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Video Games and Violent Children

Video Games and Violent Children Brittany Hern 02/02/2011 Critical Thinking and Composition Home video games, an industry worth $11 billion domestically that is now 30 years old, continues to be thrown into legal and moral debates regarding what age is deemed appropriate to participate. Video games, especially those deemed to be violent or rated “mature,” are at the center of the controversy. There are two sides to this debate. Video game companies and their supporters lead one side arguing that video games have no affect on children, and maintain that video games deemed “mature” are meant for those ages.

The other side of this debate consists of psychologists and parents who argue video games are responsible for what they feel is a growing epidemic of increasingly violent and desensitized children. Video game companies continue to assert that the ratings issued by The Entertaining Software Rating Board (ESRB) are to be followed and any results stemming from games being purchased against those ratings fall back on parents. There are five rating categories: Everyone, Everyone 10+, Teen, Mature, Adults Only. The ESRB rates every video game that is to be sold in the United States.

Companies like Rockstar Games, which produces some of the most controversial video games, continue to maintain that their video games are produced for adults and are not marketed towards children. Rockstar developer Lazlow Jones was quoted in 2010 as saying “Our games are not designed for young people. If you’re a parent and buy one of our games for your child you’re a terrible parent… ” This quote came after the backlash of the release of another Rockstar Games title that was attacked for being too violent for children.

Parents and psychologists agree the ratings are a first step in the right direction, but insist these titles should be pulled from shelves because the continuance of accessibility by children across America. Although the ratings are in place, children in most states are able to buy video games rated “Mature. ” In those states where identification is necessary, parents argue that homes often filled with adult gamers expose children in the same household to inappropriate video games. They contend that an epidemic of violence and desensitized children are the product of violent video games and not enough supervision.

Numerous video game companies have turned to national crime statistics to prove their opposition wrong. Video games have been blamed for several high profile cases. One of the most infamous cases linking violence and video games is the massacre of 13 people at Columbine High School. Jerald Block, a researcher and psychiatrist in Portland, concluded that the two teenage shooters, both avid gamers, went on their shooting rampage after their parents took their weapon-based video game away.

Linking video games to high profile violence around the country has not been uncommon. The Virginia Tech shooting was wrongly attributed to video games by several news stations and TV personalities around the country before it was concluded that the shooter did not play video games. Video game companies continue to point to crime statistics to disprove these links. Gaming gained mass appeal in the mid 1990’s and since then sales domestically have quadrupled. From 1995 to 2008, when the industry took strides, juvenile violent crimes fell 49. 3%.

With these statistics in hand, video game supporters maintain that violent video games are not to be blamed for any acts of violence committed by underage gamers. The Federal government has played its own role in the debate on relating violence in video games to violent tendencies in children. In 1996 the US Marine Corps licensed a version of the then popular game Doom in order to train soldiers. Psychologists argue that if violent video games play no role in training children to become violent, why would the US Marine’s use a violent video game to train adults.

Those against violent video games propose the question: If these adults are trainable via video games then why wouldn’t children, who are far more persuadable, take the things in the games as instructions or guidelines. In 2002, the US Army released a first-person shooter America’s Army in order to recruit soldiers and prepare those recruits for what the battlefield is like. Those against violent video games see this as a direct link between violent video games being a teacher and influencing rather than just being used as a form of entertainment.

Furthermore, America’s Army, has been pointed out to look very similar to other first-person shooting games. There have been numerous studies conducted and while the results often are different, video game companies insist there is no formal research that shows any type of link that violent video games cause aggression. A study conducted in 2007 and published in the “Journal of Adolescent Health,” consisted of 1254 participants, which were pre-teens in demographically diverse schools. The results showed that playing a “Mature” rated video game was a positive way to manage anger in half of the participants.

While the study does say this could be an unhealthy way to manage emotions depending on the child, the participants correlated positivity with the “Mature” rated video game. Other studies have either been inconclusive and those ruling that violence is linked to violent video games have been dismissed by video game companies and supporters as being blind to other factors. The studies, they explain, do not divulge other contributing factors like a predisposition to aggressiveness, exposure to violence, and family dynamics; all factors that could contribute to violence.

Those who oppose violent video games point out a 2000 FBI report entitled “The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective,” which documents likely characteristics of a school shooter. In their research, the FBI concluded that a fascination with violence-filled entertainment is a risk factor associated with a possible school shooter. The report lists “the student spends inordinate amounts of time playing video games with violent themes, and seems more interested in the violent images than in the game itself. Another study conducted was based on short-term effects of violent video games. The 2009 study conducted by members of the Department of Psychology from both Iowa and Kansas State University, had 91 participants and not only surveyed those participants, but monitored the heart rate to see if there was any deviation. The study added to existing literature that shows violent video games in fact increase aggressive behavior, aggressive feelings, aggressive thoughts, and arousal from baseline to post video game play.

Whichever side of the argument you may land on, the opposition is fierce. The debate of whether violent video games produce violent children will rage on, both sides undoubtedly not losing any momentum with their opinions. Video game companies will continue to protect their multibillion dollar investment while parents and psychologists will continue putting pressure on lawmakers and the media to dive further into the numerous studies conducted on the possible link. References Barlett, C. , Branch, O. , Rodeheffer, C. nd Harris, R. (2009), How long do the short-term violent video game effects last? Aggressive Behavior, 35: 225–236. Whitworth, D (2010, May 01). Red Dead Redemption hoping for emotional response. BBC. Retrieved 02/01/2011, from http://www. bbc. co. uk/newsbeat/10136311 Nizza, M (2007, July 05). Tying Columbine to Video Games. The New York Times. Retrieved 02/02/2011, from http://thelede. blogs. nytimes. com/2007/07/05/tieing-columbine-to-video-games/ O’Toole, M (2000) The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective. p. 0. Retrieved 02/01/2011, from http://www. fbi. gov/stats-services/publications/school-shooter Olson, C et al. (2007). Factors Correlated with Violent Video Game Use by Adolescent Boys and Girls. Journal of Adolescent Health. Retrieved January 29, 2011, from http://www. jahonline. org/article/S1054-139X(07)00027-4/abstract. Croteau, S. (2010, November 26). Virtual Violence – Video game developers say blame misplaced. Telegram. Retrieved 01/31/2011 from http://www. telegram. com/article/20101126/NEWS/11260474/0/eworcester

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How Video Games Affect Children

How Video Games Effect Children During the last decade, attention and accusations within the media have turned more to the meteoric rise in popularity of arcade-type home computer and console games. Considerable anecdotal evidence abounds about how teenagers are affected by shoot-em-up and beat-em-up games. Zimbardo (1982) remarked that video games are so addictive to young people that they may be socially isolating and may actually encourage violence between people. Another comment came from the surgeon-general of the United States, who expressed his personal view that video games were one of the root causes of family violence in America.

He was quoted as saying that children “are into the games, body and soul – everything is zapping the enemy. Children get to the point where when they see another child being molested by a third child, they just sit back” (Koop, 1982). Because most research into television violence does demonstrate a relationship between the exposure to aggression and subsequently exhibited aggression, investigations of the effects of video game playing usually have predicted a similar relationship. However, many variables are involved, and researchers offer no clear statement on the role of game playing and aggressiveness.

Parameters include, for instance, gender, age grouping, expressed hostility (feelings of aggressiveness) versus exhibited aggression (overt behavior), the behavioral measurement (e. g. , toward a life-size doll, or in terms of shocks administered from an “aggression machine”), experimental duration of exposure (time spent playing), and personality traits. Also, studies may be laboratory based or observational. I know these are reliable sources because there is an author and also research was done on the topic. #2 This is my second article and it was written in 2010 and the title of it is Pediatrics for Parents.

What makes the article reliable is the fact it’s only two years old. Here are some facts from the article. The article stated that at a theoretical level, there are reasons to believe that violent video games may have a larger harmful effect than violent video games. But, recent studies that directly compare passive screen media to video games tend to find bigger effects of violent video games. The article also stated that a well-adjusted child who plays violent video games is going to become a school shooter.

When you separate studies into those that were well conducted versus those that had major flaws, you find that a well-conducted studies found bigger average effects of violent games on aggression than did the poorly conducted studies. (Anderson, 2010) Internet Source My first internet article is from an online publication for youth and what makes it reliable is the fact is partner of Santa Fe College and University of Florida along with two newspaper companies. First, one negative influence that video games have is that they can foster violence.

This means that when kids play these games and see their favorite character commit some type of violent action, they want to repeat it. Second, video games influence youth negatively by supposedly giving children a negative image of women. Women are not usually used in video games, and when they are, their purpose is usually sex appeal. Lastly, social isolation is a negative influence of video games. It causes the student not to care about grades or learning and to want to stay as far away from the real world as possible because of how much the player likes the videogame world. Smith, 2006) #2 According the American Psychological Association, violent video games can increase children’s aggression. Dr. Phil explains, “The number one negative effect is they tend to inappropriately resolve anxiety by externalizing it. So when kids have anxiety, which they do, instead of soothing themselves, calming themselves, talking about it, expressing it to someone, or even expressing it emotionally by crying, they tend to externalize it. They can attack something, they can kick a wall, they can be mean to a dog or a pet. Additionally, there’s an increased frequency of violent responses from children who play these kinds of video games. Dr. Phil also points out that violent video games don’t teach kids moral consequences. “If you shoot somebody in one of these games, you don’t go to jail, you don’t get penalized in some way — you get extra points! ” This doesn’t mean that your child will go out into the world and shoot someone. “But they do use more aggressive language, they do use more aggressive images, they have less ability to control their anger and they externalize things in these violent ways.

It’s absolutely not good,” says Dr. Phil. The reason I feel that this is a reliable because source because it is from the American Psychological Association and Dr. Phil. I have read many great articles from APA. I have also watched Dr Phil shows and I know it is all true information. References Anderson, A, C. (2010, March 01). Violent Video Games and Other Media Violence, Part II. Pediatrics for Parents, (3/4), 21, Retrieved from http://elibrary. bigchalk. com. ezp-01. lirn. net Koop, E. (1982). Surgeon general sees danger in video games.

New York Times, November 10th, p. A16. Dr. Phil (2012). Children and Violent Video Games, Retrieved from http://www. drphil. com/articles/article/297 American Psychology Association www. apa. org Scott, Derek (1995, March 01). The effect of video games on feelings of aggression… Journal of Psychology, ({129}) 121(12), Retrieved from http://elibrary. bigchalk. com. ezp-01. lirn. net Smith, Blake 9th grade (2006, August 17) How Video Games Affect Kids, Retrieved from http://rolemodels. jou. ufl. edu/rolemodels/entertainment/videogames. shtm

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Video Game Violence

There have been many arguments that have been brought up arguing that violent video games are making kids more violent. Some arguments go as far as saying all video games are making kids more violent. However, the argument can go both ways. People have brought up that video games help kids with hand eye coordination and allow them to vent their frustrations. The earliest videogame has been around since 1958, and this game was a simple game that had no human and no violence in it. As technology became more advanced the videogames became more violent.

Starting with a ball bouncing right and left in a videogame called Tennis for Two and ending with an incredibly violent video game that encourages killing other humans in Manhunt 2. There has been much research done on violent video games and their effects on kids, but no outcome has been decided yet. One side of the argument views videogames as a good thing. They think that videogames do not affect kids in any way and that some are good for kids. Talking about two boys that have ADD, “video games, as prescribed by their psychologist, have helped them learn to focus” (Mike Snider, 2005 p. ).

Video games are helping train kids to focus, and it is doing it in a fun way. Kids learn better when they are interested in what they are doing and video games make learning fun and interactive. When playing a video game the fun parts are remembered by the kids and if the fun parts are educational, they will learn it. Other studies have shown that video game violence does not make kids more violent like people say, but at the most it just desensitizes them to violence.

This is only true if they play violent video games, but a study showed that “the three most popular types of games are nonviolent. Instead, they involve racing, puzzles and sports” (Sieberg, Daniel 2008 p. 1). Some kids are playing violent video games, but the majority of kids are playing games that may actually help them. Puzzle games make kids think more on how to solve problems and sport games make kids want to get up and try the sport that they see. With all of the new technology coming out, it allows kids to be more active. The newest system from Nintendo is the Wii.

This is a game system that makes kids get up and move to play forcing children to get some exercise even if they do not know it. So video games really are helping the kids in today’s world. On the other side, arguments have been raised saying that video games are making kids more violent. A study done in American Psychology Association showed that kids that play violent video games have a rise in violent thoughts and actions. The Washington Post wrote, “Playing violent video games increases violent thinking, attitudes and behaviors among players.

And does nothing to promote positive social behaviors” (2010 p. 1). When kids that played a violent videogame for 30 minutes have a scan of their brain, there is a rise of activity in the emotion part of their brain showing that violent video games causes these kids to think differently. Because the emotional part of the brain is more active, kids will have a harder time making wise decisions. There have been arguments that video game violence desensitizes kids to violence and that since they do not feel remorse for murder, they will just go out and kill someone.

Kids learn from everyday experiences and the kids in today’s world play hours of videogames a week, so kids are learning from the video games that they play. Because a video game shows that killing is good, that the more creative the kill the more money, and the more violent the better, kids might pick up on this idea and bring it to the real world. If at a young enough age some kids will believe anything and with the age of kids playing violent video games dropping, the young kids will learn bad things from these video games. As early as the first Space Invaders game there was violence.

Back then it might just have been a spaceship exploding into tiny pixels, but there was still shooting involved. The ways of violence seems to be the same; it is just that everything now is bloodier and more graphic. Bernard Farrales says, “Even though the levels of realism and gore have increased, it can be said that video games have NOT become more violent since the basic goal is the same: shoot and kill everything in your way” (Farrales p. 1). Even from the beginning there has been violence, but as time went on and technology became more advanced the videogames became more graphic.

Now not only are people destroying small pixilated spaceships, they are killing anything that moves in many gruesome ways. Many video games are violent they might not be as violent as people being decapitated but there is some hidden violence within. A video game called Mario Cart may seem like a simple racing game with no violence, but there is some violence when one of the characters throws turtle shells or even bombs at the other characters. There is violence in so many video games whether it is horrific or minor people may not see it.

Is the violence in video games violent totally necessary? To some it seems like it while to others it does not. Parents of the kids that have these video games feel that this violence is not needed because of what it might do to their kids. Susan Grinde, a mother from East Wenatchee, says “Violent video games encourage disrespectful and violent behavior as it distorts fantasy and reality. ” Parents do not want their kids to grow up to be violent because they care for their kids and want the best for them. Video game companies on the other hand love the violence.

Violence is the number one seller in video games because the majority of the buyers are teenage boys who love the violence. In today’s society violence is wanted by many people because it gives them a way to vent their frustrations. People have violence and killer instincts within themselves, and people play violent video games to fulfill their killer needs. This makes for a very good business in the video game industry. Times have changed and so has the video games. October 18, 1958 brought about the firs ever video game called Tennis For Two.

People in this time period were so entertained by this phenomenon because it was new and interesting. More games came out like Tennis For Two, like Pong. When one video game comes out and is a big hit with society, other games come out because that is what interest people. When violent video games began to come out, the people did not know what to think about them. Mortal Combat was one of the first violent video game, and some people did not know what to think about it because it was the first to show death on a computer.

As time went on people began to like these new forms of video games more and more so video game companies tried to give the people what they wanted. Violence began to sell incredibly well so the companies tried to make their games more violent so that people would buy them like the video game Gears of War which has blood in every scene. In today’s world, so many video games are violent because of the addiction to violence we have. So from Tennis For Two to Gears of War, video game companies are just trying to give the people what they want.

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Call of Duty

Call of Duty is an extremely successful video game franchise created by Activision consisting of seven different games to date. In the fall of 2009 Call of Duty – Modern Warfare 2, the prequel to this year’s Black Ops, set the record for five day video game sales with 550 million in revenue. The Call of Duty franchise has a very strong and loyal following but Activision decided to advertise heavily for their newest installment regardless. A billboard in Times Square was only the first step in this advertising thunderstorm.

Though the numbers are up for debate, Activision CEO Bobby Kotick called this campaign “The biggest investment ever made in the launch of a game title”. The commercial being critiqued received the most attention of all the Black Ops advertisements. The commercial was developed by the Advertising Agency TBWA, and was directed by up and coming director Rupert Sanders. The target audience for this advertisement is most likely males 12-34 years old, which is consistent with the largest sector of the video game market. The ad ran heavily during National Football league games in order to target this demographic.

The NFL dominates this demographic in terms of viewership. The ad aired during day games as well as night games. The commercial appealed to hardcore gamers as well as novices and was designed to excite the loyal followers of the franchise as well as stimulate the interests of new players. The commercial shows people from all ages and occupations, including a business woman, a young girl, a nurse, a chef, and even celebrities Kobe Bryant and Jimmy Kimmel, engaging in realistic war battles set to The Rolling Stones “Gimme Shelter”.

The central message of the commercial is that anyone can experience the rush of being a hero from the safety of their video game consoles, as driven home by the tagline “There is a soldier in all of us” that ends the commercial. The commercial also excites the viewer due to its realism and action while portraying a dramatized version of the gameplay. The presence of Kobe Bryant and Jimmy Kimmel, who are both real life fans of the game, conveys a message that you can buy this game and even compete against celebrities in multi player modes.

There is a message that in the Black Ops world, we are all soldiers hidden in a cloud of anonymity and are ranked simply by ability to play the game. This commercial was controversial but extremely effective. Call of Duty – Black Ops generated 360 million in revenue in the first day of release and 650 million over the first 5 days, making it the most successful video game launch ever.

Even The Rolling Stones felt the power of the Call of Duty franchise when according to Billboard. om, sales of The Rolling Stones “Let It Bleed” album (featuring “Gimme Shelter”) rose from approximately 2,000 copies sold per week prior to the commercial airing, to 11,000 copies after. In terms of recommendations, numerous people argued that the advertisement was in bad taste for making light of real wartime scenarios and also promoting violence. The experience of the commercial is of course subjective. In this case, controversy seemed to only increase awareness and ad sales.

The rush created by this commercial created a positive association with the game and led potential customers to feel that they can have a thrilling experience for sixty dollars in the form of a game with no actual consequences. My personal recommendation would be for Activision to be aware of audience sensitivities in order find balance between increasing awareness and not offending fans, or potential fans, of the game. Possibly issuing a warning at the end of the commercial that the action is dramatized could help slow criticism as well.

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Creating an Immersive Video Game Environment

People play video games for a wide variety of reasons today. They are fun, exciting, and challenging. They are also extremely popular among the generation of digital natives. Digital natives today rely heavily on electronics and computer devices to keep them entertained and interactive. So as a game developer, how do you create an immersive video game environment that is invigorating, interactive, and unique? There are tons of different types of video games out there, which appeal to different age groups, genders, hobbies and interests.

Games designed today should feature a number of effects that would rank the particular game high on the recommendations and most played lists. Video games today should feature transformations on 3D models, striking visual effects, and should incorporate all of the newest technologies in order to create some of the best and most unique effects that appeal to all, regardless of the kind of video game, or the target age audience. Many would argue that video games are considered works of art.

One would agree that there are various interpretations of what is considered “art”. However, despite popular belief, an extensive amount of technical knowledge and graphic design experience and knowledge goes on behind video game development. If this wasn’t true, video games wouldn’t become the industry that we all know it as today. As a result, the knowledge of color schemes and visual effects is extremely necessary and essential.

In fact, many screenshots of video games today can appear as individual works of art. Of course there is also a great deal of technical knowledge involved, particular in the programming area – such as HTML or JavaScript, and even coding in some cases – but all in all, graphic design and art are underlying areas of video game creation and development. All in all, video games should be exciting experiences that are both stimulating and interactive and with the right amount of adventure and challenge tied into them.

Video games should enhance the adventures and capabilities that one wish he or she could experience in real life. Sometimes when we are stuck in traffic or stuck at a traffic light, we sometimes envision ourselves monster trucking the other cars, or in any scenario where we wish we had the powers of a super hero, or that we could fight our enemies in battles and almost always win. Therefore, creating an immersive video game environment truly is a spectacular feat.

This is the opportunity for video game designers – whether you are advanced or a beginner – to truly create the ultimate universe where anything and anything is possible. It takes an artistic and creative mind to be able to really create the desired immersive video game environment. However, diving into the world of video games gives us the power to be a part of a world that isn’t reality but perhaps is our dream worlds, where we become a version of our character that we wish we could be. That is the true art, and the true immersive experience.

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Video games may make children fat

Children have been gaining weight excessively over the last 20 years. In 1980 6.5% of the children aged 6 to 11 were obese, but by 1994 that number had climbed to 11.3%. Currently over 30% of children are overweight, while 17% are considered obese (Parker-Pope, 2008). What has caused this epidemic like increase in child obesity? There are many proposed causes that have been linked to child obesity. However, if we examine children’s lifestyles over the last 25 years it appears that video games may be the primary contributing factor to the increase in weight and obesity rates amongst children

When video games were first introduced to family households they were considered just another form of entertainment for children, not unlike radios, record players, or televisions. However, video games have evolved into media traps that promote sedentary lifestyles. Children now sit glued for hours to video screens rather than performing physical activities. In a study researchers from the University Hospital of Zurich present a strong association between playing video games and obesity in school-aged Swiss children (Edell, 2004). Their research supported the notion that when children are preoccupied with playing video games, they are not performing physical activity consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Playing video games is a sedentary activity that has a direct affect on weight gain in children.

Some believe that video games have little impact on child obesity rates because children today are more aware and independent than previous generations. As a result, children are more conscious of their lives and are able to make healthy choices regarding exercise and video game playing. However, video games have developed from simple pixels and basic animation to the advanced life like games we see today. The advances in technology have made it difficult for children to stay away from video games, and some researchers believe it has psychological and addictive qualities.

These powerful qualities make it difficult for children to monitor the amount of time they spend playing video games. In addition, children may also find it difficult to pull themselves away from video games in exchange for healthier physical activities. Dr. Mark Griffiths of Nottingham Trent University, an expert on video game addiction, believes that the games of the 21st century may be more psychologically rewarding then the games of the early 1980s (BBC news, 2000). Subsequently, children may not feel fulfilled until they reach the next level of the game, or beat a high score.

The addictive qualities of video games were revealed in a recent study of children in their early teens. The study revealed that one third played video games daily, and 7% played for at least 30 hours a week (BBC news, 2000). Video games are able to capture children’s minds and start the path to poor health at extremely young ages. Dr. Griffiths suggests that children as early as the age of seven are drawn to video games. The strong addictive qualities of video games may prevent a child from exercising and being active even if they wanted to.

It may be easy to argue that the television is the culprit for overweight children. However, televisions have been in North American households for over 65 years, but the increase in child obesity has occurred within the previous 25 years. Televisions have remained relatively unchanged, but the video game has mutated into an interactive child magnet. Children are able to play on line, play with multiple players, and interact with gamers globally. Today’s video games are also portable, recordable, and are easily rented. In addition, video game advertising is focused at luring and capturing a child’s impressionable mind. Some studies corroborate the findings that video games, not television, are associated with overweight children. Researchers at the University of Texas surveyed almost 3000 children and found that children who played video games were more likely to be overweight than children who only watched television and didn’t play video games (Levin, 2004). Although, televisions have made some technological advancements it appears the attraction to video games may have lead to the weight increase in children.

It was not long ago when children’s laughter echoed from playgrounds and the announcement of “car” was heard from children racing to clear hockey nets from neighbourhood streets. Rather than playing on the streets and schoolyards children now lock themselves indoors playing video games. Some suggest that it is the lack of programs and green space that prevent children from being active. However, physical fitness, health, and sport have never been so accessible. Private enterprise and governments have joined forces realizing the importance of moving children from behind the video screen to the field.

In addition, building developers work with city planners to ensure that housing designs represent communities with playgrounds and schools rather than concrete mazes. An excellent example of the private sector promoting fitness rather than video gaming is the Canadian Tire Jump Start Initiative (City of Hamilton, 2005). This private program, like many others, encourages fitness by providing children and youth with access to sports and recreation. In addition, government programs such as the provincially funded Communities in Action Fund provide after school programs and sport clinics to youth. The possibility of physical activity is all around us, but video games have made it difficult for children to see outside their locked doors.

Of course, it may be easy to blame the fast food industry for the weight increase in children. Fast food restaurants have been in our communities prior to the 1950s, while the most recognizable fast food restaurant, McDonalds, has been in business since 1960. However, the weight increase appears to be steadily increasing within the previous 25 years; consistent with the introduction of video games rather than hamburgers. Interestingly, fast food restaurants have gone through enormous strides to provide healthy menu alternatives such as: soups, salads, lean sandwiches, fruits, and juices. Burger King for example, offers products for children that are consistent with healthy dietary choices, limiting calories, fats, and sugar in their children’s menu (Bissonnette, 2007). Blaming the restaurant industry for the weight increase may appear obvious, but upon a closer inspection it seems restaurants have done more to promote healthy weight in children than the video game industry.

Most of the research measures any correlation between increases in video game playing compared to increases in weight. What would happen if video game playing was reduced? Recent research at the University of Buffalo measured the effects of limiting video game playing (University of Buffalo, 2008). The university experiment was conducted over a 2 year period and revealed that when children restricted their video game playing by an average of 17.5 hours per week they lowered their body mass index significantly. In other words, they lost weight.

In summary, this topic will initiate many theories and possibilities, but there is no arguing that children’s weights have been steadily increasing over the last 20 years. When we examine children’s lifestyles and habits it appears video games may be the primary contributing factor for the weight increase.

Reference

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1036088.stm

http://www.healthcentral.com/drdean/408/60891.html

http://www.buffalo.edu/news/9197

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EA Games

Change is part of organizational growth and survival in our modern global economy. If an organization is going to grow and survive, it needs more than traditional strategic business plans. One of the principal drivers of competition is technological advancements. Company’s can develop a strong competitive advantage through the strategic use of information technology. This white paper will discuss information technology (IT) concepts that have successfully been utilized by other organizations.

The purpose is to benchmark how other companies have successfully implemented information technology and how SaveWithUS can conceptualize these strategies. The focus of IT is not just on the internal applications or computer systems that reside on the network; rather the focus is the strategic approach that information systems can have to support the business plans, goals, and objectives of the organization.

Ultimately, a strategic approach to information technology should improve a company’s competitive advantage, business intelligence, reduce costs, increase margin, streamline business processes speed, accuracy, and reliability, communication, data based decision making, and increase overall customer value (Mickler, 2008). Many start-up companies develop a business plan but rely heavily on their own experience when it comes to business decision making rather than facts that an existing company would use.

As the company grows, mistakes become more costly, they will rely more and more in information to base sound decisions. SaveWithUS is at the juncture where business decisions need to be based on facts not guesses. To remain competitive and profitable, SaveWithUS needs to reduce costs of merchandise manufactured and products purchased for resale. Technology has changed the way information is captured, stored, processed, analyzed, distributed, communicated; and the organizational infrastructure which is used to reduce costs, increase profits, and gain a competitive advantage.

The effective use of information technology requires an organization and cultural change. The most important component in the change equation is making the decision to change. If resistance to change permeates, this will lead to the breakdown and irrelevancy of what was once a strong organization (CTU Online, 2008). Change is forever part of business sustainability. Understanding the external business environment can improve the strategic approach that an organization should adopt in a competitive market. A highly competitive environment includes multiple firms targeting he same market to win the same business.

The external environment has forces which business must contend with for survival. Michal Porter has devised a five forces model that focus on these external pressures. The five pressures are 1) rivalry among existing competition, 2) threats of substitute products, 3) bargaining power of suppliers, 4) bargaining power of channels and end users, 5) barriers to entry. This model can be very helpful to think of competition in its broadest sense which suggests areas for competitive posture.

Porter’s five-force’s model provides the framework to judge an organizations position and analyze a business level strategy which will describe how an organization competes in the marketplace (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004). These are just a few reasons why information technology is the critical infrastructure of any organization. The case study referenced herein is Electronic Arts (EA), the leading independent video game publishing company, producing popular titles such as The Sims, Madden NFL, and Medal of Honor.

They also publish games based on Hollywood franchises such as the Lord of the Rings, Harry Potter, and The Godfather. Nestled in Silicon Valley, Electronic Arts is a very successful organization with more than 50 best-sellers that sold more than a million copies each. Many people would believe that Electronic Art’s is a video game development company which base its success from the rich talent pool of creative people, artists, animators, programmers, and technicians. This is a highly competitive industry and getting more competitive every year with a fickle customer base.

EA has competitors such as Activision, Take-Two, and Vivendi Games which all sell strong in the marketplace. It would be reasonable to assume they also have a highly talented staff of developers and creative artists. EA is successful because they are the model of a stellar management company. According to EA president and COO John Riccitiello, “EA pulls it off by honing the way that it develops and markets games: by thinking of its products as emotional, cinematic experiences, not toys. ” Electronic Arts is in the business of delivering a total entertainment experience.

The company built its creativity on a foundation of management discipline (Salter, 2007). EA understands the completive landscape and performs extensive due diligence. Riccitiello has stated, “We often know more about the feature set of our competition’s products than our competition does. ” Electronic Arts recognizes that gaining a competitive advantage will not materialize because of slicker graphics, audio, or better storylines than the competition; consumers expect these features to improve over time and that is part of the gaming industry.

EA knows that the high-tech imagery features they develop today will only be copied tomorrow which will not provide long-term advantage. EA has strong competitive intelligence, forecasting, budgeting, timing, and methodical project management disciplines. EA uses information technology to store financial data, sales data, important customer data, competitive data, and offer access to share this information across business units. EA has the discipline of sharing best practices and technologies using intranet libraries.

This enables data to become more accurate and to be shared or broadcast faster through a more reliable means (Mickler, 2008). An e-business strategy can be defined as the electronic means of internal and external communications for an organization. Internally, employees can use a private intranet to share information, facilitate knowledge dissemination, management reporting, collaborate with business partners, sales promotions, and competitive intelligence, all of these features and more can be used with the development of an intranet.

EA is diligent to understand their customers. They know that what is real to their consumers is what is on TV. Electronic Arts believes in gaining better understanding of their audience through the use of focus groups. These are non-EA groups of gamers and EA takes their recommendations seriously to the point they will do a complete rewrite. Traditionally, the gaming industry is male dominated. Industry demographics suggest the target audience is male between the ages of 16 and 24. EA wants to expand their market beyond the typical gaming demographics.

However, EA proceeds with caution not to lose current customers that do not want to see dumbed down products. When making complex decisions on marketing strategies and tactics, it is important look at hard data to in decision making. Information technology can provide the means of using marketing intelligence, trends, economic data, competitive market data, technological, demographics, government sources, and cultural and social information to provide a solid foundation upon from which to draw (Salter, 2007).

Using e-business strategies such as customer relationship management (CRM) tools can identify important customer data to develop products and service specific to their needs, wants, and desires. The result of their data was a game titled the SIMS which attracts customers of all ages, thus developing new markets with different set of wants, needs, and desires. In addition, e-business is a means to reduce customer and supplier expenses, meet customer and supplier needs in a defect-free manner, and improve the speed in which these functions can take place.

Knowledge management tools are processes the organization will employ to collect, store, analyze, and distribute information. Information technology offers data mining technique which are the convergence of technologies that provide computations to make sense of all the information stored (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004). The maturity of an information system in an organization can have a direct effect on the speed, accuracy, and reliability of its data processing. Information technology can eliminate the manual logging of paperwork, eradicate human error and increase speed, accuracy and reliability of the information stored (Mickler, 2008).

Some of the mundane tasks can become completely automated through bar code scanners and other technology which will reduce labor costs, increase accuracy of data, and induce inventory cost controls (Mickler, 2008). I addition, information technology can improve the manufacturing process while meeting customer demands and reduce costs. In an effort to accurately control inventory costs, SaveWithUS should consider Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing and including technology to help reduce costs. JIT does not use the conventional ways of producing products with large batch sizes at high volumes.

The JIT philosophy is where machine operators produce only the items needed, when it is requested, and on time. Information technology also plays a vital role in measuring the return on investment for these new processes (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004). Computer inventory management systems can control and coordinate delivery of raw materials or components from suppliers with production schedule, thereby minimizing inventory carrying costs. It is absurd to realize management can not track the percentage of repeat business, the accuracy of the expense of manufacturing costs, and sales goods of sold (CTU Online, 2008).

The objective of SaveWithUS needs to be the development of a realistic business strategy that has full support of top management, established clear goals, development of long-term customer relationships, and provides maximum value. Bringing quality value to the customer is vital in the competitive and global business world. A competitive advantage is achieved when an organization has integrated information technology in the business activities with the value chain more cost-effectively than the competition.

The goal of a business is to sell their products and services and keep customers buying in the future by means of adding value. Customers exchange something of value, such as money, for the products and services an organization produces. Strategic planning allows an organization to recognize how the customer sees the value of a company’s product or service and helps better position their goods in the market to make a profit (Frenzel & Frenzel, 2004). Strategic plans will use resources of people, money, facilities, and technical capabilities that are required in order to achieve the goals and objectives.

The goal of information technology is to support these efforts and add value of speed, accuracy, and reliability (Mickler, 2008). In the games industry, success, novelty, and great innovative designs do not automatically mean that a company will enjoy long-term success. In fact, the annals of the gaming publishing industry is eroded with once triumphant companies that currently are no longer existence. It takes a distinct mixture of success and business savvy to stay afloat and competitive. This review is hypothetical, created solely to fulfill course task requirements.

The review of and title of an article depicts Electronic Arts (from now EA) as “Playing to Win”, the fact is that they are indeed playing the business game to win. EA is one of the world’s foremost reliant interactive software developing and publishing company. Since its inception, EA has garnered more than 700 awards for outstanding software in the U. S. and Europe. According to their own on-line career opportunity web site EA(2010) they say that EA markets its products worldwide under four brand logos and has over 33 product franchises that have reached more than a million unit sales worldwide.

We will discuss more about their target market audiences in the next two sections. EA see themselves as a company that provides a product to it’s target market that appeals in the sense of interactive cinematic gaming experience. According to Salter (2002) Computer and video games are a bigger business than the movies, and the biggest force in games is Electronic Arts a company whose blockbuster titles dazzle millions of customers and generate billions of dollars in sales.

As the world leaders in interactive entertainment we can say that EA’s most important competitive advantage is the fact they have lasted 20 years in the business and has gathered enough experience to leverage heritage into the entertainment gaming industry. Their other advantage is that they allow their 12 developing studios innovation freedom while impressing the discipline to meet deadlines. This means that it’s not all about gaming but also about planning, and management having a good business plan in place and a good vision is certainly a good competitive advantage.

This is corroborated by Rabin (2010) when he says that the business plan developed was visionary and had three key elements: first, that the creative talent at the company would be treated like artists, involved in the marketing, and generally revered more than at other companies in the industry; second, that they would develop proprietary tools and technology that would enable them to quickly develop their titles cross-platform; and third, that they would handle the distribution to stores. Their primary target market (audience) is the users of advanced entertainment systems.

The customary gamers are males in between the ages 16-through 24 year of ages. EA has continue to expand and move their traditional demographics As the market expands, their enthusiasts is to figure out how to publish products for people who are not the within the traditional demographic model. The fact is that EA’s present their content to a wide general audience appealing to all key demographic market segments by logically brainstorming their products as an emotional experience, How do they create an emotional experience?

The emotional experience is created through offering their target markets a highly targeted campaign contributing the opportunity for the user to interact with the game. It’s a simple but very radical idea in which the users is part of the cinematic experience, therefore the user does not see the game as a toy but as an appealing realistic experience. Currently, their specific target market audience comprises a wide general range of users utilizing advance game consoles, personal computer system, video game consoles such as Nintendo, Play Station, Play Stations, and numerous others.

Let’s clarify one thing about game publishing companies. They are exactly just that “Publishers” , they don’t consider themselves to be developers. The game entertainment publishing arena is quite busy and extremely competitive. Beside having fun and playing games it takes discipline to be creativity and code award winning games. This is a fact that is corroborated by Salter (2010) when he writes that it takes a tough company to make entertaining games. Salter quotes the president and COO of “The forgotten aspect of creativity is discipline,” beside discipline it takes a good development team and a good project manager with a sense of scheduling, creating buzz about the product through a hard core marketing campaign.

Everything centers around information technology especially the discipline of methodically managing their projects, their information technology systems play a large aspect of their success through regimented collaborative best practices across their an intranet library. In closing in my opinion what makes Electronic Arts a potential winner is their ability to take ingenious people who are highly motivated and talented and create excessive amounts of value. Electronic Arts Inc. (EA), headquartered in Redwood City, California, is the world’s leading interactive entertainment software company.

Founded in 1982, the Company develops, publishes, and distributes interactive software worldwide for video game systems, personal computers, cellular handsets and the Internet. Electronic Arts markets its products under four brand names: EA SPORTS™, EA™, EA SPORTS Freestyle ™ and POGO™. In fiscal 2008, EA posted GAAP net revenue of $3. 67 billion and had 27 titles that sold more than one million copies. We were tasked to improve the functionality of the site, both technically and visually.

The technical aspects of keeping up with ncreased user demands and features and facilities offered by the site were all dealt with to everyone’s satisfaction. It was felt that the site architecture and the user experience still left room for improvement, and we have lots to offer to fill this need. It was also important to ensure that the CRM and frontend complimented one another visually. Above all, we wanted the access site to offer an equivalent experience to the Flash site, rather than an alternative one. Our reputation as designers with flair for translating a company’s brand onto their website and for creating great user experiences got us this project.

We were given the responsibility of revamping the entire site to reflect the brand of the company. Creating a site that was easily scalable and low on maintenance was also one of the primary requirements. We made the site made very light and the download speeds were reduced substantially. Only a few colors were used through most of the site, and two other colours were used where some differentiation was needed. Style sheets were created to keep the vast amount of content consistent visually. A clean, slightly serious and professional look was given to the entire site.

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Violent Video Games

In the past 20 years society has fallen victim to mass murders perpetrated by children, even though overall crime is down. In order to better understand this; social scientists are conducting studies on whether violent video games contribute to this cycle of violence or are they just a tragic coincidence. In “violent Video Games: Dogma, Fear, and Pseudoscience” Christopher Ferguson argues that there is no significant contribution to video game violence and the up-tick in youth violence seen today.

However, David Grossmann in “Trained to kill (children who kill)” argues that video game violence not only contributes, but also trains children how to successfully carry out violent fantasies. Both Psychologists find little common ground. Fergusson states that “we understand little about the psychology of the young men who carry out such horrific crimes”. He feels that in society’s zeal to control this phenomenon social scientists are “masking the language of fear and irrationality, in the language of science”.

In contrast Grossman demonstrates a strong correlation between video game violence and the alarming level of violence in today’s youth. He argues that the methodology used by our military and law enforcement during training, is being employed by the media and video game industries whose primary consumer is our children. Fergusson counters this by charging that violent video games are not the root cause because of inconsistencies in studies. He further states that “the gap between social science and reality has led to a moral panic regarding the effects of violent video games on youths”.

He states that society is repeating the same media-based panics of the past; when Greeks plays, Bible translations, Rock, and rap among others were blamed for violence in the youth of it’s time. Grossman approaches the subject by dissecting the predisposition of violent behavior and looks at how desensitizing children to violence at an early age can have devastating effects. He uses his experience and expertise in this field to gather data to support this claim.

While Fergusson accepts the hypothesis that violent video games increase aggression and violent behavior, he feels that it is ust that, a hypothesis. He does not believe the data supports its claim; stating there is a “tenuous connection between survey questionnaires or consensual aggression games in the laboratory and mass shooting incidents or the phenomenon of youth violence more generally in real life”. Grossman does not rely on other studies to arrive at his conclusions. He compares the data on how military and law enforcement are trained to cope and properly function in a violent environment. He then compares this with how the media and video game industries mimic this formula.

Grossman puts forth the four recognized steps to desensitization towards killing; “Brutalization”, “Classical Conditioning”, “Operant conditioning” and finally supplying a “role model”. Comparing this with how the media and video game industries market their products. What is found is a duplication of these four steps by the media in their marketing strategies. On the other hand Ferguson states his own studies and that of Colwell, Olson and Kutner “find no such effect”. In his study, he finds little correlation between how the video and media entertainment industries affect the violent tendencies in adolescents or adults.

Both scientists bring forth valid points to this debate, however while scientists continue to debate this issue, children continue to suffer. Both sides of the argument agree that emotionally disturbed, depressed, socially isolated and rage filled children are at a greater risk of carrying out these horrific crimes; however this is where their views part ways. While Ferguson sees validity to the hypothesis he does not believe video game violence is a contributor. Grossmann on the other hand, sees it as a serious contributing factor.

This subject has turned from a disagreement in dissenting views to an all out debate between social scientists. What we do know regardless of which side you fall on in this debate is that parents must take an active role in their children’s lives, and ask the tough questions as well as monitor their children’s extra curricular activities. Whether it is pseudoscience or not you must answer that question. For now social scientists continue to debate this and as long as they do our children will continue to fall prey to this tragic cycle.

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Video game

The rise of personal computers in the mid 1980s spurred interest in computer games. This caused a crash in home Video game market. Interest in Video games was rekindled when a number of different companies developed hardware consoles that provided graphics superior to the capabilities of computer games. By 1990, the Nintendo Entertainment System dominated the product category. Sega surpassed Nintendo when it introduced its Genesis System. By 1993, Sega commanded almost 60 per cent of Video game market and was one of the most recognized brand names among the children. Sega’s success was short lived.

In 1995, Saturn (a division of General Motors) launched a new 32-bit system. The product was a miserable failure for a number of reasons. Sega was the primary software developer for Saturn and it did not support efforts by outside game developers to design compatible games. In addition, Sega’s games were often delivered quite late to retailers. Finally, the price of the Saturn system was greater than other comparable game consoles. This situation of Saturn’s misstep benefited Nintendo and Sony greatly. Sony’s Play Station was unveiled in 1994 and was available in 70 million homes worldwide by the end of 1999.

Its “Open design” encouraged the efforts of o utside developers, resulting in almost 3,000 different games that were compatible with the PlayStation. It too featured 32-bit graphics that appealed to older audience. As a result, at one time, more than 30 per cent of PlayStation owners were over 30 years old. Nintendo 64 was introduced in 1996 and had eye-popping 64-bit graphics and entered in more than 28 million homes by 1999. Its primary users were between the age of 6 and 13 as a result of Nintendo’s efforts to limit the amount of violent and adult-oriented material featured on games that can be played on its systems.

Because the company exercised considerable control over software development, Nintendo 64 had only one-tenth the number of compatible games as Sony’s PlayStation did. By 1999, Sony had captured 56 per cent of the video game market, followed by Nintendo with 42 per cent. Sega’s share had fallen to a low of 1%. Hence, Sega had two options, either to concede defeat or introduce an innovative video machine that would bring in huge sales. And Sega had to do so before either Nintendo or Sony could bring their next-generation console to market.

The Sega Dreamcast arrived in stores in September 1999 with an initial price tag of $199. Anxious gamers placed 300,000 advance orders, and initial sales were quite encouraging. A total of 1. 5 million Dreamcast machines were bought within the first four months, and initial reviews were positive. The 128-bit system was capable of generating 3-D visuals, and 40 different games were available within three months of Dream cast’s introduction. By the end of the year, Sega had captured a market share to 15 per cent. But the Dreamcast could not sustain its momentum.

Although its game capabilities were impressive, the system did not deliver all the functionality Sega had promised. A 56K modem (which used a home phone line) and a Web browser were meant to allow access to the Internet so that gamers could play each other online, surf the Web, and visit the Dreamcast Network for product information and playing tips. Unfortunately, these features either were not immediately available or were disappointing in their execution. Sega was not the only one in having the strategy of adding functionality beyond games.

Sony and Nintendo followed the same approach for their machines introduced in 1999. Both Nintendo’s Neptune and Sony’s PlayStation 2 (PS2) were built on a DVD platform and featured a 128-bit processor. Analysts applauded the move to DVD because it is less expensive to produce and allows more storage than CDs. It also gives buyers the ability to use the machine as CD music player and DVD movie player. As Sony marketing director commented, “The full entertainment offering from Pl ay Station 2 definitely appeals to a much broader audience.

I have friends in their 30s who bought it not only because it’s a gaming system for their kids, but also a DVD for them. ” In addition, PlayStation 2 is able to play games developed for its earlier model that was CD-based. This gives the PS2 an enormous advantage in the number of compatible game titles that were immediately available to gamers. Further enhancing the PS2’s appeal is its high-speed modem and allows the user’s easy access to the Internet through digital cable as well as over telephone lines.

This gives Sony the ability to distribute movies, music, and games directly to PS2 consoles. We are positioning this as an all-round entertainment player,” commented Ken Kutaragi, the head of Sony Computer Entertainment. However, some prospective customers were put off by the console’s initial price of $360. Shortly after the introduction of Neptune, Nintendo changed its strategies and announced the impending release of its newest game console, The GameCube. However, unlike the Neptune, the GameCube would not run on a DVD platform and also would not initially offer any online capabilities. It would be more attractively priced at $199.

A marketing vice president for Nintendo explained the company’s change in direction, “We are the only com petitor whose business is video games. We want to create the best gaming system. ” Nintendo also made the GameCube friendly for outside developers and started adding games that included sports titles to attract an older audience. Best known for its extra ordinary successes with games aimed at the younger set, such as Donkey Kong, Super Mario Bros, and Pokemon, Nintendo sought to attract older users, especially because the average video game player is 28.

Youthful Nintendo users were particularly pleased to hear that they could use their handheld Game Boy Advance systems as controllers for the GameCube. Nintendo scrambled to ensure there would be an adequate supply of Game Cubes on the date in November 2001, when they were scheduled to be available to customers. It also budgeted $450 million to market its new product, as it anticipated stiff competition during the holiday shopping season. With more than 20 million PlayStation 2 sold worldwide, the GameCube as a new entry in the video game market would make the battle for market share even more intense.

For almost a decade, the video game industry had only Sega, Nintendo, and Sony; just three players. Because of strong brand loyalty and high product development costs, newcomers faced a daunting task in entering this race and being competitive. In November 2001, Microsoft began selling its new Xbox, just three days before the GameCube made its debut. Some observers felt the Xbox was aimed to rival PlayStation 2, which has similar functions that rival Microsoft’s Web TV system and even some lower level PCs.

Like the Sony’s PlayStation 2, Xbox was also built using a DVD platform, but it used an Intel processor in its construction. This open design allowed Microsoft to develop the Xbox in just two years, and gave developers the option of using standard PC tool for creating compatible games. In addition, Microsoft also sought the advice of successful game developers and even incorporated some of their feedback into the design of the console and its controllers. As a result of developers’ efforts, Microsoft had about 20 games ready when the Xbox became available.

By contrast, the GameCube had only eight games available. Microsoft online strategy was another feature that differentiated of the Xbox from the GameCube. Whereas Nintendo had no immediate plans for Web-based play, the Xbox came equipped with an Ethernet port for broadband access to Internet. Microsoft also announced its own Web-based network on which gamers can come together for online head-to head play and for organised online matches and tournaments. Subscribers to this service were to pay a small monthly fee and must have high-speed access to the Internet.

This is a potential drawback considering that a very low percentage of households world over currently have broadband connections. By contrast Sony promoted an open network, which allows software developers to manage their own games, including associated fees charged to users. However, interested players must purchase a network adapter for an additional $39. 99. Although game companies are not keen on the prospect of submitting to the control of a Microsoft-controlled network, it would require a significant investment for them to manage their own service on the Sony-based network.

Initially the price of Microsoft’s X box was $299. Prior to the introduction of Xbox, in a competitive move Sony dropped the price of the PlayStation 2 to $299. Nintendo’s GameCube already enjoyed a significant price advantage, as it was selling for $100 less than either Microsoft or Sony products. Gamers eagerly snapped up the new consoles and made 2001 the best year ever for video game sales. For the first time, consumers spent $9. 4 billion on video game equipment, which was more than they did at the box office. By the end of 2001 holiday season, 6. million PlayStation 2 consoles had been sold in North America alone, followed by 1. 5 million Xbox units and 1. 2 million Game Cubes.

What ensued was an all out price war. This started when Sony decided to put even more pressure on the Microsoft’s Xbox by cutting the PlayStation 2 price to $199. Microsoft quickly matched that price. Wanting to maintain its low-price status, Nintendo in turn responded by reducing the price of its the GameCube by $50, to $149. By mid 2002, Microsoft Xbox had sold between 3. 5 and 4 million units worldwide. However, Nintendo had surpassed Xbox sales by selling 4. million Game Cubes.

Sony had the benefit of healthy head start, and had shipped 32 million PlayStation 2s. However, seven years after the introduction of original PlayStation, it was being sold in retail outlets for a mere $49. It had a significant lead in terms of numbers of units in homes around the world with a 43 per cent share. Nintendo 64 was second with 30 per cent, followed by Sony PlayStation 2 with 14 per cent. The Xbox and GameCube each claimed about 3 per cent of the market, with Sega Dreamcast comprising the last and least market share of 4. 7 per cent.

Sega, once an industry leader, announced in 2001 that it had decided to stop producing the Dreamcast and other video game hardware components. The company said it would develop games for its competitors’ consoles. Thus Sega slashed the price of the Dreamcast to just $99 in an effort to liquidate its piled up inventory of more than 2 million units and immediately began developing 11 new games for the Xbox, four for PlayStation 2, and three for Nintendo’s Game Boy Advance. As the prices of video game consoles have dropped, consoles and games have become the equivalent of razors and blades.

This means the consoles generate little if any profit, but the games are a highly profitable proposition. The profit margins on games are highly attractive, affected to some degree by whether the content is developed by the console maker (such as Sony) or by an independent game publisher (such as Electronic Arts). Thus, the competition to develop appealing, or perhaps even addictive, games may be even more intense than the battle among players to produce the best console. In particular, Nintendo, Sony, and Microsoft want games that are exclusive to their own systems.

With that in mind, they not only rely on large in-house staffs that design games but they also pay added fees to independent publishers for exclusive rights to new games. The sales of video games in 2001 rose to 43 per cent, compared to just 4 per cent increase for computer-based games. But computer game players are believed to be a loyal bunch, as they see many advantages in playing games on their computers rather than consoles. For one thing, they have a big advantage of having access to a mouse and a keyboard that allow them to play far more sophisticated games.

In addition, they have been utilizing the Internet for years to receive game updates and modifications and to play each other over the Web. Sony and Microsoft are intent on capturing a portion of the online gaming opportunity. Even Nintendo has decided to make available a modem that will allow GameCube users to play online. As prices continue to fall and technology becomes increasingly more sophisticated, it remains to be seen whether these three companies can keep their names on the industry’s list of “hig h scorers”.

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Sports vs Video Games

To reduce the growing population of obese children in the world the parents need to encourage sports and outside play over video games. Kids in the world today know little about sports and the rules. But spend more time playing video games then outside being active. What happened to neighborhood hide and seek, or pick-up basketball games with other neighborhood kids. Today children are more interested in video games, computers and television, and parents are afraid of letting their children run around the streets because of kidnappings.

When I was a kid I had video games but I spent most of my time outside playing. Being outside with the fresh air and the sunshine was the best thing for me. In this year today there are a lot of kids who don’t know how to play sports or are too obese to play sports. Take basketball for instants I personally think it’s one of the easiest sports besides football. The rules are simple in basketball, dribble the ball one hand at a time, and don’t carry the ball. Also in basketball it’s up to you and your team to score as many points as you can.

But in the game of basketball like any other sport you have to work as a team. One of the major benefits you get from playing sports is understanding how to work really good with other people. In my mind TEAM means Together Everyone Achieves More, which means if you try to do everything by yourself you won’t get very far. Video games don’t teach you how to work with others. Also most of the video games today prompt violence and use profanity. (Gump, 3) The majority of kids are no longer interested in physical activity.

There are a certain percentage of kids today that are addicted to video games. I believe that at a youth age kids shouldn’t be addicted to anything. Video games in today’s society have a negative influence on kids because it separates them from reality. Besides working together basketball also benefits you in other ways like it will keep you healthy and moving like other kids. I played basketball for 7 years. I maintained a body weight of 145 lbs. With my body being and looking the way it did, it made me feel extremely good and confident.

There is so much that comes with playing basketball the constant practicing and working out in the weight room. From all the extra running and lifting weights that you have to do keeps the body healthy and muscular. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and lungs. Not only does exercise help the internal organs but it also increases strength and stamina. Sports do not only help you physically but mentally as well. There is no match to the happiness that sports bring. Playing sports is energy put to good use.

Sports are a form of exercise which generates happiness in your body, thus restoring your mental health. Video games don’t help lose weight it helps gain weight. Also video games can mess up a kid mentally instead of making you happy it makes you violent or sad. Sports improve you physical and psychological health; physical because sports involve exercise and psychological because playing is something you enjoy, it’s something that relaxes your mind. The lack of encouragement from parents when it comes to sports needs to be cut down. As many parents there are in this world that have played sports.

There should be twice as many kids playing these sports. I believe if parents get more involved in their child’s physical life there will be less obese children. What these kids need most is love and supporting parents teaching them the benefits of sports and a healthy life. So by parents being active with their children this would also cut down on the violence in the world today. Work Cited http://www. tribtoday. com/page/content. detail/id/565582/BOYS–VIDEO-GAMES-VS–STUDYING. html? nav=5059-By LAUREN GUMP – Warren G. Harding High School

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Can You Find Me Now

How is a Nintendo Wii game console able to determine the location of a Wii Remote while a player interacts with a game? The answer is triangulation, a process that determines the location of any object by measuring the angles from two or more fixed points. Surveyors often use triangulation to measure distance. Starting at a known location and elevation, surveyors measure a length to create a base line and then use a theodolite to measure an angle to an unknown pint from each side of the base line (Jains, 2012, pp. 30-48).

The length of the base line and the two known angles allow a computer or person to determine the location of a third point. Similarly, the Nintendo Wii game console uses triangulation to determine the location of a Wii Remote. A player places a sensor bar, which contains two infrared transmitters, near or on top of a television. While the player uses the Wii Remote, the Wii game console determine the remote’s location by calculating the distance and angles between the Wii Remote and the two transmitters on the sensor bar.

Determining the location of a Wii Remote is relatively simple because the sensor bar contains only two fixed points: the transmitters. A more complex application of triangulation occurs in a global positioning system (GPS). A GPS consists of one or more earth-based receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by satellites to determine a receiver’s geographic location.

GPS receivers, found in handled navigation devices and many vehicles, use triangulation to determine their location relative to at least three geostationary satellites. According to Sanders, the geostationary satellites are the fixed points in the triangulation formula (Understanding Satellites and Global Positioning Systems). The next time you pass a surveyor, play a Nintendo Wii, or follow a route suggested by a vehicle’s navigation system, keep in mind that none of it might have been possible without the concept of triangulation. ?

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Moral Dilemma: Army Recruitment and Video Games

Moral Dilemma: Army Recruitment and Video Games While watching the documentary “Digital Nation,” produced by Rachel Dretzin, I became interested by a section titled “The Army Experience Center. ” The documentary shows clips of teenagers as young as thirteen playing violent videos games in an arcade run by the Army. The whole goal is to arouse these teenagers’ interest so they enlist. Having strong negative feelings towards war and teenage recruitment to begin with, I decided to research this subject further.

Let me take you through my thought process while I struggle with the question; Is the Army Experience Center’s (AEC) use of war video games a moral way to recruit teenagers? My first source, a radio program titled “War Games Lure for ‘Real Thing” laid the background. Host Jacki Lyden explains how the AEC had closed on July 30, 2010 after being in a Philadelphia shopping mall. It was only open for two years in order to “determine the most effective tools for public outreach” (Army).

The center’s spokesman, Captain John Kirchgessner, said the center was successful and had been a “better way to share our Army story than to simply smile and dial and ask somebody if they thought about joining lately” (War). Brian Lepley adds to this by saying, “We have got to reach them the way that they entertain themselves” (Joel). I found these statements to be true. After all, before building the AEC, the Army had shut down five recruiting offices nearby. With half the staff, the Army was able to recruit the same amount of people and still save money (War).

This saving of money was good business practices and even benefits tax payers. My perception of the AEC was already looking better. Though Kirshgessner is confident that these recruits were aware of the difference between war and videogame, Staff Sergeant Jesse Hamilton has a different perspective. He worries that the use of video games as a recruitment tool takes away from the reality of war. He goes on to say, “People screaming, blood, flies, horrible smells – the list goes on and on. And they’ve taken all of that out, and what they’ve effectively left is the portion which they consider to be the fun part” (War).

Reading this statement reminded me of why I felt ashamed of the AEC to begin with. It gives kids, who don’t know any better, a false idea of all the different aspects of war. I found myself back to my initial, negative perception of the AEC. At this point, I knew I needed more first-hand information about the AEC. Keeping with radio programs, I stumbled across one hosted by Rebecca Roberts who goes into more detail about the center as she takes a tour. She describes it as “slick and gadget-heavy as an Apple store” (Army).

There are two simulators: a Humvee and two Blackhawk helicopter, a career navigator, a global-base locator, and rows of Xbox game counsels. Everything is free, as long as you are thirteen or older. It seems so innocent, like a teenage boy’s dream come true. While thinking more about the nature of boys, I reminded myself that boys have been known through all generations to play war games. Weather it is Cowboys and Indians, Battleship, or the latest video game. It’s in their nature. The more I thought about violent video games, the more I accepted it as a modern day childhood game.

Maybe the AEC is more innocent then I thought. Yet, even with an acceptance of violent videos games, I still had not applied that to the Army’s use of video games to persuade teenagers into war. Roberts mentions that some have criticized the AEC “for bait-and-switch tactics, masquerading as an arcade when it’s really an Army recruiting station” (Army). The Army calling itself an arcade when it’s really a recruitment center brings a whole new problem to the subject. The Army is not allowed to recruit teenagers who are underage.

This makes the Army look untruthful. Though the AEC isn’t called a recruitment center, it is. They shut down those five nearby recruitment centers because they planned to recruit teenagers, instead, at the AEC. Staff denies that the AEC is a recruitment center, but then turn around and boast about how many kids they have recruited (War). Bill Deckhart describes it as, “The Army people would talk about it and say, ‘Oh it’s not a recruiting center,’ [and] at the end of their statement, they would talk about how recruiting was doing.

To me, it was very dishonest” (Joel). The dishonesty of the Army became my major turnoff. After all, if the Army was not doing anything wrong then why would they have to lie? In “Playing War,” Ian Graham and Ronald Shaw argue for a more innocent view of war video games. Their term ‘transitional space’ (790) for video games suggests that they are used to help ready soldiers and recruit new ones (796). Video games, in Graham and Shaw’s minds, are purely tools to help soldiers experience war and help civilians understand it.

The Army Experience Center’s use of video games is not a new concept in American Army history. In fact, the Army’s use of digital media dates all the back to the 1970s and from 1996 when the video game Doom II: Hell on Earth came out for training purposes (794). I asked myself, “Why was there so much controversy over the AEC when the Army has been using video games for years? ” Perhaps it has something to do with all the negative science floating around out, claiming violent video games have disastrous effects on young minds. I decided to research this further in my forth source.

In the presence of so many studies about the correlation between video games and violent behavior, Author Christopher Ferguson begs to differ. He claims that “measures used in video game studies claiming to represent ‘aggression’ in fact don’t correlate will with actual real-life aggressive acts or violent behaviors” (79). This is clear and can be proven by the fact that the number of violent crimes from youth and adults have decreased while video game sales have risen (Ulanoff). Being intrigued by this new idea that violent video games are safe for society, I ventured on with my research.

Lance Ulanoff has a son who loves video games, especially violent ones. He has seen no difference in his son’s behavior since he has started playing video games and trusts that his son knows fact from fiction. When talking about today’s youth, Ulanoff says, “when they turn off those games, they go back to being the same teen they were before they turned it on” (Ulanoff). In his writing, Ulanoff stresses that parents should be responsible over what their kids do. This made me realize something so basic about the fight against the AEC. If parents don’t like it, then they have the right to tell their kids not to go.

If parents are concerned their kid is too naive about the dangers of war, they can educate their kids. If a child enlists in the Army because they developed a false sense of war from playing video games at the AEC, whose fault is that? At this point of my research, I now believed that this is the parent’s responsibility, not the Army’s. In the article titled “I Wish I were a Warrior,” authors Konijam, Bijvank, and Bushman state that video games are harmful to adolescence boy minds. They are too influential to have role models who “show no remorse for their aggressive actions, and are rarely punished for behaving aggressively” (Konijam).

The authors, also, relates lower education with vulnerability, which made me come to my own explanation as to why there are disproportionately more African Americans in the Army. In many ways, this article is true. We should be mindful of the effects that violent media has on us. Maybe we won’t go out killing people, but we are becoming less sensitive of the horrors of war because of it. A life is too precious to take a chance. While on the subject of desensitization, I came across an article published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. The issue of war video games and desensitization took a spin.

The authors admit that video games blur the lines between reality and fiction, and that this can be bad for children civilians. Yet, while reading, I realized not all desensitization was bad. The article points out that just as medical students need to be desensitized from blood, so do soldiers when it comes to killing and facing tragedy (Carnagey 490). The video games are the bridge between civilian and soldier life and troops benefit from that slow transition into war that video games provide. After reading this article, I had a completely new perspective on what desensitization is.

Yet, this article continues to say that desensitization, while good for people planning to go into war, isn’t good for the regular, thirteen year old civilian. Though this article had valid points, the average kid visiting the AEC wouldn’t benefit from desensitization. With my views about the AEC going back and forth between good and bad, I continued to research on. I came to the article “Conflict of Interest,” written by Lev Grossman and Evan Narcisse. The article describes our nation’s high demand for video games. It, also, describes the realness so many of today’s games have.

Talk about video game’s strong influence on our society had me thinking. We have seen people try to reenact graphic movies such as the “Dark Knight” movie theater shooting in Colorado, but we have never seen such reenactments based off of video games. If video games are so influential and detrimental, there are no facts to proof it. I began to think that the AEC’s use of video games wasn’t really that big of a deal. As I read on, I found a quote by Hirshberg that reads, “I think there will be a time when we look back and find it quaint that video games were so controversial” (Grossman).

By this time in my research, this quote summed up my thinking, though I still was uncertain about where I stood on the issue of the AEC. My last source was an interview with a World War II veteran, Rudy White. The moment I mentioned video games with recruitment he shook his head and said “no” (White). White reiterated my very first thoughts about how videogames the AEC desensitized people and put falsehoods into the realities of war. He said there are no consequences to face in games, while real war is filled with consequences. White gives an example that a man killed is a son, a brother, and father, and a friend who is now dead forever.

There is no reset button in real life (White). After hearing White, I felt that all the research I did trying to justify the AEC was almost useless. I realized that it was better to trust my instincts that said war video games have their place in society, but not in Army recruitment. Through all my research, I have had a lot of mixed feelings. My initial thinking was that the AEC’s use of video games as a recruitment tool was destructive. It was a dishonest tools used by the Army that gives a false idea about war. It, also, desensitizes kids to the horrors and consequences of war.

Yet through my research, I have seen valid counter argument to my own thinking. Some of these arguments are really quite simple, like the Army is just trying to connect with what kids like to do. Others are that the AEC gives people a more well-rounded idea of the Army than if they were playing the same video games alone in their rooms. Through it all, my final perception of the AEC came after talking to veteran Rudy White. I realized that there are many good things about the AEC, but the negatives outweigh them all. War is too serious to be a game and thirteen is too young to recruit.

The AEC and its use of violent video games is not a moral way to recruit teens to the Army. Works Cited “Army Complex – Arcade Or Recruiting Center? ” Weekend All Things Considered 17 Jan. 2009. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. Carnagey, Nicholas L. , Craig A. Anderson, and Brad J. Bushman. “The Effects of Video Games Violence on Physiological Desensitization on Real-Life Violence. ” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43. 3 (2006): 489-496. Print. Ferguson, Christopher J. “Blazing Angels Or Resident Evil? Can Violent Video Games Be A Force For Good?. ” Review Of General Psychology 14. (2010): 68-81. PsycARTICLES. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. Graham, Ian, and Ronald Shaw. “Playing War. ” Social and Cultural Geography 11. 8 (2010): 789, 803. Print. Grossman, Lev, and Evan Narcisse. “Conflict Of Interest. ” Time 178. 17 (2011): 70-75. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. Joel, R. (2012). The Army Experience Center. On Marketplace [Record]. Philadelphia: American Public Media Konijn, Elly A. , Marije Nije Bijvank, and Brad J. Bushman. “I Wish I Were A Warrior: The Role Of Wishful Identification In The Effects Of Violent Video Games On Aggression In Adolescent Boys. Developmental Psychology 43. 4 (2007): 1038-1044. PsycARTICLES. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. Swanson, David. “The Army Experience Center’s Bad Experience: Turns Out Training Kids To Kill Not Popular With Public. ” Humanist 69. 6 (2009): 5. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. Ulanoff, Lance. “Violent Video Games: Our Responsibility, Not The Courts. ” PC Magazine 29. 12 (2010): 1. Academic Search Complete. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. “War Games Lure Recruits For ‘Real Thing’” Weekend Edition 31, Jul. 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. White, Rudy. Personal interview. 31 Oct. 2012.

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Do Video Games Enhance Selective Attention in Children?

Research: Observing children using gaming consoles can be quite entertaining due to their deeply embedded interest and love for video games. Young boys in particular seem to partake in the interactive environment that gaming allows them to join. Whether it’s Nintendo, Xbox, or Playstation, males of all ages always seem so captivated by the virtual world portrayed on their television set. When one focuses on a specific aspect of a scene while ignoring other aspects, such as focusing on the video game you are playing in the same room as many people are speaking, a concept of selective attention is introduced (Wikipedia, 2006).

A normal attention span seems to develop in three stages in children. First, the child’s attention is said to be overly exclusive. This is a term used by psychologists to describe attention that is focused on a single object for long periods while tuning out all other stimuli (Child Development Institute, 2006). Second, a child’s attention develops to where it is overly inclusive. This refers to a “wide span of attention that is constantly and rapidly changing from one object to another such as a toddler who is running from one toy to the next never able to stay with any one toy for any period of time” (CDI, 2006).

A child who is stuck at this stage might be diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder. Third, the child develops selective attention where he or she is able to shift the focus whenever he or she pleases from being inclusive to being very exclusive. This is considered a mature pattern of focus and concentration which is needed in a classroom setting. Some reasons a child may have poor attention, concentration, and impulse control are due to anxiety, depression, slow psychological development, learning disabilities, lack of sleep, poor nutrition, low motivation, and especially boredom due to lack of challenge (CDI, 2006).

Boredom due to a lack of challenge definitely cannot be a characteristic of video games to the male population who spend hours a day playing; especially not the nine year old Austin who I have babysat for or Brian, another boy I know who is ten years old. Video games were first introduced in the 1970s. “By the end of that decade they had become a preferred childhood leisure activity…”(Cesarone, 1994). Advocates of video games imply that they may be a friendly way of introducing children to computers, and may increase children’s hand-eye coordination and attention to detail.

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Video Games Can Have Bad Effect on Children

Video games can have bad effect on children Nowadays, more and more children play Video games because there is a computer at almost every home. Moreover, the number of Internet shop has increased and playing games becomes easier. However, I believe that Video games are not beneficial for children but they have an negative impact on them. This paper, therefore, will argue that Video games can have bad effect on children First of all, computer games take a lot of time of the children.

If you want to play and become a big part of any games, you have to invest many hours per day. Besides, computer games have a strong power over children making them play many hours per day. This makes many children don’t have enough time to finish their homework and they grades in school become weaker over time. For example, my 15-year-old nephew used to play computer games approximately 4-5 hours per day. When his parents got his grades they realized that his performance was not satisfying.

My nephew’s teacher told they parents that he could not concentrate during the lectures and he rarely did his homework. Secondly, with some games, children who playing these games usually have a violent tendency. It’s because they’re still young and cannot distinguish where is the real and unreal world. Consequently, they usually have the strange actions like in their games. In the worse case, if we do not control them early, they will do wrong things in some days. In television news program last night, a boy was stabbed to death by his friends because they scramble for game items.

Finally, being addicted to games may lead to many social issues such as stealing. I’ve read a lot of newspapers showing that many children who lack of money for playing games decided to steal and lie their parents for money. In conclusion, children are future of the world, therefore, parents need to care and look after them as best as possible. Playing computer games is not prohibited, but we must control our kids usually. Give them more activities and limit the time playing game is the thing that parents should do.

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Violent Video Games and Kids

Keep the Violent Vids away from Kids Violent video games and their effects on children is a growing debate in today’s society. The controversial problem is: are violent video games a negative effect on children or not? It is my personal opinion that violent video games are a bad influence on children. These young children learn from what they see. It is not a good thing when what they see is violence. It is also not a good thing when they are in control of the character that is doing the violence.

Some children may be too young to know right from wrong yet and should not be exposed to these games. They may see something and get the wrong idea. Stricter laws should be made and enforced on violent video games. Children should not be allowed to have these games unless they are at least 15 years of age for the following reasons: Most research illustrates violent video games as a negative effect on children, video games content teaches children the wrong lessons, and violent video game use has been linked to delinquent crime.

The debate originally began with violence on television and in movies. With the new advancements in technology, it eventually escalated into the debate of violent video games. Craig A. Anderson, a well renowned psychologist and professor at Iowa State, explains it like this: After 40+ years of research, one might think that debate about media violence effects would be over. An historical examination of the research reveals that debate concerning whether such exposure is a significant risk factor for aggressive and violent behavior should have been over years ago (Bushman & Anderson, 2001).

Four types of media violence studies provide converging evidence of such effects: laboratory experiments, field experiments, cross-sectional correlation studies, and longitudinal studies (Anderson & Bushman, 2002a; Bushman & Huesmann, 2000). But the development of a new genre-electronic video games-reinvigorated the debate. Two sides of this issue exist. Many parents, researchers, and public policy makers believe violent video games are a bad influence on children.

On the other hand, many public policy makers and video game developers believe violent video games can be educational to children and not a bad influence. In order to gain new knowledge and answer some of the questions of this growing debate, scientists all over the world have been doing research on this issue. Most of this research illustrates that violent video games have a negative effect on children. Many studies have found that violent video games cause an increased level of aggression in children.

One such study was explained in an MSNBC popular news article written by Kristin Kalning called: “Does game violence make teens aggressive? ” The article was written about an experiment done at the Indiana University Medical School. The experiment consisted of children having brain scans done while playing a violent video game and while playing a non-violent video game. The following results were gathered: “the brain scans of kids who played a violent video game showed an increase in emotional arousal – and a corresponding decrease in brain areas involved in self-control, inhibition and attention.

The kids who played the non-violent games did not have the same effect. ” Another study done by three scientists named Hanneke Polman, Bram Orobio de Castro, and Marcel A. G. van Aken called “Experimental Study of the Different Effects of Playing Versus Watching Violent Video Games on Children’s Aggressive Behavior” yielded similar results. It was a study that was done by examining fifty-seven children ages 10-13 who either played violent video games or watched violent video games. The scientists examined their behaviors in free play session at school.

The results were as follows: “After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These ? ndings indicate that, speci? cally for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence. ” Although it may not be known how much violent video games effect children, these studies illustrate that they do indeed affect children in a negative way.

They illustrate that psychologically something is going on in the brain that is not normal while playing. Providing evidence that children of a young age should not have access to these violent video games. Not only does research done on violent video games demonstrate that better age restrictions should be enforced on violent video games, but also the fact that the content of violent video games teaches children the wrong lessons. The graphics in video games these days are so real that they make players feel as if they are in the game. Violent video games often present unethical ideas and lessons to children.

Craig A. Anderson explains these lessons very well: “Recent video games reward players for killing innocent bystanders, police, and prostitutes, using a wide range of weapons including guns, knives, flame throwers, swords, baseball bats, cars, hands, and feet. Some include cut scenes (i. e. , brief movie clips supposedly designed to move the story forward) of strippers. In some, the player assumes the role of hero, whereas in others the player is a criminal. ” These ideas and lessons should not first be presented to children in video games.

They instead should be discussed before hand with children’s parents. Children should not be able to play these games. Only teens that know their right from wrong and understand that the ideas perceived in these games are completely unethical should be allowed to play them. Another reason violent video games should be kept away from children is violent video game use has been linked to bad behavior among children and even delinquent crime. Children who play violent video games are more likely to bully or start a fight at school. Patrick McCormick, a writer for the U.

S. Catholic, in an article titled “Moral Kombat” references Craig A. Anderson and says this: “Surveying a gigabyte of studies done over the past 50 years, Anderson found “unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior in both immediate and long-term contexts. ” Children who played video games were more likely to bully and fight with others and less likely to exhibit self-control or empathy. ” Violent video games should not be available to children if these are the effects that they invoke in children.

What’s worse is there is worse behavior that is linked to violent video games. Violent video games have been linked to delinquent crime, most specifically school shootings. “In the last decade numerous headlines have made the connection between gaming and violent crimes. Stories have identified the perpetrators in school shootings and other multiple homicides as adolescents who spent a good deal of time playing violent video games, and FBI reports have suggested that fascination with this sort of media violence could be a arning sign identifying possible shooters”(McCormick). The Columbine shooting in Colorado is historical evidence providing proof that violent video games are bad influences on children. The shooters played a violent video game and make a reference to it in a video. Guy Porter and Vladan Starcevic wrote an article called “Are violent video games harmful? ” and say this: “The 1993 game ‘Doom’…was played by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold before they went on a shooting Rampage at Columbine High School in 1999, killing 12 fellow students and one teacher, before committing suicide.

The two killers had mentioned the game in a video they made before the massacre, stating it would be “just like Doom”. ” This type of behavior should not be accepted in today’s society. Violent video games should not be responsible for fueling children like this to do heinous crimes. Stricter laws should be enforced and parents should be more educated about the violent video games that are available to their teens. Many critics say violent video games are not a bad influence on children and instead are educational and helpful to children.

Peter McCormick writes: “complex and challenging video games engage our children, helping them to learn useful information and master necessary skills. ” Kristin Kalning illustrates the same idea in her article on MSNBC when she speaks of the ESA website. She says: the ESA has done “several studies pointing to games’ potential benefits for developing decision-making skills or bettering reaction time. ” Any video game can be made to be complex and challenging without being violent.

Violent video games may teach you better reaction time and how to make decisions quickly, however; they also usually teach children the wrong lesson. Video games in general take away extra time children can be spending outside doing physical activities and studying. Violent Video games should not be sold to children who are under the age of sixteen. Children who are too young do not have a mind developed enough to understand the violence.

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Children and Violent Video Games

“The worst thing a kid can say about homework is that it is too hard. The worst thing a kid can say about a game is it’s too easy. ” This was actually quoted by Henry Jenkins. Good Morning My Fellow Students and judges, as you all would know I would be discussing the topic video games cause violence and I would be talking in favor of this topic. More and more kids today are playing video and computer games — especially ultra-violent ones that are top sellers. A recent analysis shows that a majority of video games include violence and about half of the violent incidents would result in serious injuries or death in the real world.

Violent video games can increase children’s aggression. The number one negative effect is they tend to inappropriately resolve anxiety by externalizing it. So when kids have anxiety, which they do, instead of soothing themselves, calming themselves, talking about it or even expressing it emotionally by crying, they tend to externalize it. They can attack something, they can kick a wall, they can be mean to a dog or a pet. Additionally, there’s an increased frequency of violent responses from children who play these kinds of video games. Violent video games don’t teach kids moral consequences.

If you shoot somebody in one of these games, you don’t go to jail, you don’t get penalized in some way — you get extra points! This doesn’t mean that children will go out into the world and shoot someone. “But they do use more aggressive language, they do use more aggressive expressions, they have less ability to control their anger and they externalize things in these violent ways. It’s absolutely not good. The American Psychological Association says playing violent games correlates to children being less caring and helpful toward their peers.

And these effects happen just as much for non-aggressive children as they do for children who already have aggressive tendencies. Children spend a great deal of time with violent video games at exactly the ages that they should be learning healthy ways to relate to other people and to resolve conflicts peacefully. Thus I think that playing violent video games is the same as watching violent movies, they are all scripted in the same way and they put you through the violence training. I would say that we should Jump off the video games and get a life!

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Research: Computer and Video Games

Chapter Two Abstract This research paper explores published articles that report on results from research conducted on how portable electronic communication gadgets affect a student’s study habit. The articles, however, may vary in their own point of view regarding the effects on the students. According to A. Saez (2011), it was pointed out that technology is an integral part of our day-to-day lives. Other articles included in this paper elaborated positive and negative effects of gadgets. According to Admin (2011), electronic gadget devices can have positive and negative effects on youth.

Also, According to Jessy Norman (2009), computers and other related technologies have become an enormous part of our daily lives. They have altered our sense of people, space, and time. shadow66 (2006) has pointed it out that the main problem is the proper use of this gadgets or the knowledge that are easy to be accessed. Introduction Electronic Communication gadgets are essential to society and to people’s everyday lives. These gadgets have benefits but as well as drawbacks. Take modern technology as an example to elaborate.

According to shadow66 (2006) Advantages and Disadvantages of Modern Technology; Technology can be defined as science applied to practical purposes. Nowadays, when the rapidness of development and research is so impressive, it is easy to think about the advantages of modern technology. On the minus side, there is weaponry which is the inseparable issue of the new technologies. Hence, the main problem is the proper use of this knowledge. Nevertheless, weapon engineering propels and provides a huge advance also the industry despite highly developed machinery pollutes the globe.

According to Admin (2011) What is the Effect of Electronic Gadgets on Youth? ; Electronic gadget devices can have positive and negative effects on youth. According to the National Institute on Media and the Family, video games can help children practice following directions and problem solving, and refine motor and spatial skills. Negative effects include social isolation, aggressive behavior, violence, confusing reality and fantasy, and poor grades. Signs of possible psychological addiction to computer or video game use among youth an include worsening school grades; choosing the computer or video games over family, friends or social activities; or restlessness and irritability when not playing a video game or on the computer. Signs of possible psychological addiction to computer or video game use among youth can include worsening school grades; choosing the computer or video games over family, friends or social activities; or restlessness and irritability when not playing a video game or on the computer. According to Australia’s media network ABC, Monash University’s research shows that children who sent text messages were faster on some tests, but also less accurate.

In a NetWorkWorld article, Text Message Language Won’t Affect Kids Spelling, Canada’s University of Alberta said that boys who used emphasized “text speak” were on average worse spellers, while girls who largely abbreviated were better spellers. A 2007 Pew Internet & American Life Project study revealed that strangers contacted 43 percent of social-networking teens online; 31 percent of social-networking teenagers have online “friends” they have never personally met. According to Jessy Norman (2009) Bad Effects of Technology; Computers and other related technologies have become an enormous part of our daily lives.

They have altered our sense of people, space, and time. From our living rooms, we can now talk to people, and watch events unfold in far-off places. Shopping, banking, and game playing are just a few of the other daily activities that have also changed. So many aspects of the ways we communicate and handle information have been altered by technological development. Cellular phones, answering machines, voice mail, fax machines, cable televisions, computer networks, satellite communications and e-mail are only some recent changes.

Other manifestations of this change would be the location of where it is happening. Yes, it is everywhere, including the classrooms for the use of educating children. Technology is now becoming more popular in the presence of classrooms all around the world. Tomorrow’s future is in the hands of today’s students. According to Angel Lucifer (2009) What Are The Negative And Positive Effects Of Advance Technologies, Like The Internet, To Student’s Performance? ; One of the most compelling arguments made against the use of omputers by children is the risk of repetitive motion injury such as carpal tunnel syndrome. This problem may be greater for children than for adults because their musculature and skeletal systems are not fully formed and may be at greater risk for injury. Children’s risk of suffering repetitive motion injuries may be further increased because they tend to use computers that are sized for adults, placed on adult-sized furniture, and positioned for an adult user. Another possible risk of using computers is eye-strain, which may include dryness due to not blinking enough, headaches, and blurry vision.

To reduce this risk, it is important to limit the time spent staring at the screen; take frequent breaks, making sure to focus the eyes on distant objects; and blink frequently. It is also important to position the monitor sixteen to twenty-seven inches away and in a way that ensures that the user views it at a slightly downward angle. Following some highly publicized events in Japan, it has been suggested that there may be a risk of seizure for children playing video games containing bright flashing lights. Many video games include an elementary school student uses a computer in the school library while another students looks on.

The ease and facility with which children use computers comes from the ability children have for assimilating tools in their environment for their personal use. (O’Brien Productions/Corbis) a warning to this effect in their documentation. Fortunately, very few children are susceptible to this condition. For those who are, however, this is potentially a very serious situation. According to Alex Saez (2011) Bad Effects of Electronic Gadgets; Technology is an integral part of our day-to-day lives. People all over the world rely on it for things like communication, organization and employment.

Not a day goes by when you don’t encounter someone talking on his cell phone, tapping away on a laptop or listening to an MP3 player. While this technology is impressive, there are certain drawbacks in areas like health, public safety and education that should be addressed. Being aware of these dangers can help diminish or reverse these drawbacks. According to the website Healthy Hearing, one-third of teenagers own an MP3 player, such as an iPod. Dr. Craig Kasper, Director of Audiology at the New York Otolaryngology Group, warns that these devices can cause ear damage if used improperly.

If the volume is too high or if the individual listens for a long time, hearing damage can happen. Also, ear buds are more dangerous than regular headphones. Healthy Hearing recommends that listeners keep the volume below 70 percent and limit listening time to between 60 and 90 minutes. If you want to listen indefinitely, turn the volume down to 50 percent. Text slang, such as “ur” instead of “you’re” is commonly used through cell phone texting. However, a recent study shows that kids and teens are actually letting these obscure abbreviations seep into their normal writing.

A recent study by Pew Internet in 2008 revealed that 50 percent of students use informal slang in their assignments. Furthermore, 38 percent admit they have used abbreviations in their schoolwork like “LOL”, which stands for “laugh out loud”. Additionally, 25 percent say that they use emoticons such as “smiley faces” in formal writing. The problem has become so apparent that some U. S. politicians are concerned that the English language and sentence structure is being twisted, negatively affecting students’ learning. Electronic gadgets are now very essential to our society today.

We need electronic gadgets to do business, to have some recreation and help us get through our daily lives. For better or worse, technology has a significant influence on the study habits of students. In many ways, such as with computers, researching and fact gathering is made easier. However, whether you are a student, a teacher or a parent, you have probably found that the vice is often wrapped in the virtue, and that the same things that are beneficial can also prove to be distracting. References Admin, (2011). Electronic gadget devices result to positive and negative effects on youth. What is the Effect of Electronic Gadgets on Youth?

Lucifer, A. (2009). Use of computers by children is the risk of repetitive motion injury. What Are The Negative and Positive Effects of Advance Technologies to Student’s Performance? Norman, J. (2009). Computers and other related technologies have become an enormous part of our daily lives. Bad Effects of Technology. Saez, A. (2011). People all over the world rely on it for things like communication, organization and employment. Bad Effects of Electronic Gadgets. Shadow66, (2006). Technology can be defined as science applied to practical purposes. Advantages and Disadvantages of Modern Technology.

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Video Game Ethical Issues

Kuan-Yu Lin Brenda Varda HMN-101-01 10/28/2012 Ethical Issue Essay: Final Draft Video games have always been an important part of the entertainment industry since its appearance in 1970’s. They have been played worldwide and effect many people. While the children are already playing the games, the number of women gamers, as well as the age level of gamers in general is increasing.

As technology advances, video games with more diversity and real-life experience are slowly creeping into parts of our life and gaining its momentum in the society. Due to its quick development, many ethical issues associated with video games have been brought to our attention. Therefore, we should understand how video games are ethically influencing people within its realm. The four major ethical issues which will be discussed are issues of violence, education, stereotyping and addiction. Video games are enjoying fast-growing popularity, becoming a major component of young people’s social lives and leisure activities.

First of all, a major concern which has been discussed continuously regarding video games is violence. Violence in video games is considered as the visual presentation of characters fighting, gun shooting, physical injury or death to characters. Recently, more and more video games involving violent behavior are taking over the game selection on the shelves. Comparing to games made in the 70’s, 80’s, recent games feature tougher, more aggressive heroines and more games are made specifically for adults.

Research consistently declares that most top-selling video games involve violence. In order to prevent the potential harm to children, youth and society of this negative influence, lots of research has focused on the consequence of violent video games. Video game research indicates that playing violent video games increases aggression, hostility, and aggressive thoughts. (Anderson, Buckley, & Gentile, 2007; Anderson & Bushman, 2001; Anderson, Carnagey, Flanagan, Benjamin, Eubanks & Valentine, 2004;Anderson & Dill, 2000).

In their research, they conclude that engaging games which have content related to violence may possibly increase a person’s aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in real life. Some other studies focusing on college student playing video games also point out that students playing violent games are also engaging in more aggressive behavior. It has been claimed by many critics of the media industry that the incident at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado on April 20, 1999 was caused by the influence of violent video games.

It was shown on BBC news that both students shooters, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, had played and enjoy violent video games. “Relatives of people killed in the Columbine massacre are seeking damages from computer game makers, claiming their products helped bring about the killings. ” Although video games can help players relieving stress, they can also affect gamers in a harmful way. It is both the players’ and the game makers’ responsibility to be aware of the negative effects of video gaming. Games with harmful content might be leading negative effects; they still have values considered being beneficial in certain aspect.

Games are popular in the community of youth and have many qualities that make them wonderful teaching tools. Through the educational perspective, both adults and children learn many things by playing video games. Games with positive content show positive effects. For example, playing a dancing video game can help children lose weight (Konami’s Dance Dance Revolution, 2007; O’Hannon, 2007; Epstein, Beecher, Graf & Roemmich, 2007). As mentioned before, videogames could be an excellent tool for learning. In particular, players are learning in an active way with practice and feedback.

Because they are fun, children are highly motivated with video gaming, when people are motivated, they usually perform better, thus lead in to a better result. Also, games usually have clear objectives with adaptable difficulty levels. Games with increasing difficulty across levels allow player to apply past learning. Lastly, games allow children to apply to what they learn in different problems and contexts. Some believe that video games help improve life skill such as logic and problem solving. They also can improve hand-eye coordination and leadership skills, which can be useful for military training purposes.

Having realized the efficiency and the joyful quality of learning experience in gaming, educators are able to take advantage of the positive learning characteristics of games by using the well-designed software in order to teach children more effectively. While the issues associated with violence in video games have caused huge concern among children, gender, and racial stereotypes in video games are also causing problems which require more attention. There is an unbalanced proportion between male and female game players and developers. According to a recent study the average gamer age was in the mid to late 20’s with 60% men playing and 40% women. ”2 The whole gaming industry is overwhelmed by the male population. Most of the games on the market are targeted to only male players. Dietz’s, one of the earliest studies to examine stereotypical portrayals in video games, analyzed the depiction of women in a sample of 33 most popular Nintendo and Sega Genesis video games. The study categorized the female characters in those games into four possible stereotypes based on their appearances and behaviors. Females as sex objects or prizes, females as victims, females in feminine roles, and females as heroes or action characters. Not surprisingly, Dietz (1998) found that 41% of the games were devoid of female characters. Only 15% (5 out of 33) portrayed women as heroes or action characters, while 21% (7 out of 33) portrayed women as victims or as so called ‘damsel in distress’. At the same time, in 28% of these games, women were portrayed as sex objects based upon physical appearance or sexually-oriented actions. Following the discussion of female character as indicator of sexuality, most of the female characters in video games have clothing that exposed more skin than the male characters. The research also found out that the female characters appearing in gaming most likely wear low-cut clothing. About half of the female characters have bare arms and legs with big busted figure. * In essence, these female characters in video games were portrayed in a stereotypical way in which they were exaggerated by sexy attire. That leads to the exclusion of female players in video game industry.

Although the number of game designed for female gamers is increasing slowly, it is crucial for both consumers and game makers to make the video games more engaging for both sexes either by changing the content of the game or by expanding the choice of games. They should be designed in a way that they are attractive for both male and female players. Finally, the last ethical issue I want to talk about is the addiction of engaging video games. Some people spent immense amount of time playing video games and caused them to lose valuable time participating in activities which are more beneficial for them.

However, video games could be considered as one of social activities because friends, siblings, and other relatives can play with it. Bibliography (not yet in proper MLA format, I will work on in for the final paper) http://evvy09. hubpages. com/hub/Video-Games-Have-Changed-the-World http://www. ethicapublishing. com/ethical/3CH12. pdf https://www. msu. edu/~pengwei/Mou%26Peng_gender%20and%20racial%20stereotype. pdf http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/science/nature/1295920. stm

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Impact of Violence in Movies and Video Games on Children

Impact of Violence in Movies and Video Games on Children Television and video games have become more violent in content. We have become desensitized to the graphic violence we are exposed to via television and video games. We have grown so use to viewing media with this type of content that it no longer phases us, and it almost seems normal. Violence can be found in everything from children’s cartoons with violent humor to video games that encourage players to kill opponents to advance to the next level.

Studies show that children exposed to violence may be more aggressive. When children view violence as a way to solve problems, it can lead to bullying and an irrational view of how to resolve conflict. Studies have also showed that children exposed to violence can experience anxiety and the perception that the world is an evil place. Expert’s opinions Clearly there is no shortage of opinions on the impact of violent media on children.

A report published by the surgeon general back in 2001 pointed to a steady increase in youth violence for a decade from 1983 to 1993 with a quote “The report found strong evidence that exposure to violence in the media can increase children’s aggressive behavior in the short term and concluded: Research to date justifies sustained efforts to curb the adverse effects of media violence on youths. ” Surgeon General, 2001, p. 87). 10 years later, the issue and supporting studies have only increased.

As one would expect there is an unbalance between information and studies available to compare with the negative impact side acquiring an overwhelming majority. Schneider Family Services Company director, Gina Simmons, states that a 1999 national study reported that an average American child spends 40 hours per week viewing various forms of media like TV, media, and video games. When these children complete elementary school this equates to them having seen 8,000 murders and 100,000 other acts of various violence.

In addition Simmons references a July 2000 joint statement of six professional associations that concur there are more than 1,000 studies connecting media violence and aggression in children (Simmons, 2008, p. 1). Although Craig A. Anderson, a media violence researcher and a chair of Iowa State University’s Department of Psychology agrees that the abundance of violent video games tend to have negative effects on children’s behavior and states that “It’s Society, not science, that must decide how to deal with the negative effects of violent video games. ” In contrast he also recognizes some positive influences from today’s video games.

Anderson recognizes that most interactive games now require and include complex problem-solving skills. As well as referencing a flight simulator game he bought his son, which allowed him to develop skills used in NASA summer camp that amazed the camps staff (Hoerrner & Hoerrner, 2006). Analyzing and Contrasting From the surgeon general noting increases in violence among youth in the late 80s and 90s to a plethora of new studies supporting the same or similar evidence, one may be concerned with the bias that appears to exist primarily on the negative side of the issue.

While analyzing deeper, and when looking through one filter, the focus on negativity toward children and media delves deeper. When the 1999 study above is mentioned, the numbers are shocking. The study showed that children spend 40 hours during the week on different forms of media; notably violence, but one has to question if the study would have equated for the abundance of media in society today, and how much media in our lives has skyrocketed. The study not only assumed the viewing amounts within a child’s entire elementary cycle but also assumes how many hours of violence a child would likely watch.

The reference to one thousand studies on the subject shows how clearly the issue is of concern to parents, teachers, and the future of behavioral condition society may have to deal with. What research has limited itself with is discovering the potential positive effects of video games, and violence in media and television. The expert views above indicate Craig A. Anderson may be suggesting strongly that violent media content negatively effects children, but he also points out that items such as interactive games, for instance, do illicit requirements for complex problem-solving skills.

These skill types of skills and experiences can be referenced and reflected along with different areas being discussed. Comparing and contrasting the positives and negatives proves to be a harder task when it comes to discovering the positives, but there is a one likely reason. Media pressures developed by existing conditions in society likely form bias’s, which leaves little room for fair, reasonable, and mediated conditions or conclusions for evidence to be properly put forth on either side of the argument.

Discovering the positives resides in the logic of today’s children. Children are developing complex problem solving skill sets far beyond those their parents did at the same ages and at faster rates. Studies must reflect the times, and not the basis of the past. Our Opinion Violent movies and video games do have some type of impact on children, but we do not think that it will cause the child to inflict violence on others. We believe that if left alone without proper supervision and guidance, it will have a negative effect.

Growing up in a household with family values and ethics will allow the child to have a better understanding of what he or she does and to know the difference between what is real and what is fictitious. Let us focus on the fact that when we were children, we would watch cartoons in which one of the characters would chase the other around with a shotgun, light a stick of dynamite, and place it under their hat. The character would then fall off a cliff, followed by a giant boulder on the head. In addition playing war games as young boys with the green Army men and simulating an explosion was quite exciting.

Blowing the Army men up with firecrackers were all a part of the violent games we played. Shooting a BB gun or slingshot was also another way in which we enjoyed playing in the days before video games. The point we are trying to make is, violence has always been around and most people recognize the difference, and would not go out and inflict violence in the real world. A few mentally disturbed children may not know the difference in between the two, or children who were not taught the difference between reality and make-believe by their parents at an early age.

We blame playing too many video games and watching too many movies as a cause of obesity in children, but we also parallel behavioral issues to the same mediums, which are why we should focus more on how children are raised rather than the influential mediums they are faced with. The Impact on Children Though the point may be argued that violence in video games and movies has no effect on children, it is hard to imagine how such imagery cannot influence their actions.

Modern video games – with their almost real looking graphics, in-depth story lines, and characters that resemble real people – are quickly approaching the realm of “virtual reality. ” Gone are the days of Mario and Luigi saving the world and the Princess from the evil Bowser as in Super Mario Bros. Video games that are more recent involve stories that require automobile theft, use of illegal weapons, and violent fighting tactics to advance to the next level. These images paint the picture that in order to get what you want in life, you have to take it by force.

According to a study done by the Gallup Company in 2003, “More than 70 percent of American teenage boys have played the violent but popular “Grand Theft Auto” video games, and they are more likely to have been in a fight than those who have not played” (Berkowitz, 2003). This study seems to provide clear evidence that some children’s real life is influenced by the video games they play at home. Young children are very impressionable and can easily gain a distorted view of reality by participating in these games. Berkowitz, in press) Certain movies are also influencing the actions and behaviors of young children. Parental guide rating systems have been put in place as advisories, though many parents completely ignore them. If a child wants ideas on how to rob a casino, fight, mistreat women, and/or blow something up, all he or she needs to do is visit the local theater. Better yet, the Internet and media companies like Netflix allow children to watch these scenes without leaving their homes.

I remember watching “The Karate Kid” and realizing that martial arts are a means of self-defense and a practice in self-control and honesty. Hollywood’s modern twist makes gun-slinging bandits out to be more hero like and less villain like. The images that these children are seeing on the big screen has the potential to fill their heads with the idea that violence is a useful means to solve ones problems or get what he or she wants. Conclusion Violence is prevalent on television and in video games. The amount of violence children are exposed to via the media has increased.

Cartoons feature slapstick characters that use vulgarity and violence as a form of humor. Video games feature graphic war scenarios or bloody street fights that encourage players to kill opponents in order to move to the next level of the game. Studies show children tend to mimic violent behavior when it comes to conflict resolution. The exposure to violence has had an affect on children. The effects range from aggression to various levels of anxiety. The constant exposure to violence often perpetuates that the world is an unsafe place full of mean people.

References Berkowitz, B. (in press). Most teens play violent video games, study says. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from www. lionlamb. org/news_articles/Washington_Post_Grand_Theft. htm Hoerrner, M. , & Hoerrner, K. (2006). Video Game Violence (vol. 15 ed. ). : Child Welfare League of Amreica. Simmons, G. (2008). Does Violent Media Cause Aggression?. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from www. manageangerdaily. com Surgeon General (2001). Youth Violence. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from http://www. surgeongeneral. gov/library/youthviolence/

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Video Games as Art

Video Games as Art Dylan Armitage December 10th, 2012 100883983 Video Games Are Art Are video games art? Up until the early 21st century, the dominant ideology surrounding this topic is resounding “No”. Art critics, such as Roger Ebert that state “video games cannot be art. ” (Roger Ebert’s Journal), and philosophers continually dismiss the idea. This ideology is no longer an accepted truth. I will argue that video games are a form of art.

Video Games have gone from simple games and concepts such as Pong (1975) to modern day, epic titles like Uncharted 3 (2011), and with that they have evolved from simple forms of entertainment to as sophisticated a form of art as any. Video games evoke great emotion from the players, much like the audience of any other form of art. Video games also should be considered a form of art because of the vast amount of tools and media that are combined to create the games that we play today.

The list of games that can be considered art increases each year and it spans over many generations, consoles, and genres. Art is defined as “The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination,”. According to this definition, if things such as paintings, film and music are considered to be art, then video games clearly fall into the category as well. Video games today are as creative as anything. Video games allow for so much creative freedom to create any setting, any character and have the ability to interact with all of those and create a new world.

Games take creativity and allow you to immerse yourself within it. In games like the series of Mass Effect (2007-2012), you are able to put a certain amount of creative input into the game yourself. You dictate many facets of the game. You can customize your character, whether it be gender, race or just the general way your character looks. Secondly, your decisions affect the world of the game. You can dictate what your character says and through that change the course of events and how other characters in the game think of you. It is essentially a new world.

The game includes it’s own lore, deals with issues that we deal with today but in a new world and in a more lighthearted fashion that definitely makes the player think. These issues include those of race barriers and the fear of technology taking over. When it comes to actual labour going into a game, it is very similar to that of a film. They include things such as motion capture. Which is essentially capturing the real life movements of someone and that translates to a sort of acting. The second element of that acting is contributed to the voice-over acting for characters.

This gives freedom of imagination to match any human with any voice you wish. The list then goes on for ages to include animators, set designers, sound designers and much more. The credits to people at the end of the games are much like that of movies and it all contributes to a fantastically entertaining piece of art. Many people view games as simply a form of entertainment. While they are indeed entertaining, they should be considered forms of art for many different reasons. Art evokes emotion, whether it be from a beautiful orchestral medley or a gorgeous landscape painting. Video games do the same.

In the modern day gaming industry, games are more than just getting from beginning to end and win the game, they involve the player in many ways. In The Walking Dead: The Game (2012), you are put in control of Lee Everett, a former university professor who is on his way to prison. The game is very unorthodox in many ways, it is much less about having action-packed gameplay or incredibly realistic graphics. It is focused on engrossing the player in the story and with the characters. It involves some point and click battles, which is necessary for the setting it takes place in, but it is heavily focused on choice.

Everything you do in the game has an effect. Whether it be from not giving someone a portion of rations or choosing to side with someone in an argument. The game world adapts to the choices you make and it all relies on the player. With such involvement the player finds themselves greatly committed emotionally to all facets of the game. The involvement tests a lot of boundaries with human emotion. “It explores the depths of human tolerance, dissecting what it means to survive in the worst possible scenario, and what it means to keep someone you love alive in the same situation. (Joystiq) Through this, it evokes incredible emotion from the player. Video games can even mix elements of many other artistic media. Taking that into account, video games can do everything that all other artistic media can, but it can be packaged into one outlet. You get the wonderful story and script of a wonderfully written book but with you as the main character, effecting the world how you see fit. The stories of video games have become increasingly more complex and compelling. They even draw interest of film and novel writers and elements from other artistic works.

The Walking Dead: The Game from Telltale Games is a great example of this. The video game draws from The Walking Dead television series on AMC and the television series draws from a graphic novel with the same name. This franchise is a great example of how different artistic media can draw from each other. All instances of the series are written by Robert Kirkman, the creator of the graphic novel series. The mainstream success of all these series are a testament to how the art that is The Walking Dead can be conveyed with great success whether it be the novels, the show or the game.

Another great example of a writer of film getting interested in video games is John Milius, writer of Apocalypse Now (1979) and Red Dawn (1984) being a story consultant to the video game closely related to his screenplays, Homefront (2011). You get the epic landscapes and imagery of film but with the freedom to explore and interact with it. In the game Far Cry 3 (2012) you play as Jason Brody and you are on an island called Rook Island which is inspired by a real tropical island. You are abducted along with your friends and you escape, determined to rescue all of them.

The game is open-world, which gives the freedom to do almost anything within the limit of the game world. You don’t even have to follow the games’ story, which has received critical acclaim. You can explore the absolutely stunning scenery of the island, you can go hunt the local wildlife, you can go climbing or even sky-diving. The setting is very appealing and draws you in like any film would but also allows you to interact and do whatever you wish with the world given to you. There are also games that allow you to interact with the world without even starting to play the real game.

Call of Duty: Black Ops (2010) has an interactive section at the main menu of the game. If you were to mash certain buttons enough, you were able to walk around the room that the main menu is taking place in. You can even walk over to an arcade machine and play a game inside of the game. The same can be seen in the newest instalment, Call of Duty: Black Ops 2 (2012) a similar section can be seen where you can interact with the world to play multiple games from the original Atari gaming console. You also the get the beautiful noise of the in-game sound effects and soundtrack.

The audio of video games has evolved from simple, silly sounding noises and no dialogue to complete orchestral scores throughout the game and Hollywood famous actors voicing in-game characters. Actors that have made the transition to video games include Sam Worthington of in Call of Duty: Black Ops 1 and 2, Seth Green in the Mass Effect series and Burt Reynolds in Saints Row: The Third (2011). The sound of a video game has come from the game Pong that only has three noises, the sound of the ball hitting the paddle, the sound of the ball hitting the sidelines and then the sound of a point being scored.

This can not be attributed to be art as far as audio goes. In contrast, the soundtrack for Journey (2012) has been nominated for a Grammy. Gaming soundtracks have evolved to the point of having individual tracks for certain situations or scenes that involve an entire orchestra, much like a film. The soundtrack for Journey is among the company of other artistic wonders in film as well as sound such as The Dark Knight Rises (2012), Hugo (2011), and The Girl With The Dragon Tattoo (2011).

All of these media combine to form the art that is video games. Now that the ground for all the aspects of a video game being art have been established, which games fall into that category and reinforce that ideal? Many games fall under all the criteria but some stand out when it comes to the different aspects. The creativity of video games is very evident throughout almost all video games but it is much more evident in the games of Mass Effect and Dead Space 2 (2011).

Mass Effect creates this vast world that includes multiple races, new planets and interesting lore that embody great creativity in video games. Creativity is also given to the players who are able to customize the character and how the character acts which dictates events and action within the story world. Dead Space 2 creates a vast world as well with great lore and the thought of where humanity would go as far as a space society. The game also talks about the issue of religion governing the state. This comes up in many ways including the game’s main conflict.

The game also draw on the very interesting and creative aspect of not knowing if certain things are really happening, much like the game Eternal Darkness: Sanity’s Requiem (2002). The sanity of the character is never really certain and you are constantly doubting yourself as well as what is occurring. When it comes to emotional engagement, two games stand out. The Walking Dead: The Game and Heavy Rain (2010). The Walking Dead: The Game engages the player in an extravagant world with interactive environments and characters.

It engages you with the characters and deals with realistic issues regarding the time and place while developing an emotional connection to the story and characters. By the time the game is complete, you are torn through all the choices you’ve made and with the emotionally testing relationship between Lee, the character you play as, and Clementine, the little girl you take care of throughout the game. The other game that engages the player emotionally in a great way is Heavy Rain. The game puts the the player in the shoes of Ethan and tests what the player is willing to go to to save his son.

You have the ability to push the character through the trials that reveal where his son is being held but with more information being revealed the closer to death Ethan becomes. As far as including all the artistic media, many games stand out. When it comes to the great writing of novels and screenplays, games such as The Walking Dead: The Game and Homefront use the talents of credited author and screenwriters to convey a great story through rich dialogue. The interactivity of games and beautiful set pieces is shown through games such as Far Cry 3 and Red Dead Redemption (2010).

In these worlds, great freedom is introduced which allows you to do really anything you desire through the many different characters, wildlife and locations the game introduces. Great strides in audio are introduced through games such as Mass Effect that include voice-actors such as Seth Green of Family Guy and Yvonne Strahovski of Dexter and the beautiful sounding and Grammy nominated soundtrack of Journey. In conclusion, the dominant ideology that video games are not art is a thing of the past.

Through the emotional engagement of games today, video games evoke as much emotion as any other work of art. Through it’s creativity and ability to create any universe as you see fit, much like other media. Video games also combine many different forms of media to create a brand new artistic form that is video games. They use great set pieces, beautiful audio through orchestra or voice over. Video games have evolved greatly from small beginnings and the list of examples is increasing very quickly. Through all these reasons and examples, video games are art.

Clarke, Andy, Videogames and Art. Chicago: Intellect Books, 2007. Conditt, Jessica “The Walking Dead Episode 5 review: All the time in the world” Joystiq. 26 Nov 2012, 8 Dec 2012 <http://www. joystiq. com/2012/11/26/the-walking-dead-episode-5-review/> Ebert, Roger “Video Games cannot be Art. ” Roger Ebert’s Journal. 16 Apr 2010, 8 Dec 2012 ;http://blogs. suntimes. com/ebert/2010/04/video_games_can_never_be_art. html; Helgeson, Matt “The Great Debate: Are Games Art? ” Game Informer. 1 May. 2012, 8 Dec 2012 ;http://www. gameinformer. om/b/features/archive/2012/05/01/the-great-debate-are-games-art. aspx; Melissinos, Chris, The Art of Video Games: From Pac-man to Mass Effect. New York: Welcome Books, 2012. Tavinor, Grant 2005. “Videogames and Interactive Fiction,” Philosophy and Literature April 2005, vol. 29, no. 1. Tavinor, Grant 2009. The Art of Videogames. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Young, Robert “Gaming’s first Grammy nomination” Neoseeker. 5 Dec 2012, 8 Dec 2012 <http://www. neoseeker. com/news/21569-journey-and-composer-austin-wintory-receive-grammy-nomination-for-best-score-soundtrack/>

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Benefits of Video Games

Whenever a new technology surfaces into the modern world, there will always be debates on the effects they bring to individuals and to the society in general. Though video games are hardly new, there have always been arguments whether the images they show have a huge harmful impact to people since video games are frequently associated with violence. So often people only see the negative side of what video games bring that we disregard the advantages they give.

Children may be often pleaded by their parents to do anything rather than playing games. This may be because parents do not pay attention to the benefits we can acquire from video games. When playing video games, certain skills and abilities develop. Our body parts, specifically the hands and eyes, are required to work together for we perform various commands on the controller by our hands depending on what we see on the screen. Thus, it results to the enhancement of our hand-eye coordination.

Video games require critical thinking. A gamer must not only memorize information but also analyze, conceptualize, and infer data gathered from the virtual environment. One key to complete a game is to study patterns and to use it into one’s advantage. This vital skill is utilized when creating strategies, tackling problems and making decisions. Most games involve quick reaction time and split-second decisions that can mean virtual life and death. Video games enhance people’s decision-making skills.

Virtual reality is like a practice field for gamers to improve their cognitive ability, for them to be ready in the real world. With this, people are more likely to decide correctly, quickly, and accordingly depending on the situation. Gamers are often stereotyped as people sitting in front of a screen for long hours and are uninterested in social interactions. But video games often encourage players to interact with other players from around the world, with the help of the internet, and work together to accomplish tasks.

This can help build social relationships and enhance people’s socialization skills. Some games’ objective is to become victorious above others. It gives a sense of competition and eagerness to win a battle. When one loses, his willingness to win intensifies the next time around. Video games stimulate people to do better and achieve the best. Video games are games. They are created with the intention to give pleasure and enjoyment to whomever they may serve. They accompany us when we are lonely and depressed. They help us pass time when we have nothing to do.

They give us a taste of admirable graphics design and creativity. They offer some benefits like those of what outdoor activities give. Nothing is wrong with playing video games. But excessive hours of playing will bring anyone no good. It is necessary to keep things in moderation. The next time your parents tell you that video games will only make you violent, inform them thoroughly what good things you can acquire from playing. You can even invite them to play with you. Who knows? It could be the solution for their stress and depression.

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Violent Video Games Are Bad for You

Today, children, teenagers, and adults are exposed to violence throughout their lives. They are exposed through television shows, movies, maybe even on the streets, but what researchers and scientists have proved to be an increasing factor of violence in children and adults is their being exposed to violent video games in which “they can produce violence, emotional outbursts, and inappropriate language”. According to Violent Video Games: The Newest Media Violence Hazard, about 85% or more video games include violent content.

Violent content includes: blood and gore, killing, inappropriate language, and sexual content. Since then, many people have been saying that these games promote bad behavior and cause people to be more violent. As people play violent video games, it influences bad behavior in the player because when you play these games, you control the person who causes the crimes, shoot and kill your enemy, whether it is a criminal or policeman depending on the game you are playing. Since you are playing the game, you feel more connected with your character in the game and it may affect you in the real world.

This is proved according to the article Computer Games Can Rot Your Brain. According to it, “researchers have shown that playing or watching violent video games has led to alcohol consumption, destruction of property and other bad behavior. Video games can also lead to stealing of items, mainly vehicles. ” Although the article says that, Akemi, a long term gamer now 22 years old, says otherwise. He says “I have been playing games since I was at least 7, I have no criminal record. I have good grades and have often been caught playing well into the night (that is, 4 hours or more). Even though Akemi has no criminal record, Brad Bushman, a scientist that has been studying the effects of violent games on people says “aggressive behavior may appear not as criminal activity or physical violence but in more subtle ways in ways people react to or interact with other people in everyday life. ” This would mean that Akemi, a gamer for years with no criminal record, may not cause crimes, but inside of him he has some kind of violent behavior that he expresses while interacting with people without him knowing it.

Not only do violent videos promote bad behavior, they also destroy students’ grades. If someone is already influenced by the bad behavior in video games, it is certain that the student will not succeed in school. If he is not influenced by bad behavior and are getting unacceptable grades in school, then it may be the game’s addictiveness. Games are fun, especially when you are defeating monsters and killing people which cause you to do it for hours on, making you addicted to it.

When you are at school, you would only think about these games and ignore your education. This is supported by Bushman when he says “The link between violent media and aggression is stronger than the link between doing homework and getting good grades. ” People disagree with this and say that violent video games don’t cause bad grades because it might have been that the student was already receiving unacceptable grades before his exposure of violent games concluding that the games had no affect on his poor performance at school.

This may be true but, what makes it a bad argument is that the student that is doing poorly in school and is playing these games will never get out of their habit of getting bad grades. If this student was to switch up his games with educational games for instance, then he may have gained the smarts to get out of his habit and become a better student. In the end, violent video games are harmful for you, and everyone else.

They cause disruptive behavior, promote violence most more often than not, and encourage students to get poor grades. Many people disagree with this but Bushman says “many scientific studies clearly show that violent video games make kids more likely to yell, push, and punch. ” If we do not see an effect now, we would see it take place later on if they continue to play the games. As a final word, he says “We included every single study we could find on the topic. Regardless of what kids say, violent video games are harmful. ”