samplings in qualitative researchers are with some purposes or criteria since sampling may affect the outcome significantly (Coyne, 1997). However, the sample size is required in qualitative research; the result is not larger than quantitative research. Researchers are using purposeful sampling to acquire sufficient knowledge interviewees who can present the related research topic, and help researchers to get wider and deeper view points from interviewees (Patton, 1990).

Sampling method used in this proposal

There are several sampling methods that can adopt in survey research. For research, random sampling will be chosen as the research method.

Following elements are the approaches for sampling:

? Element: Target market , all the UK university students.

? Population: Estimate5000 university students.

? Sampling Units: Collection of about 5000 survey elements from the population.

? Frame: A frame is a list of sampling units, same as 5000 sampling units.

? Select sampling methods: Random sampling.

Questionnaire Design in this proposal

SNAP is an assistance software tool that can create questionnaires.

This questionnaire will divide into three sections:

? First part: Personal information for Interviewees

University students in the UK or not.
Demand for the services.

? Second part: Interviewees’ personal bank.

First bank account.
Bank name, it is Barclays or not.

? Third part: Using EKB model to design questionnaire (Likert scale will be used).

Banking service satisfaction.
Bank Loyalty.

VII. Collection Data

Defined the method of data collection

The approaches to collect data have mention in front of part. That is, there are kind of ways can use in interviews. Interviews can be face-to-face, through telephone, or gather a lot of people to do the interview at the same time, which is also known as priority group (Creswell, 2003).

Data Collection in this proposal

? Collection data will follow the front part which decides to choose mail by post method to collect to necessary data.

? There are 5000 surveys will be sent by mails and emails.

(2500 mails by post, 2500 by emails)

? Following data collection time divided into two main stages. Collection time will be a month. First stage is to collect post mail will from 1st of June 2011 to 16th of June 2011. Although first stage is to collect post mail, email questionnaires feedback may return as the same time. Moreover, this period of time will continue collection data until 30th of June 2011. These stages are shown in Table 2.

Main stages

Time

Activity

First stage

1st June 2011- 16th June 2011Collect mail by post from interviewees

Second stage

1st June 2011- 30thJune 2011Collect email from interviewees

Table 2 Survey Collect Time

VIII. Data Analysis Process

Defined Data Analysis

In the qualitative research validity can be seen from three ways, which are descriptive validity, interpretive validity, and theoretical validity; or to consider from another aspect which can be classified as internal validity and external validity (Johnson, 1997).

? Validation of research

Validity is divided into three types, including content validity (Content Validity), criterion validity (Criterion Validity) and construct validity (Construct Validity).

Content validity: The primary purpose is to systematically check the appropriate of questionnaires; the questionnaires consider the samples and conduct appropriate proportion.
Criterion validity: It is outside test criterion with the assessment based on the correlation coefficient. Criterion validity refers to test data which has been found, also name as the statistical validity.
Construct validity: It refers to the test the measure theoretical construct or common quality level which observed variables and other theoretical consistency.

Data Analysis in this proposal

In this research, SPSS will be use in data analysis. As for the collect data, all questionnaires will be recorded and transcribed. The benefit of doing transcription is to help researchers who can get all details mentioned and to re-examine the data afterwards. The process of data will firstly help researchers to organised and it enabled to rethink and restructure the following analysis stages. At the same time the second stage data were collected and filed.
In this data collection, the clearer idea information between data and final findings will be formed, and it will shown data analysis to support results.

IX. Budget

With the research process, the budget will come with it. Higdon& Topp (2004) has pointed that, to reach the project objectives of timeline and methodology, the research proposal budget is intertwined with its development. Therefore, the detail of the budget will be notified. The budget of details required to expense to a complete itemized accounting list for the project (Higdon& Topp, 2004).

The budget table3 and 4 will displayed the total research fees.

Table 3 Worksheet

PersonnelRoleSalary/month
SmithPrinciple investigator?3000
BrownCo investigator?2750
TsouStatistician?2750

The research plan will spend one month.

Table 4 Equipment

PhaseDescriptionFee
Mail by post 2500 mail letters ?500.002500 stamps?1250.00
Email2500 email ?0

Data collection and analysis will consume a month as well.

Total fees ?10250.00

Timeline

DateActivity
21st May – 27th MayProposal Needed
28th May- 30th MaySurvey Development
1st June- 30th JuneData Collection
2nd July – 6th July Statistical Data
8th JulyFinal Report

X.Recommendations

Here are some reasons that our team should be chosen.

Our research team provides complete the research methodology and Data Collection.
The objects reflect the goals and orientations of the organisation.
Our agency wish to submit Barclays Bank with a compelling demonstration that has effectively represents.
The research results will reflect new projects and interests, and provide for both current clients and new in customers.
We can discuss this plan at your convenience.
Conclusions

The valuable segmentation for Barclays Bank business banking markets is university students, however, the business banking competitive. Barclays Bank wants to attract more student customers and keeps them in over time. This research proposal starts from research process. Quantitative research method is adopted and the data collection is through by mail interviews. Then, the secondary data is from journals, articles, books. Finding of the research will help Barclays to increase its market share, and the market research will ensure Barclays provide the right product and services to the UK students target market.

Bibliography

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2003) Business Research Methods, Oxford University Press.

Cresswell, J.W. (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 3rd ed. Sage Publications.

Coyne ,I .T. (1997 ) Sampling in qualitative research. Purposeful and theoretical sampling; merging or clear boundariesJournal of Advanced Nursing , 26(3),623–630.

Engel, J. F.,R. D. Blackwell & P. W. Miniard (2001 ) Consumer Behavior 9th ed. Fort Wort: Drvden Press.

Higdon,J.and Topp,R. (2004) How to Develop a Budget for a Research Proposal. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26(8) 922-929.

Johnson ,R. B. (1997)Examining the validity structure of qualitative research. Research Library 118 (2) 282.

Kumar, R. (2005) Research Methodology: A Step-by-step Guide for Beginners. London: Sage Publications.

Patton, M. Q. (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods ,2nd ed., Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, FT Prentice Hall

Snape, D. and Spencer, L. (2003) Qualitative Research Practice: A guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, London: Sage Publications.

Bibliography

Barclays Bank

Website http://www.barclays.co.uk/PersonalBanking/P1242557947640

Online Survey Software: SurveyMonkey

Website http://www.surveymonkey.com/MySurveys.aspx

Categories
Free Essays

This study aims to measure the lung function between 1st year sports therapy university students

Introduction

This study aims to measure the lung function between 1st year sports therapy university students. This is appropriate to assess the level of severity of lung diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis and identify characteristics when diagnosing other participants. The study tests both static and dynamic lung volumes by measuring the volume of air expired from the lungs as well as the power of which it is expired. These are measured by a Spirometer machine, which calculates the volume of the lungs forced vital capacity (FVC), which is the maximum volume of air, expired after one maximum inspiration. Also forced expiratory volume (FEV1) showing the percentage of FVC expelled over the time in seconds of which the measurement is made. Lastly by calculating the final measurement of the forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) we can see the expiatory power to resistance of airflow within the lungs, allowing to show signs of the lungs percentage ability to forcibly expel air within the lungs.

This study could be seen to look into the physical fitness and ability of the lungs and other pulmonary factors to perform. With the use of the participants we can see the different levels of fitness between subjects and assess other factors, which could contribute to the outcome of the study. The test itself can be described as a random sampling test, subjects were previously assigned you groups that vary in gender and physical fitness. It is conducted by subjects in a seated position on a bench firstly testing FVC values by forcibly expelling as much air as possible, in one rapid expiration after one inspiration into the spirometer. Secondly by forcibly expelling as much air as possible for as long as possible to calculate the FEV1 value. Finally to show an entire resistance to airflow a FEV1/FVC can be calculated. Averages will be taken of each group and higher values can be seen to show a more powerful and resourceful lung function between Subjects. Other variables and factors considered within the tests are the subject’s height, gender and illnesses or conditions to show any outliers or considerable variances between groups. With these in mind the results will be assessed to show the level of performance within the groups and how these could be affected.

Results

SUBJECT

Group

INITIALS

Gender

HeightFVCFEV1FEV1/FVCNOTES
1

A

1012133

M

167

5.2

4.8

92.31

FVC
2

A

0907562

F

171

4.8

4.25

88.54

Group A3.96

3

A

1028114

M

182

6.6

5.95

90.15

Group B3.7475

4

A

HH

M

170

3.75

3.15

84.00

Group C4.91714286

5

A

0906679

M

171

5.25

4.62

88.00

Group D4.81111111

6

A

1027186

M

178

5.9

5.5

93.22

Group E4.77136364

7

A

1005219

M

171

4.28

3.98

92.99

8

A

1012960

F

160

2.93

2.3

78.50

FEV1
9

A

0919586

F

167

4.01

3.43

85.54

Group A3.38384615

10

A

1003480

F

164

4.45

3.84

86.29

Group B3.246

11

E

JT

M

178.5

#DIV/0!

Group C4.26571429

12

E

AO

F

168

4.1

3.64

88.78

Group D4.1

13

E

DF

F

176

3.01

2.54

84.39

Group E4.12318182

14

E

AD

F

167.5

3.47

3.19

91.93

SMO
15

E

ER

F

163

3.19

2.81

88.09

SMOFVC AV4.44643678

16

E

BG

F

167

4.04

3.53

87.38

SMOFEV1 AV3.8291954

17

E

BH

M

173

5.57

4.77

85.64

18

E

SS

M

179

5.54

4.63

83.57

19

E

JE

M

185

6.13

5.01

81.73

20

E

JS

M

178

5.33

4.68

87.80

21

E

SH

M

174

4.81

4.42

91.89

22

E

FR

M

172

5.6

4.6

82.14

23

E

OS

M

172

5.4

4.6

85.19

24

E

MO

M

179.4

5.34

4.71

88.20

25

E

GN

M

172

4.7

4.3

91.49

26

E

MONZ

M

177

4.45

3.78

84.94

27

E

TREVOR

M

177

3.88

3.21

82.73

28

E

ALI

M

168

5.23

4.7

89.87

29

E

JOR

M

174

5.88

4.74

80.61

30

D

CH

M

175

4.49

4.01

89.31

31

D

HB

F

164

#DIV/0!

32

D

RM

M

175

4.55

3.86

84.84

33

D

AS

M

172

4.3

4.11

95.58

34

D

KC

M

183

4.2

3.91

93.10

35

D

CO

F

168

4.12

3.7

89.81

36

D

SL

F

168

4.38

3.2

73.06

37

D

JT

F

154

3.4

2.9

85.29

38

D

CP

F

164

3.67

3

81.74

39

D

TM

F

168.5

3.6

3.03

84.17

40

D

AL

M

180.5

4.55

3.83

84.18

41

D

JA

M

178.2

4

3.37

84.25

42

D

CTK

M

176

4.78

4.18

87.45

43

D

AB

M

179.9

4.62

4.07

88.10

44

D

SB

M

176

2.8

2.25

80.36

45

C

1014315

F

172

5.65

5

88.50

46

C

1012212

M

191

6.65

6.2

93.23

47

C

1014640

F

156

3.7

3.55

95.95

48

C

1012633

M

167

3.3

2

60.61

49

C

1016163

M

182

5.6

5.05

90.18

50

C

1013151

M

176

5.2

4.4

84.62

51

C

1011941

M

181

5.95

5.4

90.76

52

C

1022773

M

186

6.2

3.4

54.84

53

C

1011809

M

170

4.51

4.1

90.91

54

C

F

M

3.47

3.19

91.93

55

C

S

M

167

3.87

3.81

98.45

56

C

L

F

156.5

3.65

3.12

85.48

57

B

JRS

M

181

4.95

4.12

83.23

58

B

L Dennis

M

183

4.8

4.28

89.17

59

B

1023169

M

186

3.7

3.65

98.65

60

B

RWJ

M

177

3.15

3.02

95.87

SMO
61

B

JM

M

168.3

6

5.25

87.50

62

B

MH

F

161.3

4

3.6

90.00

63

B

AB

M

161.3

5.05

4.33

85.74

64

B

BU

M

101.8

5.4

4.6

85.19

65

B

JW

M

179.1

5.4

4.6

85.19

66

B

NC

M

169.1

4.32

3.26

75.46

67

B

EH

M

187

5.32

3.88

72.93

68

B

1009373

F

174

3.65

2.92

80.00

69

B

CM

M

176.7

5.11

4.24

82.97

70

B

JR

M

176

5.05

4.45

88.12

71

B

EK

M

171

5.05

4.28

84.75

72

B

RB

F

165

4.6

4.29

93.26

SMO
73

B

1007117

F

155

3.9

3.5

89.74

74

B

1017573

M

174

4.8

4.5

93.75

75

B

1027814

M

180

4.3

2.89

67.21

Chest inf
76

E

1010245

F

164

2.01

1.25

62.19

77

E

1027206

F

155

2.38

2.26

94.96

Asthma
78

E

1006974

M

176

2.73

2.7

98.90

79

E

1015301

M

176

3.3

3.28

99.39

SMO
80

D

1007703

M

184

5.81

5.07

87.26

81

B

1020415

F

160

2.76

2.15

77.90

Asthma
82

D

1010931

M

1.89

4.52

3.81

84.29

83

D

1026768

F

160

3.64

3.25

89.29

84

C

1012648

F

167

3.71

3.09

83.29

85

A

1027299

M

182

5.32

4.63

87.03

86

A

1003819

F

176

2.47

2.41

97.57

87

B

1005235

F

161

3.43

2.77

80.76

88

C

1013209

F

3.33

2.96

88.89

89

A

1002116

F

4.83

3.53

73.08

(Figure 1) Raw data Collected within the study, outlining the contained variables and data collected.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group A13

4.5992

1.14036

.31628

(Figure 2.0) One sample T-Test comparing group A’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 4.446436782

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group A.483

12

.638

.15279

-.5363

.8419

(Figure 2.1) One sample T-Test comparing group A’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group B21

4.5114

.84415

.18421

(Figure 2.2) One sample T-Test comparing group B’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 4.446436782

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

VAR00001.353

20

.728

.06499

-.3193

.4492

(Figure 2.3) One sample T-Test comparing group B’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group C14

4.6279

1.19814

.32022

(Figure 2.4) One sample T-Test comparing group C’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 4.446436782

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group C.567

13

.581

.18142

-.5104

.8732

(Figure 2.5) One sample T-Test comparing group C’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group D17

4.2018

.66987

.16247

(Figure 2.6) One sample T-Test comparing group D’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 4.446436782

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group D-1.506

16

.152

-.24467

-.5891

.0997

(Figure 2.7) One sample T-Test comparing group D’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group E22

4.3677

1.22493

.26116

(Figure 2.8) One sample T-Test comparing group E’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 4.446436782

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group E-.301

21

.766

-.07871

-.6218

.4644

(Figure 2.9) One sample T-Test comparing group E’s FVC results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group A13

4.0300

1.08923

.30210

(Figure 3.0) One sample T-Test comparing group A’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 3.829195402

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group A.665

12

.519

.20080

-.4574

.8590

(Figure 3.1) One sample T-Test comparing group A’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group B21

3.8371

.77423

.16895

(Figure 3.2) One sample T-Test comparing group B’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 3.829195402

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group B.047

20

.963

.00795

-.3445

.3604

(Figure 3.3) One sample T-Test comparing group B’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group C14

3.9479

1.14264

.30538

(Figure 3.4) One sample T-Test comparing group C’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 3.829195402

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group C.389

13

.704

.11866

-.5411

.7784

(Figure 3.5) One sample T-Test comparing group C’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group D17

3.6206

.64917

.15745

(Figure 3.6) One sample T-Test comparing group D’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 3.829195402

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group D-1.325

16

.204

-.20861

-.5424

.1252

(Figure 3.7) One sample T-Test comparing group D’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Statistics

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Group E22

3.7886

1.02453

.21843

(Figure 3.8) One sample T-Test comparing group E’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 3.829195402

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

Group E-.186

21

.854

-.04056

-.4948

.4137

(Figure 3.9) One sample T-Test comparing group E’s FEV1 results to the rest of the year.

Test of Homogeneity of Variances

VAR00002
Levene Statistic

df1

df2

Sig.

3.835

4

82

.007

(Figure 4.0) One way ANOVA comparing FVC of each group.

ANOVA

VAR00002
Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups2.007

4

.502

.472

.756

Within Groups87.208

82

1.064

Total89.215

86

(Figure 4.1) One way ANOVA comparing FVC of each group.

Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable:VAR00002
(I) VAR00001(J) VAR00001Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

BonferroniAB.08780

.36394

1.000

-.9622

1.1378

C-.02863

.39721

1.000

-1.1746

1.1173

D.39747

.37996

1.000

-.6987

1.4936

E.23150

.36076

1.000

-.8093

1.2723

BA-.08780

.36394

1.000

-1.1378

.9622

C-.11643

.35582

1.000

-1.1430

.9101

D.30966

.33646

1.000

-.6610

1.2803

E.14370

.31462

1.000

-.7640

1.0514

CA.02863

.39721

1.000

-1.1173

1.1746

B.11643

.35582

1.000

-.9101

1.1430

D.42609

.37219

1.000

-.6477

1.4998

E.26013

.35257

1.000

-.7570

1.2773

DA-.39747

.37996

1.000

-1.4936

.6987

B-.30966

.33646

1.000

-1.2803

.6610

C-.42609

.37219

1.000

-1.4998

.6477

E-.16596

.33302

1.000

-1.1267

.7948

EA-.23150

.36076

1.000

-1.2723

.8093

B-.14370

.31462

1.000

-1.0514

.7640

C-.26013

.35257

1.000

-1.2773

.7570

D.16596

.33302

1.000

-.7948

1.1267

Dunnett T3AB.08780

.36601

1.000

-1.0511

1.2268

C-.02863

.45008

1.000

-1.4006

1.3433

D.39747

.35557

.940

-.7214

1.5164

E.23150

.41016

1.000

-1.0115

1.4745

BA-.08780

.36601

1.000

-1.2268

1.0511

C-.11643

.36942

1.000

-1.2582

1.0254

D.30966

.24562

.893

-.4197

1.0391

E.14370

.31959

1.000

-.8033

1.0907

CA.02863

.45008

1.000

-1.3433

1.4006

B.11643

.36942

1.000

-1.0254

1.2582

D.42609

.35907

.917

-.6951

1.5473

E.26013

.41321

.999

-.9869

1.5071

DA-.39747

.35557

.940

-1.5164

.7214

B-.30966

.24562

.893

-1.0391

.4197

C-.42609

.35907

.917

-1.5473

.6951

E-.16596

.30757

1.000

-1.0829

.7510

EA-.23150

.41016

1.000

-1.4745

1.0115

B-.14370

.31959

1.000

-1.0907

.8033

C-.26013

.41321

.999

-1.5071

.9869

D.16596

.30757

1.000

-.7510

1.0829

(Figure 4.2) One way ANOVA comparing FVC of each group.

Test of Homogeneity of Variances

VAR00002
Levene Statistic

df1

df2

Sig.

1.485

4

82

.214

(Figure 5.0) One way ANOVA comparing FEV1/FVC of each group.

ANOVA

VAR00002
Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups63.338

4

15.834

.243

.913

Within Groups5343.195

82

65.161

Total5406.532

86

(Figure 5.1) One way ANOVA comparing FEV1/FVC of each group.

Multiple Comparisons

Dependent Variable:VAR00002
(I) VAR00001(J) VAR00001Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

BonferroniAB2.36465

2.84873

1.000

-5.8539

10.5832

C1.93275

3.10914

1.000

-7.0370

10.9025

D1.47376

2.97412

1.000

-7.1065

10.0540

E.57801

2.82387

1.000

-7.5688

8.7248

BA-2.36465

2.84873

1.000

-10.5832

5.8539

C-.43190

2.78518

1.000

-8.4671

7.6033

D-.89090

2.63361

1.000

-8.4888

6.7070

E-1.78665

2.46267

1.000

-8.8914

5.3181

CA-1.93275

3.10914

1.000

-10.9025

7.0370

B.43190

2.78518

1.000

-7.6033

8.4671

D-.45899

2.91330

1.000

-8.8638

7.9458

E-1.35474

2.75975

1.000

-9.3165

6.6071

DA-1.47376

2.97412

1.000

-10.0540

7.1065

B.89090

2.63361

1.000

-6.7070

8.4888

C.45899

2.91330

1.000

-7.9458

8.8638

E-.89575

2.60669

1.000

-8.4160

6.6245

EA-.57801

2.82387

1.000

-8.7248

7.5688

B1.78665

2.46267

1.000

-5.3181

8.8914

C1.35474

2.75975

1.000

-6.6071

9.3165

D.89575

2.60669

1.000

-6.6245

8.4160

Dunnett T3AB2.36465

2.45780

.979

-5.0407

9.7700

C1.93275

3.80046

1.000

-9.9166

13.7821

D1.47376

2.18161

.998

-5.2430

8.1905

E.57801

2.41005

1.000

-6.6911

7.8471

BA-2.36465

2.45780

.979

-9.7700

5.0407

C-.43190

3.74733

1.000

-12.1297

11.2659

D-.89090

2.08768

1.000

-7.1028

5.3210

E-1.78665

2.32536

.996

-8.6439

5.0706

CA-1.93275

3.80046

1.000

-13.7821

9.9166

B.43190

3.74733

1.000

-11.2659

12.1297

D-.45899

3.57227

1.000

-11.8337

10.9157

E-1.35474

3.71619

1.000

-12.9882

10.2787

DA-1.47376

2.18161

.998

-8.1905

5.2430

B.89090

2.08768

1.000

-5.3210

7.1028

C.45899

3.57227

1.000

-10.9157

11.8337

E-.89575

2.03125

1.000

-6.9231

5.1316

EA-.57801

2.41005

1.000

-7.8471

6.6911

B1.78665

2.32536

.996

-5.0706

8.6439

C1.35474

3.71619

1.000

-10.2787

12.9882

D.89575

2.03125

1.000

-5.1316

6.9231

(Figure 5.3) One way ANOVA comparing FEV1/FVC of each group.

(Figure 6.0) Graph containing the correlation between Height and FVC results.

Group Statistics

GenderN

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

FVCFemales30

3.6960

.77678

.14182

Males57

4.8414

.90564

.11995

(Figure 7.0) Independent samples text comparing FVC results between males and females.

Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

Lower

Upper

FVCEqual variances assumed1.665

.200

-5.878

85

.000

-1.14540

.19485

-1.53281

-.75800

Equal variances not assumed-6.166

67.457

.000

-1.14540

.18575

-1.51611

-.77470

(Figure 7.1) Independent samples text comparing FVC results between males and females.

Discussion

After conducting the study there is much to discuss. Raw data (figure 1) from the tests indicate that some participant did not fill in the required data needed. This can be down to competence of conducting the procedure or observer error asking the question whether this is entirely valid. Furthermore a correct procedure must be outlined and overlooked so that each group performs the same method. Some subjects may have stood up and some may have sat down, possibly causing the results to differ. (Townsend, 1984; Allen et al. 1985) have shown that FVC is affected by body position, 1-2% lower by sitting rather than standing and 7-8% lower supine than to standing.

Taking these into account the results could not be described as entirely valid or reliable. As the study looks into identifying and discussing results between student groups we can see how they performed compared to normal values. The subjects appear to deliver between the normal values of 4-5L in males and 3-4L in females for FVC (figure 7.0) this appears to show a significant result meaning males have a higher FVC than females with group C performing the best on average (figure 2.4). (Figure 4.0) shows that the statistic of FVC between the groups has a significance of .007 meaning there is a small difference between them however (figure 4.1) states that the difference is not significant. This essentially shows that although there is an apparent difference between the groups this can be seen as not having an effect on the study. (Figure 3.0) shows that Group A has the highest average FEV1 meaning they have the most power of expiration of air. (Figures 5.0 – 5.1) state that there is no significant difference between the values of all the groups with each subject showing results near to the value of 85% this could be seen to have a normal result.

With such an apparent loosely based study it is important to consider certain group or subject variances, which can effect the study. Identifying these can create a more reliable and valid study as well as identify further ideas for research. The FVC method is highly effort dependant and has poor reliability as it is measured upon volume of air as well as a less reliable observed rate of exertion. Certain people may not want to exert the entire force needed due to anxiety or other factors such as illness or conditions. (Eston. R. et al. 2009) shows us that although there is no difference between FVC values for healthy people and asthmatics there is a considerable change in dynamic FEV1 values with asthmatics having a much larger decrease in performance from the FVC value. This could be mainly attributed to the fact that asthmatics have difficulty breathing out and therefore exerting a larger force of air from their lungs for a long time could be harder. With this in mind it could be advised that a screening process becomes more prominent before the test it taken these can identify, illnesses, conditions, injuries and even a physical activity questionnaire to see whether more active subject have better results. Any hidden values could the research and discovering more about the subject can help to answer more questions. Height comparisons (figure 6.0) show there is no relationship between the subjects height and FVC value, however it is hard to follow this when it not clear of whether the sitting or standing method has been used. (Ferris et al 1971; Cotes 1979) show that sitting height provides less variability in lung function than standing height, this could show that (figure 6.0) with its varied results show that subjects were standing. (Becklake 1968) explains that there are many other factors that effect lung function results, some of which are not identified within this study. Gender amounts to a change in 30%, body size 22%, age 8% and ethnicity 10% most of which can be identified through a survey.

This study may be described as having no significant purpose without the inclusion of further factors detailed by (Becklake 1968). With these included it could be seen to show a purpose and significance with vision to elaborate upon affecting factors however currently this shows a significant variety of results between subject groups.

References

Becklake,M.R. (1986) Concepts of normality applied to measurement of lung function. American Journal of Medicine; 80: 1158-64.

Eston, R. Et al. (2009) Kinanthropometry and Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual: Tests, Procedures and Data, Volume 2: Physiology. 3rd ed. Oxon, Routledge.

Ferris, B et al (1971) correlation of anthropometry and simple tests of pulmonary function. Archives of environmental health; 22: 672-6.

McArdle,W.D. et al (2006) Essentials of Exercise Physiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Townsend, M.C (1984) Spirometric forced expiratory volumes measured in the standing versus sitting posture. American Review of Respiratory Disease; 130:123-4.

Categories
Free Essays

What does your analysis of the video animations, created using the xtra-normal website, tell us about the approaches to learning adopted by students at University?

Introduction

The relative effectiveness of the methods by which students learn and what these methods are comprised of, particularly in the context of higher education, depends on a number of factors which will all be explored in this essay. Through the creation and qualitative analysis of videos about learning and teaching, we were able to gain knowledge on what these factors were, from the point of view of students. An emergent coding system was used due to our imperfect foresight of the themes which later became apparent in the wealth of data collected. Each video’s content was analysed, and sentences were grouped into categories which were created if a given theme was found to be present more than twice in one video. Thus, by the end of the analysis a collection of themes had been assembled for further discussion and analysis.

The first of these, the difference and, in some cases, shift between deep and surface learning is very much apparent in the videos created by students in higher education themselves. Biggs (1978) coined these terms as descriptions of different types of learners, and they merit further examination. A surface learner will make little effort to gain a comprehensive understanding of the topic being studied, but rather learn information for the purpose of completing the task successfully. Thus, this information is more likely to be rote learned, the learner employing only the minimum effort required to achieve their desired grades. Studies have shown that surface learners are rarely willing to ask questions of their teachers and, when they do, they “refer to more basic, factual or procedural information” (Brown & Chin, 2000). Conversely, deep learners display a desire to engage more deeply in their academic task, by establishing links between the work they are doing across all their courses, therefore making it easier for them to understand the larger concepts which the information they are learning might be trying to demonstrate. In the videos, it is clearly demonstrated that they do this by reading widely around their subject and going beyond the simple demands of their course or assignment.

Moreover, it was shown in many of the videos that the deep learners took more time over their work and study, attributing less importance to the social aspects of university, since their main aim in attending university was often to further their knowledge and writing or study skills, as well as to achieve a good degree qualification. Their aims were not limited to doing well in assignments, but rather they wanted to understand more deeply for their own benefit, achieving good grades being almost incidental, but still an important factor.

When assessing this distinction in relation to the videos, however, it is important to note that the learning styles will have been shown in a way that is perhaps exaggerated, given that the videos are not the most accurate representations of real academic settings. For a theory that has already been criticised for being reductively simplistic, it is interesting to examine this further, in order to ascertain how far we can see aspects of the two types of learning overlapping. For example, whilst rote learning was earlier mentioned as one of the characteristics of surface learning, it could be argued that this technique is used by nearly all students to learn facts such as multiplication tables or spellings, and this does not necessarily mean that it is not an effective way of committing this knowledge to long term memory, and understand the topic. The only time where rote learning can be less effective is when “it is used instead of those higher-order learning strategies…aimed at acquiring an understanding of the material” (Lublin, 2003). Consequently, there is an apparent danger in creating a false dichotomy between the two types of learners when, in fact, parts of both strategies can be beneficial.

Upon examination, a marked gender difference was found between the deep and surface learners portrayed in these videos. In most cases the males were shown to be the surface learners, while the females displayed a deeper approach to their acquisition of knowledge. This provides support for research conducted by Marks et al. (2000) who found that, as a general rule, females were more “engaged” than males not only in the pursuit of academic achievement but also in attaining a deeper understanding of their subject and that which surrounded it. Further research by Suitor et al. (2004) concluded that academic success had become an “acceptable route to visibility” amongst their classmates, whereas this was slightly less true of males, whose performance in sports, physical attributes, and capacity to be sociable were more highly regarded by their peers. If this is true, then it makes sense that girls should become deep learners more often than boys. This may go some way to explaining the gender difference in the videos, as it might still be true to some extent in a university environment.

The fact that there exist different types of learners and strategies for learning has obvious implications on both peer support and the role of the teacher, and these may both be other factors influencing learning. The understanding gleaned from deep learning may permit students to be of help to their ‘surface learner’ classmates, as their explanations will be comprised of associations, showing implicit criticism and creative thinking. Peer support of this sort was seen in the videos in the form of group work or tutoring. Harden and Crosby’s article (2000) about the twelve roles of the teacher, and the fact that a teacher should be “more than just a lecturer” helps us understand how teachers can also adapt to different learning styles of their pupils, across age ranges. The third role highlighted in the paper is that of the “facilitator”, or the teacher as the person who initiates learning of a given topic, but then guides and supports the student into furthering their own knowledge of it, so. Thus the student are building upon the basic knowledge that they have been given. In this way, they may continuously add to their knowledge structures, to create more complicated ones, leading to a deeper understanding. They become the “builders” of their own knowledge, with the teacher there to give confidence and to lead them in the correct direction. This concept, known as a constructivist approach to learning, is derived from the early work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget, who argued that children possessed the ability to think scientifically, and overwrite or add to existing knowledge as they grew up and discovered more of the world. Though there were few examples of teaching in the videos as it was most often dialogues between students, it can be discerned that this may be a way in which both deep and surface learners could learn material in their courses in higher education. Whilst during lectures, the lecturer most often exhibits a transmission method of teaching (they transmit and impart their own knowledge to their class with little interactivity or input from the students), they can provide reading materials, or make themselves available to students to help them construct their learning and understanding, and gain wider knowledge. Usually, teachers in higher education do both of these things, so that both the constructivism model and the transmission model are seen in effect.

Closely linked with the above theory is the suggestion of metacognition and motivation. Deep learners, who are most often self-regulated (taking a proactive approach to their own learning) need to have an understanding of their own cognition, and the way in which they learn best, known as metacognition (Zimmerman, 1986). Surface learners perhaps take less of an interest in evaluating this. The videos show deep learners taking more of a control of certain factors, which they are aware will influence their completion of the task, such as disturbances from fellow classmates. In this way, they are displaying good metacognitive abilities, self-control and self-regulation.

One could argue that the better a students’ metacognitive abilities and understanding of the task, the higher their motivation, given the fact that they will most probably achieve better grades than another student with a poorer understanding of what is required of them and how to achieve it. Some of the videos showed such learners, who lacked motivation on account of a lack of understanding of both the topic studied, and of their own most effective way of learning. This very lack of motivation could be explained the expectancy theory of motivation, proposed by Wigfield and Eccles. If a student does not understand something, they are likely to have a low expectancy belief about the extent to which they will be successful in completing a task. This, in turn, may value the value of the task, as there will be no valid reason for doing it, in their minds, if they find it too difficult. This was seen in a few of the videos with statements such as ‘I won’t be able to do it…’. Conversely though, if a student has had a positive experience in the completion of a task, in the past, such as positive feedback from a teacher, or a good grade, they may well feel more motivated to keep on working well at other tasks, and maybe also more confident in explaining the topic to a peer. This ties in with the notion of self-efficacy, or self-perception of how successful we will be at certain tasks. Those with high expectancy beliefs will have higher motivation, but also perhaps higher self-efficacy from the outset, as they are confident in their ability. Though this was not often seen in the videos, it is possible to argue that the more control and active participation a teacher encourages a student to take in their own work, the higher their motivation will be, as their expectancy beliefs and judgements of the value of the task will become more positive. If students begin to take this approach, as a result of encouragement, they are also likely to become self-regulated learners.

However, there are issues of contention within the construct of motivation which are worthy of mention, since we saw some demonstration of motivation in the videos. The concept has been theorised about by many different theorists, and all come up with slightly different definitions. It has been argued by behaviourists such as B.F. Skinner that any action which receives positive reinforcement will elicit motivation to repeat a similar action. This is perhaps the theory most applicable to the educational environment, as another theory known as “drive-reduction” theory involve negative reinforcement which is rarely seen in classrooms or higher education. As well as Wigfield and Eccles’ theory, Weiner (1992), suggested that it is our desire to master and understand the world which motivates us to take action. This may also be seen in an educational context, and in the videos, as those students with a desire to learn, understand and have a firm grasp on their course material were motivated to put in the effort needed to do so. It is obvious, therefore, that there are differing explanations of such a complex concept as motivation, so it is difficult to use only one to explain the few instances apparent in the videos, but there are some more appropriate than others.

Conclusively, the videos went some way towards showing the approaches towards and strategies employed in learning in higher education. The data only represented students from one university, so although it was useful in highlighting many concepts, it may be important to see whether these are consistent across other universities. It has been a valuable endeavour to research the methods of learning, and subsequent implications on teaching, and provided support for the work done by the researchers mentioned in the paper.

REFERENCES

Biggs, J B (1979). Individual differences in study processes and the quality of learning outcomes. Higher Education, 8: 381-394.

Chin, C. and Brown, D. E. (2000), Learning in Science: A Comparison of Deep and Surface Approaches. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37: 109–138

Lublin, J. (2003) Deep, Surface and Strategic Approaches to Learning, Centre for Teaching and Learning, Good Practice in Teaching and Learning, from: http://www.otq.qut.edu.au/development/curriculumde/RES_Deep-Surface-Learning.pdf
retrieved 14/03/11

Zimmerman, B. (1986). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocesses. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 11: 307-313.

Categories
Free Essays

The Impact of Socio-Marketing in Environmental Issues: University of Hertfordshire. A critical review

The piece is a proposal for a study to carry out a critical review of one particular organisation, looking at the role played by socio-marketing in environmental issues. Globalisation has increased the interest in, and urgency surrounding, ‘green’ issues and possible ways of addressing them. In particular, there is a new interest in ‘green’ marketing and other ways of doing business, and ways of trying to encourage consumers to be less reliant on environmentally harmful products.

The proposed study will examine the issues through the particular case of the University of Hertfordshire, a relatively new university in the South-East of England which has been active in developing policy in line with wider national and international guidelines for environmental matters. The University has a number of specific policies designed to promote ‘green’ awareness and behaviour. The overall aim of the study is to examine the different ways in which the University markets its ‘green’ policies to its students and staff. This will be done through a case-study analysis which combines literature review, examination of the University, its environmental policies and the way it markets these, and a primary study amongst students at the university. The proposal includes an introduction to the study, a literature review, and a methodology.

The literature view looks at the growth of environmental awareness in society in general and amongst consumers in particular, documenting the phenomenon of ‘green’ marketing. The associated concept of social marketing is also considered. A number of theoretical models of human behaviour, including the mechanisms whereby behavioural change can be brought about, are considered, in order to through light on how marketing is able to effect change in behaviour.

The case study examines a number of relevant areas concerning the University. The policies and strategies it has adopted are considered, and the different ways in which information is disseminated to staff and students is analysed, with particular attention given to social media.

The primary research proposed will combine quantitative and qualitative data in order to provide depth and texture as well as statistical reliability and validity. Research is to be done by questionnaires, distributed primarily face-to-face, with a limited number disseminated online. 200 students and staff from the University took part. Data collected is to be subject to textual and statistical analysis. Limitations, ethical issues and validity, reliability and generalisability are discussed.

Project Details:

Order Number: 2305

Title: Impact of Socio-Marketing in Environmental Issues: University of Hertfordshire. A critical review.

Project Type: Dissertation.
Academic Level: Undergraduate.
Work done so far: 5,000 words (Introduction – Methodology).

You may choose to order an additional 5,000 words for us to complete the project.

Purchase Details:

The abstract you just read is for a pre-written project. These projects are plagiarism free and of a 2.1. (B) quality. Click here for more information on our pre-written essays and dissertations for sale.
These projects were written to match a client’s specific requirements, and may need to be tweaked to match yours.
If you’re interested in one of these titles, kindly contact us, so we may send you a sample. Kindly include the name of the essay and order number in your email.
Once you have paid, it would be taken off this page and never re-sold. You would also be sent a plagiarism report.
Click here to Buy this Dissertation

Categories
Free Essays

5 things you can do at University to improve your CV

Aside from all the parties and socialising that you might get out of university, there will also be plenty of opportunities to get involved in activities outside of lectures and – god forbid – the pub!

However, as daunting as this might seem, these opportunities could actually benefit your future employability; after all a university qualification only gets you so far – adding weight to your CV outside of your degree is essential.

Boosting your CV can set you apart from other graduates and be the difference in getting you that job after you graduate. Here are five things you can do while at university that will improve your CV and employability prospects to a future employer.

1. Join a sports team

Perhaps an obvious one but a large percentage of students join sports clubs only to drop out after the first few weeks. But think about the benefits – no business wants to employ someone who has no personality or outside interests. Sport is a great way to showcase your ability to work as part of a team, to compete, and to give things a go.

Sign up with a local netball, football, rugby or hockey team – either in the local community or with the university – as getting involved with a sports team will show a future employer that you have teamwork skills, commitment and endurance. Getting a spell in the first team, or as captain, will always look good on a CV as well.

2. Get involved with Student politics

You might have noticed that, for a few weeks every year, universities all over the country become plastered with hundreds of posters and flyers, detailing exactly why you should vote for various members of the student body.

Budding politicians and entrepreneurs might can use this opportunity to campaign for a Student Union position, as President or one of the many other roles. Campaigning and, hopefully, winning will demonstrate a drive to lead change and manage projects.

Putting yourself in the frame for an official role can also make university life more interesting and is great for impressing employers if you are elected. The fact that you can make all your friends wear T-shirts with your face on is just a bonus.

3. Student media

For anyone with the intention of going into the media world after university, getting involved with the university radio stations, film teams or newspapers can be the ideal proving ground.

Startlingly, recent studies have shown that there are significantly more journalism graduates than there are entry-level jobs. This is why you need to set yourself apart, and working for a student newspaper or radio station – particularly if it’s in a position of power – can ensure that your CV will be placed on the top of any pile.

Working with the student newspaper or radio station you can get practical experience and learn the techniques and skills that are invaluable when trying to get the attention of employers.

Many universities also have dedicated TV channels now, so budding TV presenters can get a chance to cut their teeth in front of the camera.

4. Volunteer

An easy way to make your CV more impressive and make a difference is by volunteering. Many agencies take on volunteers and there will also be volunteer societies at university.

Volunteer work looks excellent on your CV as it throws you into many tasks you wouldn’t usually do, such as cooking, gardening or even customer service. This way you demonstrate that you’re able to learn new and transferrable skills. Volunteering also gives you the opportunity to build a network, possibly even in the field you plan to start your career in.

A popular place to volunteer is with Nightline. Nightline provides emotional support to students in distress with phones manned throughout the night during term time when other specialist university welfare services are closed. As a volunteer you will receive all necessary training, and again it is perfect for displaying your communication skills, as well as showing the you are a genuinely kind and helpful person.

5. Part-time or casual work

Aside from earning a bit of cash, working actual jobs provide useful experience and insights into the working world. They are helpful in presenting future employers with evidence of skills such as teamwork, working under pressure, dealing with people, and balancing the demands of work and life.

Categories
Free Essays

Racism and its likely Implications for University Education

Introduction

The rise of cultural assimilation (a policy response to support multi-ethnicity that promotes the assimilation of ethnic minorities into the dominant culture), integration and cultural diversity over the past decades in the UK would be a seeming assurance that racism is a thing of past but such assurance would be wrong because racism, while it has indeed reduced significantly over the years is still weaved into the sub cultural elements of the country and hidden from public view (Adamson et al, 2009). The implication of this could be significant especially given that the UK is sold internationally as a tourist destination, financial centre and a place to get quality education (Home office, 2005).

By studying the implications more closely, it would be of note that racism could be managed where tourism is concerned because most tourists are short stay visitors who may likely not notice the serious effects of racism but where studying and education is concerned, the effects of racism are likely to be felt because most students who are from outside the city or the country live for years within the city for the span of their education which normally last for years. This statement is true for NTIC students because of the racism that is often witnessed in the Nottingham environment. Records show that over 1,700 people were direct victims of racist incidents in Nottingham alone in the year 2005 and 88% of the charges prosecuted were proven in court (Bond, 2011).

This scourge is not only witnessed on the streets in the Nottingham city but across schools and in the classrooms from primary schools to Universities, and statistics (See e.g. Law, 2007) shows that rather than decline the rate is seeing the reverse. However, given the importance of Nottingham and the role it plays in offering quality education to members of the public who come from other areas of the country and countries around the world, racism might need to be further understood to gain deeper insight into its variations and its implication particularly for NTIC students.

In view of the above background, the overriding aim of this proposal is to set out the groundwork for the dissertation which is aimed at improving understanding into the workings of racism in Nottingham and particularly how it affects current students of NTIC and the implications for future education in the city.

Rationale and Importance of the study

The motivation behind the chosen topic is varied but is mostly concerned with the researcher’s personal interest and experience. It is taught that such topic will also help to contribute to understanding the modern day nature of racism and how it works. This subject is particularly important because of the concerted efforts that have long been made to eradicate all forms of racism and racial discrimination in all parts of society including social settings such as schools. Determining the perceptions of college students in terms of how they view racism and race-related segregation amongst the student community in Nottingham is therefore a worthwhile means of addressing the critical issues involved in race relations.

Research Objectives

To investigate the modern nature and variations of racism
Understand it impact and implications for NTIC students and education in Nottingham
To determine the perceptions of NTIC students about Racism and race relations between fellow students in Nottingham

Research Questions

What is the nature of racism in Nottingham
How is it perceived by NTIC students and what are its likely implications for studying and education in Nottingham

Literature Review

In the common monitoring project annual report (2005), it was argued that “the effect of racist attacks and harassment is wider than the effect on the direct victims”. The report continued: “Racism, and the possibility of being attacked, threatens the quality of life of the whole communities”. The report further shows that since 2004, racism has increased by 2% year on year. The continuous rate of racism includes 1326 incidents of verbal racist abuse, 254 physical assaults, 242 instances of criminal damage, and other allegations such as racial harassment, threats, malicious phone calls, written material, unpleasant substances, graffiti etc (Common Monitoring Project, 2005).

The table below shows the reported incidents of racism across different cities in the UK. The calculation was based on 2001 census.

Source: Tomasevski, (2005)

In another recent study conducted by Hussein et al (2009) on the effects of racism on the Chinese community, they found that “the Chinese living in the UK are critically subject to series of racial abuse which range from name calling to property damage on their businesses and personal properties, they also found that a range of arson, physical attacks which has often led to emergency hospitalization and death and been meted on the community over the past years” (P.29).

In another recent report Craig (2007) found that the scourge of racism is still very prevalent in the UK and especially in remote communities where cultural integration have not played a huge role. Several possible dimensions of racism and racist conduct have been identified in the academic literature. Indeed, a number of academic constructs have been used to categorize and define different contextual facets of racism including supremacism, racialism, segregationism, xenophobia, ethnocentrism, and other associated constructs (see for example Modood, 1992). Furthermore, dimensions of racism have also been discussed in terms of the level of its incidence – whether it is institutional, economic, or individual. Institutional racism may refer to any form of structured or systemic racism perpetrated, promoted or permitted by governmental, religious, corporate or educational institutions especially to the extent that they are able to influence the orientations of a large number of individuals. Following this perspective, Jones (2000) identifies three levels of racism, which he suggests can be: institutionalized, personally mediated, or internalized. On another level, Essed (1991, p.3) introduces the conceptual dimension of “everyday racism”, which refers to the forms of racial discrimination that are manifested in “familiar, recurrent, systemic practices”; and such practices, according to Essed (1991), ordinarily involve socialized behaviours and attitudes. There is also a dimension of segregation and exclusion that, while not exclusively racial, may incorporate racist considerations. This dimension has been termed ‘social closure’, and as Parkin (1974) explains, it involves “the process by which social collectivities seek to maximise rewards by restricting access to a limited number of eligibles” (p. 54).

Analyse the sources

The sources considered for the literature review are more of reports and research findings sponsored by the government and conducted by interest groups as there are relatively small empirical studies accessible by the researcher. While this may potentially limit the outcome of what can be understood about racism. The researcher makes effort to address this problem by scouring every available sources for useful studies and literature on racial discrimination to add to thoughts from modern literature.

Research Design

A qualitative research approach has been considered for the dissertation because such approach would be more useful in investigating the issues and underlying problems and the implications of racism. According to Stake (1995) qualitative research is useful where the aim is to understand the causes and the real scenarios in research settings. The method would be used as a way of exploring and understanding everything about racial discrimination.

Research Method – Case Study

The qualitative case study method has been chosen to conduct the research and would focus on Nottingham and in particular the students of NTIC. Yin (1984) defines the case study research method as involving the academic “study of a contemporary phenomenon within its real life context”. For the most part, case studies are useful for gaining in-depth knowledge because they emphasize a contextual analysis of deliberately limited of events or conditions as well as the relationships that govern them. They will be used for the dissertation to achieve the research aims and objectives.

Data Collection

Both primary and secondary data collection methods are considered for the research, the main primary instrument considered appropriate is the semi structured interview because of its flexibility in drawing appropriate information from the respondent (Saunders et al, 2000). This method was selected because it would help the researcher to obtain specific information and insights into the incidence of racism among students and other community members in NTIC; useful information pertaining to the diverse dimensions and underpinnings of racism and segregation would be learned through the mentioned interview structure with students and lecturers in the academic community. In total, about 35-40 respondents are considered as the appropriate population size. Secondary data will be sourced from existing reports, research journals and government statistics.

Sampling Method

Given the nature of the present research, a representative sampling method is considered appropriate. Representative sampling offers the researcher the opportunity to identity the exact representative of the population studied. According to Saunders et al (2000) by using this method, the students of NTIC specifically those who represent other population apart from British are interviewed. In order to maintain objectivity and validity of the research possible outcome, the population will not be limited to any ethnic group or country.

Ethical Considerations:

One of the foreseen ethical issues might be the disclosure of data from interviewees who may feel uncomfortable answering certain questions about how they feel about racial discrimination. Given that the present subject is also very sensitive, there are certain issues that might arise from concerns especially where some questions are concerned. In addition, use of the collected data might be the fear of some interviewee’s. The researcher will allay such fears by ensuring that only questions which are relevant are asked and data related to personal details such as name will be excluded to protect interviewee’s identity. All respondents will also be assured that data collected will be strictly used for the purpose of the research and shall not be disclosed to any third party, while the researcher will try at possible best to avoid sensitive questions that can cause problems.

References

Adamson et al (2009). Hidden from public viewRacism against the UK Chinese population. The Monitoring Group and the authors?

Bond, A. (2011) “NUS Reveals Rampant University Racism“, Durham One, 14 June. Available at: http://www.durhamone.co.uk/news/nus-reveals-rampant-university-racism [29 June 2011]

Craig, G. (2007b) Cunning, loathsome and unprincipled’: the racist tail wags

the welfare dog’, Journal of Social Policy, 36,(4), October: 605-623.

Essed, P. (1991) Understanding Everyday Racism: An Interdisciplinary Theory, London: SAGE Publications

Hussein, B, Smith, Law, I. Lau, C. Chau, C, Chueng, T. (2009). Hidden from public viewRacism against the UK Chinese Population: The Monitoring Group and the authors

Hammond, R. and Axelrod, R. (2006) “The Evolution of Ethnocentrism”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(6): 926–936.

Home Office (2005) The Race Equality Duty and the Statutory Three Year Review Probation Circular 21/2005, London: Home Office.

Jones, C. P. (2000) “Levels of Racism: A Theoretical Framework and a Gardener’s Tale”, American Journal of Public Health, 90(8): 1212-1215.

Law, I. (2007) Tackling racism, whiteness and Eurocentrism in learning and teaching, Educational Developments, 8.3, August: 15-17.

Parkin, F. (1974) “Strategies of Social Closure in Class formation”, Social Analysis of Class Structure, 12: 1-18

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2000) Research Methods for Business Students, 2nd edition, London: Pitman Publishing

Stake, R. E. (1995) The art of case study research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Yin, R. (1984) Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications

Categories
Free Essays

Discuss and reflect on how different theories of motivation help explain your intention to maximise the experience of being a student in a University

Abstract

Motivation is a psychological attribute that stimulates the brain to act in a certain way in order to achieve a desired outcome or goal. It is considered the driving force of all decisions that individuals make throughout their life. This essay would seek to discuss and reflect on how the different theories on motivation would help guide the activities I partake in and experiences while at university. I shall draw on motivational theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the Intrinsic and Extrinsic theory to help demonstrate why I believe some university activities or experiences (or lack of), may be more beneficial for me specifically.

Introduction

This report will demonstrate how the different theories of motivation help explain my intentions to maximise my experience of being a student in a University. In doing so, I will put forward my intentions to engage in various activities whilst studying at University as well as any clubs or societies I intend to join.

Motivation and University Life

Intention to maximise the experience of being a student in a University

Motivation is integral to maximising the experience of being a student because unless I remain motivated throughout my time at University I will be less likely to succeed. In order to stay focused I thereby intend to fully engage in co-curricular activities. Co-curricular activities are non-academic voluntary activities that seek to enhance self discipline, social interaction, leadership and self-confidence (Ferguson, 2001, p. 6). Thus, not only will engaging in such activities help keep me motivated at University but they will also look extremely good on my CV and help me to obtain a job once I leave University. Such activities also “provide opportunities to apply academic skills in other arenas as part of a well-rounded education” (Klesse, 2004, p. 39). By engaging in co-curricular activities it is evident that I fully intend to maximise my University experience and make the most out of student life. This will prepare me fully for life after University and will provide me with a positive outlook on life as a University student. Although, co-curricular activities can often lead to added pressure and stress, the pros of engaging in such activities outweigh the cons and I recognise the value of taking part in these activities as part of my career development. The activities that I intend to take part in include; volunteering for various projects, undertaking part-time work and becoming a member of interesting and applicable societies and clubs (The Guardian, 2013, p. 1). By demonstrating that I have engaged in various activities as part of my University life will not only benefit me, but it will also be highly valued by any potential employers. This will certainly add to my motivation of being a student since I will be confident that I have maximised my experiences of University life, whilst at the same time preparing myself for the future.

Theories of Motivation

There are various motivational theories that seek to explain why people act in certain ways and are generally based upon conscious and unconscious motivations. Here I will seek to explain how three of these motivational theories help explain my own intentions to maximise the experience of being a student by engaging in various co-curricular activities. The first theory that helps to explain this is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. According to Maslow, there are five classes of hierarchic needs which people are generally motivated by. These needs are; physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization (Pritchard and Ashwood, 2008, p. 6). Such needs cause one to act in a certain way in order to gain satisfaction and Maslow believes that lower needs take priority. This is because the higher needs will not be fully activated unless the lower needs have first been satisfied. For example, if I haven’t eaten or slept properly (physiological) then I will not be motivated to achieve my self-esteem desires. This will in turn impact upon my experiences of University life as I will not be motivated to maximise my University life experiences. Another motivational theory that helps to explain my own intentions is the Incentive Theory which is the desire to obtain external rewards. This theory is one of the main motivational theories that exists and illustrates that individuals are motivated by a desire to reinforce incentives. As put by Bernstein (2011, p. 4); “people are pulled toward behaviours that offer positive incentives and pushed away from behaviours associated with negative incentives.” This suggests that different types of behaviour are generally caused by the different incentives to which they apply. Therefore, individuals with different incentives will act in different ways.

My incentive to achieve success and obtain good grades at University will affect the way I behave. Regardless, the value of my incentives can change over time and will pretty much be dependent upon the situation that I am in at the time (Franzoi, 2011, p. 3). An example of this is the praise which I may receive from tutors. Such praise may have greater value in certain situations, but not in others. In effect, incentives can only be considered a powerful tool if great importance is being placed upon them. The final motivational theory that will help to explain my intentions to maximise the experience of being a student in a University is the Intrinsic and Extrinsic theory. This theory is based upon the belief that motivation is divided into two types namely; internal (intrinsic) and external (extrinsic) motivation. Intrinsic motivation occurs when an individual is driven by an interest in a particular task, whereas extrinsic motivation occurs when an individual is influenced by external factors. It has been suggested that extrinsic motivation often results in a reduction of intrinsic motivation as individuals are more likely to be influenced by external sources (Wilson and Lassiter, 1982, p. 811). Whilst at University I will influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. This is because I will be motivated to study in order to get a good grade (extrinsic) and because I enjoy the subject (intrinsic). In addition, I will also be motivated to take part in co-curricular activities because it will assist in my development once I leave University (extrinsic) and I will also find it enjoyable whilst studying (intrinsic). In effect, the main difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations is the fact that extrinsic motivation arises from outside influences, whilst intrinsic motivation arises from within.

Importance of motivation in University

Motivation is clearly an important attribute to have whilst studying at University since it will help one to develop further and make life easier and more enjoyable whilst studying. From these findings it is evident that motivation is driven by the desire to succeed, which can be attained by taking full advantages of all the activities Universities have to offer. Provided that I maximise the experience of University life by taking part in co-curricular activities whilst studying, I will remain focused and motivated. In order to stay motivated it is essential that I avoid situations that will most likely be distracting and set goals and targets. This will ensure that I stay motivated to study as I will be able to clearly identify the goals and targets that I have set out to achieve. Long term goals will include; graduating, being employable, obtaining my dream job and proving to myself and others that I can achieve anything that I set out to do. Short terms goals will include; improving the way I study, taking part in co-curricular activities, obtaining part-time work in order ease financial pressures, creating a study timetable and getting organised. Whilst it can be extremely difficult to stay focused when there are outside distractions, I can alleviate this by thinking about ways to eliminate such distractions in advance and managing my time appropriately. As put by Rybak (2007, p. 14); “If you care about it enough to stay motivated you’re ahead of the game.” Nevertheless, in order to stay motivated, I need to first identify my goals and prioritise any tasks and activities that will me to achieve them.

Conclusion

Overall, it is clear that the different theories of motivation do help to explain my intention to maximise the experience of being a student in a University. This is because motivation is a psychological attributes that enables me to achieve my desired goals and targets. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs clearly demonstrates that in order for me to achieve my goals, I first need to consider the five classes of hierarchal needs and ensure that my lower needs are given priority over my higher needs. This is because he higher needs will not be fully activated unless the lower needs have first been satisfied. The Incentive theory also signifies how I can stay motivated whilst at University by focusing on behaviours that offer positive as opposed to negative incentives. Finally, the Intrinsic and Extrinsic theory allows me to focus on both internal and external motivations so that I can fully appreciate and achieve my objectives.

References

Bernstein, D. A. (2011). Essentials of psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Ferguson, J. G., (2001) Co-Curricular Activities: A Pathway to Careers, Facts on File, Business & Economics.

Franzoi, S. L. (2011). Psychology: A discovery experience. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning.

Klesse, E. J., (2004) Student Activities in Today’s Schools: Essential Learning for All Youth, R&L Education.

Pritchard, R., and Ashwood, E., (2008) Managing Motivation. New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Rybak, J., (2007) What’s Wrong with University: And How to Make It Work for You Anyway, ECW Press.

The Guardian., (2013) Why our students need co-curricular activities, not extra-curricular, activities, Learning and Teaching Hub, [Accessed 10 November, 2013].

Wilson, T, D. and Lassiter, G. D., (1982) Increasing intrinsic interest with superfluous extrinsic constraints. Journal of personality and social psychology, 42 (5).

Categories
Free Essays

A Report on Anaerobic Digestion: The design, planning, implementation and sustainability of a waste management operation at Manchester Metropolitan University Business School.

Executive Summary

In higher education establishments such as, Manchester Metropolitan Business School reducing the costs associated with waste management, energy consumption and carbon emissions has been high on the agenda.

This report seeks to examine one option for the business school. The feasibility of this option is discussed in detail and a number of considerations are examined to seek to ascertain how practicable using anaerobic digestion could be for the university.

Introduction

The Manchester Metropolitan Business School is situated in the heart of Manchester and it consists of a number of campuses. To this end, managing waste on each of these is a primary concern as the business school has set its waste reduction targets as follows:

Reuse and recycle waste by 40% in 2012/13 – 2013/2014.
Achieve zero waste to landfill by 2020/2021 (MMUER, 2013).

This is for a number of reasons which are:

The rising costs of sending waste to landfill sites (HMC, 2013).
The carbon reduction targets stipulated by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) (HEFCE, 2010).
The carbon reduction targets specified in the Climate Change Act 2008 (HMSO, 2008).
The Waste (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2012 require all waste streams to be separated so that they can be recycled (HMSO, 2012).

The university produces many types of waste and has a duty to reduce these including those classed as bio wastes (Manfredi & Pant, 2013)by following the waste hierarchy, which is:

Reduce
Recycle
Recover (Glew al., 2013)

With these principals of waste management in mind one may consider managing a source of waste which is often overlooked or not managed appropriately. This is waste from food outlets. Food waste is biodegradable but it is often disposed of through the general waste stream, which costs approximately ?75 per tonne to send to landfill (HMC, 2013) with the costs applied by waste disposal contractors this become a significant sum that the university has to pay each year.

Food waste is often wet and therefore heavier than most other dry wastes that may be disposed through the general waste stream. Therefore, it costs more to dispose of than other forms of general waste. This increases the costs of disposal and the weight of the waste sent to landfill sites from the university unnecessarily, as there are other options available that may be utilised to dispose of this waste. These are:

Composting on campus.
Composting by using a waste contractor.
Anaerobic digestion.

Each of these options may be considered by the university to seek to reduce their costs and their environmental impacts which are linked to the disposal of food wastes.

Business strategy

This report seeks to assess the viability of the three options above which may be utilised to reduce food waste. The first of these options was composting food waste on campus. However, this is not possible due to the location and layout of the university campuses (see Appendix 1). Therefore, this option has been discounted. The second option was to pay a waste contractor to dispose of the university’s food waste and to compost it off campus. However, this will be at a cost as the waste is heavy and the campuses are located in different areas (see Appendix 1). Additionally, the collection and disposal of the waste will contribute to the university’s carbon footprint (HEFCE, 2010). Therefore, it is believed that the disadvantages of adopting this approach would far outweigh any advantages which may have been created by recycling food waste using this option. The third option, which has been identified, is disposing of food waste via anaerobic digestion. The viability of this option needs to be assessed in more detail. However, it does meet each of the principles which are highlighted in the waste management hierarchy (Glew et.al., 2013). Therefore, this business strategy shall be explored to ascertain if this is a viable option for disposing of food wastes.

Anaerobic digestion is a process by which animal, food or plant waste is broken through the process of restricting air flow through the materials which encourages micro-organisms to produce biogases and disgestate. The digest is nutrient rich compost which may be reused as a fertilizer. However, though this process is a viable way through which food waste may be disposed the process produces gases such as, methane and carbon dioxide (Murto et.al., 2013). Therefore, it is necessary to consider these to as these gases both contribute to global warming.

Operations strategy

The operation of anaerobic digestion facility requires a number of skills. For example, management, monitoring, loading and process review. Therefore, a number of factors will need to be considered by the operating strategy. In addition, to the human resources required, the siting of the facility is another key consideration, as it is imperative to ensure that the facility operates and is utilised efficiently. This will help to ensure that the benefits derived from this project will be fully achieved as often these types of renewable generation projects fail due to poor planning, so the benefits which are attributed during the feasibility and design phases of the project are not realised (Schenk & Stokes, 2013).

Due to the location of the university campuses (see Appendix 1), the best location would be central to these in between the Elizabeth Gaskell and Didsbury campuses. This would be advantageous because:

This location is away from the city centre.
The site is located near several main roads, so access and egress would be easy.
The location of the site is central to most of the campuses, thus waste could be easily collected and transferred to the site.
The operation of the facility could be monitored by existing staff on campus, providing they received the appropriate training.
This location could enable the plant to be utilised for other purposes such as, providing district heating or power to university buildings.

Therefore, each of the above factors should be considered during the operational design of the facility (Spencer et.al., 2013).

Operations design

The design of the anaerobic digestion facility needs to consider a number of factors, these are:

The existing land use in the area of the proposed site.
The sensitive receptors which may be located near the site.
The transport infrastructure surrounding the site.
The expected lifetime of the facility.
The anticipated operating hours of the facility.
The waste tonnage to be treated.
The building footprint and height.
The storage of waste on the site.
Vehicular movements to and from the site.
The planning requirements.
Planning conditions which may be imposed by the Local Authority.

Each of these needs to be considered during the design of the new facility as they may affect its operational capacity (Spencer et.al., 2013).

Capacity planning

The capacity of the facility will need to be carefully planned to ensure that there is an optimal return on the investment that the university is making (Spencer et.al., 2013).. According to the Estates Management Statistic 2011-2012 (EMS, 2012) Manchester Metropolitan University currently has 29, 850 full time students and the total waste produced 8746 tonnes of which 7501 tonnes is recycled and 1010 tonnes of waste is used to create energy (EMS, 2012). This means that the facility needs to have the capacity to recycle 235 tonnes of waste per annum, which is not enough to support the running of a small anaerobic digestion facility (SEPA, 2013). The minimum amount of waste required for a small plant is 417 tonnes of waste per month.

Therefore, the capacity required would not be met; however, the university could consider sending its recycled waste to this facility. If this was a viable option this would mean that 644 tonnes would be available on a monthly basis so the capacity of the plant would be met (SEPA, 2013). This would not be affected by the reduction in waste that is to be diverted from landfill, in fact this may increase the amount of material sent to the facility. This would enable the university to achieve their zero waste to landfill target by 2020/2021 (MMUER, 2013).

Resource management

Resources would have to be provided to ensure that the plant was run efficiently. However, it is believed that this may be achieved by redeployed existing staffs who work at the university. This is because a small plant would only require two workers and a manager to maintain its operations (SEPA, 2013).

Financial planning

The costs of setting up a small facility would be expensive (Spencer et.al., 2013).. A number of factors would need to be considered, such as:

The cost of the real estate.
Planning and design costs.
Construction costs.
Maintenance costs.
End of life disposal costs.
The cost of the plant.

Each of these would need to be calculated, as an approximation the costs could be:

The cost of the real estate – ?500, 000
Planning and design costs – ?200,000
Construction costs – ?350, 000
Maintenance costs (over 25 years) – ?150,000
End of life disposal costs – ?200, 000
The cost of the plant – ?400, 000.

Therefore an estimation of the total cost of implementing this could be as much as ?1.8 million. Furthermore, a number of other costs would also need to be considered, such as:

Monitoring requirements (HMSO, 1993).

Transportation of the waste (HMSO, 2012).
Costs of waste licenses (HMSO, 2012).
Training for staff.
Awareness programmes for students and staff.

Therefore, the costs would be approximately ?2 million over the 25 year life span of the plant, so to make the investment viable the payback per annum needs to be more than ?80, 000.

This could be achieved by reducing the costs of waste which are sent for recycling, assuming that the rate per tonne is approximately ?5. This would generate a saving of ?37, 505 per annum. Additionally, the cost of sending all wastes to landfill may be factored into this, assuming that this costs ?7 per tonne, this could lead to savings of ?1645 per annum.

If the plant was designed to produce electricity and to communally heat some of the university premises this would also lead to further saving (Spencer et.al., 2013).. However, it is difficult to estimate these savings as the type of waste inputted into the plant would affect the energy and heat which could be reused from the plant. However, with rising energy costs, it is thought that the benefits of this may outweigh the costs as they will lead to a reduction in:

The cost of carbon permits under the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) (HMSO, 2011).
The university’s carbon footprint from energy used by the university.
The cost of disposing of waste through contractors.
The amount of waste which is sent to landfill.
The amount of Climate Change Levy which is paid (HMSO, 2013).
The amount paid for energy.

Further to these other options could be explored to ascertain if this would be costs effective such as:

Revenue generated from Feed in Tariffs (HMSO, 2012 a).
Revenue generated from the Renewable Heat Incentive (HMSO, 2012 b).
Revenue generated by taking waste from other businesses near the proposed site.

For this purpose of this report it has been presumed that the income and savings that will be generated from the above will be ?50,000 per annum.

Cost benefits

From the costs section above the estimated costs of the development of the facility would be approximately ? 2 million. In order, for the development to be financially viable ?80,000 per annum would need to be generated over 25 years to pay back this investment.

Based on the savings that have been outlined above, it is believed that ?50, 000 per annum could be generated through general cost reductions, ?37, 505 per annum could be saved by sending all recycled materials to the plant and ?1645 per annum could be saved by sending landfill waste (which is not already used to produce energy from waste) to the new facility.

Therefore, over the 25 year life span of the facility a potential ?2,228,750 could be saved. If this is offset against the estimated cost of the facility which is ?2,000,000 over its life span a profit of ?228, 750 could be made by implementing this project.

Therefore, it is considered that the benefits of investing in an anaerobic digestion facility are viable.

Scheduling

Based on the costs and all the benefits outlined above it is recommended that the scheduling of this project is undertaken as follows:

From May 2013- July 2013 suitable sites are investigated.
From July 2013 – August 2013 feasibility of these sites is investigated.
From August 2013 – October 2013 a site for the new facility is procured.
From October 2013- December 2013 contractors are chosen and the design and planning for the facility are started.
From December 2013 – December 2015 the facility is built.
From December 2015 – March 2015 the facility is made operational.

In addition to this the schedule for the operation of the facility needs to be considered (Spencer et.al., 2013). It is suggested that there are a maximum number of four deliveries of waste per day, as this will ensure that the plant is able to be continuously supplied to waste so that it will run at its optimal capacity (SEPA, 2013).

Loading and timetabling

The operational hours of the facility will need to be 24 hours a day, 20 days of the month on weekdays from 07.00 to 17.00 (SEPA, 2013). This will help to ensure that the plant runs efficiently and that waste will not build up or need to be stored on site (Spencer et.al., 2013). In addition, this will allow the minimum throughput of 417 tonnes of waste per month to be achieved (SEPA, 2013).

Performance measurement

The performance of the plant may be measured through a number of metrics, such as;

The reduction in the costs of carbon permits under the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) (HMSO, 2011).
The reduction in the university’s carbon footprint.
The reduction of the costs of disposing of waste through contractors.
The reduction of the amount of waste which is sent to landfill.
The reduction in the amount of Climate Change Levy which is paid (HMSO, 2013).
The reduction of the amount paid for energy.
Revenue generated from Feed in Tariffs (HMSO, 2012 a).
Revenue generated from the Renewable Heat Incentive (HMSO, 2012 b)
Revenue generated by taking waste from other businesses near the proposed site.
The payback that the new facility generates per annum.
The emissions to air from the facility.
The number of complaints about the operation of the facility.
The number of vehicle movements to and from the facility.
The amount of time in-between collections from campus and the processing of the waste.

Each of these metrics may be utilised to measure the quality of the process and service performance of the new facility.

Procurement

The procurement process that shall be used for this project will need to be aligned with European Union procurement regulations and they will need to demonstrate best value for money.

Conclusion

In conclusion the analysis that has been undertaken in this report indicates that the third option, which is to build an anaerobic digestion facility in a centralised location,is viable. Therefore, the business strategy that was proposed should be implemented as this will enable the university to reduce its costs in relation to waste disposal and to attain its targets which are;

Reuse and recycle waste by 40% in 2012/13 – 2013/2014.
Achieve zero waste to landfill by 2020/2021 (MMUER, 2013).

Therefore, it is recommended that the university should seriously consider investigating this option further as the number of benefits that have been identified in this report show that this proposal warrants serious consideration.

Appendices
Appendix 1 Maps of the locations of Manchester Metropolitan University

(MMU, 2013)

References

Estates Management Statistics (EMS) (2012) Environmental Information 2011/2012. Available from http://www.hesa.ac.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2093&Itemid=239 (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Glew, D., Stringer, L. C., & McQueen-Mason, S. (2013). Achieving sustainable biomaterials by maximising waste recovery. Waste Management.

Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) published their report Carbon reduction target and strategy for higher education in England in January 2010 http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/year/2010/201001/name,65921,en.html

HM Revenue and Customs (HMC) (2013) A General Guide to Landfill Tax. Available from http://customs.hmrc.gov.uk/channelsPortalWebApp/channelsPortalWebApp.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=pageExcise_ShowContent&propertyType=document&id=HMCE_CL_000509 (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (1993) Clean Air Act. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1993/11/contents (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (2012) The Controlled Waste (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2012. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/2320/contents/made (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (2011)The CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme (Amendment) Order 2011. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2011/234/contents/made (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (2013)The Climate Change Levy (General) (Amendment) Regulations 2013. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2013/713/contents/made (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (2012a) The Feed in Tariffs Order 2012. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/2782/contents/made (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (2012b) The Renewable Heat Incentive Scheme (Amendment) Regulations 2012. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/1999/contents/made (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (2008) Climate Change Act 2008. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2008/27/contents (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Her Majesty’s Stationary Office (HMSO) (2012) Waste (England and Wales) (Amendment) Regulations 2012. Available from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/1889/contents/made (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Manchester Metropolitan University Environmental Recycling (2013) Recycling Facilities in Your Building. Available from http://www.mmu.ac.uk/environment/recycling/ (Accessed 02/04/2013)

Manchester Metropolitan University (2013) How to find us. Available from http://www2.mmu.ac.uk/travel/ (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Murto, M., Bjornsson, L., Rosqvist, H., & Bohn, I. (2013). Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pre-treatment of food waste from households. Waste Management.

Schenk, T., & Stokes, L. C. (2013). The power of collaboration: Engaging all parties in renewable energy infrastructure development. Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, 11(3), 56-65.

Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) (2013) Anaerobic Digestion. Available from www.sepa.org.uk/waste/information__resources/idoc.ashx (Accessed 02/05/2013)

Spencer, J. D., Moton, J. M., Gibbons, W. T., Gluesenkamp, K., Ahmed, I. I., Taverner, A. M., & Jackson, G. S. (2013). Design of a combined heat, hydrogen, and power plant from university campus waste streams. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.

Categories
Free Essays

The Importance of Good Writing Skills for Prospective University Students

Introduction

In the age of technology, most students are absorbed in using electronic sources to either read or listen to academic information and usually attempt to memorize facts as far as possible. While electronic devices such as Android phones, iPads, Kindles, and other devices provide students with an amalgamation of information at their fingertips and students are very well informed regarding what is happening in the world and how various things work, they often lack the ability to form and express their opinions in their own words.

This skill is often seen non-existent amongst prospective university students, who possess a great degree of knowledge regarding numerous topics, but struggle when they are required to write their personal statements to when they are required to write their dissertations in their final years. It is important for prospective university students to recognize the importance of good writing skills in order to help them get through their university years. The issues of plagiarism, use of vocabulary, and proper structuring must be addressed adequately in order to help prospective university students achieve good grades. The following tips may help university students improve their writing skills:

Adopting the habit of reading: Listening to music, playing sports, and hanging out with friends are common activities found in young adults nowadays. However, a study found that approximately 21% of university-aged students said that they enjoyed reading while the majority of students did not express this interest (CollegeXpress, 2013). However, this hobby is highly important for students in order to help them improve their structuring, their ability of expression, and their vocabulary skills.
Writing a diary or a blog: While diaries may be slightly out-dated, students can create a blog on a topic of interest which will help them regularly post their thoughts, feelings, and opinions regarding various topics. This will help enhance their creativity, expressive abilities, and enable them to generally enhance their writing skills to capture the interest of readers.
Becoming a freelance writer: While prospective university students search for various part-time jobs, it may be beneficial for them to look for jobs as freelance writers. Indulging in activities such as writing advertising and marketing messages, writing emails, and other small tasks to earn a small income may pay a long way in their future.
Avoid using slang when chatting, writing emails, or in any other form of communication: Using slang impairs a person’s spelling and vocabulary skills and may often hinder a person’s ability to write properly structured sentences. Hence, avoiding the use of such language can help a student write more appropriately in the future.

Having good writing skills can help prospective students in their university years and can also pay a long way when looking for prospective careers. Most employers are looking for candidates with a good level of expression, excellent writing skills, and a high level of creativity. Research has found that individuals with good writing skills score 80% higher than those who do not possess such skills in university and tend to find jobs 30% quicker than others (Aims Community College, 2013).

References

Aims Community College. (2013) Online Writing Lab. [online] Accessed on: November 10, 2013 Available at: http://www.aims.edu/student/online-writing-lab/overview/why

CollegeXpress. (2013) “Cultivating Exceptional Writing Skills for Success and Beyond”. Accessed on November 11, 2013 Available at: http://www.collegexpress.com/articles-and-advice/majors-and-academics/articles/college-academics/cultivating-exceptional-writing-skills-success-college-and-beyond/

Categories
Free Essays

Green IT at City University – City Green Monitor

Abstract

One of the main initiatives which have been employed by the City University within the Information Technology (IT) department is that of the Green Monitor, where a computing room has been set up by a group of students aimed at recording data from an environmental perspective (Green Dragons, 2014). This initiative is both effective now and in the long run, with wider possible uses in the future. This initiative is currently in its infancy, with the wider use under analysis here, as to how it can foster Green IT, going forward. The aim of this research is to develop this resource further and to create both policies and technology that will allow the IT department to support the Green Initiative across the City University, as well as across other institutions.

Introduction

The first issue which needs to be determined in this proposal is what precisely is meant by Green IT and what the impact of Green IT initiatives can be on an organisation or wider groups of organisations. In accordance with the guide produced by the Chartered Institute for IT, BCS (O,Neill, 2010) states that:

“Green IT is a collection of strategic and tactical initiatives that directly reduces the carbon footprint of an organisation’s computing operation… However, Green IT is not just focused on reducing the impact of the ICT industry. It is also focused on using the services of ICT to help reduce the organisation’s overall carbon footprint”

This basic definition presents some interesting points of discussion, before going on to look at the precise nature of the work being undertaken here. Firstly, the issue of Green IT is thought to be linked to the workings of organisations and not to individuals themselves. This raises an important question from the outset: focussing on an organisation may be a false approach due to the fact that so many devices are now used by individuals and not as part of an organisation at all. Secondly, there is the notion that strategic and tactical initiatives may refer to a different approach to the strategies that may be seen as relevant for Green organisations, such as Greenpeace, thus creating a disparity in the overall objectives to be pursued. Finally, it is also noted in this definition that IT itself can be seen as a positive step towards environmental management, with factors such as the ability to work from home reducing travel emissions. This potential benefit of IT is not to be ignored and should be considered alongside the environmental costs. Moreover, O’Neill then goes on to argue that it is also necessary to look at the whole process of IT, including the manufacturing, transportation and disposal, not simply at the emissions and consumption when the item is operative.

For the purposes of this research and in looking at the areas of Green IT projects within the City University, it is important to consider how the success or otherwise of the initiative may be judged. Bearing in mind the aforementioned discrepancy between strategy and tactical initiatives that may be pursued by the Chartered Institute of IT and the approach taken by environmental groups there is an immediate difficulty in producing a coherent plan for providing Green IT. In accordance with the BCS and the work by O’Neill, Green IT should be focussing on some key areas.

Firstly, he argues that the area of Green IT should look at changing the ethos and culture within an organisation, so as to make sure that the corporate agenda of a company or organisation is reflective of the Green IT aim. As part of this, there should be initiatives in place to ensure that teams and individuals are able to enact Green IT initiatives that are established by the wider group. In addition, Green IT practices should be built into the wider organisational goals and processes, so that the infrastructure is purchased with Green IT in mind. By contrast, Greenpeace looks at Green IT as a means of pulling together energy efficiency and renewable energy, which is a somewhat different approach from that taken by the organisational strategy. In reality, and for the purposes of this analysis, a combined definition is to be pursued, with the suggested definition of Green IT being a set of realistic and practical measures which can ensure that IT is developed in such a way that is sustainable, energy efficient and friendly to the environment. It is this definition that will be considered for the purposes of the project being undertaken here.

1.1The Project at City University

Monitoring devices created as part of this initiative are used in order to calculate the CO? emissions within the room itself. Using this information, energy consumption can then be ascertained. The aim of this initiative is to ensure that the students and staff across the University understand the impact that each computing hour has on the environment. This is, therefore, an initiative aimed at improving the environmental position in relation to the IT function and understanding how simple actions such as shutting down the PC at the end of the day or turning down the brightness on a monitor can have an impact on the CO? emissions (Curry et al., 2012).

Bearing in mind the previous analysis of what precisely is meant by Green IT, it can be seen that the initiative as it currently stands within the City University deals with a minimal area of Green IT initiatives and requirements. The broader Green IT initiate needs to consider more than just the monitoring of the CO? emissions of the IT department. That said, this starting point provides the information that is necessary in order to be able to further the initiative into a working and sustainable policy, in the future. This initiative is an information gathering initiative which allows the University and then wider organisations to monitor the impact of their behaviours, in such a way that may influence behaviours, in the future. This paper will look at the strategy and concepts associated with power management in Green IT, before then going on to consider the likely behaviours and changes that are going to ensue, as a result of this Green IT initiative and then to draw conclusions on the impact of the initiative as the final section of the report.

Power Management Concept within Green IT

The notion of Green IT was established substantially by Murugesan, in 2008, stating that Green IT involves a wide range of activities, including designing, using and manufacturing not only the use of the computers, but also any systems associated with the renewal or purchase of such items, so that there is a minimal impact on the environment (Murugesan, 2008). Taking this on board alongside the earlier recognised area of Green IT, it can be argued that the issue of power management is a part of the overall objective which needs to be dealt with fully, before other aspects can be achieved. Without the knowledge that this type of monitoring produces, a wider IT strategy will equally not be possible. For example, if the research indicates that a certain type of screen is substantially better for the environment, then the next stage could be to roll out the provision of these screens across all departments within the University.

There is a suggested indication from this perspective, that a monitoring initiative such as the one under discussion here is a suitable area for Green IT and arguably the crucial first step, as it is impossible to put in place improvements without understanding the changes and impacts, in the first place. A key strategy within this area of Green IT is to put in place approaches and processes that offer greater sustainability. For example, in this case, the use of remote monitors within the IT department could then be rolled out to usage in any other department which uses IT, or any other item that could be used more effectively to improve sustainability. Information is the lifeblood of any future initiatives that can be established.

It is further noted that, in any modern IT system, there is a mixture of technology, people, hardware and networks. Therefore, any area of Green IT needs to consider all of these factors; for example, user behaviours and the broader impact on networks and hardware also need to be brought into the equation. Consider, for instance, the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) which is a standard used across the entire industry to allow the operation systems to change and control the way in which the power-saving aspects operate, so that the system to a certain extent manages itself (Therien, 2011). This can be done in an entirely automated way, or can allow users to set tolerated levels, for example, how long until a monitor goes onto “energy saver”. These strategies and approaches are critical to the monitoring area, as this is ultimately the aim of monitoring, so that changes can be put in place to improve overall sustainability.

Possible Uses and Recommendations

Having put in place monitoring through remote sensors, the IT department is now able to provide information to the next stage of the network, in order to develop mechanisms that will allow the IT itself to manage and improve the environmental impact that computers have. For example, it is shown that CRT monitors use more power than slimmer LCD monitors and having an understanding of a link such as this allows the University (and other organisations) to make decisions at the purchasing stage that will impact on what happens in the longer run. Similarly, it is noted that LCD monitors will use a cold cathode fluorescent bulb as a general source of light, with some of the newer displays using different technologies, such as LEDs, to ensure that less electricity is used (Infoworld, 2009).

Fundamentally, the aim of monitoring in this way is to ensure that there is a greater understanding obtained of the usage of electricity by simple activities, so that this can then be used firstly to influence user behaviours and secondly can then be used to develop technologies which will create automatic controls within the technology items themselves. The first element of this research policy is to understand what information has been gathered, before then formulating it in such a way that can produce clear policy guidelines for the University to then import into the wider policies and strategies which it is required to undertake, over a longer period of time. Continuous data gathering and monitoring then allows for the company or organisation to establish and improve its policies, as and when required, and as part of continuous improvement.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this report indicates that one relatively simple initiative of monitoring the electricity usage within an Information Systems laboratory can lead to information which is then vitally important across a wide range of departments. For example, understanding that a change in the technology of a monitor can reduce electricity usage and improve sustainability will then allow companies and organisations to change their choice of monitors, over a period of time, and to train users to amend their use of the monitors by reducing brightness, all of which will come together to improve Green IT across the campus. Future research in this area could then look at using the information gathered as a means of then developing a policy for the future BASED on the information rather than simply having the gathering of information as an agenda in its own right.

References

Curry, E., Guyon, B., Sheridan, C. and Donnellan, B. (2012) “Developing a Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons From Intel’s Journey”. MIS Quarterly Executive. 11(2). pp. 61–74.

Green Dragons (2014) City Green Monitor, Available at: http://www.green-dragons.co.uk/projects/citygreenmonitor/ [Accessed 01/12/2014].

InfoWorld (2009) Green IT. Available at: http://www.infoworld.com/d/green-it/used-pc-strategy-passes-toxic-buck-300?_kip_ipx=1053322433-1267784052&_pxn=0

Murugesan, S. (2008) “Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices,” IEEE IT Professional, January–February, pp 24-33.

O’Neill, M. (2010) Green IT For Sustainable Business Practice, The Chartered Institute for IT.

Therien, G (2011) “ACPI 2.0 Specification Technical Review, Intel Developer Forum” (ppt). Intel Corporation.

Categories
Free Essays

Green IT at City University – City Green Monitor

Abstract

One of the main initiatives that have been employed by the City University within the Information Technology (IT) department is that of the Green Monitor where a computing room has been set up by a group of students aimed at recording data from an environmental perspective (Green Dragons, 2014). This initiative is both effective now and in the long run with wider possible uses in the future. This initiative is currently in its infancy with the wider use under analysis here as to how it can foster green IT going forward.

Introduction

Monitoring devices created as part of this initiative are used in order to calculate the CO2 emissions within the room itself, and then, using this information, energy consumption can then be ascertained. The aim of this initiative is to ensure that the students and staff across the University understand the impact that each computing hour has on the environment. This is therefore an initiative aimed at improving the environmental position in relation to the IT function and understanding how simple actions such as shutting down the PC at the end of the day or turning down the brightness on a monitor can have an impact on the CO2 emission (Curry et al 2012).

This initiative is an information gathering initiative that allows the University and then wider organisations to monitor the impact of their behaviours in such a way that may influence behaviours in the future. This paper will look at the strategy and concepts associated with power management in green IT before then going on to look at the likely behaviours and changes that are going to ensue as a result of this green IT initiative and then to draw conclusions on the impact of the initiative as the final section of the report.

Power Management Concept within Green IT

The notion of Green IT was established substantially by Murugesan in 2008 stating that Green IT involves a wide range of activities including designing, using and manufacturing not only the use of the computers but also any systems associated with the renewal or purchase of such items so that there is a minimal impact on the environment (Murugesan 2008).

There is a suggested indication from this notion therefore that a monitoring initiative such as the one in discussion here is a suitable area of Green IT and arguably the crucial first step as it is impossible to put in place improvements without understanding the changes and impacts in the first place. A key strategy within this area of Green IT is to put in place approaches and processes that offer greater sustainability.. For example in this case the use of remote monitors within the IT department could then be rolled out to usage in any other department that uses IT or any other item that could be used more effectively to improve sustainability.

It is further noted that in a modern IT system there is a mixture of technology, people, hardware and networks. Therefore any area of Green IT needs to consider all of these factors, for example user behaviours the broader impact on networks and hardware need to also be considered.

Consider for example the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) which is a standard used across the entire industry to allow the operation systems to change and control the way in which the power-saving aspects operate, so that the system to a certain extent manages itself (Therien, 2011). This can be done in an entirely automated way or can allow users to set tolerated levels for example how long until a monitor goes onto ‘energy saver’. These strategies and approaches are critical to the monitoring area as this is ultimately the aim of monitoring so that changes can be put in place to improve overall sustainability.

Possible Uses and Recommendations

Having put in place monitoring through remote sensors the IT department is now able to provide information to the next stage of the network to develop mechanisms that will allow the IT itself to manage and improve the environmental impact that computers have. For example it is shown that CRT monitors use more power than slimmer LCD monitors and having an understanding of links such as this allows the University (and other organisations) to make decisions at the purchasing stage that will impact on what happens in the longer run. Similarly it is noted that LCD monitors will use a cold cathode fluorescent bulb as a general source of light with some of the newer displays using different technologies such as LEDs to ensure that less electricity is used (Infoworld 2009).

Fundamentally the aim of monitoring in this way is to ensure that there is a greater understanding obtained of the usage of electricity by simple activities so that this can then be used to firstly influence user behaviours and secondly can then be used to develop technologies that will create automatic controls within the technology items itself.

Conclusion

In summary this report indicates that one relatively simple initiative of monitoring the electricity usage within an Information Systems laboratory can lead to information which is then vitally important across a wide range of departments. For example understanding that a change in the technology of a monitor can reduce electricity usage and improve sustainability will then allow companies and organisations to change their choice of monitor over a period of time and to train users to amend their use of the monitors by reducing brightness, all of which will come together to improve Green IT across the campus.

References

Curry, E., Guyon, B, Sheridan, C and Donnellan, B (2012) “Developing a Sustainable IT Capability: Lessons From Intel’s Journey,” MIS Quarterly Executive, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 61–74.

Green Dragons (2014) City Green Monitor, Available at: http://www.green-dragons.co.uk/projects/citygreenmonitor/

InfoWorld (2009) Green IT. Available at: http://www.infoworld.com/d/green-it/used-pc-strategy-passes-toxic-buck-300?_kip_ipx=1053322433-1267784052&_pxn=0

Murugesan, S (2008) “Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices,” IEEE IT Professional, January–February, pp 24-33

Therien, G (2011) “ACPI 2.0 Specification Technical Review, Intel Developer Forum” (ppt). Intel Corporation.

Categories
Free Essays

Presentation on the Federal Parent plus Loans- Stanford University

The Federal plus program is a popular financing option for parents of dependant undergraduate students. The loans are borrowed in the parent’s own name. The details involved are:

Loan amount: up to the full amount can be borrowed. The costs include tuition, room & board, allowance for books, personal expenses, and transport.

Credit qualification: borrowers will need to meet a minimum requirement to be able to apply. For instance, a credit check is conducted. Parents who don’t qualify can borrow additional federal Stafford student loan funds.
Interest rate: a fixed interest rate of 8.5% is charged if loans are borrowed after July 1st.
Loan fees: 3% original fee and a federal default fee of up to 1% will be deducted from each disbursement of your loan.

Disbursements: it will be done in thirds at the beginning of each academic quarter. Funds are disbursed directly to Stanford via Electronic funds Transfer and applied to your student’s University bill. A refund can be given if your disbursement exceeds the balance due.
Repayment: done after 60 days of full disbursement. Repayment is 10 years.

The plus loans are funded by private lenders like banks and credit unions. The federal government sets the limits on fees, interest rates and minimum deferment options. Lenders however offer more benefits beyond minimum government requirements. When re-applying, the same lender can be used.

How to apply

The following steps are followed:

Go to the link https://www.nela.net/hosted/stan1.aspx to request for the loan. You can specify the amount you want to borrow. The link is easy to use.
In 2-4 weeks, an email from Sallie Mae, the Company managing our online process will be received. The email will direct you to the website where you can specify you lender and complete your promissory note which, can be signed by electronic signature.
If the email is not received, check for your promissory note on Stanford’s OpenNet page.

For inquiries, you can call our loan processing agency, Northwest Education Loan Association (NELA), toll-free at (800) 979-4441. Be sure to identify yourself as a Stanford parent requesting a PLUS loan.

REFERENCES

Federal Parent PLUS Loans, http://www.stanford.edu/dept/finaid/loanprocessing/plus.html viewed on 3rd April 2008.

 

 

Categories
Free Essays

Hospital Marketing in North Shore University Hospital

Being one of the foundations of the system of health care, New York’s North Shore University Hospital (NSUH) is identified for its 2,700 health specialists, approximately 730 beds facilitated by 10,500 nurses—the biggest in Long Island.  With a yearly operating budget amounting to roughly $4 billion, NSUH is the country’s third-largest, secular and non-profit hospital. With an interview with Theresa Howard, assistant for the hospital’s marketing department, she discussed how North Shore University Hospital came to be a competitive health care provider.

Bautista: What was inside NSUH before in terms of marketing?

Howard: NSUH functioned similar to an in-house provider, satisfied with satisfying interior requirements and conversing with the staffs, doctors and patients.  They didn’t put forth enough attempt to endorse their hospital, certain with idea of being unwavering.  They didn’t even have marketing memorandum that plays when clients or callers calls and when they are put into hold.

Bautista: When did NSUH realized that they have to advertise?

Howard: That’s when contenders become present and they discovered that the patients were not opening the doors like in previous years and realized that the revenues started to decline.  They never realized this till they understood the consequences.  Time changes and man chooses all the best for him.  They choose the best hospital that would offer the best services they could.

Bautista: What were the primary steps they did upon seeing the problem?

Howard: They automatically hired me and my partner Christine Malcolm to think strategies that will get back the sympathy of their clients and will boost the image of the hospital.  We didn’t do anything new; it’s just that it was new for NSUH.  We built a strong strategic program and development through financial models, convincing NSUH that they need to exert effort because NSUH was not doing well in terms of revenues.  NSUH has to cut its budget and risk for marketing.

Then after convincing them, we hired Storandt Pann Margolis advertising agency and began to work with marketing planning, doing interviews, and developing the budget for the year 2003.  We made advertising campaigns including commercials wit televisions and radios, website and different kinds of strategies to catch attentions.  We even proposed to change the name of NSUH.  We also conducted our first mass-marketing campaign.  .  We also redesigned the website for guide consultations for physicians and also for additional ad campaigns.  We even include call centers and advertising agents.

Bautista: After such effort you’ve done, what were the results?

Howard: Finally, campaign was launched in October 2003, using the different kind of media.  They didn’t used actors in the ads, but instead, put up the actual interview with the doctors, staffs, nurses, researchers with regards to what they does to improve and deliver their quality service.  The result after several weeks, there’s an increase of volume in the referral line in the redesigned website.  From the fourth top-mind surveys, NSUH went up to 3rd.  The have been also an increased of admission to 2-3 percent from the last year’s record.  This campaign had also returned profit which they have loss for the last years.  They got a profit of $6.5 M, which was truly a big improvement.  Revenues increased to 9 percent as a result of an effective marketing.

This has shown the relevance of having marketing plans.  With the highly competitive time, we need to create strategic plans in order to establish a stable business.  Furthermore, having marketing plan doesn’t just strengthen the stability of a certain company, but instead, also benefits the consumers with regards to good the opportunities they’ll receive upon choosing one.

References:

Michele Howard, vice president for marketing department of NSUH University Medical Center.

http://www.strategichealthcare.com/pubs/shcm/f2_MarketShare_print.php: August 11, 2007

Categories
Free Essays

North Carolina Agricultural & State University

Dear Honorable, Governor Easily

We are nursing, students at Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina we write this letter to bring to your attention an issue that if discussed enough in our community it might bring about change and save lives. This is hypertension.  I am asking for your help in bringing Hypertension a silent killer of our elderly population to the forefront of our community’s attention.

My research partner and I have conducted research on hypertension as a requirement for our community 510 nursing course. With our research, here in Guilford County Greensboro, North Carolina:  we have a direct of understanding hypertension moreover, how its ill effects are distressing our elderly population’s health. With your help, we can bring this issue out by an educational campaign.

Our research efforts show a need to help the community become conscious to get involved in the community to necessitate and facilitate our elderly population, living with hypertension due to lack of resources, transportation, diet exercise, obesity, chronic conditions. We have hundreds of seniors in our community here in Guilford County who can benefit by having resources to educate them about the causes risk factors and treatment for hypertension a silent killer. By facilitating things such as transportation to medical appointments, education on lifestyles that are conducive to good health, by getting the community involved during our research project we have had a high success rate in improving the effects of those who suffer hypertension among our elderly.

Our research provides a description of the comprehensive study of hypertension within the cumulative, etiology, and the consequence on the populace health of the elderly in our area. This research will expectantly accomplish better education about hypertension for our elderly.

Helping changing their lifestyle, an example of educating is as most know a good, diet helps maintain our body due to the FDA’s and the medical community’s at large education campaign promoted on our food packages and thru television and radio adds. Amazingly few seniors realize exercise and diet lowers hypertension, and helps problems with blood pressure levels. Hypertension is a reversible problem given the individual can see the benefits of diet and the implementation of exercise, to change their life through education when made available to them.

Your support for community responsiveness of the senior’s living with hypertension is significantly valued.

Thank you for your public service

Sincerely

Linda Wesson and Melinda Valetin

North Carolina Agricultural & State University

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories
Free Essays

A Memo to the President of the Big Private University

Madam, the recent events that have brought our university within the media’s limelight may possibly give problems to the University, if no immediate action is taken. Allow me to outline the events and the possible NCAA infractions that our university may incur.

The University is in the middle of an NCAA-imposed probation. As such, any additional infraction may seriously compromise the university’s status in the NCAA. The following incidents involving our male football team may lead to unwanted additional infractions: a total of 12 student-athletes had grade point averages ranging from 1.60 to 1.75; and Billy Joel, the team’s current quarterback, made an oral agreement on future possible plans with Whitney Houston, a sports agent. Allow me to expound on my point.

The fact that five juniors, two sophomores, and five starters on defense have averages from 1.60 to 1.75 goes against the academic standards set my NCAA. The five starters, all of whom were freshmen last year, had averages lower than the NCAA set average of 1.8. The NCAA Backgrounder on Academic Reform clearly states the following: “Freshmen in college are required to complete 24 hours of course work and have at least a 1.8 grade-point average.” The low GPAs of the other student-athletes may also compromise another rule of the NCAA. The fact that these students have averages ranging from 1.60 to 1.75 may mean that they have failing marks which may greatly affect the completion of their degree requirements.

Again, the said backgrounder is univocal: “Student-athletes entering college are required to complete 40 percent of their degree requirements by the end of their second year, 60 percent by the end of year three, and 80 percent by the end of year four.” I will personally look into this matter and investigate on the completion rates of the degree requirements of these concerned students.

Nevertheless I think it is important for your good office to be aware of this potential problem. All in all, this lower than required grade point average of some of our student athletes undermines the NCAA’s set Academic Progress Rate (APR) of 925. Not complying with the APR will mean a contemporaneous penalty for the football team which, in plain language, refers to cuts in financial aids and scholarships granted to individuals in the team.

Madam, it is also bothersome that the coaching staff hid these from the school administration. I cannot pinpoint who exactly in the coaching staff is culpable, but once NCAA Division I Committee on Infractions holds its own investigation, the university as an entity might not the only one to be given a sanction; individuals from the coaching staff (and other individuals from related departments) may also be held individually liable and as such, individual sanctions may be imposed against them.

The last concern that I think should be brought up to your office is the fact that Billy Joel made an oral agreement with Whitney Houston, a sports agent, as he was threatened by the possibility that Marshall Mathers might take his place as quarterback. Again, NCAA is clear in its memo to directors of athletics dated October 6, 2006, that student athletes are not allowed to have a written or oral agreement with an agent who represents a sports agency.

We must bear in mind that even if Joel’s agreement rests on the future possibility of Mathers replacing him, such an oral agreement on future plans is also not allowed: student athletes may not “agree to be represented by an agent in the future” (NCAA, “A Career in Professional Athletics: A Guide for Making the Transition,” 2004, p. 26). This also highlights the fact that Mr. Joel did not inform either his coach or his compliance coordinator regarding these matters.

These are the NCAA-related concerns that I thought would be best to be brought up to your office.

Thank you.

References

(2006-07). NCAA waiver of initial academic eligibility requirements pursuant to NCAA bylaw 14.3, application instructions.

(2006-07). NCAA waiver of initial academic eligibility requirements pursuant to NCAA bylaw 14.3, waiver application.

NCAA (2004). A Career in professional athletics: A guide for making the transition.

NCAA (2005). NCAA backgrounder on athletic reform. In The online resource for the national collegiate athletic association. Retrieved March 25, 2007, from http://www.ncaa.org/.

NCAA (2005).APR questions and answers. In The online resource for the national collegiate athletic association. Retrieved March 25, 2007, from http://www.ncaa.org/.

NCAA (2005).Infractions case: Lincoln University. In The online resource for the national collegiate athletic association. Retrieved March 25, 2007, from http://www.ncaa.org/.

Categories
Free Essays

Nash v. Auburn University

Statement of Facts:  Nash v. Auburn University involved a challenge by two first-year graduate students to a one year suspension imposed for cheating on examinations.  At the suspension hearing the students sought to examine the school’s witnesses directly rather than through an intermediary hearing panel member, who would pose the students questions to the witnesses.

Questions:

Mid-State says that Landry enrolled at the university and therefore has waived any further protections than those granted him in the rules and regulations.  Is this position well taken?  Yes it is the school’s argument is that the penal code and an academic “criminal” code differ crucially in a way bearing directly on the right of confrontation.  Penal code enforcement rests upon well trained professionals such as police officers and public prosecutors.

Landry asserts that he is entitled to have his lawyer present during any procedures designed to expect him.  Is this position reasonable?  Yes, to be charged with cheating on a final examination seems little different from being charged with defrauding one’s creditor.  Any conviction of the offense may lead to grievous sanctions such as suspension or expulsion for the student, jail time for the criminal defendant.

Landry states that he has the right to cross examine the witnesses against him.  Is he correct?  No, in rejecting their constitutional claim that this indirect process denied them their right to confront opposing witnesses, the trial court repeated that the Dixon standards did not require this opportunity and that the Supreme Court did not expand the rule of Dixon, indeed the students had received “more than the Constitution requires” even though “in almost every setting where important decisions turn on questions of fact, due process requires an opportunity to confront and cross-examine adverse witnesses”.

The Eleventh Circuit in its decisions repeated the District Court’s “explanation” for restricting the right of cross-examination.

Landry maintains that the dean of students is biased against him because of   statements the dean has made to the effect that Landry is a menace and should be removed from the university.  Is Landry’s objection allowable?  Yes, familiarity may breed contempt rather than friendship, in a closed environment, in which accuser and accused are very often acquainted; cross-examination is the best way to expose bias or enmity, if either exists.

Knowing that he may face tough questioning a potential accuser may hesitate to report misconduct on mere suspicion.  Such caution can only improve the reliability of any accusation and as with any other procedural safeguards that have generated plausible concerns, the right of confrontation seems not to have caused systemic breakdown at the numerous schools permitting cross-examination.

Put simply, the accused student fails to receive fair treatment when members of the panel alone are allowed to confront the witness.  The civil law parallel of the inquiring magistrate assumes an experienced examiner, who is already well-informed about the matter from the investigatory report.  The typical disciplinary panel consists of students and faculty members, usually their first attendance at a hearing and unfamiliar with the events triggering the charge, and unlikely to have within the group a trained interrogator.

Would it make any difference to Landry if the university in question were a private rather than a public university?  Yes, in private school cases, courts have refused to venture beyond these narrow constitutional bounds.  In the few reported decisions assessing the student’s right to confront an opposing witness, the courts have denied that the right existed.

For reasoning the schools lead off their argument by asserting that discipline is an integral part of the learning experience and that teachers, not courts, should determine how best to design a student’s education.  This is kind of a throwback to the in loco parentis view of higher education.  Absent of excessive physical force or neglect, parents may discipline children in any way the thing will be effective, even if experts would strongly disagree with their choice.

By analogy, colleges as surrogate parents should enjoy the same latitude in deciding how to impose discipline upon their student, “Children”.  Even if modern educators no longer accept such a surrogate role, many teachers still view the goal of the disciplinary process as enlightening and inducing better conduct by the accused student, not as requiring the accuser to prove that misconduct occurred.  Adherents of this position contend that once the disciplinary procedure become “confrontational”, it loses its educational value.
Works Cited:

Carper, Donald L., et al.  Understanding the Law 5th. Ed.  Mason, Ohio: Thomson/West,           2008.

Categories
Free Essays

How Should Rmit University Address the Issue?

How Should RMIT University Address the Issue of Declining International Student Numbers in A Very Competitive Global Market? [pic] Executive Summary Royal Melbourne Institution of Technology (RMIT) is a worldwide famous university and it provides global education service with good evaluations, lots of international students in Australia would choose RMIT University for their first or continuing studies and they are becoming a big part to consist of RMIT University students.

But recently, because of the global financial situation change and current conditions in Australia, the RMIT University might face the declining problems of international students. Base on this overview, this research provides an analysis and recommendations of current RMIT University’s international student’s situations and future improvements. The purpose and objective of this research is searching the most closely reasons which are creating the biggest influence in international students’ evaluations and social measurements.

The major method of analysis adopts questionnaires survey; each questionnaire involves eleven progressive questions to measure the results from different gender, nationality, level of degree and personal opinions. The sample of survey can be found in appendix. The outcomes of primary and secondary data analysis indicate that the current international students declining in RMIT University because of the whole trend of the Australian international students is decreasing and lots of international students are not satisfied with RMIT University’s basic conditions or they just measured it as “Just okay”.

This paper finds out the general evaluation of RMIT University is medium, a part of international students’ rate is high quality, but the most investigators evaluated as medium or lower indications. The major area of declining problem possibly is related with RMIT University itself, such as education and facilities quality, tuition fees and so on. But the integral situations in Australia also influence the student source of RMIT University. The recommendations are discussed as: 1. Improve education quality; . Enhance the quality of facilities and assistant services; 3. More overseas advertising; 4. Career or employment support; 5. Students wellbeing care; 6. Establish more scholarship programs and reduce tuition fee. Table of Contents 1. Introduction………………………………………………………….. 6 2. Research Purpose and Objective……………………………………. 7 3. Methodology………………………………………………………….. 8 4. Findings and Outcomes……………………………………………… 9 5. Recommendations…………………………………………………… 15 6. Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 9 Reference…………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………… 23 1. Introduction In this particular research paper, the major research project is around the question of “How should RMIT University address the issue of declining international student numbers in a very competitive global market? ” to seek relative factors and then analysis main reasons and influence.

The first part of this paper is identification of research purpose and objectives; in this part it briefly describes currently general situation of Australian international students market and most of universities’ behaviours. Especially, this part represents detailed information of international students in Royal Melbourne Institution of Technology (RMIT) and recent important performance, and then combines all mentioned data and information to confirm the research purpose is aim to find out core factors by examine all related elements.

Base on the research purpose of this paper, the reasonable and logical methodology should be used in collecting data and distribute the results from data analysis, therefore this article adopts the method of questionnaire survey to collect information from RMIT University’s international students. In this particular questionnaire, it concerns the research project to set up eleven progressively questions. And in third part of this paper, it through the main questions in survey to create accurate data results to assist the continuous analysis and final outcomes.

At the end of analysis, according to previous detailed analysis of primary and secondary data, this paper suggests several reasonable and active recommendations such as enhance the quality of education system and facilities and so on to support the objective purpose of this research. Finally, the conclusion of this research summarise all findings and emphasize the key improvements which is suggested to RMIT University then help institution to solve current problems. 2. Research Purpose and Objective

A number of international students in Australia have increased considerably over many years ago. More people, particularly from Asia-Pacific region, were likely to study in Australia. Many universities tried to develop educational systems into Australia education standard and undertake assessment of overseas qualification by the National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition (NOOSR) in order to attract more international student (Auditor General Victoria, 2002). However, since the global financial crisis in 2008 numbers of international students are decreased by 10% to lowest levels.

Margaret Gardner, vice chancellor and president of RMIT University, said that there is likely to be a decline in the total number of international students coming to Australia. This issue can be caused by many factors, that influence dramatically on decision, such as a soaring currency, restriction of visa application, etc. (Mercer, P 2011). Furthermore, students also have other option countries, which are more affordable study destination. All Australian universities are faced high competitive situation.

This seems to be very concerning issue due to the fact that an education industry earns a massive income from international student. According to Ding, K (2012), international students bring Australia a huge $16. 3 billion in export income in 2010-2011. RMIT University is one of high reputation universities in Melbourne. It provides 74,000 students, including 30,000 international students inshore and off shore from more than 100 countries (RMIT University, 2012). However, it has also been in the declining of international student numbers situation even numbers of student in higher education was still growing (Lane, B 2011).

In 2011, the Australian Government has changed some visa application policies that would help reverse the decline in international enrollments (PIER, 2011). This may bring advantages to all universities, including RMIT University to have more international students’ enrollments. The purpose of this research is to examine various factors, which affect on decreasing in numbers of international student at RMIT University. The issue will be considered thoroughly in order to find out appropriate solution for this situation.

As a result, some crucial recommendation will be given to RMIT University to address the issue of declining of international student numbers. 3. Methodology Research was created by RMIT International students in order to investigate the declining of international student numbers issue faced by RMIT University and give some crucial recommendations to address the mentioned issue. Interviewees comprised 26 overseas students, divided by gender half and half from Chinese(14), Thai(2), Taiwanese(2), Malaysian(1), Indian(2), Ethiopia, Saudi Arabian, Pakistan, UAE, and Kenyan.

Most respondents were student 21 – 30 age group. This survey consisted of 11 questions. Personal information was surveyed in the beginning, regarding gender, age, and nationality. Other questions were linked to the factors that affect the problem of declining international student numbers in RMIT University. Furthermore, it can be inferred to some solutions that address the issue effectively. In the second part of the survey, the interviewees were asked about the person who influence most to study overseas, including provide financial while they are studying.

The questions focussed on internal factors that encourage international student studying at RMIT University. The next questions pointed at factors from RMIT University. The participants were asked for an opinion about the most popular education level in RMIT University for international student, also ranked a satisfaction of quality of educational system, facilities and student service at RMIT University if they were concern in these factors. The rest of the questions related to external factors, which would influence participants study at RMIT University. The respondents were asked to rank each factor influences’ to study at RMIT University.

Additionally, they were requested to show other option country for studying aboard, unless they studied in Australia. The last question asked for the recommendation to attract more international student come to study at RMIT University. A copy of the interview questions appears in the appendix section of this report. 4. Findings and Outcomes Generally, to study overseas will offer international students a better education and more job opportunities. On the other hand, international students also make significant contributions to Australian society and economy. For example, they will bring different cultures to communities and enrich them.

The Australian economy as well as universities will obtain benefits from the tuition fees paid by international students or other expenses. As the number of international students declined in Australia recently, RMIT University should pay attention to this issue for the sake of continuous making profits. Therefore, in this section we will analyse why the number of international students declined recently from secondary data which are collected from literature review and primary data which are collected from our questionnaires. The following graph shows the basic trends in international student visa pplications to Australia. Fig 4. 1 [pic] (Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011) As Figure 4. 1 shows, there is a sharp increase of student visa applications from 2006 until 2008-09 because of the higher reputation of Australian education system. However, the total number followed by a significantly sudden decrease from 2008-09 until 2011. Because of the graph shows the whole trends of international student visa applications, it can be guessed that not only RMIT University experienced the decline, but also other universities such as Melbourne University or Monash University struggled.

Moreover, the decline issue has not changed from the end of 2011 and still continued in 2012. The following Fig 4. 2 shows the change of volume of Enrolments and Commencements in different Australian educational sectors. As we can see the total volume of Enrolments and Commencements in March 2012 declined by -8. 5% and -7. 2% respectively compared with the same month of last year. Especially, the Higher Education sector displays a decrease in Enrolments of 4. 0% and a 6. 0% decline in Commencements compared with 2011 figure. Fig 4. 2 pic](Source: Australian Education International 2012) What kind of reasons that contributed to this situation? According to Deloitte Access Economics (2011), the reasons include the appreciation of the Australian dollar which will increase the living cost in Australia for international students, the change of the General Skilled Migration program which made more difficult for international student to apply the permanent residency and the increased competition from other countries’ universities may also effect the number of international student visa applications.

The above analysis is based on the secondary data, next we will use our own data which are concluded from questionnaires to do the further analysis. One question in the questionnaire is: How would you rank the quality of education system of RMIT University? The reason why we ask this question is the quality of education system is an important component of a university. If the quality of a university is good enough and has a higher reputation, then more international students will choose it and vice versa.

The responses of this question can reflect international students’ attitudes to RMIT University. The result of this question is showing in the following Fig 4. 3. Fig 4. 3 [pic] Base: International students (26) Q: How would you rank the quality of education system of RMIT University? As we can see from Fig 4. 3, most interviewees which are 13 ranked the quality of education system of RMIT University as Medium. 7 interviewees ranked as High. However, we are very surprised that 2 interviewees ranked the quality as Low. This means they are not satisfied with the education of RMIT University.

The reason they gave us why they ranked as Low is they think recent years RMIT University did not improve its education system a lot such as the courses in some programs did not change for a period of time. Combined with this question, we think one reason of declining international student numbers at RMIT University should be the quality of education system is not as good as other universities such as Melbourne University. Fig 4. 4 [pic] Base: International students (26) Q: How would you rank the quality of facilities and services of RMIT University?

According to the answers of the respondent in terms of the quality of facilities and services in RMIT University (Fig 4. 4), the result looks like moderate. More than half of answerer (56%) thinks facilities and services quality can be accepted, only 4 students out of 25 who think RMIT University provide a good facility and services, while 28% respondents don’t like the facilities and services. Here, the facilities services, according to RMIT University, includes maintenance of all mechanical and essential services, mail services, cleaning services, fire and emergency services, and security system (RMIT University 2012).

But in the survey, except the facilities mentioned above, the respondent also considers the teaching facilities, library facilities, sport facilities, frequency of social events, administrative services and support, online learning resources, IT support and equipment, university web site, financial support and advice of RMIT University provided. Some students complain that: “there is always a long line in the hub, in computer lab, and even the printer”, “no available group meeting room unless I booked it couple of days before”, “sometimes, I cannot login myRMIT”.

Therefore, it is obvious to see that the quality of facilities and services of RMIT University is not a competitive advantage for attracting international student. Fig 4. 5 [pic] Base: International students (26) Q: How would you rank the following factors that influence you to study overseas such as at RMIT University? Knowing the factors that influence student to study overseas is significant to find the reasons of the changes of number of international students. As shown in the pie chart above (Fig 4. ), there are two main aspects that students will consider when they go to abroad for further study, that is, reputation of the university and education system quality, which occupied totally 52% of the all factors that the survey provided. After consider the university reputation and education quality, 15% international student prefer study at the country with the good currency exchange rate. In addition, tuition fee (13%) and social environment (10%) of the expected country as two important aspects will be considered before students choose the overseas university or the country.

Few students take into consideration the education policy (e. g. Double degree program in short-term) and the country’s immigration policy (e. g. , permanent resident policy), from the survey result, these two policies have the same number of supporter (5%). In this survey question, seven factors were offered, it is clearly that reputation of university, education system quality, education policy and tuition fee refers to the university, while another three factors: immigration policy, exchange rate of currency, and social environment of that country related to the country.

Regarding the survey result, compared with the concerns of the country, international students would like put more concentration on the choice of university. Besides, the survey provides an interesting choice, that is, “which country would you go to study instead of Australia? ” Almost every respondent said they want go to USA and UK, and they gave similar reasons, like: “high quality of education in the world, good education facility, good education atmosphere, weakness of US dollar”. In fact, their opinion of the choice is consistence with the factors affect people study abroad discussed above.

Thus, to attract more international students, the university should take more measures to improve their education quality and reputation, rather than relay on the policies of government. 5. Recommendations In the previous section, we have analysed the reasons that the number of RMIT University’s international students declined using both secondary data and primary data. In this section, we are mainly aiming to propose some recommendations for RMIT University for the sake of preventing the declining trend and continuous making profits.

The last question in our questionnaire is: If you were reporting to RMIT Executive, what would you recommend RMIT University do to attract more international students? This is an open-end question and the purpose of it is to obtain interviewees’ suggestions about the improvements for RMIT University. Finally, we have concluded 6 recommendations from all interviewees’ responses for RMIT University to address the issue of declining international student numbers. Improve Education Quality

Basically, most interviewees’ first suggestion is about the education quality of RMIT University. Education quality includes many areas such as the quality of programs, courses allocation of programs, physical environment of study and the quality of lecturers. Therefore, we think RMIT University should devote some effects to improving these areas in the future. For example, some courses in the program have not been changed for a long time; RMIT University could allocate different courses for the program after a period of time.

This will make the program fresh to students and follow the trend of educational development. By allocating different courses in the program regularly, the quality of program will be improved to a large extent. For the quality of lecturers, we think RMIT University should arrange some training courses for the lecturers regularly to enhance their abilities of teaching and also provide better resources and infrastructures for lecturers. This will improve the quality of lecturers in the long run. Enhance the Quality of Facilities and Services

Except the education quality, university’s facilities and services also play an important role in the levels of satisfaction of student experiences. To satisfy international student’s demand in terms of facilities and services, the paper would like recommend RMIT University provide more service counters in hub, and offer more computers in the lab, more group study rooms. For learning resource, more books or journals are required in the library and allowed registered student can assess more online learning resources.

Furthermore, provide more writing workshop for international student. More Overseas Advertisements Our third recommendation is about the advertisement of RMIT University itself. We think RMIT University should advertise itself more in education market especially in foreign countries such as Asian and European countries. In the advertisements, RMIT University should display its unique educational strength such as it is the only university that provides logistics program in Melbourne.

Because of the globalization is becoming a trend gradually, the logistics in some Asian countries is boosting its development and demanding more good logistics graduates. As a result, more students want to go abroad to get better education in logistics, so this could be an opportunity for RMIT University to advertise itself and increase the number of international students. Moreover, we think RMIT University should also enhance its cooperation relationships with other foreign universities. For example, RMIT University could introduce more students exchange programs such as study tour and cooperation programs.

Cooperation program means international student can study for a period time in his own country’s university and then come to RMIT University to study another period of time to acquire the certificate. This economic way is becoming more and more popular in Asian countries because it can save much cost for students who want to study abroad compared with the way that they apply RMIT University directly. Through this way, RMIT University could also increase its international student numbers. Establish More Scholarship Programs and Reduce Tuition Fee

The next recommendation is about scholarships and tuition fees. Many interviewees mentioned RMIT University should also provide scholarships for international students instead of only providing to PR students or citizens. In fact, most American universities will provide a fairly amount of scholarship to its students regardless of their nationalities. Moreover, as the exchange rate of US Dollar is depreciated currently, more students will choose American universities for better education and scholarship. That is one reason of declining international student numbers in RMIT University.

Thus, if RMIT University could also provide scholarships to international students, the number of students will increase to some extent because Australia has a better environment and society compared with America. This is a significant strength of Australia and an important reason for international student’s choice. Furthermore, tuition fee is another important aspect according to interviewees’ answers. They are not happy with the increase of tuition fee every year. Because the tuition fee is already very high for international students compared with local students.

If the tuition fee increases every year, it will be a big burden for international students. According to their answers, they do not hope tuition could decrease, they just hope the tuition fee can keep stable during their study period because they think the tuition fee is an important factor to influence their choice of university. Therefore, we think if RMIT University could consider the issue of scholarship and tuition fees, it will have more chances to increase the number of international students and improve the reputation. Career or Employment Support

The career support of a university provided is an advantage for attracting international students. Therefore, a suggestion for RMIT University is cooperate or communicate with some companies to offer some practical skill training opportunities to students, enable them obtain the practical work experience and professional skills before they get a job, thus, compared with their peer, the graduates will have more competitive advantage. Besides, RMIT University could provide job information to international students about working in Australia, such as: organise career expo.

Take Care of International Student’s Wellbeing A sense of wellbeing is integral to a high-quality experience for international students and is contains accommodation, community engagement and health and safety issues (Council of Australian Government, 2010). International students face particular challenges and may require some specialized services to support their wellbeing, because they may be living independently and for the first time in a foreign country with an unfamiliar culture and limited English skills.

Apparently, the issues of wellbeing are a responsibility of the council; however, university as an education provider and contact with international students directly, is an important channel to increase student awareness of safety and minimise safety risk by informing students. Therefore, RMIT University can provide safety information and advices to current and future international students and publicise the student personal safety guide to international student at orientation events. In terms of accommodation issues, as we known, there is no accommodation provided in RMIT University.

So, for international student’s convenience and safety, RMIT University can cooperate with housing agency to provide housing information through school’s bulletin board and website. One survey which was held by Council of Australian Government (2010) indicates that 80 per cent of international students want more Australian students as friends. The paper suggests RMIT University should actively to promote social events, help international students engage with local students and community groups and helps them adjust to the new society and culture. . Conclusion At the end of this report, according to the above detailed analysis and recommendations suggested. In conclusion, the major reason to cause the declining issue happens to RMIT University can be divided into two sections, first one is the integral influence, because of the current international students situation in Australia is indicating an decreasing trend therefore the national factors influence the international students source of RMIT University.

The second reason is the social evaluations, concerning the questionnaire survey’s result and analysis; the general evaluations for RMIT University from its international students are obtaining a medium level. Therefore, the results show that the RMIT University service provides to students which is just meet the basic level but not fully satisfied everyone, and most of investigators expect more improvements. Base on the research results, this report suggests several reasonable recommendations to help RMIT University abate current problems.

The major opinions include establish more scholarship programs and reduce tuition fee, take care of international student’s wellbeing and improve the quality of education system and facilities. Because of these three suggestions are the key reasons which were reflected on questionnaires research, therefore these performance should be developed first as essential conditions to innovate the whole institution then develop the other parts as long term enhancement and future strategies.

Categories
Free Essays

Private University of Bd

Private Universities of Bangladesh: a Curse or a Blessing for the economy INTRODUCTION: Education is the basic need for socio-economic transformation and advancement of a country. It is the prime ingredient of human resource development. With over 143 million people, Bangladesh is the eighth largest in the world in population. It is also one of the most densely populated countries and endowed with limited natural resources.

The total size of the student population in Bangladesh is around 29 million which is about 20% of the total population (143 million). (http://www. ukti. gov. uk/export/countries/asiapacific/southasia/bangladesh/sectorbriefing/356900. html)Highest allocations for education in the national budgets during the nineties (90’s) show that the government has attached topmost priority to human resource development though education. The goal of ‘Education for All’ is being vigorously pursued in the country. (http://www. iscoverybangladesh. com/meetbangladesh/education. html) A recent addition to the higher education system in Bangladesh is the emergence of the private universities. Although private universities existed in other countries for long, the first private university in Bangladesh did not make its appearance till 1992. A law titled ‘Private University Act of Bangladesh’ was passed in the National Parliament in 1992 and the first private university of the country, the North South University, started functioning in the same year.

Today the country has 56 such private universities where approximately 1, 24,267 students pursue their studies in subjects ranging from business to fashion design and media studies. (http://www. belcampus. org/higher-education-in-the-21st-century-bangladesh. html) Objectives: http://www. international. ac. uk/resources/ROLE%20OF%20PRIVATE%20UNIVERSITIES%20IN%20HUMAN%20RESOURCE%20Development%20in%20Bangladesh. pdf

Categories
Free Essays

Software Testing and School University Graduate

Resume/CV Template Contact information Name Address Telephone Cell Phone Email Personal information Date of Birth Sex Optional personal information Marital Status Spouse’s Name Children Employment history List in chronological order, include position details and dates Work History Academic Positions Research and training Education Include dates, majors, and details of degrees, training and certification High School University Graduate School Post-Doctoral Training Professional qualifications Certifications and Accreditations Computer Skills

Awards – if any Publications – if any Professional memberships – if any Interests Sample academic recommendation letter DATE: 20th August 2010 From Mr. Your professor name Lecturer, Department of Science, Your College, Chennai – 600018, India. | To whom so ever it may concern| Mr. Your name was my student during his undergraduate program. He is intelligent, hardworking and motivated student. His power of assimilation and his ability to grasp new concepts is good. His enthusiasm for work was conspicuous and he is proved himself to be a natural leader.

Besides, he is also good in English language skills and has taken part in many debates and other literary activities. He has bagged many prizes in state-level inter collegiate contests. I am very sure that he will put forth all his efforts into any task he confronts. His positive outlook, capability to work with peers and his willingness to learn from his experimental situation bear testimony that he will do very well in this post graduate studies in your renowned institution. I strongly recommend Mr. Your name for admission to the post graduate program of your university.

Thanking you, Yours sincerely (Mr. Your Lecturer name) Sample Work recommendation letter DATE: 12th June 2010 From Mr. Your professor name Project leader, Department of IT, Your Employer, Chennai – 600018, India. | To whom so ever it may concern| It is my great pleasure to write a letter of recommendation on behalf of Mr. Your name, for admission into your postgraduate program. I have know Mr. Your name since july 2007 in my capacity as senior HR executive with Your company name PVT LTd. Mr.

Your name has exceeded expectations and has out – shined others in his work group. Mr. Your name strong work ethics, his ability to outperform and passion towards service excellence will be a value addition for your program. I am confident that Mr. Your name will be serious and enthusiastic candidate and someday a quiet successful senior level manager or entrepreneur that would be proud to call an alumini. If you need any additional information, please feel free to contact me over the phone or via email. Sincerely YOUR EMPLOYER NAME)| | Statement of purpose guidelines Review your essay by asking yourself the following questions: Are my goals well articulated? Do I explain why I have selected this school and/or program? Do I demonstrate knowledge of the program? Do I include interesting details that prove my claims about myself? Is my tone confident? Do’s & Don’ts Don’ts 1. Please give more importance in writing SOP, most of them takes it very easy 2. Don’t underestimate the length of time it will take to write your statement of purpose 3.

Don’t give your SOP work to be done by someone else 4. Don’t include all your activities, just something which is more important is enough 5. Don’t use any particular name of universities; always prepare a general SOP that can be used for many universities 6. Avoid lengthy personal or philosophical discussions unless the instructions specifically ask for them 7. Don’t exceed more than two pages 8. Avoid grammatical or spelling mistakes this will show your carelessness is writing this SOP. Do’s 1. Always prepare a rough draft or outline of topics.

Mostly the topics will include professional career goals, academic interests, research experience, practical experience, special skill sets and reason for choosing a course 2. Always find the course requirement from the university and stick to the points which are specified by university 3. Emphasize everything from a positive perspective and write in an active voice 4. Demonstrate your skill sets by experience 5. Your essay should be well organised and everything is linked with continuity and focus 6. Pay more attention to first paragraph 7.

Ask others to proof read your statement of purpose. Sample Statement of Purpose Glad to introduce myself as Mr. YOUR NAME, a Software Engineer at present, with 5 years of experience in Software Testing, Quality Analysis and Management. My career is my passion, and it holds my fullest devotion, dedication and commitment. I belong to the field of IT Services Management, which had been the dream I had, the obsession in me and the long term desire that had lingered in me for a long while. And finally, when I got into this, I could give nothing from me but the best.

To add more value to the same, I have decided with the best thought of doing my Masters Degree from a reputed institution which would give me not only a degree but also a new style of learning with international standards, innovative methods of self-development skills and the ability of survival among the fittest. Hence, I was left with no other ideas and suggestions from experts, other than to join you, the Bolton University, which I believe should shape me and make myself qualifiedly fit for the IT Services Management skills and to the progress in the modern globalized cultures, technology and era.

I hold my Under-Graduate degree, B. Sc in Computer Science which I had completed in the period June 2001 to May 2004 from the YOUR University, Tamil Nadu. I pursued my UG Degree in the YOUR College, Rajapalayam. The syllabus covered here gave me immense knowledge on Software Development, Software Building, Software Techniques, Hardware Configurations, Mathematical skills and Personality Development. I was elected to be the Students’ Chairman at my final year 2003-2004 which had inspired me to know more about the management skills.

I was an ardent speaker, athlete and player at my college and finally passed out with prominence winning the “Best Outgoing Student” Award at my final year. As a starting point in my career, I got employed as a Software Test Engineer with the YOUR PLOYER technologies, Chennai during the period June 2004. It was here that my zeal had taken an initial contour. I was poured with surplus opportunities around me to learn, to explore, to build, to experiment, to renovate and to give a shape to myself. I learnt the concepts of IT services practically.

I gained buoyancy in myself. And with that hope I moved to Accenture YOUR EMPLOYER Pvt Ltd, Chennai during the period August 2006. I was promoted as a Senior Programmer. From that time until now, I keep on renewing myself to the changes in the technologies, to the new ways novelty, the exciting facts of Software Testing and many more. I got certified with the National Stock Exchange of India in Financial Services and Capital Markets. I got certified with the IBM Services in Rational Functional Tester tool.

I got certified with the HP Services in Quality Center – Defect Management tool and the Quick Test Professional tool. I am also certified with the International Software Testing Qualification Board, as a certified Manual Software Tester. I had won the Celebrating Performance Award from Accenture thrice, for having achieved extreme satisfaction levels from the clients, building my technical skills and for the professionalism I depict in my job. But my journey towards success is still a few more miles away.

I need to sparkle in my career with a Masters Degree in my relevant field – the Services Management, without which my career would not be fulfilled. For this to occur, I need your help, your support and your guidance. The Bolton University gives its students a degree with a dignified knowledge of survival amidst the global standards and also makes you learn the professional development skills in creative leadership. I wish to be a part with you to develop myself in many such areas. Therefore, I request you to accept my purpose and make me move ahead in my career with more confidence and venerable knowledge.

Categories
Free Essays

Challenges Faced by First Year University Students

University life can be a great experience. It can be fun and educational and, on the other hand, full of hardships. First-year students at university face a lot of challenges. These challenges can be divided into groups of which three are making adjustments, security and being lost. First-year students have to make a lot of adjustments. Students face difficulty in adjusting to a completely new lifestyle. University life is totally different from living at home and going to high school. For example, many students are living alone and adjusting to being alone is difficult.

Furthermore, students get a lot of freedom since they are renting or living alone. They have to adjust otherwise they will find themselves moving adrift from their studies. Too much freedom also leads to getting involved with wrong crowds. Thus, the new way of life is difficult to adjust to. The learning methods used at university is different from what it used to be at high school. Students find it difficult to fit in to this learning environment. At university, students have to attend lectures whereby a lecturer comes and discusses everything from the front.

Students also have to do a lot by themselves, which they find difficult since they are used to the spoon feeding which they received at high school. Study workload is also immense therefore students have to stick to a strict timetable. Therefore, learning methods are difficult to adapt to for first-year students. Furthermore, adapting to the immense workload and influence from outside university is also difficult. Students have to study for longer hours to keep up and for their progress, and at the same time do household choirs, which is even more when the students are living away from their parents.

Other external influences such as peer pressure, partying with friends and socializing also affects a first-year student’s life and studies. Thus, first-year students find it challenging to cope up with the workload. Security is one of the major needs of all individuals and even more so for a student. Parental support and guidance is one major need for all first-year students. Many students live away from their homes and parents and therefore, lack social security.

Many students are renting with other students and since they are first-year students, they find it hard since hey are not used to this form of lifestyle. Moreover, without any parent or any other r elder to guide them, first-years drift away from their path into doing wrong things. Other students who live in hostels have some level of control instilled by the hostel but it is not equal to the guidance which a parent could provide. Thus, living away from parents is a major hindrance and challenge for first-year students. Financial security is another challenge for first-year students. Money is most vital when pursuing higher education and lack of it can cause the collapse of one’s future.

Money is needed to buy textbooks and pay fees, which is very costly. First-year students at university tend to spend a lot of money when they first come to university since they do not understand the importance of money and they are not able to control their expenditure. Situations are improved when the student has been awarded a scholarship, since they might not have any source of income. Therefore, finance is another problem faced by first-year students. Being in a new environment, first-year students find themselves lost for a couple of days. Students face difficulty in finding their required rooms.

Universities have a lot of lecture theatres and rooms in different buildings under different faculties. First-year students are unable to find their lecture rooms and are at times late for their lectures during the first few days. Tutorials and lab exercises also occur at different places and finding them using the room codes is very challenging for new students. Moreover, many new students do not know where to go for help or advice. Being new, students do not know whom to turn to for help. First-years find difficulty in signing up for labs and tutorials and have problems deciding on which session to select.

Due to this, they end up missing classes due to clashes. This causes a drawback to their studies. As a conclusion, first-year students do face a lot of challenges at university regarding security, adjusting and being lost. These challenges are, and will be faced by first-year students since they are being introduced into a new system. Students must not be disheartened or give up on anything since life will become normal when they get used to the system. There is always a first time and no student will remain new for long, which also goes for the associated problems.

Categories
Free Essays

Personal Statement University MBA program

It is no more new that the world’s most initiative providers are product of MBA graduate. It is only a man full of vision without direction will continue to aspire achievement from distant without pushing ahead into a reality. In the course of my seven years of experience in finance as well as extensive knowledge in areas of accounting, capital investment analysis, I discovered a huge necessity to study more in business education, and become a certified professional. When the choice of institution arises, I have got not to doubt the products of Hamline University from where I also graduated three years ago with evident of commendable testimonies displaced in my work place over the years.

From findings, Hamline University’s degree curriculum is such an outstanding one. It is full of current need of a blue chip company who really strives to maintain standard and leverage proficiency among equals. This definitely must have been mapped out from substantive reports of continual research. In line with the aim of the institution, Hamline Uiversity’s MBA program became interesting to attend when Linda Hanson, Hamline President, declares that the program is aimed at producing the best trait in business education that will also radiates an excellent aura of critical thinking skills of a well-educated person. I sincerely believed this is of much important to a leader to put up good leadership skills in the present world where the dare need for one is yet unresolved.

I have a vision, a mission coupled with the direction of a platform to fulfill the vision. It is all about becoming a professional in strategic management. While studying Master of Art in Management, courses like Foundations in Management & Leadership, Human Resource Management for Business and Managerial Communications most especially sustain the  aged passion to live a carrier in strategic management. With the recent diagnosis of integration insufficiency as the major challenge to MBA programs in Hamline University (Dean Julian Schuster), the new proposition to blend the business education into four 16-week module plus one 16-week specialization session seems promising.

Further more, the plan to amalgamate finance, accounting, marketing and operations with leadership development and strategic analysis and ethical practices will help out in the corporate business. The proposed curriculum seems to be a continuation of my exposure during the Master program. I consider it a privilege to be part of the pioneering students of such great plan and bright prospect.

A leading industry like Hp Company has a well grounded strategic management as its engine. This is the open secret of success. Strategic management enhances high degree of perfection in harmonizing working-team to work out a target within stipulated expectation. Strategic management is simply the science of drafting, implementing and analyzing decisions from different angles to drive home the objectives of an organization. It involves execution of policies and principles to achieve organizational purpose.

It therefore combines the activities of various functional areas of business to achieve unified goal. It is the peak in management carrier performed by the Chief Executive Officer and the designated team(s). With the understanding of the high level of responsibilities and commitments required of my area of interest – strategic management, it is criminal to remain unsecured with the professional skills necessary for good service delivery to humanity and God. I hereby write to continue the mentoring I earlier enjoyed in Hamline University, now in the direction of Master in Business Administration. Your anticipated consideration is appreciated.

Categories
Free Essays

University of Phoenix Material: Appendix C

University of Phoenix Material Appendix C Part I Define the following terms: Term| Definition| Discrimination| * This is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons. * | Institutional discrimination| * This is the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals or groups, resulting from normal operations of a society. * | Political correctness| * This can also be called political correct, this is a term which denotes language, ideas, policies, and behavior, seeking to minimize social and institutional offenses in occupations.

Such as gender, religion, racial, and sexual orientation. * | Part II * Write a 150- to 250-word response to each of the following questions: * * How is discrimination different from prejudice and stereotyping? * Discrimination is different from prejudice and stereotyping by that of discrimination actually takes action. Whereas prejudice and stereotyping are more of making assumption of a person or a race, assuming that they are one way due to their ethnicity or what they heard about them before getting to know them.

Discrimination as I stated actually takes action there are so many different types of discrimination that actually take place today. Example: Hate crimes- people do these acts based on a person’s race, religion, or sexual preference. With this form familie’s. Another type of discrimination is institutional discrimination this can hinder someone from being hired because of their past or even color. An institution can hire just one race that controls all the laws over a town, and then make it hard for the minority to live since they may not know what it is like to struggle with everyday life. * * * What are the causes of discrimination? * * There are speculations of what causes racism some of this is caused by stereotyping. This can be caused by reading, music, television, and internet, say for instance a young child was watching television or listening to music and saw how people of one ethnicity acted they may then assume all are like this causing them to discriminate against another race. Another factor of discrimination can be unfamiliarity there is a saying- people fear what they do not know, or yet to find out about.

Some people are afraid to go out and meet new people based on what they hear or watch on television thinking that they are the same as the people they watch. If people grow up only around their race then the chances of them becoming racists and discriminate towards another race then become higher. Environmental factors can also lead to discrimination such as the way a person lives, maintains their property, and how they keep up their appearance. All of this can have a person become hateful towards you, or if they heard a certain race lives a certain way and then sees it, they then believe it and hate the race too. * * How is discrimination faced by one identity group (race, ethnicity, religious beliefs, gender, sexual orientation, age, or disability) the same as discrimination faced by another? How are they different? Discrimination faced by one group is the same as discrimination faced by another by wanting it to stop. Not one ethnicity wants to be discriminated against, or have their children, wives, and family walk in fear not knowing if something is going to happen to them. Any race wants to live the same as any other race, safe, and peacefully, not having to fear tomorrow.

Races that are discriminated against also can be the same as the other race by spreading the word of what is going on, and helping people who have this problem finding ways to conquer it. They can be different by many ways such as the way a race handles the discrimination. Some can act out by hurting people, retaliating, and teaching their children to do the same. Others can handle it in a nonresponsive way by ignoring it and turning the other cheek. Some may call the police and let them handle it, while others take it into their own hands.

Categories
Free Essays

Kaplan University

The increased use of online universities in this country have given millions of Americans the opportunity to get their degree later in life while possibly trying to juggle a career and family at the same time. These are five such universities.

The first is Kaplan University.  Its website is www.kaplan.edu and the university offers master’s, bachelor’s and associate degrees as well as certificates that can provide the student with skills to compete in the fields of health care, design, criminal justice and education to name a few.  The university was founded in 1937 and the current tuition costs are ranging from $305- $475 per credit hour. This is depending upon the type of degree that the individual has chosen. The university is helpful to its alumni in the fact that accepts resumes and posts jobs on their website for employers.

Its mission statement is: Kaplan University is an institution of higher learning dedicated to providing innovative undergraduate, graduate, and continuing professional education. Our programs foster student learning with opportunities to launch, enhance, or change careers in a diverse global society. The University is committed to general education, a student-centered service and support approach, and applied scholarship in a practical environment.”

To contact Kaplan University by email, [email protected] is the email address. “Since 1937, we’ve built a long and distinguished tradition as both an academic pioneer and career-maker. We’re part of Kaplan Higher Education, a premier education provider, with more than 75 campus-based schools nationwide. Unique to our education family are some of the highest ranked programs in the world. Kaplan is the world leader in test preparation and has helped more than 3 million students prepare to take the tests necessary to achieve their education and career goals. The Kaplan Professional companies provide certification training developed for adult learners who are juggling the demands of home, family, and busy careers.” (getinfo.kaplan.edu)

University of Phoenix  www.phoenix.edu) is the largest online university in the country with more than 20,000 faculty and more than 220,000 undergraduates. The university was founded in 1976 and its central location is in Phoenix, Arizona. The University of Phoenix, has grown considerably and it was recognized as the first university in the country to offer course work online. The email of the university is [email protected] and its tuition is $475 per credit hour.

Its mission statement is: The Statement of Mission and Purposes focuses clearly on student learning and identifies that focus as the vehicle through which broader institutional goals will be pursued. It also emphasizes innovation, convenience, continuous improvement, and service quality as essential to mission fulfillment.

The University of Phoenix has extensive resources in the area of job postings.  There are literally thousands of jobs postings in the website which is frequented by University of Phoenix undergraduates and alum on a daily basis. “Beginning in the early 1970s University of Phoenix reinvented the way in which working adults could achieve a higher education and made academic innovation, quality and accountability its hallmark. It pioneered an educational and service model specifically geared toward the way adults learn best and made its programs widely available to working students using common-sense scheduling and fresh new approaches to academic delivery.” ( www.phoenix.edu)

DeVry University is one of the most widely known and respected universities in the country.  And now they can add their online university to that list. DeVry University: (www.devryonlinedegrees.com)  is a for profit institution for full or part time individuals seeking training in some of the more technical jobs in the country and which are already in the work force.

Devry was founded in 1931 and its tuition costs per semester is $4975. Devry offers an online search engine in the way of job postings and offers a wide and diverse range of jobs to chose from; many of which place a great deal of merit on an alum from Devry University. Its email for students is: [email protected] and its main programs are computer engineering, electronic engineering network and communication

Its mission statement is: The mission of DeVry University is to foster learning through high-quality, career-oriented undergraduate and graduate programs in technology, business, and management.  The university delivers its programs at campuses, centers and online to meet the needs of a diverse and geographically dispersed student population.

Strayer University: www.strayer.edu. Is located in Washington D.C. and it a private institution.  Strayer has more than 31,000 students within its 45 campuses and serves its students online as well as in the classroom and it is unique in that fashion.

The tuition is $1730 per course and its job postings and postings of resumes on behalf of its undergraduates is very helpful to the students and the website has received positive feedback for these services. The university was founded in 1892 but was made a university as recently as 1998. Its email for applicants is [email protected]

Its mission statement is: To establish opportunities for Strayer University alumni to stay connected to the University and remain on the cutting edge of business and technology. Over 112 years, the school has expanded to 45 campuses and in 11 states. “Strayer University offers an alumni directory as well as daily postings of job fairs as well as a newsletter for its alumni and undergraduates. Our undergraduate and graduate programs are available at 46 campuses in Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and Washington, D.C., as well as online. Many students take advantage of both on-campus and online courses.” ( www.strayer.edu.com)

Thompson Rivers University is another online school that has earned the respect of its students.  Its campus is located in British Columbia, Canada and was established as recently as 2005 as an online university.  The school was established in 1978 and it is a public institution.  Its website is www.tru.ca/ and its email for interested applicants is [email protected]/  The university offers free job postings and well as resumes to be posted on their website.  The services that the university offers in this are not as extensive as other, more established universities but it promises to increase its listings in the coming months.

Its mission statement is: To support planning at a variety of levels across the university by providing accurate, timely, impartial and reliable information and analysis for decision-making, policy development, and internal and external constituent needs. The tuition fees are very reasonable at $111 per semester hour which is much lower than the above mentioned universities and one of the more affordable tuitions that I have ever come across.  And with that total being in Canadian dollars, the tuition is even less than that at just over $100 per semester hour. Here are a few fast facts about the college: Almost 50 undergraduate degree options at the TRU Kamloops Campus

“Nearly 20 professional career Diploma programs, all with ‘ladders’ to a degree at the Kamloops campus
Six- to ten-month Job-entry certificates, Trade-entry and Apprenticeship training at the Kamloops campus
Distance education courses, and complete distance programs in selected fields.
Flexible distance and degree, diploma and certificate access through the BC Centre Open Learning, currently based at our Burnaby campus.” ( www.tru.ca)

Here is a summary on just a few of the online universities that are available.  And with more becoming accredited, it is becoming easier for professional adults to go back and get their degree and open up the door of opportunity when they thought that it has been closed forever.

Categories
Free Essays

Problems Facing University Students

Financial Challenges Facing University Students FA120-Skills to succeed Group Creative problem solving assignment By Megan Sweeney (12522637) Anna Heffernan (12743239) And Ross Swords (12344681) Word Count: two thousand two hundred and eight. Contents Page Section 1: Summary | Pages 3 and 4| Section II: Details of the students challenge| Pages 4 and 5| Section III: Findings| Pages 5 and 6| Section IV: Possible solutions and recommendations| Page 6| Section V: Recommendations| Page 6| References | Page 7| Section I: Summary. Introduction

After discussing our assignment as a group we recognised what problems and challenges may be relevant to university students. We felt the topic most relevant to ourselves as a group and the majority of university students, was the financial challenges faced by university students. For most students as they start university it is their first time living away from home which can create problems for both the student and their families financially with both the high costs involved in sending a student to university and the difficulties the student faces themselves in budgeting their weekly allowance.

Many students struggle to prioritise their money correctly and often spend more money on socialising weekly than on the essentials such as food, and often there is little or no money left to put towards books and curriculum based activities. For the purpose of this assignment and to help ourselves as students manage our money in a more economical manner we have researched the problems and solutions which occur in the everyday life of an Irish university student. Statement of the student challenge

The financial difficulties faced by a university scholar are brought about by the high cost of tuition fees which are constantly increasing as a result of poor management by our previous governments, the high cost of student accommodation for those students who have to move away from home to attend university. Students living away from home also have to have a weekly allowance for essentials, heating and electricity bills, and college equipment such as books, calculators, laptops and stationary.

Many students that don’t move away from home face high travelling expenses each week with the cost of public transport constantly increasing as the government hike up the prices in order to attempt to get the country out of recession. The significance of the challenge We chose this topic as there is currently so much hype being created in regard to the economic crisis and the effect it is having on the cost of attending university which is creating huge financial problems for students and their families attending university.

The government has majorly reduced the amount of financial aid available for undergraduates, many students no longer receive the grant payment which has resulted in many young people not being able to finish their degrees. Due to the current economic climate students are rarely able to secure a stable job so that they can support themselves, which forces many students to be dependent on government allowances. Again this causes financial problems for the students as the allowances available to third level students are minimal.

We wanted to explore the different supports available to university students to help students overcome their financial problem’s. Section II: Details of the student challenge. For each student attending university the average cost can vary significantly depending on whether they have to move away from home, travel a long distance to college daily or travel a short distance from their home to college each day. The following table gives an indication of the monthly cost of living in Galway as a student. These costs are an approximation only as monthly costs will depend on each person’s individual needs (NUIG Student-Life 2012).

Accommodation| 340 euro| Food| 260 euro| Books/academic requisites| 60 euro| Clothes, laundry| 60 euro| Recreation| 180 euro| Other| 100 euro| Monthly Total| 1,000 euro| Nine month academic year| 9,000 euro| As the average Irish yearly income is €24,316 (Irishexaminer. ie), the cost of sending a student to university is over one third of the average Irish yearly wage and this is before the tuition fees have to be paid for which in itself presents a huge challenge for a family to be able to support both the student and the rest of the family.

With this in mind most students need as much help as possible to budget, manage their money and make use of the discount and financial schemes available through the university. The university provides a range of support systems to help students overcome financial challenges they may face. For students living away from home medical expenses can be a huge challenge as unfamiliar doctors can overcharge students, students can also be faced with the difficulty of budgeting for medical expenses as students can’t predict when they will become ill.

The National University of Ireland Galway has relived thousands of students from the worries and challenges they face in regard to medical fees as they provide a full medical centre with Doctors, Nurses and physiatrist free of charge to all students in the university. “Only 10% of the student body is entitled to a medical card (GMS). A medical card entitles the holder to free consultation, free prescriptions and free hospitalisation. Students are not entitled to a medical card unless their parents have such a card or unless they are on a grant. Mature students i. e. ver 24 years of age could be entitled to a card in their own right depending on income. ” (NUIG Student-Life 2012). This is a brilliant support service available to all NUI Galway students no matter what financial background the student comes from. The monthly food expense for a university student is two hundred and sixty euro, this can vary hugely depending on whether the student is economical about where they shop and what they buy. Students can greatly reduce their shopping expenses by shopping in the cheaper supermarkets such as Lidl, Aldi and Tesco rather than smaller convenience stores which tend be much more expensive. And the key to good shopping is lists – lists you stick to. Never shop hungry and don’t rely on the big name retailers that your folks have shopped in for years, turn your back on brand names and only buy own-brand foods – you will save yourself a packet. A litre of milk from Avonmore costs €1. 14, a litre of Tesco milk costs 75 cents. ” (The Irish Times, September 2012). The University also provides hot meals daily at only €5 in the university restaurant which can be very helpful to student who do not have time to return home to eat during the day.

As well as the academic side to college students also have to have a social life, which can become very costly and makes it harder for students to budget their money. The titanium ents company put a discount card scheme in place to help students save money while socialising. “Galway Student Discount Card is estimated to save an average student €400 per semester / an average of €5 per night out ( €2 off a taxi, €2 off club admin & €1 off food after). On sale for only €4” (Titaniuments. ie). This is a huge help to students in budgeting for the social side to their time in university.

A huge financial problem faced by students is the price of textbooks required for the curriculum many of these books can cost up to €100 each and have to be bought brand new as they all contain individual access codes for course work that has to be completed online. Many students have to buy up to five books per semester which is a huge expense and creates a serious financial problem for students. Bank of Ireland is currently putting schemes in place to allow students to take out loans to pay for books. Section III: Findings Currently at NUI Galway there are several procedures in place to help students live off a small budget and save money.

Loyalty cards such as the student union card can get students various discounts at numerous shops and restaurants run by the students union throughout the college. The student union card can also earn students money, by purchasing items at any shop or restaurant run by the SU. Students can build up credit over-time on their purchases and eventually this credit can be turned into cash. NUI Galway also promote the titanium ents card which promotes social discounts for students such as free entry into nightclubs, discounts on taxis, and discounts on fast-food take aways.

In University College Dublin they offer many scholarships to students which can be found on www. smurfitschool. ie which is the business school in UCD. An example of one is ‘GMAT MBA Scholarship’ ‘Open to all applicants scoring above 700 on the GMAT. All scholarship applicants must already have been admitted to (have applied for, been interviewed and offered a place on) the full-time MBA Programme before they can be considered for any of the above scholarships. Open to Irish residents and international applicants. ( UCD-2012) in a university aboard such as Harvard, the offer financial aid also such as ‘Harvard College has provided assistance to students who need help in meeting their education expenses for over 350 years, enabling us to seek out the most outstanding scholars in the world and open our doors to students of exceptional ability and promise, regardless of their financial circumstances. Over 60% of undergraduates will receive an estimated $172 million in need-based Harvard Scholarship aid in 2012-13.

Just in the past five years we have increased our financial aid by over 70 percent, enhancing our program to ensure the affordability of a Harvard education even in these challenging economic times. We understand that the thought of financing four years of college can be a daunting prospect for anyone, and we are eager to help you and your family understand our financial aid programs and assist you in finding ways to meet your college costs’ (Harvard-2012) Section IV: Possible solutions and recommendations.

After applying the creative problem solving process we as a group began to look at the different ways a problem such as this can be solved. While looking for solutions to the problem we researched numerous websites that offered advice on how students can budget and save money. (Schweitzer 2010) suggests numerous ways for students to save money such as avoiding impulse buying, hiding the credit card and finding bargains. While undertaking more xtensive research into the problem and after reading several articles, another common suggestion on how to budget efficiently was to invest in a student travel card; which can give up to a third off the price of all rail prices (Warnes 2012). Another area that may affect a student budget is clothes shopping. Many students can be fooled into buying expensive brand name clothes that they can’t afford. (Waldron 2012) suggests students should shop at local charity shops such as Oxfam where they can buy a lot of these brand name clothes second hand for a fraction of the price.

Although many students may not have been accustomed to shopping in charity shops previously Waldron insists the value for students in this market is a “no brainer”. Section 5: Recommendations After investigating the possible solutions we as a group discussed the various methods NUIG could undertake to help students tackle their budgeting issues. We looked at the offers that are already available to help students save money such as the SU loyalty card, the titanium ents card, the second hand book scheme etc. We then held numerous brain storming session where we thought of ideas that might help solve the problem.

We considered various ideas such as opening a second hand clothes shop in the college or a grocery store where students could buy their weekly shopping at a discount price. We then concluded that projects such as this would incur too much of an expense that may not be affordable for the college. Another idea that we came up with was a student discount guide that could be published by the students union on a weekly basis containing information on where students could find the best discounts in Galway on a weekly basis.

The leaflet could advise students on what supermarkets have the best food discounts on this week, what nightclubs are offering discounts, how students could save money on travel etc. Referencing nui galway. (2012). financial matters. Available: http://www. nuigalway. ie/student-life/financial-matters/. Last accessed 14th nov 2012. Titanium Ents and subsidiary groups. (2012). Galway Student Discount Card. Available: http://www. titaniuments. com/galway-student-discount-card/. Last accessed 14th nov 2012 . C O’Doherty. (2012). Dublin €3k ahead of average income. Available: http://www. rishexaminer. com/ireland/dublin-3k-ahead-of-average-income-181644. html. Last accessed 14th nov 2012. nui galway. (2012). medical services. Available: http://www. nuigalway. ie/student-life/student-support/medical-services. html. Last accessed 14th nov 2012 . C Pope. (2012). Cheap and cheerful way through college. Available: http://www. irishtimes. com/newspaper/finance/2012/0911/1224323839157. html. Last accessed 14th nov 2012 . UCD. (2012). Scolarships. Available: http://www. smurfitschool. ie/scholarships/gmatmbascholarships/. Last accessed 14th nov 2012 . Harvard University. (2012).

WELCOME TO THE HARVARD COLLEGE FINANCIAL AID OFFICE. Available: http://www. fao. fas. harvard. edu/icb/icb. do. Last accessed 14th nov 2012. Schweitzer. (2010). 10 Easy Ways for Students to Save Money. About. com Guide. 10 (4), 33-34. Warnes, S. (2012). Top 10 brilliant student money saving tips. Available: http://www. neilstoolbox. com/bibliography-creator/reference-website. htm. Last accessed 10/Nov/2012. Waldron,C. (2012). Charity shops: getting too big for their Pradas?. Available: http://campus. ie/college-life/money-matters/charity-shops-getting-too-big-for-their-pradas. Last accessed 12/nov/2012.

Categories
Free Essays

Student Satisfaction in Jose Rizal University

Introduction Students’ opinions about all aspects of academic life are now sought by educational institutions worldwide, generally, in the form of a satisfaction feedback questionnaire. It is this student satisfaction survey, within the context of student satisfaction in JRU Jose Rizal University. In the Philippines, Higher Education (HE) students were considered to be the “primary customers” of a University ,even before they were liable for the payment of “up-front” tuition fees. Students are the direct recipients of the service provided.

As if to confirm this status of the “student as customer”, the Commision on Higher Education (CHED) has introduced a National Student Survey. This survey is aimed at first year students to seek their views on a number of aspects of teaching, assessment and support provided by their university and its courses. The results will ultimately be used by the school to produce league tables of university performance. The position of a university in any league tables will impact ultimately on its image.

Image has a strong impact on the retention of current students and the attraction of potential students. Indeed recruitment and retention of students has been moved to the top of most universities’ agendas by CHED due to their desire to increase the JRU student population in line with Government targets. Poor retention rates may have adverse funding consequences for University . This paper takes the view that student satisfaction, retention and recruitment are closely linked.

Thus student satisfaction has become an extremely important issue for universities and their management. The aim is to try to maximise student satisfaction, minimise dissatisfaction and therefore retain students and so improve the institutions performance across a number of league tables. Taking these criticisms into consideration the questionnaire used in the satisfaction survey asked only for perceptions of performance of a range of service aspects (as well as importance) but did not aim to collect data associated with expectations.

Indeed, the survey questionnaire was designed around the concept of the service-product bundle. This concept is discussed in the next section. The service-product bundle The outcome of service delivery is a tangible product, and a “bundle” of goods and services as the product offering . The service-product bundle refers to the inseparable offering of many goods and services including what Jose Rizal University has to offer its students. This bundle consists of three elements: (1) the physical or facilitating goods; 2) the sensual service provided – the explicit service; and (3) the psychological service – the implicit service. For a university the facilitating goods include the lectures and tutorials, presentation slides, supplementary handout documents/materials and the recommended module text. It also includes the physical facilities such as the lecture theatres and tutorial rooms and their level of furnishing, decoration, lighting and layout as well as ancillary services such as catering and recreational amenities.

The explicit service includes the knowledge levels of staff, staff teaching ability, the consistency of teaching quality irrespective of personnel, ease of making appointments with staff, the level of difficulty of the subject content and the workload. The implicit service includes the treatment of students by staff, including friendliness and approachability, concern shown if the student has a problem, respect for feelings and opinions, availability of staff, capability and competence of staff.

It also includes the ability of the university’s environment to make the student feel comfortable, the sense of competence, confidence and professionalism conveyed by the ambience in lectures and tutorials, feeling that the student’s best interest is being served and a feeling that rewards are consistent with the effort put into course works /examinations. All of the above are based on students’ perceptions of the various parts of the service and the data is usually collected via some form of feedback questionnaire.

Why collect student feedback? (1) to provide auditable evidence that students have had the opportunity to pass comment on their courses and that such information is used to bring about improvements; (2) to encourage student reflection on their learning; (3) to allow institutions to benchmark and to provide indicators that will contribute to the reputation of the university in the marketplace; and (4) to provide students with an opportunity to express their level of satisfaction with their academic experience.

The last bullet point as the rationale behind the survey undertaken for the particular research project described in this paper. Keeping customers satisfied is what leads to customer loyalty. Research conducted by Jones and Sasser Jr (1995) into thirty organisations from five different markets found that where customers have choices the link between satisfaction and loyalty is linear; as satisfaction rises, so too does loyalty. However, in markets where competition was intense they found a difference between the loyalty of satisfied and completely satisfied customers.

Put simply, if satisfaction is ranked on a 1-5 scale from completely dissatisfied to completely satisfied, the 4’s – though satisfied – were six times more likely to defect than the 5’s. Customer loyalty manifests itself in many forms of customer behavior. Jones and Sasser Jr (1995) grouped ways of measuring loyalty into three main categories: (1) intent to re-purchase; (2) primary behaviour – organisations have access to information on various transactions at the customer level and can track five categories that show actual customer re-purchasing behaviour; viz, recency, frequency, amount, retention, and longevity; and 3) secondary behaviour – e. g. customer referrals, endorsements and spreading the word are all extremely important forms of consumer behaviour for an organisation. Translating this into university services, this covers intent to study at a higher level within the same institution, how frequently and recently a student used ancillary services, such as the library, catering and IT services, and lastly the willingness to recommend the institution to friends, neighbours and fellow employees. Issues impacting on student satisfaction Price et al. 2003) recently reported on the impact of facilities on undergraduate student choice of university. They surveyed a number of universities over two years in order to determine students’ reasons for selecting a particular university. The average results for the two years were fairly similar – the top eight reasons being; it had the right course, availability of computers, quality of library facilities, good teaching reputation, availability of “quiet” areas, availability of areas for self-study, quality of public transport in the town/city and a friendly attitude towards students.

Clearly, students’ perceptions of a university’s facilities are one of the main influences on their decision to enrol. Coles (2002) found that student satisfaction is decreased when class sizes are larger in earlier cohorts, and when students are taking compulsory core modules rather than optional modules. The quality of any of the service encounters, or “moments of truth” (Carlzon, 1989) experienced by customers forms part of their overall impression of the whole service provided, (Dale, 2003) and by implication, their impression of the organisation itself.

As Deming (1982) commented, most people form their opinions based on the people that they see, and they are either dissatisfied or delighted, or some other point on the continuum in between. In order to deliver high quality services to students, universities must manage every aspect of the student’s interaction with all of their service offerings and in particular those involving its people. Services are delivered to people by people, and the moments of truth can make or break a university’s image (Banwet and Datta, 2003).

In order to deliver total student satisfaction, all employees of a university should Ad here to the principles of quality customer service, whether they be front-line contact staff involved in teaching or administration, or non-contact staff in management or administrative roles (Gold, 2001; Low, 2000, cited in Banwet and Datta, 2003). In a recent survey conducted with 310 all male Saudi Arabian students attending the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Sohail and Shaikh (2004) found that “contact personnel” was the most influencing factor in student’s evaluation of service quality.

However, physical environment, layout, lighting, classrooms, appearance of buildings and grounds and the overall cleanliness also significantly contributed to students’ concepts of service quality. Galloway (1998) studied the role of the faculty administration office in one UK University on student perceptions of service quality. He found that it impacted directly on students and influenced their perceptions of the quality of the whole institution. The office performance also had a direct impact on academic and technical staff within the faculty.

These front-line staff in their turn had a direct impact on students, potential students and other clients. The main predictors of quality for students were found to be: . office has a professional appearance; . staff dress smartly; . never too busy to help; and . opening hours are personally convenient. Banwet and Datta (2003) believed that satisfied customers are loyal, and that satisfied students were likely to attend another lecture delivered by the same lecturer or opt for another module or course taught by her/him.

In their survey of 168 students who attended four lectures delivered by the same lecturer, covering perceived service quality, importance and post-visit intentions, they found that students placed more importance on the outcome of the lecture (knowledge and skills gained, availability of class notes and reading material, coverage and depth of the lecture and teacher’s feedback on assessed work) than any other dimension.

This supports the findings of Schneider and Bowen (1995) who deduced that the quality of the core service influences the overall quality of the service perception. For universities the core service delivery method is still the lecture. Overall Banwet and Datta (2003) found that students’ intentions to re-attend or recommend lectures was dependent on their perceptions of quality and the satisfaction they got from attending previous lectures. This is supported by the research of Hill et al. (2003) who utilised focus groups to determine what quality education meant to students.

The most important theme was the quality of the lecturer including classroom delivery, feedback to students during the session and on assignments, and the relationship with students in the classroom. Research by Tam (2002) to measure the impact of Higher Education (HE) on student’s academic, social and personal growth at a Hong Kong university found that as a result of their university experience students had changed intellectually, socially, emotionally and culturally. This growth was evidenced as students progressed from one year to another as their university career developed.

Is this also the case with student’ perceptions of service quality and satisfaction? A number of researchers have suggested that this might indeed be the case (Hill, 1995; O’Neil, 2003) although obtaining valid and reliable data to support such a stance is difficult. This study aims to determine if there are differences in those aspects of a university service that students consider important, as well as their satisfaction levels, associated with their year/level of study, i. e. first, second and third. Methodology

A quantitative survey was designed to elicit student satisfaction levels across the University’s service offerings. The questionnaire consisted of __ questions informed by previous research studies and subdivided into the various categories of the service product bundle including, lecture and tutorial facilities, ancillary facilities, the facilitating goods, the explicit service and the implicit service. At the end students were asked for their overall satisfaction rating and whether they would recommend the University to a prospective student.

The satisfaction questions were preceded by a series of demographic questions that would allow the sample population to be segmented. These included, interalia, questions regarding gender, age, level of study, mode of study and country of origin. Participation in the survey was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The length and complexity of the questionnaire was influenced, in part, by the balance between the quest for data and getting students to complete the survey. The questionnaire was piloted among 100 undergraduate volunteers.

The length of time it took them to complete the survey was noted and at the end they were asked for any comments regarding the validity and reliability of individual questions. They were also asked if there was anything “missing” from the questionnaire. Based on the feedback received a number of questions were amended and the design of the questionnaire altered slightly. It took on average 12 minutes to complete the questionnaire. In order to get as large and representative a sample as possible, we conduct survey question in first year student in all courses in were targeted.

Staff teaching these modules were approached and permission sought to utilise for a few minuetes of their lecture time in order to explain the rationale behind the survey and to persuade students to complete the survey in class. Generally this “personal touch” was successful in eliciting a good response. Over the course of the two weeks the survey was undertaken, only one person refused to complete the questionnaire. Researchers are divided as to whether or not determinants of satisfaction should be weighted by their importance because different attributes may be of unequal importance to different people.

In this study both satisfaction and importance were measured. There is no such thing as the perfect rating scale. However, some produce more reliable and valid results than others. Devlin et al. (1993) determined that a good rating scale should have, inter alia, the following characteristics: . minimal response bias; . discriminating power; . ease of administration; and . ease of use by respondents. In order to accommodate these characteristics, the rating scale contained five points with well-spaced anchor points representing the possible range of opinions about the service.

The scale contained a neutral category and the negative categories were presented first (to the left). Thus, undergraduates were required to respond utilising a 5-point Likert scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is very unsatisfactory, 2 is unsatisfactory, 3 is neutral (neither satisfactory or unsatisfactory), 4 is satisfactory and 5 is very satisfactory. This type of scale provides a common basis for responses to items concerned with different aspects of the University experience.

The importance that students place on each criteria was measured utilising a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 is very unimportant, 2 is unimportant, 3 is neutral (neither important or unimportant) 4 is important and 5 is very important. Respondents were asked to tick the box next to the number that represented their opinion on each item. A sample of 865 students from a total within the Faculty of 3800 was surveyed. The questionnaires were analysed using SPSS v. 11 and Quadrant Analysis conducted in order to determine those areas perceived as being the least satisfactory with the greatest importance rating.

Finally, respondent focus groups were assembled to discuss some of the issues that required more in-depth analysis and which, due to constraints of space and time, were not explicitly asked about in the original survey. Results A total of — questionnaires were returned, although not all had complete data sets. Table I details the demographic mix of the respondents. Based on all student responses, the most important (i. e. list of the top ten starting from the highest value) and least important (i. e. ist of the bottom ten starting from the lowest value) aspects of the University service are shown in Table II. As can be seen from Table II the most important areas of the University services are those associated with learning and teaching. Interestingly, given the recommendations of a Government White Paper (HEFCE et al. , 2003) that from 2006 all newly recruited university teaching staff should obtain a teaching qualification that incorporates agreed professional standards, the most important aspect of the service is the teaching ability of staff, closely followed by their subject expertise.

The consistency of teaching quality irrespective of the teacher is also considered by the respondents as important, recognising that teaching quality can be variable. The students also recognise the importance of the lecture and tutorial, which is not surprising given that for most universities that is still the core service offering and is very much linked to the teaching ability and subject knowledge of staff. Teaching and learning support materials were Table 1. 1 Demographic mix of respondents GenderMale Female46 54 NationalityHome(Filipino)

International89 4 Mode of StudyFull-time Part-time sandwich Level of studyLevel1 Level2 Level3 Note: Sandwich students are those whose program of study includes a year in industry Table 2. 2 Most important and least important aspects of service RatingMost ImportantLeast important 1Teaching ability of staffDecoration in lecture facilities 2Subject expertise of staffVending machines 3IT facilitiesDecoration in tutorial rooms 4LecturesFurnishings in lecture facilities 5Supplementary lecture materialsRecreational facilities TutorialsAvailability of parking 7Consistency of teaching quality irrespective of teacherThe layout of tutorial/seminar rooms 8White boardThe layout of lecture facilities 9The Learning Resources CentreThe on-campus catering facilities 10The approachability of teaching staffThe quality of pastoral support Note: Blackboard is a virtual learning environment that students can access off and on campus also ranked highly, particularly supplementary handout materials and the use of Blackboard for enhancing student learning.

These are mostly associated with the explicit service delivered to the students and the facilitating goods. With regard to facilities, students have ranked the importance of IT facilities very highly, reflecting the usefulness of connection to the Internet for research purposes and software packages for producing high quality word-processed documentation for coursework assignments and dissertations. This links well with the high ranking of the Learning Resource Centre where IT facilities can be accessed and books and journals ourced in “hard” copy or electronic copy. Table II also shows those areas of the service that students find relatively unimportant. These are mostly associated with the lecture and tutorial facilities and the ancillary services, for example, layout and decoration of lecture and tutorial facilities, catering facilities and vending machines. A further analysis was undertaken to determine whether different segments of the respondent population had similar or different rankings of the University services’ attributes with regard to importance and unimportance.

With regard to mode of study, Table III shows the rankings for students studying full-time with the University. Whilst acknowledging the fact that 80 per cent of the sample population is full time students, the rankings of those service aspects considered most important are very similar to those for the sample population as a whole, the only difference being that “supplementary tutorial materials” replaces “approachability of staff”.

Once again the majority of aspects considered least important are associated with the facilities and ancillary services When the views of Part-time students are considered, a number of interesting differences in their priorities are worthy of discussion. Table IV shows the rankings of service aspects for part time students. The IT facilities drops from third to tenth in their importance rankings, perhaps indicative of the fact that they have access to IT facilities at work and/or at home, thus rendering it less important relative to other aspects of service.

Blackboard (a virtual learning environment that allows teaching staff to make learning and other material available via the internet), on the other hand rises from 10th to 7th in importance indicating its usefulness as a teaching aid for students who do not attend the University on a daily basis and who may miss classes due to work or family commitments. Interestingly, the “helpfulness of technical staff” is considered unimportant, again reflecting their access to such help at work or a greater level of expertise on their part through working with IT on a daily basis. RankingMost importantLeast important Teaching ability of staffDecoration in lecture facilities 2Subject expertise of staffDecoration in tutorial rooms 3IT facilitiesVending machines 4LecturesFurnishing in tutorials 5TutorialsFurnishing in lectures 6Supplementary lecture materialsAvailability of parking 7Consistency of teaching quality irrespective of teacherRecreational facilities 8The Learning Resources CentreThe layout of tutorial/seminar rooms 9Supplementary tutorial materialsThe on-campus catering facilities 10BlackboardThe layout of lecture facilities Table III. Most important and least important service aspects for full-time students RatingMost importantLeast important Teaching ability of staffRecreational facilities 2Subject expertise of staffVending machines 3Consistency of teaching quality irrespective of teacherDecoration in lecture facilities 4Teaching and learning equipment in lecturesFurnishings in lecture facilities 5The Learning Resources CentreDecoration in tutorial rooms 6LecturesQuality of pastoral support 7BlackboardThe on-campus catering facilities 8Supplementary lecture materialsThe layout of tutorial/seminar rooms 9Supplementary tutorial materialsHelpfulness of technical staff 10IT facilitiesThe lecture facilities overall

Categories
Free Essays

National University of Singapore Personal Statement

Having a degree is one of the most admired achievements in the life of an individual. It is the basis of how your future will be. If you have a nice and much known degree then you have the greater chances of being hired the moment you graduate. I chose to apply Business Management and Communications and News Media in this University for I believe that National University of Singapore is going to help me build my future and dreams through their much established curriculum and high standards.

I know that Business Management and Communications and News Media really fit me for the reason that I have lots of experience that has polished my character, intelligence and attitude. I chose Psychology because I believe that this can help me have a brighter future. Basically, this course is a lot of fun. Studying business, about how to communicate effectively and things about News Media would also help me develop the attitude or the character on how to deal with people in such a manner that is well educated and proper. Having a degree in this course will help me get the best job being offered in the society. I know having this degree will let me become more productive.

There were certain experiences I have had in relevance with my chosen course. One of those was when I was part of the play, The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde; where in I was Gwendolyn, one of the main characters. I have always loved theater, especially acting. Gwendolyn Fairfax in this play portrayed a conservative Victorian. She always aims on being intellectually updated, where in she upgrades her skills and knowledge by attending conventions and the like. But the only thing is that she isn’t true. She was not her real self, she was just acting out what she thinks would be good and acceptable.

Gwendolyn in this play is a strong willed and aggressive woman for what she feels she expresses it immediately. She was an epitome of grace and beauty among women. I can very much connect with Gwendolyn; I know what my principles and values are. I never compromise my reputation. I am also strong willed and assertive in the sense that when I know that I am on the right track, I am never afraid to go and pursue it. All the qualities that Gwendolyn has that I can easily relate like her being strong willed, assertive but still compose and decent, applies to my chosen course.

Through this experience I had in the play, was just one of the stepping stone for me to polish my character or attitude especially with regards to being patient. Being patient with my co- members in the play and the long time hours in practicing the play in order to come up with the best. I never settle for less. I always want to achieve the best. I never want mediocrity. I believe I can apply all these values in my chosen course.

I am also teaching in our Sunday school in a local church. I am teaching children ranging from 6 – 9 yrs old. Through this experience I never forget that Religion is also important. It was important before but it is much important today.

Religion involves the relationship between mankind and what is regarded as sacred. Religion almost always includes the belief in the supernatural and a code of ethical behavior. Why do men suffer? What is the nature of the Universe and how it is governed? What is the nature of man and what is his destiny? Religion tries to answer the questions of ultimate existence and of life and death and human and destiny. Many religions hold the universe is governed by God. Through religion man may see meaning in the universe and find a personal role in it.

Thousands of years ago, religion played a very vital role in the lives of the people. Even thought that time things were not that so complicated not like now, people still has a closer connection to God. People then put a greater emphasis on going to church, fellowshipping with their brother’s and sister’s and in maintaining their relationship with their creator.

As of now, in our present times I think that Religion is ten times important than it was before. As the modern world is evolving and is now being introduced to different kinds of beliefs and theories that could likely shake our foundation of faith for God. The basis and the only foundation of our faith is Jesus Christ. We must hold on to him more especially these days that there are many deceivers out there that are being used by the enemy to destroy us and to keep us away from the loving arms of God.

When we don’t have a strong foundation of our relationship to God, we can easily yield to the temptations and offerings that Satan will present to us, like the technology of today. If we don’t know how to control the usage of technology of today, we can be manipulated and controlled by it. That is just one of the tactics of Satan to let us fall into the pit he is preparing for us, for us to be kept away from God’s destiny for us.

We are free to choose what we want to do, but we are not free to determine if what he have chosen is good or evil, right or wrong. Our choices may be good or bad insofar as they conform to God’s divine and eternal law and the imperatives which are made known to us through the mediation of conscience that God has bestowed in spirits. In my life I have made many decisions that brought great changes to me as an individual. There are times that I am very doubtful to make a choice especially in a very hard situation. But whenever I am in doubt to make a choice, I just listen to my conscience for me to determine and scrutinize what is really the right thing for me to do.

A mature moral decision is not only a decision to make a good deed that “we ought to do” but also a “choice made in good faith to make what we want ourselves to be”.  The dignity of the human person implies and demands the rectitude of the moral conscience; that is, it’s being based on truth, which is God’s word. One must seriously seek a right conscience or, in other words, one must try to make sure one’s moral judgment is right. This can be achieved by diligently learning the laws of moral life through spiritual formation, asking God for light through a fervent prayer, removing the obstacles to right judgment such as habitual moral disorder or bad habits, and lastly is examining yourself.

As I grew up and experienced lots of circumstances, I have now a more grown up approach of making choices. I just do not base my decisions with my feelings at that very moment. I see to it, that whatever outcome after I have made my move, I will still be strong and able to stand up. I will be able to stand firm with my decision. I see to it that it will have more advantages than the disadvantages. I weigh the pros and cons of every circumstance that I am into in which I am task to decide things with. I have learned that not all delightful things are right, for there are also hurtful and unpleasant things that turned out right also.

Making moral decisions demands maturity and responsibility. To seek to understand reality, to be attentive to the wisdom of the past, to discern the biases and demands of a particular situation- all these efforts are required of a matured individual. Through this experience that I had as a Sunday school teacher, I am able to impart my knowledge about my faith in God towards those who do not know him. In relation to my chosen course, it will help me not compromise especially when graduate from Business Management and Communications and News Media. It will help me become an efficient worker in the area that I will be assigned. I can be a model towards those who are educated yet do not know their real purpose and the intent of their chosen field.

I also participated in a national racing competition and won 3rd place. It was my first racing competition where I competed with fifty plus racers, most of them were men. But I still succeeded them because of my drive to win. I never thought that I am weak because I am a woman. I proved them wrong, as I also loved sports. I am a multi tasked individual, I can balance things that I am very much inclined with like in the Academics and Sports.

Through the competition, I have proved to myself that I can also do what others can achieve. That gender can not dictate you from achieving, from dreaming. If you want to, then you should have the great drive and interest. I like competition and I do not give up until I will win a fight. It gives a feeling of satisfaction and contentment. My self- esteem is leveled higher whenever I succeed a competition. For me it instigates my willingness to thrive more and work hard, for me not to be put to shame.

I am also a hardworking individual, which is why I won the third place in the competition because I was diligent in practicing. I beat all of those men in the contest, even if they were men and symbolized strength, I still conquer them because I was very much eager to win and make others proud of me. I was very much encouraged to go and fight them. like in my chosen degree, I know I am going to meet obstacles or travails as I go along my studies but with the integrity and willingness that I have, I know I am going to survive the hindrances or difficulties I will be meeting along the way.

I am a very social person, so my chosen course just fits me that much because in business and communication, one needs to have the ability to go along well with other; that is to socialize; to be able to fit into different groups, or social classes and different types of character. I am a risk taker, especially when I know that I am going to succeed in the end. I am willing to risk things, but on the other hand, I am willing to fight for it too.

I like to try new things, things that excite me, like achieving. Having to achieve new thing, I know can bring felicity to my family. Like I said, I never settle for low quality. I always want the best of everything. For I believe that whatever your output is, totally reflects you. So when your output is of low quality, people will see you as an under achiever; a person who only settles for less.

I am much interested to be in this degree because I know that National University of Singapore provides one of the best educations I can ever find. They don’t just focus on the academics but also with the totality of the being of their students. They set standards that other Universities do not have. I know I am going to have a great future ahead of me in this institution. I will always have this gratitude in my heart towards National University of Singapore because through them individuals who dreams of having jobs, those highly paid jobs can now fulfill their dreams. Those individuals will be given the hope to dream, and have a bountiful life while having the qualities of a good individual being admired by the society around him.

Categories
Free Essays

Us/101 Introduction to University Studies

US/101 Introduction to University Studies Policies and Resources Quiz #2 1) If the University servers are down, how will you ensure your assignments are submitted on time? a. Send a copy of the assignment to your inbox or alternate email address as proof that I have attempted to post the assignment on time. In my email, I must state that I was unable to connect to the University of Phoenix server. I must then upload the assignment via the Assignments Link at my earliest opportunity. ) What is expected of students relative to the professionalism (formatting, spelling, proofreading, meeting assignment word-count, etc. ) of their work? b. All work is expected to be professionally presented; all written assignments must be carefully proofread and spell-checked before submitting. All assignments are to be submitted as MS Word documents, Writing in complete sentences. Ensuring that topic sentences are used to organize the document content. Adjusting margins and columns, so the document fits on the page (left to right) when viewed at 100%.

Using a black, standard font face and size, either Times New Roman 12pt or Arial 12pt. The word count guideline is usually given as a range of 150 to 300 words. 3) What resources are available to help students with writing, formatting standards, grammar, punctuation, etc.? c. The Center for Writing Excellence is available to help me with writing, formatting standards, grammar and punctuation. 4) What are the most important points brought out in the University’s Policies regarding Academic Integrity? d.

I am required to post a signed copy of the Certificate of Originality available in our Course Materials forum for all written assignments. The University places a high priority on maintaining Academic Integrity and ensuring that proper credit is being given for others’ words and ideas used in the development of my written assignments if an idea or words did not come from my own brain, then those are the ideas of others and they must be cited and referenced. This includes information taken from the textbook.

No more than 15% of my written work, whether copied, quoted or paraphrased, should be taken from outside sources at any time 5) What must students do to ensure they are in attendance each week? e. Complete discussions questions and participate in class. My participation is graded separately from my discussion question responses to the initial three out of five discussion questions. Participation is graded on the total number of substantive responses you make to your classmates and whether or not at least 2 substantive responses were posted on each of 4 different days of the week.