Free Essays

Discussion on management plan in Song Thanh Nature Reserve, Quangnam province, Vietnam


1. Governance and planning system

Song Thanh Nature Reserve is managed by the Management Board with 31 staffs at present. There are one director and two vice directors on the management board. Six staffs are doing administrative work; two staffs belong to the Research and Monitoring unit; remained ones belong to Protection unit.

The nature reserve management board is under the direct management of provincial Forest Protection Depatment of Quangnam province. The role of management board is to: i) protect natural resources, landscape and environment; ii) cooperate with universities, research institutes to carry out research on forest and biodiversity conservation; iii) cooperate with other agencies (e.g. NGOs), to carry out awareness raising, community development, ecotourism and staff training activities; iv) monitor and evaluate natural resources.

Besides, nature reserve’s staffs are also cooperated with other agencies, such as district forest rangers, policemen and soldiers in protecting natural resources. The joined enforcement campaigns are sometimes launched to stop illegal mining, logging, hunting in the nature reserve; but these events do not happen regularly due to the budget limitation.

There are four ethnic groups inhabiting in the buffer zone of the nature reserve. These people are highly dependent on forest resources for their livelihoods and have cultural and spiritual practices based on the forest. However, all the natural forest belongs to government and co-management has not been established in this area yet.

According to the current management system in Vietnam, the nature reserve management plan should be made by the Management Development Team of the reserve’s Management Board that may including director and/or vice director, forest protection staffs, enforcement staffs, finance staffs. The management plan must be endorsed by Forest Protection Department and approved by Provincial People Committee for allocating the budget, staffs, etc. before implementing.

2. Threats

Based on an assessment of the threats to Song Thanh Nature Reserve recently, six major threats were identified.

2.1. Hunting and fishing

The majority of threatened species in Song Thanh Nature Reserve are large mammals. These species is directly targeted for subsistence consumption and for trade as bushmeat, medicine, pets or ornamental use. Some species, especially wild pig, muntjac, macaques, porcupines, civets and rats are seen as serious threats to agriculture and so are trapped to protect crops. Hunting activities have been done not only by local people living surrounding the reserve but also by outsiders. The current intensity of such hunting combined with trade driving hunting results in un-sustainable hunting pressures.

Fishing is also been considered as over harvested and exploit environment with bad practices such as the use of explosives, poison and electricity.

2.2. Logging

Although enforcement efforts have been increasing, illegal logging in Song Thanh Nature Reserve still happen. Logging can be conducted by outsiders and local people for trade or for home uses. Logs are removed from the forest either by river or by buffalo. Illegal logging driven by the trade is more serious and can lead to the extirpation of some species from Song Thanh Nature Reserve such as the critically endangered Hopea hiananensis. .

2.3. Over-exploitation of non-timber forest products (NTFPs)

Harvesting of NTFPs (not including animals or timber) is conducted by a wide range of people for numerous reasons, including local communities and outsiders. The products harvested are many, but include aquilaria, honey, rattan, ‘uoi’ fruit, fire wood, palm fronds and bamboo shoots. The products harvested are for trade and subsistence uses. Once external forces are involved in harvest, collection rates can increase past sustainable levels and so resources are depleted. This not only effects biodiversity, but also removes critical resources for local communities, the majority of which are not collecting for trade, but for subsistence.

2.4. Forest conversion

The conversion of forest to agricultural land and Acacia plantation is one of main causes of deforestation and forest degradation in the buffer zone and this may make more pressure to the core zone. This problem has been considered as the effect of population increase and land demand for agriculture and plantation recently. Besides, the upgrading of roads cutting through the core zone of the reserve provides access to forest areas and could result in large scale forest conversion along these roads. Not only would this effect forest cover, but also could potentially disrupt habitat connectivity, vastly reducing the effectiveness of the reserve as a core area for wide-ranging species such as tiger.

2.5. Freshwater degradation

Freshwater are an important ecosystem both in terms of biodiversity and local community resources. Water quality and fresh water biodiversity have been seriously affected by illegal gold mining and exploited fishing activities recently. Gold miners use poisonous chemicals such as mercury and cyanide in accelerating process. The issue of poisoning also needs addressing, both from the point of view of biodiversity loss and human health.

2.6. Construction of roads and hydropower dam

Road construction is considered as indirect threat to habitat in the reserve. The continuousness of forest cover is broken within the core zone in two locations and within two corridors in the buffer zone due to road construction.

Three hydropower dams are proposed for construction in the buffer zone. The potential of forest loss and the affects indigenous freshwater biodiversity would be happened. Although the dams will not be in the core zone, the flooding will extend into these areas.This is likely to prevent the migration and so breeding of many species. Reservoirs almost without exception are subject to release of non-native fish species. These can have large effects on indigenous species, often leading to the local extinction.

3. Management challenges

3.1. Legislation challenges

The boundary of Song Thanh nature reserve is inadequate at some places that have not designed based on biological and social – economic requirements. The boundary demarcations are not clearly known by the management authorities and local residents. The management plan has been prepared but not well implemented

3.2. Lack of number and qualified staffs and equipments

According to the approved investment plan for Song Thanh Nature Reserve, the number of staff should be 92. However, there are only 25 staffs at present in the management board. The guard ratio is about 4,000 hectares/guard. This ratio makes it impossible for a guard to fulfill his job.

The capacity of the staffs is also inadequate to carry out their tasks because most of the staffs graduated in silviculture, having little knowledge or experience of conservation. Additional obstacles to the effective functioning of the forest protection staffs are poor living and working conditions, lack of communications, office and technical equipment.

3.3. Lack of budget

Song Thanh nature reserve management board has not been able to carry out many activities, in particularly research and biodiversity monitoring in the reserve due to the lack of funding. The fund for the reserve’s operations is just come from Quangnam province and basically for the staff’s salaries. Other fund sources via the conservation projects funded by NGOs are not continuous and stable.

3.4. Lack of participatory management mechanism and communication with communities in the buffer zone

Song Thanh management board is only given responsibility over core zone. Local communities have some inputs into discussions relating to its management but on direct involvement in decision.

The village/community patrol teams, established under conservation projects to protect the forests within and around the villages, and forest protection agreements between communities and the reserve’s management board were recognized as good models in some villages, but those have not worked well recently after the projects finished due to budget constraints.

4. The issues should be included in the management plan of the nature reserve and recommendations

4.1. Management objectives

The management objectives should be clearly addressed including long-term vision and short-term objectives.

Long-term vision

The biodiversity and local cultural traditions in and around Song Thanh Nature Reserve, are effectively managed and protected by rangers in partnership with local communities whilst ensuring sustainable development of the buffer zone and, as a core component of the Central Annamites Landscape, ecosystem processes are maintained and enhanced.


Budget and resources are efficiently utilised by trained, motivated and monitored staff to achieve realistic targets towards strategic objectives within the framework of an adaptive management plan


Threats to natural resources across the whole nature reserve are minimised by trained, motivated and equipped rangers and communities in partnership with related departments through a coordinated patrolling and monitoring implementation plan within a law enforcement strategy.

Research and monitoring:

Forest management, protection and monitoring activities are focused on key areas identified based on priority species by a trained scientific and monitoring unit working towards a strategic plan for area, species, forest cover, priority habitats and freshwater conservation.

Community cooperation and economic development:

Effective forest protection and resource management is conducted in partnership with empowered and informed communities and other stakeholders in each commune within Song Thanh Nature Reserve, facilitating sustainable economic development in the buffer zone.

4.2. Management Activities

Management actions should be grouped according to the objectives to which they will contribute and the target by which they will be monitored.

Management activities:

Include management planning, personal management, capacity building and those should be considered as critical priority

Protection activities:

Should include law enforcement strategy, reduce trapping, gun removal, removal of illegal gold mining, developing informant network; and those should be considered as high priority.

Research and monitoring:

Should establish the Research and Monitoring unit and carry out biological socio-economic researches; and those should be considered as high priority.

Community cooperation and economic development:

Should include reserve’s boundary re-design, community co-management, forest – land allocation and conservation education. In which, community co-management is considered highest priority.

4.3. Implementation plans


The responsible person, partners, implementing time of each activity should be clearly addressed in the implementation plan. The monitoring plan is also set up together with annual management review.


The duty of Protection unit is to protect the forest and its resources. This can involve many approaches which in this management plan are lumped into two objectives: protection and community cooperation. Each activity or group of activities of patrol, trap removal campaign, gun removal campaign, gold mining removal, informant network, violation database, etc. should be mentioned in detail in the implementation plan.

Research and monitoring:

The primary function of this unit is to directly monitor the values of Song Thanh Nature Reserve, using the results to inform and adapt management actions. The primary values of Song Thanh Nature Reserve are biodiversity and watershed related.

The animal abundance would be measured and the threats to biodiversity would also be monitored over time by Research and Monitoring unit with supported from rangers whenever they go to the forest.

The science work focussing on identifying the distribution of and key locations for the conservation of the priority values would be done in the Nature Reserve.

Where key values are localised such as a population of doucs or a community sacred forest, the Research and Monitoring Unit will be charged with delineating an Intensive Protection Zone in consultation with local communities. These zones will then have specific management actions designed by the Research and Monitoring Unit in cooperation with the reserve management board and local communities to ensure the persistence of values.

Community cooperation and economic development:

The development of effective co-management involves many steps as outlined in the actions of the management plan above. It is impossible to extract one section of the process without the others being hindered. Therefore the process is explained here step-by-step to facilitate its complete implementation.

Gaining community consensus on the boundary of the reserve is critical for enforcing the laws of the reserve adequately, ensuring high value forest is protected and not disenfranchising local communities from their resources. Community consultation on the reserve boundary will therefore be sought and the boundary re-designed and demarcated in the forest.

Core Zone delineation and buffer zone land allocation are inseparable activities. Community consultation on land allocation will be conducted by ‘District Allocation Teams’. The Community Cooperation Unit in partnership with the Director and Section Leaders should ensure that commune rangers are involved with this activity in each commune.

Once all communes have agreed to the boundary location a report will be produced by the Community Cooperation Unit and reviewed by Section Heads and the Director.

Boundary demarcation

Major boundary posts should be placed on forest entry points as well as prominent features such as ridge tops and rivers. Smaller boundary markers should be placed every 1km around the boundary of the reserve.

Defining clear boundaries is one pre-requisite of effective community-based conservation.

Village co-management agreements called ‘Huong Uocs’ will be developed in each village. These form the basis of sustainable forest management in the village including sustainable harvest and resource protection mechanisms.

‘Village Protection Teams’ (community patrol groups) are to be established to enable communities to protect their forest resources. This permits sustainable harvest mechanisms to be established and assists with protection goals as ‘outsiders’ should be excluded from the core zone of Song Thanh. Village Protection Teams will consist of two to five members per village who are voted for by the community. These teams will work together and with commune officials to conduct patrols. Establishment should follow the working example in Tabhing commune, Nam Giang district.

Field demarcation of co-managed zones will require one to two months per commune and involve a lot of field time. Demarcation will be trialled in Tabhing commune during 2005 with replication in other communes in subsequent years will all communes being completed by the end of 2006.

Village Protection Teams

Essentially community patrols groups, Village Protection Teams are established to empower communities to protect their natural resources from outsiders so providing a ‘closed access’ system that can be managed and harvest sustainable. As well as facilitating an increase and stabilisation of natural capital (so acting as one avenue for poverty alleviation) these teams also assist the nature reserve in preventing access to the core zone by outside violators.

Conservation education

A member of the Community Cooperation Unit will be nominated to develop a conservation education programme for Song Thanh Nature Reserve in partnership with the rest of the unit and the commune rangers.

4.4. Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring has been intrinsically built into all activities. Three major steps to be taken to ensure all activities are conducted to the highest standards possible, within the allotted time schedule, by the most appropriate rangers and with full community consensus are:

Strategic action planning to achieve realistic, clearly defined targets within the framework of a management plan and operational plans.

Strong personnel management to ensure all rangers know what, when and how to conduct tasks. Monthly, two-way time planning and annual reviews will ensure rangers continue to work towards personnel, departmental, station and reserve goals and annual targets.

The creation of the scientific research and monitoring department will ensure an independent monitoring system to each target and facilitate the knowledge required for and the understanding of, the importance of monitoring and evaluation systems.


Nguyen Thi Dao 2002. Co-management of Protected Areas: Finding Solutions for Song Thanh Nature Reserve, Vietnam. Thesis. DICE, University of Kent, UK

Free Essays

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr. was born in Atlanta, Georgia, the son of clergyman. He graduated from Morehouse College, in Atlanta, in 1948, and received a Ph.D. in theology from Boston University in 1955. After being ordained a Baptist minister in 1947, Martin was named assistant pastor of his father’s church, Ebenezer Baptist Church in Montgomery. In 1960 he became co-pastor of his father’s church, a post he held until his death. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee, where he had gone to support striking sanitation workers. James Earl Ray was convicted of his murder.[1]

The intents of this paper are to: (1) find out why Martin Luther king was distinct from other black leaders; (2) know of his specific works and his literature; (3) be aware of the conspiracy of his death.

II. Background

A. Why Martin Luther King Jr. was distinct from other black leaders?

We have learned that King was very popular due to its noble works that he had done to every race. He was the only leader that received numerous awards even before and after his death. Aside from the award he won in the Nobel Prize, he received another award from a prestige group of Jewish American in 1965.

One year after, the Margaret Sanger Award was presented to King, Jr. by the Planned Parenthood Federation of America for his spirited and dauntless resistance to racism and his enduring devotion and commitment for his principle of having a an equality among races. Not like with other black American leaders, King, Jr. also received the President Medal of Freedom in 1977 after his death.[2] And in the 20th century, Martin Luther King, Jr. is regarded as the second most appreciated person.

Moreover, aside from the awards he received, he helped Southern Christian Leadership Conference to be found and eventually, he was hailed as head of the organization. The aims and grounds of this organization were based on Christianity and its operational strategies were from Gandhi. During his service, he was able to travel over six million miles and spoke for about twenty-five hundred times.[3] Throughout his leadership, he headed a huge demonstration and rally in Birmingham, Alabama that took notice world widely which provided of what he called a “coalition of conscience”

III. Discussion

A. King as a leader

Martin Luther King, Jr. was a United States clergyman and civil rights leader. King became the nation’s most prominent spokesman for equal justice for black Americans. He was a charismatic leader and an eloquent speaker, who preached nonviolent resistance to unjust laws and practices, a tactic he adopted from Indian leader Mohandas K. Gandhi. His civil rights efforts helped to bring about passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

He was awarded the Nobel Peace prize in 1964.[4] In 1983, the U.S. Congress voted to make his birthday, January 15, a national holiday (celebrated on the third Monday of the month). In addition, his books and literature that were written include: Stride toward Freedom (1958); Measure of a Man (1059); Strength to love (1963); Why We Can’t Wait (1964); and The Trumpets of Conscience (1968).[5]

King began his involvement in the modern civil rights movement in 1955 with leadership of the Montgomery (Alabama) bus boycott, which ended segregated seating on that city’s public buses. He then urged black Americans to follow the Montgomery example and win their rights through non-violent protest.

As head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which he helped to found in 1957, Martin Luther King, Jr. led demonstrations, marches, sit-ins, and boycotts in many cities in both the South and the North, often meeting hostility and sometimes violence.[6] He was jailed several times in the South for his activities. In 1967, he also became a leader of the peace movement, seeking an end to the Vietnamese War.

B. Its Allegations

Several suspected that there was a conspiracy during the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. Furthermore, the said eyewitnesses who surrounded King, Jr. during his assassination stated that the shot came from different locations and it came from thick shrubbery nearly close to the “rooming house” and did not exactly come there. James Earl Ray was suspected as the assassin and was put into trial.

On the other hand, Dexter King- son of Martin Luther King- was able to meet Ray and showed support publicly on Ray’s efforts to have a trial during 1997.[7] Two years later, Martin Luther King’s wife, Coreatta Scott King, and along with the member of her family received an erroneous trial against Loyd Jowers and to the unidentified accomplices. Three years after (2000), the Department of Justice had its investigation on Jower’s claims but it failed to look for evidence in order to support the allegations.[8]

IV. Conclusion

The life of Martin Luther King, Jr. was truly a blessing for every black American who experienced equality and biases from the “superior race.” This man leaves a very notable reputation and honors that none of the black Americans can compare with his notable record as a man who brought changed in America’s society. Martin Luther King, Jr. has truly contributed to the history of United States of America.

His upright deeds will not be forgotten for every individual especially for those who experienced racism. He was a type of a leader that was able to lead a mass writhe for racial equality that doomed separation and brought changed to the United States of America. His assassination was not the end of the “black people society” to keep fighting for their rights but it was only the beginning that motivated their hearts to continue fighting for its principles and rights.


Haskins, James (2004). The Life and Death of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Lothrop, Lee & Shephard, 2000).
Lincoln, C.E. (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Profile (Hill & Wang, 1996).
Oates, S.B. (1999). Let the Trumpet Sound: the Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.     (Harper & Row, 1992).
Richardson, Nigel (2003). Martin Luther King (David & Charles, 1997).
Martin Luther King: The Nobel Peace Prize 1964.”, copyright Nobel Web AB 2006. bio.html

[1] Richardson, Nigel (2003). Martin Luther King (David & Charles, 1997).
[2] Martin Luther King: The Nobel Peace Prize 1964.”, copyright Nobel Web AB 2006. bio.html
[3] Oates, S.B. (1999). Let the Trumpet Sound: the Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.      (Harper &             Row, 1992).
[4] Lincoln, C.E. (2002). Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Profile (Hill & Wang, 1996).
[5] Oates, S.B. (1999). Let the Trumpet Sound: the Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.       (Harper &             Row, 1992).
[6] Ibid…
[7] Haskins, James (2004). The Life and Death of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Lothrop, Lee &     Shephard, 2000).
[8] Oates, S.B. (1999). Let the Trumpet Sound: the Life of Martin Luther King, Jr.       (Harper &             Row, 1992).


Free Essays

Lost In Translation Vietnam A Combat Advisor’s Story

Lost In Translation: Vietnam: A Combat Advisor’s Story is a very well-known book, which was penned down by Martin J. Dockery. The author of the book has presented a very well-documented account of the experiences of a young officer’s which he encountered during the early years of America’s Vietnam War. This is a description of the time when President Kennedy had sent hundreds and thousands of advisors to Vietnam in order to teach the South Vietnamese Army the ways to fight their war. The author has basically presented the history of American military.

The book is fairly enjoyable and informative at the same time. The author of the book, that is, Martin J. Dockery was one of the advisors that were sent by President Kennedy to Saigon. Initially he was a very strong-minded, idealistic first lieutenant of the Army of the United States of America. When he arrived at Saigon, Dockery was certain of America’s coming up victory in Vietnam. A vast number of in-country military advisors of the United States of America filled basic support positions in Saigon and other major cities of Vietnam, Dockery was one of the few advisors who had been assigned Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) combat units.

Dockery lived with and fought with an ARVN infantry battalion in the Mekong Delta for nearly eight months during which they carried out missions and operations that usually lasted for a number of days. Dockery here was the single American soldier in the entire unit and most of their time was spent traipsing all the way through the sweltering jungle which was infested by leeches, hiking across canals, or getting involved in unexpected firefights.

This stay with the ARVN right in the beginning of the American participation in Southeast Asia provided Dockery with a chance to understand Vietnam far more better than any of the other Americans.  Through this book, the author has gained attention towards the chiefly disregarded part of American combat advisors in the war. By the use of sounds, smells and the view of the country as well as its people, Dockery has put forward the image of an army that was not properly trained, was ineffectual, and reluctant to fight for a government, which was perhaps as corrupt as the French colonial empire which it had replaced.

But, for Dockery, his seclusion, threat and annoyance were nothing as compared to his emergent certainty that the advisory program was prone to turn out as a disaster. He believed that even though the advisors would work to their best and that too under the most difficult situation, they would not be able to succeed in the war. Basically, through this book the author has tried to tell us about the reasons which were the cause of the American failure in Vietnam.

These causes range from the arrogance of the American views of people and culture to the complete misapprehension of the Americans regarding the influence of the dead on a culture. Through this book, the author has depicted the transformation of his preliminary zest and optimism into discontent with the responsibility that was laid down upon him by his government. The experiences of the author are extremely absorbing, but the most insightful experiences are those which he encountered during his encounters with the hosts of Vietnam regarding the cultural differences. His expression of the social values and the traditions of the Vietnamese people are extremely emotional and touching.

Book Report

As mentioned above, Lost In Translation: Vietnam: A Combat Advisor’s Story by Martin J. Dockery is a very well-known which was written by the author in order to raise awareness regarding the causes of the loss suffered by the Americans in the Vietnam war. Right in the beginning of the book the author writes, “This book is not a scholarly work or a comprehensive history. There are no footnotes. It is a memoir based primarily on my recollection of events that occurred when I was a combat advisor in Vietnam in 1962-63. It is only my story” (Dockery, Acknowledgements).

Clearly this book is just his memoir, but it has raised much awareness and has unfolded the mistakes of the American government and the military. Further on he says, “next to the birth of my sons, Vietnam has been the defining experience of my life; it has impacted me profoundly. Not a day goes by when I do not think about Vietnam and my experiences there. Even now I recollect with clarity the sounds, smells and vistas of that place and its people. My tour of duty in Vietnam was marked by isolation, frustration and danger. Nevertheless Vietnam transported me.

This is primarily an account of my assignment as a combat advisor to a South Vietnamese infantry battalion. It is an old tale from an old war, but I think it is relevant and instructive today” (Dockery, Preface). This opening statement basically clears out the fact that the book was written in order to inform us of the wrong doings of the American military and government, but when we look closely as the statement it shows how much the author, or in that case all the combat advisors had suffered during those trying times.

The book begins by the author describing his history. He begins by telling us of his family background. The memoir guides the reader through the life of the author in a very interesting yet morbid manner. Starting by his birth and his family’s background, his education, he moves on to tell us about his military training and then eventually guides the reader to his experience in Vietnam, which include not only his views over the war but also a number of interesting stories and encounters with the people and information about the land itself.

Perhaps through this book the author wishes to share the grief and frustration suffered by him as a completely isolated man. This can be seen in a number of places where he constantly mentions his loneliness. In the words of the author, “I lived and fought with a South Vietnamese infantry unit. Much of the time, I was isolated from the other Americans and was usually the only American soldier with these Vietnamese soldiers. Most field advisors in 1963    had experiences similar to mine.

The thousands of U.S. combat troops who came after me had different experiences and faced perhaps greater dangers. They have their own stories, unlike mine” (Dockery, Preface). But, the author also moves on to say that these experiences have had a profound effect on his personality. He believes that he was rather immature when he arrived in South Vietnam, but these experiences, the hardships he faced; even the loneliness helped him build his character and perhaps become a much stronger man.

According to the author, “the cumulative effect of these events was to turn an immature and insecure person into someone capable, confident and caring. That is how I see myself today. We all grow up; the Vietnam War was the period during which I matured. Although my character was tested, I was fortunate and came home a stronger person” (Dockery, Preface).

The book has been written by the author in a rather very interesting way, beginning as mentioned earlier from his childhood to his military services and then eventually to his return to USA and then back to Vietnam. The chapters have been given names which give us hints as to what to expect in the chapter. The names of the chapters are: Early Lessons, A volunteer, The participants, In the field, The cement plant, Delta Life, Back to the USA, Reflections, Return to Vietnam. The book has succeeded in presenting the

abrupt and invalid of superfluities. The author portrays his aggravation with moral compass to eventually realize self actualization as persistent warrior turn civilian. This book is highly recommendable for anyone interested in policy planning, volunteerism and also for students of Asian American studies. The contents of the book are particularly persuasive for those obligated in the meandering rational, that basic disagreement founds a respected democratic value system.

The reader here is given a loose end to think as to why unshakable dishonest civil war settings over and over again prompt this “Christo-American” reaction. After going through this book, it is hard to believe that anyone actually believed that experienced Vietnamese commanders, a vast number of whom had a very different schema, would take suggestions from a few newly appointed, rather inexperienced Americans.

The author has criticized the ways of the Americans in a rather clear and concise manner without any care for anything. In very clear words, the author’s has presented a testimony which provides unavoidable confirmation that the outcomes of the Vietnam war were extremely clear since perhaps the start of 1962, when the troops had arrived there.

The result of the war was evident but it went ignored by the higher authorities. The author has put forward the fact that perhaps the U.S. leaders would learn in a decade what the young officer’s at Vietnam learnt in perhaps a year only. The book and its realities are extremely important to go through and should especially be ready by the authorities that send soldiers off to war. The author in the book has openly claimed that for most part of his life, he was not a very caring person. He was never sensitive and could never understand the feelings of others, not even his mother, sisters or family.

But after all that he saw in the Vietnam war, his heart started realizing and feeling these things. In the words of the author, “the letters I wrote to my parents from Vietnam were devoid of hardship, danger and combat. They touched on politics, weather, food, geography and religion. I was learning to be sensitive, incrementally. Still am” (Dockery, p.6). The book has a morbid outlook all the way through, for it is the tale of a man who has suffered a lot. It should be read by those who wish to join the military services for they have the right to know just what they might face during war. The realities and truths within these pages are to be read by all. Especially those who believe in the righteousness of the American military to know just how wrong their actions were.

Every combat advisor at war has his own distinctive incidents and Martin Dockery provides us with something very readable and worth turning pages for. He explains that when they arrived at Saigon, both of the troops (the American and the South Vietnamese) were completely different from each other. They had difference cultures, religions, philosophies, educational backgrounds, traditions etc. What was worst was the difference between their languages which was the basic cause of an umber of misunderstandings and conflicts, which basically shows why he named the book ‘Lost in Translation’.

As he was completely isolated, his qualities started being brought up in him. His service ended when he had ended up with malaria, hepatitis, dysentery, skin fungus and worms. The books takes us from his birth in White Plains, NY, to his education, the Vietnam experience as well as his service in the American army’s “Old Guard”. It is full of interesting stories from which we derive much morals and realize just how wrong the American military was during the Vietnam war.


In the light of the above discussion, we can hereby culminate that Lost In Translation Vietnam A Combat Advisor’s Story, is a very well-known book which has been written by Martin J. Dockery. Martin J. Dockery was one of the vast numbers of combat advisors that were sent by President Kennedy to South Vietnam in order to teach them how to fight. The book is basically the author’s personal tale and he has written this in order to show just where the American military went wrong and faced disaster at Vietnam. He believes that most of the wrong doings were the attitudes of the Americans towards others, their arrogance etc.

The book is a must read for all and it presents us with information about the sufferings of the combat advisors who had long before predicted that the American would face disaster but the higher authorities had ignored their warnings. Anyone who believes that the military is out to work for our best or that they would win the hearts of many must read this book to see what the military made these innocent people go  through. The outlook of the book is very morbid but that is because of the baseline of the book. It begins form his childhood and then guides the reader through his entire life including his education, military training, the Vietnam experience, then coming back to USA and then going back to Vietnam. The book is full of interesting stories and can be read by all especially the students of history.

Works Cited

Dockery, Martin. Lost In Translation: Vietnam: A Combat Advisor’s Story. United States of America. Presidio Press. ISBN-10: 0891418512


Free Essays

The Communist Victory in the Vietnam War

| History | | The SHS History Co. Shahriar Syed | [The Vietnam War]| Describe why the factors which allowed the North Vietnamese Communist to win a war against a far wealthier, technologically superior power of the US. | ContentsPage No. Background2 Introduction2 Logistical Issues3 Causality Tolerance4 Economic Consequences5 Strategy & Tactics5 Communist Strategy5 Guerrilla Tactics6 American Strategy6 Tactical Response7 Vietnamese Terrain Advantages8 Leadership8 Bibliography9 Books9 Video9 Website9

Background The Vietnam War is classed under Cold-War military conflict due to the political cause for the war. The conflict was fought between North Vietnam, reinforced by the communist allies and South Vietnam, supported by the US and some anti-communist countries. The military conflict mainly occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia from the 1st of November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on the 30th April 1975. Figure 1 shows the countries on opposing sides of the war Anti-Communists forces| Communists| South Vietnam * United States * South Korea * Australia * Philippines * New Zealand * Thailand * Khmer Republic * Kingdom of Laos * Spain * Taiwan| * North Vietnam * Vietnam * Khmer Rouge * Pathet Lao * Soviet Union * China * North Korea * Czechoslovakia * Cuba * Bulgaria| The U. S. government justified their involvement in the war as a way to prevent the spread of communism to South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese government viewed the conflict as taking what is theirs from the French, later backed by the U.

S and South Vietnam itself. Introduction Despite the far wealthier and far more superior powers of the U. S. North Vietnam managed to capture South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, meaning a decisive victory. In this report the factors that lead North Vietnam to victory will be describing each factor in detail. Logistical Issues During the Vietnam War there was a great imbalance of the logistical problems on opposing sides. The American forces were facing difficulties with supporting combat forces.

Not only did they need to support American soldiers but also the military forces of South Vietnam, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Australia and other allied countries. The U. S had over 16,000 km of supply lines that was quite ineffective; it was costing over 200 billion U. S dollars to maintain this supply of food, water and weaponry*. This massive amount of war cost were only realised around the closing of the war. This in addition with the mounting U. S causalities and the fact that victory remained elusive, the American opinion moved from approval to dissatisfaction with the War.

The Communist forces however, had little to no worry about logistics, many portions of their supplies originated from themselves or from China. The supply routes were shorter and much more organized. The support made by the Chinese railway network in the Chinese provinces bordering North Vietnam was also a vital importance in importing war material. The American did not strike this network for fear of Chinese intervention, however approximately 320,000 Chinese soldiers served the communist forces in repairing and upgrading miles of track, bridges, tunnels and stations.

This made the supply chains cheaper and more effective, creating a major factor that lead to the decisive victory of communist forces. Figure 2 shows the U. S defence expenditure during the Vietnam War Figure 2 shows the U. S defence expenditure during the Vietnam War Causality Tolerance A key factor that leads to the communist takeover of South Vietnam was the numbers of causalities that they were willing to accept. The tolerance showed by the communists was comparably better than the anti-communists, in particular the U.

S. The North Vietnamese ideology was very well summed up by a quote by North Vietnamese icon, Ho Chi Minh: “You can kill ten of my men for everyone I kill of yours, but even at those odds, you will lose and I will win” That quote was upheld by the North Vietnamese forces, which is proved by the statistics: * 50,000-182,000 civilian dead * 533,000-1489,000 military dead * 600,000 missing This class of ideology was firstly supported by the anti-communists, in particular the U. S, with the quote by the President John F.

Kennedy in 1961: “Let every nation know, whether, it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival of liberty” The U. S. did support this quote highly during the early years of the war but as the time passed many and protests by the public for bringing all the soldiers to home the anti-Communist soon dealt with the fact that it would be cheaper to grant Vietnam independence; the opposite of which the North Vietnamese were doing. Figure 3 (left) shows the American deaths by year

Figure 4 (above) shows the number of deaths recorded by service branch Economic Consequences The Vietnam War had several effects on the U. S. economy, which soon lead to them withdrawing their forces from Vietnam. The requirements of the war effort strained the nation’s production capabilities, which then lead to an imbalance of different sectors within the economy. Factories that produced consumer goods were being used to make war material, which caused controversy over the government’s handling of funding. Additionally the massive amount of defence expenditure was causing several problems within the American economy.

The funds were going overseas, causing an imbalance in loan payment and a weak American Dollar, since no funds were returning to the country. Also, military expenditure, joined with domestic social spending created a deficit which fuelled inflation. Anti-war sentiments and dissatisfaction with the U. S government then started to eat into consumer confidence, interests rates rose restricting capital for businesses and consumers. These consequences then lead to an economic meltdown and then the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam.

Strategy & Tactics Communist Strategy The tactics used by the communist and the anti-communists were in different but as time went on tactics used by the belligerents became more of an action reaction style of warfare. The North Vietnamese had firstly made a clear and precise plan on the war and stuck to that plan as said before, deciding on a war of attrition, realising that they couldn’t defeat the U. S which was smart considering it was the world’s superpower at the time. The North Vietnamese decided that they would continue to fight the U.

S, planning to make the war as long, bloody and expensive for the Americans, in order to turn the American public opinion of the war against its involvement in Vietnam. This strategy was not too absurd, since it was proven successful against the French during the Indochina war (1950-54). General Vo Nguyen Giap, a principal commander during the war, was a key figure during the formation of North Vietnamese strategy developed a three-phase view into how the war will undergo: 1. Guerrilla bands would be formed and trained, and would establish bases. They would also begin infiltration, creating links with the South Vietnamese peasants.

This phase of the Giap’s strategy was proven successful as throughout the 1960s, the majority of fighting was done by the South Vietnamese communists. 2. Ambush and assassination would be used to challenge the ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam, also known as the South Vietnamese Army) 3. Conventional warfare would then be partaken by the North Vietnamese army. Giap’s war of attrition was conducted very well providing flexibility and concealment. Most operation’s done by the night they would move troops and supplies, lay mines, set booby traps and arrange ambushes; this became very crucial towards the end of the war.

Guerrilla Tactics Guerrilla tactics were used greatly during the war. Guerrilla tactics or guerrilla warfare uses military tactics by a small number of soldier or armed civilians. The North Vietnamese used a tactic known as ‘hit and run’ which involves ambushes with mines and bobby traps to surprise or hinder the Americans, then the aim was to inflict as many casualties as possible by overwhelming them for a short period of time and then withdraw before the Americans or the South Vietnamese could counter attack with artillery support of an air strike.

This tactic was used on more supplies than actually men since the Communists Another strategy used by the Vietnamese was known ‘shoot and scoot’, involving attacking a American or South Vietnamese base with mortars or artillery, normally at night, before they could return fire. An hour later, another attack would be made from a different location. This tactic was aimed to draw guards out of the base into an ambush or they’re would be more guards on patrol so they could simply shoot them down with the use of snipers, this however was very rare since sniper training was limited to a few guerrilla groups.

Figure 5 shows a Punji stick exhibit form the National Museum of the Marine Corps. This pit would usually be covered in natural undergrowth Figure 5 shows a Punji stick exhibit form the National Museum of the Marine Corps. This pit would usually be covered in natural undergrowth The North Vietnamese used booby traps extensively throughout the Vietnam War and very effectively. Not only did the booby traps maim and kill many Americans but psychological reports showed that that they never felt safe.

Bobby traps involved not only explosive, like mines and grenade triggering bobby traps, but also non-explosive traps like the deep pits, projectiles, crossbows, spiked mud balls all being triggered by a trip wire. The most famous of the non-explosive traps is known as Punji sticks where fire hardened bamboo stakes were smeared with excrement in a pit so that if the American soldier survived the fall onto the spike that they may die from blood poisoning. American Strategy

The American strategy throughout the Vietnam War was also a war of attrition; however they simply intended to use their vast amount of resources and overwhelming firepower, to make the war too costly for the communist allies to continue fighting. This ideology may have been similar but Ho Chi Minh, leader of PAVN (People’s Army of Vietnam), rightly predicted that the lack of political will would lead the American’s to withdraw from a long and bloody war. Their discipline and morale was not strong enough to sustain them throughout the war.

The American forces were also made a grave mistake by measuring their successes in the number of bombing raids they carried out and the body count of Vietnamese communists dead – they believed that there was a crossover point which represented the rate at which the PAVN could be killed, faster than they were being replenished. What they didn’t realise was most causalities that were dealt were civilians rather than soldiers. There initial strategy was flawed so their basis of their tactics would be useless. Another mistake that the U. S attempted was the ‘Hearts and Minds’ program.

Which provided aid of the destroyed villages in wore torn areas, and attempted to gain the support of South Vietnamese people. Despite the obvious destruction caused by the bombs they dropped which resulted in high civilian casualties, the US government still saw the program as necessary. This money could have been used in more effective ways to help them win the war. Tactical Response In response to guerrilla warfare used by the communists the Americans used only one main counter guerrilla tactics which adopted tactics that would kill as many of the enemy as possible with minimum risk to their forces.

Search and destroy missions became a crucial US and ARVN tactic. These involved armoured carriers to move through potential enemy hot spots in search of as many enemy bases as possible. Tanks or soldiers were flown in by helicopters and then quickly flown out before any ambushes can take place. This aimed to locate, occupy and destroy as many of the enemy as possible, either in a fire fight using hand held firearms or calling in an airstrike. This tactic had only one major flaw that was the helicopter. Figure 6 shows a CH 47 Chinooks used to delivery of supplies Figure 6 shows CH 47 Chinooks used to delivery of supplies The CH 47 Chinooks was used for troops transport and moving heavy equipment and was the singularly most important tactical weapon the anti-communist used. This technology did allow the tactic search and destroy much easier with air cavalry but the major problem with the tactic was that US and ARVN troops never spent long in the country side meaning that it would always remain under communist control. Vietnamese Terrain Advantages When fighting the Vietnamese had a crucial advantage that they were able to use the terrain in their favour.

Forces in America were not fully equipped and trained for the techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. The forces were to be trained for the limited lines of sight and arcs of fire, logistical training due to know roads for vehicles and the inherent tropical diseases that have to be prevented or treated by medical service. Most men did not go through this training causing the US forces to struggle. The Vietnamese however underwent this training due to the close proximity of jungle and the large likely hood that they would need to fight in the jungle in order to protect their country.

The terrain also made guerrilla warfare easier for the North Vietnamese due to dense vegetation. Leadership Leadership by opposing sides by the war were very different and was a great advantage by the North Vietnamese, this was due to the number of allies on the anti-communist. America, South Vietnam, South Korea, Australia as well as other countries all had a say in which the war should be carried. The Vietnamese though had a very systematic and organized view of leadership. At the head of the PAVN was Ho Chi Minh both the president and prime minister and below him was trusted generals, commanders etc. these people were the key figures of the war even though the Soviet Union and China was involved). This made this allowed the message of the war for them to become clear on the communist Vietnamese side. It also had very little room for argument since each and every general and leader had a common interest. The anti-communist side was facing numerous problems as many countries did not want to lose men but the US were at first willing to lose men in order to contain communism and the quote made by John F. Kennedy summarises there oint of view (refer to page 4). All in all, the anti-communist were not agreeing on points for the war which made progress very difficult. Bibliography Books Moore, Harold G. , 1922-We were soldiers once -and young : Ia Drang, the battle that changed the war in VietnamMOORE, H. G. , & GALLOWAY, J. L. (1992). We were soldiers once -and young: Ia Drang, the battle that changed the war in Vietnam. New York, Random House. Video JohnSmithTheSecond (2009) YouTube – First Kill – Vietnam War Documentary 1/8. [online] Available at: http://www. youtube. om/watch? v=ldzld4myS6w [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. JohnSmithTheSecond (2009) YouTube – First Kill – Vietnam War Documentary 2/8. [online] Available at: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=gwhGzOEtReQ&feature=relmfu [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. JohnSmithTheSecond (2009) YouTube – First Kill – Vietnam War Documentary 3/8. [online] Available at: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=ripjd0FbEJo&feature=relmfu [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. JohnSmithTheSecond (2009) YouTube – First Kill – Vietnam War Documentary 4/8. [online] Available at: http://www. youtube. com/watch? =0K5vz5UXobs&feature=relmfu [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. Website Awm. gov. au (1962) Vietnam War 1962–75 | Australian War Memorial. [online] Available at: http://www. awm. gov. au/atwar/vietnam. asp [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. En. wikipedia. org (1955) Vietnam War – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Vietnam_War [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. En. wikipedia. org (2007) Jungle warfare – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Jungle_warfare [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. En. ikipedia. org (1946) Ho Chi Minh – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ho_Chi_Minh [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. En. wikipedia. org (1987) Guerrilla warfare – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Guerrilla_warfare [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. En. wikipedia. org (1971) Strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Strategy_and_tactics_of_guerrilla_warfare [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012].

Encyclopedia2. thefreedictionary. com (1869) Guerrilla tactics definition of Guerrilla tactics in the Free Online Encyclopedia.. [online] Available at: http://encyclopedia2. thefreedictionary. com/Guerrilla+tactics [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. History. com (1960) Vietnam War — History. com Articles, Video, Pictures and Facts. [online] Available at: http://www. history. com/topics/vietnam-war [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. Pbs. org (1996) Battlefield:Vietnam | Guerrilla Tactics. [online] Available at: http://www. pbs. org/battlefieldvietnam/guerrilla/index. tml [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. Rosenberg, J. (1967) Vietnam War – A History of the Vietnam War. [online] Available at: http://history1900s. about. com/od/vietnamwar/a/vietnamwar. htm [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. Time. com (1998) Ho Chi Minh – TIME. [online] Available at: http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,988162,00. html [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012]. Vietnam-war. commemoration. gov. au (1962) Australia and the Vietnam War. [online] Available at: http://vietnam-war. commemoration. gov. au/ [Accessed: 18 Oct 2012].

Free Essays

Different Between Vietnam and Us

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VIETNAM AND THE U. S I am an immigrant person who came to the U. S under family sponsorship. Living here for 4 years, I have learned a lot of interesting things in this country. There are so many differences between Vietnam and the U. S as relationship, weather, religion, fashion, language…. but the most three obvious differences between them are country size, education system and culture. Country size is a great difference between these countries. Vietnam is very small country that has S shape .

It is bother to the North by China and to the East by Lao and Cambodia. The total land of Vietnam is only 127,276 square miles . it is lightly larger than New Mexico stare of America. On another hand, the United States is the third largest country in the world, which has 3,536,274 square miles. It is located in North America between Canada and Mexico. Another difference is education system between these countries. Vietnamese students face with more difficult than U. S students. They have to wear uniform going to school.

They should obey and show respect to their teachers. Tuition in Vietnam is very high. Parents have to pay for their children. Government doesn’t help for poor people attending school. In the contract, the U. S education system is more comfortable. Students can wear whatever they want to school. In class ,they can say what they think in their mind, discuss equally with their teacher. Government pays all tuition for students form fist grate to the twelve grade . After graduating form college , they have more opportunities to get a job .

Today more people around the world come to the U. S to have better education The last obvious difference between Vietnam and The U. S is culture. Vietnam’s culture is suffered form China. There are two to there generations living together in the same house. Man is leader in the family, which has more power. They go out working and doing business while woman in Vietnam stay home, take care family. Children must listen to their parents. Unmarried people living together is unacceptable . However, American culture is pposite and it was strange to me when I came here . Man and woman are equally. American families are smaller. Adult people like to move out living with their friends when they finish high school . Children can decide what they want to do . They are independent from their parents . Man and woman can live together without getting married In conclusion, Vietnam and the U. S have a lot of differences. I cannot tell which one is better because each country has advances and disadvances. It depend on each person’s life so they can choose where is the best for them .

Free Essays

Comparing and Contrasting Japan and Vietnam

Social division, politics, culture 1. Body Paragraph: Social division throughout Japan and Vietnam were both structured from Chinese past times. In Japan, there was no caste system at first but it later flourished. Women were allowed to participate in military actions, but not own property or money. Throughout this time period women lost power. Koreans inter-married between ethnic groups which provided characteristics of Southeast Asia. Both of these countries were very similar to the Chinese in their social divisions because of trade.

Trade routes such as the Silk Road gave The Japanese and Vietnamese opportunities to “borrow” Chinese ideas. 2. Body Paragraph: State building, expansion, and conflict differed in Japan and Vietnam. The Vietnamese attended Chinese style schools and had a Chinese style military. Resistance to the Chinese influence led to division within Vietnam (North and South). Japan was ruled by an aristocracy. The Monks resisted the attempt to reconstruct imperial authorization.

Once the military gained control, the feudal system began. A civil war broke out between the peasant and upper class in Japan. This led to Japan being divided into over three hundred smaller kingdoms. As I mentioned already, Japan did not start out with a caste system, but this social division is what led to the outbreak or civil war. Without the division, Japan may not have broken up into small kingdoms. 3. Body Paragraph: The culture of Japan and Vietnam were also influenced by the Chinese.

The Japanese had a strict court system that was filled with gossip and emphasized the arts. The first novel was also developed. Power struggles within the country led to the establishment of the court system. In Vietnam, women enjoyed greater freedom and choice for dress. The architecture was very similar to the Chinese, and they enforced assimilation of people. The difference between Japan and Vietnam was that in Japan women never gained back the slight freedom they once had, whereas in Vietnam women gained more rights.

Free Essays

The Vietnam War Memorial

The Vietnam War Memorial, like the war it memorializes, was initially steeped in controversy. It was called unemotional and ‘a black gash of shame’. Criticism was leveled at the artist for her being of Asian extraction. Like the Vietnam War, Americans gradually began to see the other side of the coin and it is now one of America’s most revered art pieces. It is comprised of black granite panels set into ground so that the viewer literally walks into the piece. On the panel is carved the names of the 58,000 plus American war dead (Sands).

It is a part of the landscape by design. Lin said, “I didn’t want to destroy a living park. You use the landscape. You don’t fight with it,” (  A companion piece, a statue of American warriors, war weary and in battle dress was erected at the site. I think the memorial is a moving piece of art, fraught with symbolism that is more apparent when visiting it than it can ever be from photos or descriptions. It is the duty of any nation that sends its young men into combat to remember and honor those who gave the ultimate for their country.

I think that while hostilities are ongoing and the deaths are mounting, however, the tribute should take a form different from a cold memorial. I think the man who sent them to the war zone should read us the names of each fallen warrior at the close of day and explain how that warrior died. If he refuses, then each day in the House of Representatives the names should be read, and those names then be carried to the White House.

The purpose of a war memorial is not always the same for every war and for every cause. It can be a tribute to the fallen dead in a war that was waged for survival. It can be a piece of propaganda for a war that had no business being waged. It can be designed and erected as a balm to heal the scars of a bitter and divisive conflict. Vietnam divided our nation and nearly brought us into open rebellion with the government that refused to listen to the will of the people.

The veterans of the Vietnam War seem to be flooded with memories when they confront the names of fallen comrades whose names are engraved in the polished black granite. Yusef Komunyakaa’s poem, Facing It, described the feeling he had of being back in the war, symbolically being inside the memorial itself. He could see the explosion that killed his friend by reading the man’s name on the wall. “I touch the name Andrew Johnson; I see the booby trap’s white flash,” (lines 16-17), he says in the poem. At Santa Monica Beach near Los Angeles every Sunday a local chapter of the Veterans for Peace erects a temporary memorial to the fallen dead of the Iraq War (Veterans For Peace).

It is called Arlington West for the Arlington National Cemetery in the east.  It is similar to and different from the Vietnam War Memorial. It has a list of fallen Americans as a tribute to them but also it memorializes the dead Iraqis, which the Vietnam Wall does not do for the fallen Vietnamese. Volunteers erect rows of crosses and symbolic flag draped coffins. It is more performance art than a permanent fixture but still emotionally moving, particularly to the families of the dead. Visiting there is a way to express the grief and frustration the same as at the Vietnam Wall. It shows that there is not a single way to create a memorial any more than there a single way to create art. There are different ways to move people.

The Vietnam Wall is a vital robust and moving tribute to a nasty war. It has helped to heal a divided nation and bring closure. The Arlington West project is for an ongoing war and can be seen as a protest of that war as much as a memorial to the dead. The idea of requiring the people who send men off to war to read the names of the dead seems to be fitting. They would be forced to see the toll they are taking at least in terms of numbers and perhaps put a face on the dead. For now they are simply statistics.

Bibliography  2007  Viet Nam Veterans Memorial Retrieved 4-3-07



Sands, K.  Jack Magazine  Maya Lin’s Wall: A Tribute to Americans Retrieved 4-

3-07 from:

Veterans For Peace   4-07  Arlington West Memorial Santa Monica Retrieved

4-3-07 from:


Free Essays

Vietnam Research Paper

Why is the Vietnam War so significant in American history? How did it really affect America? The Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle between nationalist forces trying to unify Vietnam under a communist government, and the United States attempting to prevent the spread of communism. There are many lessons learned throughout this war that America, hopefully, will never undergo again. There are a series of events that led up to this full-scale war. First, the U. S. tried to prevent Vietnam from becoming a communist nation, so they sent the French military aid to help rule against this.

Soon enough, France wanted to withdraw their troops out of Vietnam; the Geneva Conference was a meeting between many nations deciding how France could peacefully pull out troops. A bit later, there was supposed to be a General democratic election held, but America refused to agree to the election, afraid that the communists would win. In 1965, the U. S. sent ground troops to help South Vietnam, sparking tensions between the U. S. and North Vietnam.

From 1965 to 1969, America was involved in a limited war in Vietnam, meaning weak efforts to attack North Vietnam. U. S. orces became easily frustrated because war in the jungle was found difficult. Vietnam would attack in ambushes, set up booby traps, and escape through underground tunnels. To prove even more difficult, Northern Vietnam troops and the Viet Cong surprised South Vietnam and U. S. troops. On January 30, 1968 they attacked hundreds of South Vietnamese cities and towns, known as the Tet Offensive. Without a doubt, it showed that the enemy was stronger and better prepared. While the public’s support for the war was way gone, there was new hope with Richard Nixon, the new president of America.

Soon after taking office, Richard Nixon planned the policy Vietnamization, which was a process to remove U. S. troops from Vietnam while handing back the fighting to the South Vietnamese. While America had almost completed the withdrawal of their troops from Vietnam, the North Vietnam attacked South Vietnam and the remaining troops on March 30, 1972. This attack is known as the Easter Offensive. This rough battle resulted in about 40,000 deaths and 60,000 people wounded or missing in the People’s Army of North Vietnam (PAVN). The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) estimated at 10,000 deaths and 33,000 troops wounded.

The offensive was defeated, but the PAVN continued to occupy about 10 percent of South Vietnam after this battle. Nixon was in the process of his Vietnamization policy, when discussions had arisen about restoring peace in Vietnam. Soon began peace talks in Paris that finally succeeded in producing a cease-fire agreement. Nixon declares the news of the decisions made during the Paris peace talks. “Good evening. I have asked for this radio and television time tonight for the purpose of announcing that we today have concluded an agreement to end the war and bring peace with honor in Vietnam and in Southeast Asia.

The following statement is being issued at this moment in Washington and Hanoi: At 12:30 Paris time today [Tuesday], January 23, 1973, the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam was initialed by Dr. Henry Kissinger on behalf of the United States, and Special Adviser Le Duc Tho on behalf of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. The agreement will be formally signed by the parties participating in the Paris Conference on Vietnam on January 27, 1973, at the International Conference Center in Paris.

The cease-fire will take effect at 2400 Greenwich Mean Time, January 27, 1973. The United States and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam express the hope that this agreement will insure stable peace in Vietnam and contribute to the preservation of lasting peace in Indochina and Southeast Asia…The important thing was not to talk about peace, but to get peace and to get the right kind of peace. This we have done” (“Peace with Honor” 1). After signing the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, on March 29, 1973 the last group of U. S. troops left Vietnam.

The North Vietnam toppled the Southern Vietnamese government, and South Vietnam officially surrendered in 1975 to communist North Vietnam. Tolerating all the hard work and fighting was proved pointless for American and ARVN troops when Vietnam was reunited as a communist country in 1976. Often in history, major events such as wars or disasters are the key elements that seem to influence and shape our society. The major event that shaped American society during the ‘70s was the Vietnam War, having a massive social impact. The Vietnam War acted as a catalyst to the counterculture movement, and changed the art, music, and education.

Free Essays

Why Did America Withdraw Its Forces

By 1973, after a decade of brutal armed contact and with nearly 60,000 Americans dead, the once proud and mighty USA had been brought to its knees. Feeling isolated the USA decided to abandon its commitment in Vietnam after rising pressure from years of mistakes. America withdrew from Vietnam due to several main reasons; some were long-term e.g. Protests of the American citizens, and others were short-term factors e.g. Morale of American soldiers. In this essay I will discuss the main factors for American withdrawal from Vietnam and try to process the most important ones. I will show how the US media combined with protests in the USA was the most important reason for American withdrawal and ultimately led to the American withdrawal from Vietnam.

America’s first mistake regarding the war was the most fundamental. Their tactics. All of America’s tactics were inappropriate, brutal and they were only looking for fast solutions and never the bigger picture. America did the worst thing possible in a war and based all of their tactics on assumptions, which by matter of coincidence were all wrong.

The first indication of American tactics being reckless and inappropriate was the infamous “Operation Rolling Thunder” ordered by LBJ and subjected the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other suspected communist bases in South Vietnam to bombing for 8 weeks. 3 ½ years later more bombs had been dropped on South Vietnam than all the bombs that were dropped in the Second World War, the Ho Chi Minh Trail was still intact and the most casualties inflicted were those on Vietnamese civilians leading America to lose the “Hearts and Minds” of the Vietnamese. After the very first battle of Vietnam, set in The Ia Drang valley, America set a pattern for their tactics which would remain for the rest of the war; tactics which would question the very competence of the American government. General Westmoreland was convinced that if the communists maintained heavy losses they could not and would not continue the war, and also that the American people would accept the American losses if it meant the communists could be defeated.

This lead to America measuring their success in the war by using kill to death ratios. In other words, if communists were losing more soldiers than America, then America was winning, and vice versa. General Westmoreland continued to believe that a use of superior firepower over the communists would lead to victory in any battle combined with the usage of search and destroy missions (for lack of a better word, wandering aimlessly into communist territory and expecting to surprise them).

In light of the above it’s not surprising that whilst American tactics were failing, the communist’s guerrilla tactics yielded success over the Americans. After the first battle in The Ia Drang Valley the Vietcong knew they could not win large battles with the US as they had backing artillery and air support. They instead opted to do ‘Hit & Run’ guerrilla raids on unsuspecting American troops during search and destroy missions. This would mean much fewer casualties and also having the element of surprise over the Americans. If they were forced into a large battle the Vietcong would try to stay close to the enemy to stop the Americans from calling artillery and air support (they wouldn’t want to hit their own troops of course).

Over 51% of Americans killed in the war were killed by small arms i.e. pistols, machine guns, basic military equipment. The communists never tried to think they could go face to face with the full might of the American army and so devised guerrilla tactics to fight a war the Americans were unfamiliar with and were reluctant to fight. Whilst America was always on the lookout for NVA troops to have a large battle they assumed that the less trained Vietcong guerrilla fighters would be of little threat and left them to the ARVN. Whilst the Americans hopelessly looked for the NVA, the Vietcong would watch on and when they least expected would raid the Americans, and before US troops could call for back-up the Vietcong would be gone with miner losses and the Americans in severe distress.

The Vietcong were not only dependent on ‘Hit & Run’ operations but also used booby traps and mines. Booby traps were simple and easy to make and would mainly consist of a trip wire and some sharpened bamboo sticks. Mines were more sophisticated but had the same idea. ‘Bouncing betty’ mines would be triggered when a soldier stepped on them, fly up a metre in front of the man walking behind and go off (they were designed to reach the height of a man’s genitals). Over 11% of men killed in the war were caused by booby traps and mines and left the survivors frustrated that no enemy was seen, no one to shoot at.

Guerrilla war success was due to Americas stubbornness over its tactics, reluctant to believe that such simple ways of fighting could defeat all the fire power in the US army, and also how the communists always learnt a lesson from their mistakes until they had a strategy for defeating Americans in combat, and seeing as America didn’t want to think it made a mistake in the first place it’s tactics stuck and a pattern was set for the rest of the war. American soldiers were left frustrated that they could never get a good full on fight with the communists like they were trained for, and with no one else to express their anger on they turned on the civilians.

This leads onto my next point that through America’s brutal tactics they inadvertently lost the support of Vietnamese civilians. The Americans knew from an early stage that winning the support of the South Vietnamese peasants was a vital key to the war ( the policy was called winning the “Hearts & Minds” of the people) but unlike the Vietcong the USA didn’t know how to do it and the South Vietnamese government didn’t want to do it. The main issue was land reform and the Vietcong made sure to take land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor peasants, a decision the South Vietnamese government were unwilling to make.

Happy with the communist’s ideas peasants would give food, weapons and intelligence to the Vietcong as well as housing them, making it almost impossible for American soldiers to distinguish between friend and foe. Soldiers were angry they were fighting an enemy that could not be seen and would mercilessly kill them in surprise attacks, and so felt they had no choice but to eliminate all threats from nearby-by villages, always suspecting anyone could be a Vietcong and believing it was better to be safe than sorry. “Zippo raids” were frequently carried out on villages (which mostly weren’t collaborating with the Vietcong) where soldiers would destroy all supplies in the village including animals and then execute suspected communists.

Defoliants would be sprayed on all the food and surrounding forest area so Vietcong wouldn’t be able to find supplies or hide (with the most used defoliant called Agent Orange, which was known to cause cancer, and would be washed into the streams by rain and drunk by soldiers on both sides). Although soldiers were directly told not to harm civilians, most peasants couldn’t be distinguished between innocent and guilty as the Vietcong wore civilian clothes. Soldiers would kill the civilians from anger and mistrust over months of low morale and failure (which would lead onto massacres like My Lai). Innocent civilians would be mutilated, raped or killed without a trial, and when the GI’s would leave only resentment and a lust for revenge would be left behind ironically turning most anti-communist civilians into communists themselves.

An account from one GI after completing a raid was “if they weren’t pro- Vietcong before we got there, they sure as hell were by the time we left”. Frustrated with their failure to break the support of the peasants for the Vietcong, America initiated the “Strategic Hamlet” operation in 1962 where peasants were moved away from areas where the NLF was strong and into guarded hamlets, kilometres away from their homes. The operation was a complete failure. In many cases the NLF would already have supporters inside the villages and all that would have been done is moving communist supporters to a new area to spread their ideas. Those villagers who weren’t already in the NLF often would become supporters because of the way they were treated.

GI soldiers were always told to see their enemy as subhuman and before long they would treat civilians as they treated the enemy. In the jungle GI’s couldn’t trust anyone who was not an American, as they had learned from past experiences, and weren’t prepared to spare the life of a peasant who could possibly be conspiring to kill them in a moment without mercy. American soldiers started wondering why they were fighting for a group of civilians that just wanted them dead anyway, and without a just cause many of the soldiers lost belief in the war. The argument that will be put forward here is that combined with the realisation that guerrilla warfare tactics dominated over US tactics and the understanding that they were surrounded by enemies, all alone in a country whose citizens didn’t want their help, US soldiers lost sight of the point of their occupation.

The soldier questioned why he should fight and risk his life for someone who just wanted to kill him. Over time the average US soldier lost faith in his mission and morale dropped to new lows. Without the morale of the soldiers, fighting an already superior enemy was hopeless. At the beginning morale wasn’t an issue at all. All the soldiers in the army were career soldiers who believed in whatever cause the US government believed in, but after time more and more of them died, leaving only drafted soldiers who didn’t want to be there nor fight for a cause. A one year tour of duty was thought to keep morale high, but unfortunately this tactic was also a horrible failure. A constant supply of replacements was needed for men who had either died or finished their tour of duty and those who were close to the end of their tour of duty (being ‘short’) were desperate to avoid combat or risks, making them less effective.

Replacements or ‘cherries’ as they were nicknamed, were inexperienced and would be put into squads with more seasoned veterans of war, whom would not except the cherries until they had proven themselves in combat. Platoons would be divided in two causing a breakdown in communication between the soldiers, making the unit less effective. ‘Fragging’ also became a major problem in platoons. Relationships between conscripted soldiers and officers would usually be strained. Many officers were career soldiers looking for promotion and so needed a high body count of enemy kills, whereas most GI’s who were conscripted just wanted to stay alive until their DEROS (Date Eligible for Return from Overseas). Hostility towards the officers sometimes led to their men killing them and 3% of all officers who were killed in Vietnam were killed by their own men.

During 1970-1971 there were over 700 cases of Fragging alone. Another case of low morale among the GI’s was drug-taking, which further diminished the effectiveness of the US forces in Vietnam. Marijuana was the most popular drug among GI’s in ‘R & R’ (rest and recreation), but cocaine, heroin and amphetamines were also used to get ‘High’. In 1971, 5000 men were treated in hospital for combat wounds and 20,000 were treated for drug abuse. The fact that more troops were treated for drug abuse than combat wounds as well as sometimes Fragging their officers is definitive proof of low morale. More important reasons for low morale occurred during the war also. All soldiers need to know that the cause they are fighting for is a good one as well as knowing that the people back home support them and the cause.

If they think that the war isn’t a good one or that the people back home are opposing them then they quickly lose faith in their duty. Between 1966 and 1973 there were 503,000 cases of desertion in the US army in Vietnam (Note – The figures include ‘Draft Dodgers’ and people who deserted multiple times). The truth is drafted soldiers no longer wanted to fight when they were despised by everyone, even their own people at home, and they couldn’t find any good reason left to stay in Vietnam unlike the North Vietnamese who were fighting for their homeland. All the soldiers were broken men and how could the US imagine winning a war if their own troops weren’t willing to fight anymore.

All of this helps to explain that the war was not just lost for military reasons alone, and that politics played a large part too. At the start of the war the media and people believed the war was the right course of action but as time passed people started questioning the purpose of it all. People began to realize that America wasn’t really at threat from communism and the war wasn’t worth the lives of thousands of young soldiers. In 1966 the North Vietnamese finally let a reporter from the New York Times visit north Vietnam. He reported on the destruction of civilian areas and casualties caused by American bombing raids.

The US army always denied bombing civilian areas or if there were civilian casualties, they claimed, there weren’t many of them. The reporters’ views widened still the ‘Credibility Gap’ and US citizens began distrusting what the American military was telling them. After the Tet offensive in 1968 the American people were outraged that the North Vietnamese so easily infiltrated South Vietnam with such numbers. For years they had been told that they were on the verge of winning the war but now they seemed further away than ever. Media coverage also helped to portray horrors committed by the American troops towards civilians such as My Lai. The American people were appalled with what they saw and began wondering who the bad guy really was, asking how they could support their own men when they were killing innocent women and children.

The war was costing US citizens $20 billion dollars a year which meant that taxes would rise dramatically and LBJ would have to cancel his ‘Great Society’ programme of reform. This was obviously not a popular decision with the Public. President Johnson decided not to stand for re-election in 1968 knowing the war would cost him any chance he had of winning. What finally sparked off the entire nation was when the new president, Nixon ordered the initiation of ‘Operation Menu’. The order included the invasion & bombing of communist bases in neutral Cambodia and Laos. This only appeared as another act of war and a chance of another ‘Vietnam’, which greatly angered the American public.

Protests sprang up in universities across the country at the escalation in their country’s role. In one of these protests 4 students were shot and killed by the National Guard at Kent University in Ohio. This Sparked off a further 400 protests in other universities. Other huge protest marches took place in 1969, 1970 and 1971 under the Anti-war movement, and in April 1971 as many as 500,000 people protested in Washington. Two weeks later another demonstration in favour of the war was launched. Only 15,000 took part. It was clear now that the people had spoken and with no other options Nixon began his process of vietnamisation.

So after 10 years of hard gruelling war America finally left Vietnam in 1973, accomplishing nothing and leaving behind a corrupt government which would inevitably fall into communist hands. Because of the media it was the first television war and clearly had an effect on their success, lowering the confidence of GI’s and American people in the war.

With taxes rising from costs of the war and not knowing if they could trust their own government anymore, the anti-war movement raged in America sparking riots and protests all across the country. The Vietnam War was a huge blow for American foreign policies, showing that communism was a force to be reckoned with if it could beat America. The policy of containment had failed and America’s domino theory was a flop, as the world hadn’t succumbed to communism as America had feared (apart from Laos). A complex chain of cause and effect lead to the dramatic events of 1973, events which still cast a shadow over American policy today.

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An Overview of Population Growth in Vietnam and New Zealand

TOPIC: Compare and contrast population growth rates in Vietnam and New Zealand since 2000s and give reasons for the similarities or differences. What effects have these changes had on the economies and societies of the two countries ? Essay: Population growth rate is the increase in a country’s population during a period of time, usually one year, expressed as a percentage of the population at the start of that period. Each country in the world has different rates based on the number of births, deaths during the period and the number of immigrants, emigrants.

In this essay, I would make some comparison and contrast of population growth rates between Vietnam and New Zealand since 2000s as well as give reasons for rise or decline in population. Besides that, population growth has effects on the economy and society of two countries will be discussed. There are differences in the population growth in Vietnam and New Zealand. Overall, the rates look dissimilar in two countries. It is evident from both graphs about the population growth rate in New Zealand and Vietnam of CIA World Factbook, New Zealand is the country with low population growth rate while Vietnam has high population growth rate.

As can be seen from the graph of New Zealand (CIA World Factbook) , the rate fluctuated mildly. The highest rate in 2000 reached 1. 17% whereas the lowest one in 2011 accounted for 0. 88%. Between 2000 and 2007 the population growth rate dropped steadily from 1. 17% to 0. 95% then rose slightly to 0. 97% in 2008. From 2008 to 2011, it declined gradually to 0. 88%. It is noticeable from the graph of Vietnam (CIA World Factbook), the population growth rate fluctuated widely. The highest rate in 2000 made up 1. 49 but the lowest one stood at 0. 98% in 2009.

From 2000 to 2003, the number of population growth has a sharp fall from 1. 49% to 1. 29% then increased slightly to 1. 3% in 2004. Between 2004 and 2009 the rate dropped dramatically to 0. 98% afterward had a minimal rise to 1. 1% in 2010. Then it went down gradually to 1. 08% by 2011. Similarly, both the population growth rates in Vietnam and New Zealand declined in some periods, 2000-2007, 2008-2009, 2010-2011. However, a comparison of population growth rates in two countries reveals several similarities but the great deal number of differences.

In stages 2003-2004 and 2009-2010, while the number of population growth increased in Vietnam, it decreased in New Zealand. From 2007 to 2008, the population growth rate went up in New Zealand whereas went down in Vietnam. Second, the reason for the rise or the decline in population in New Zealand is completely different from that in Vietnam. While the main reasons in New Zealand are emigration and low birth rate, in Vietnam those are high population structure and low awareness of women living in rural areas. The main reason to explain the decrease in population in New Zealand is emigration.

According to the ABS and Statistics New Zealand, it is estimated about 14% New Zealanders emigrate to other countries each year. Of these, over three-fourths emigrate to Australia. Other communities of New Zealanders abroad are concentrated in other English-speaking countries, specifically the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada, with smaller numbers located elsewhere. The low birth rates also affect the decrease in population in New Zealand. As professor Natalie Jackson from Waikato University’s National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis mentioned New Zealanders’ birth rates have declined over the past several decades.

People are living longer because of increased access to immunization, primary health care and disease eradication programs. Many parents are realizing that as health conditions improve, more of their children are likely to survive, so they are choosing to have fewer babies. In addition, with greater access to education and jobs, more women in New Zealand are starting their families later and are having fewer, healthier children (Study to find solutions to population decline, www. waikato. ac. nz). It is said that Vietnam is the third most densely populated country in Southeast Asia behind Singapore and Philippines.

The main argument to explain the rise in population in Vietnam is high population structure. According to UN’s article in Vietnam, the population growth rate in Vietnam went down recently because the country has experienced a decrease in the total fertility rate. Even when the total fertility drops below replacement level, the absolute number of people will continue to increase due to population momentum . The continued population growth is the legacy of earlier years of high fertility rates and cannot be avoided.

So each year population in Vietnam increased reaching an average of one million people (Vietnam’s population keeps growing despite decrease in total fertility rate, http://www. un. org. vn). Another convincing reason is low awareness of women living rural areas. There were 60,410,101 people (70. 4% total population of the country) living in rural areas. Of these, three-fourth women especially in high land central provinces married before the age of 20, with a woman on an average bearing four or more than four children.

However, later the legal marriage age for women was set at 22 but this law met serious opposition in those areas. As the Vietnamese believed in “falling in love early and getting married early” (Vietnam Population, http://www. asiarooms. com). Changes in population have both positive and negative impacts on the society and economy. In Vietnam, increased population growth generally represents problems for country- it means increased need for food, infrastructure, services, jobs…

In addition, the population growth also provides a huge amount of labor force, the potential for rapid economic development is certainly there (Population Growth Rates, www. geography. about. com). In contrast, New Zealand’s government is facing a considerable loss of gray matter because of emigration. Nearly one quarter of New Zealand’s highly-skilled workers live overseas, mostly in Australia and Britain, more than any other developed nation. That will cause a serious damage on its economy (Demographics of New Zealand, http://en. wikipedia. org).

In conclusion, population growth rate varies from country to country. Even though Vietnam and New Zealand seem similar in many features of population growth rates since 2000s, the causes of declining or increasing population and the effects on economy and society of two countries are totally different. Besides that, Vietnam’s government should have strict population policies, education programs for women to control population growth and New Zealand’s is expected to have more investments to prevent skillful workers from emigrating as well as improve the birth rates.

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What Is Mice? Search for Its Potential for Vietnam Tourism

Topic : WHAT IS MICE? SEARCH FOR ITS POTENTIAL FOR VIETNAM TOURISM. ***************** MICE is one of the most developing kinds of tourism, not only in the world but also in Vietnam. To many people, it is really a new conception. MICE tourism means travelling in combination with attending meetings or conferences. MICE stands for Meeting, Incentives, Conferences, Exhibition. According to travel firms, MICE tourism can bring turnover six-fold higher than other kinds of tourism as MICE delegations always consist of several hundred travelers who have big budgets and use many kinds of services.

MICE is now a kind of tourism that brings great income to the tourism sector of many countries. Destinations in Singapore, Bangkok, Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur have become familiar with MICE tourists, therefore the World Tourism Organizationwants to discover a new destination in Southeast Asia such as Vietnam. As you know, Vietnam is not only famous for the friendly people, the special food, the national character, the hidden charm but also a very peaceful country.

So, being a peaceful country is really a strong-point of MICE tourism in Vietnam. Moreover, Vietnam is on the way of integration process. Thata€™s why there are many meetings and events organized to co-operate in business, set up relation and consolidate friendship with other countries. Besides, MICE is also attractive to the Corporate Entertainment as it brings them greater income than any other kinds of events as well as helps them to advertise their brand-name to people from different countries easily.

As you can see, Vietnam has many advantages to develop this kind of tourism. Therefore, MICE industry becomes new development trend in Vietnam. However, Vietnam should be more flexible with the market field of vision, concentrate on training the staffs to serve tourists in the best way. In the future, Vietnam will no longer become the best choice for MICE delegations in the world.

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Vietnam Pest Analysis

Depends on your company. For a more accurate PEST analysis, it’s best to consider your company’s structure, product, and strategy. Anyway, here’s a very simple PEST analysis. Political – Vietnam is a Single Party Communist State. There is more likely to be higher government control and less autonomy for the organization wanting to enter the Vietnamese market. However, on the good side, Vietnam is more likely to have relatively greater political stability. Would be advisable to form good relations with the local government and negotiate favorable terms with them.

Economy – Vietnam is a developing economy. GDP per capita is USD2,942. 00. To cater for the largest demographic, it is best to use a price leadership strategy rather than rely on product differentiation. Sell a cheaper, and more basic product or service, rather than offer a premium quality or novelty product. Socio-Cultural – For a foreign organization, there are bound to be language barriers (most obvious factor). Ensure that the labels on the packaging is in Vietnamese if you’re selling a product. Vietnam is also predominantly Buddhist (85% of the population).

It is better to offer a product or service that respects the local values and culture, and is compatible. Technology – Infrastructure (an important factor) in Vietnam is adequate. Road, and rail infrastructure is well-developed. Railways are linked to other countries such as China, Laos and Cambodia. There are also 17 civil airports operating in Vietnam and pipelines to transport liquids such as petroleum. There are of course, ports (Ha Long City). Not sure if this helps. It would be better if we knew more about your business.

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French Imperialism in Vietnam

The average person in France was unaware of conditions in their African colonies. And the same can be said concerning French rule in Vietnam, where the French were equally oppressive. In the late nineteenth century, the French overthrew a feudal monarchy and fought long, extended military campaigns against resistance to their rule. Many of Vietnam’s educated elite opposed French rule and would not work for the French, but the French found a few opportunistic Vietnamese who would. In Vietnam, and elsewhere in Indochina, Frenchmen grabbed lands, and they built plantations that produced rubber and other forest products.

In the first decade of the twentieth century, France’s colonial administration in Vietnam encouraged French commercial enterprises. They built railways, roads and hydraulic works to serve these enterprises. Vietnam was a thickly populated, predominately peasant society, but projects that would have served Vietnamese farmers were ignored. Vietnam’s farmers continued to suffer from the usual droughts and floods. Per capita rice consumption declined. And what had been Vietnam’s handicraft industry was destroyed.

A new class of Vietnamese had come into being: people who labored for the French as servants, or who labored in French-owned mines, on French-owned plantations, at French construction sites or in French-owned factories. The French paid them as little as they could — hardly enough for survival, and sometimes not enough. As in Africa, the French were taxing the Vietnamese and drafting them to labor on public works. On one such project — the Hanoi-Yunnan Phu railway — 25,000 Vietnamese died. Conditions in Vietnam in general were creating a decline in Vietnam’s population.

The French in Vietnam established a monopoly in the production of salt, alcoholic beverages and opium. They taxed consumption of these. They encouraged Vietnamese to buy their opium, and money gained from their opium trade was an important part of the colonial administration’s income. A French company, Fontaine, held a monopoly in making and selling alcoholic beverages in Vietnam, and all other distilling was banned and severely punished with imprisonment and confiscation of property. And in 1902 the colonial administration made buying alcoholic beverages compulsory, each

Vietnamese village having to consume a definite quantity in proportion to its population — more of the behavior that French commerce and government dare not perpetrate on people in France. In 1908, Vietnamese farmers responded to a rise in taxes by marching to the French administration headquarters. For weeks, thousands of peasants picketed the governor’s office in Hue and made passionate speeches, not only against taxes but forced labor. The protest spread, and the French countered with ferocity. Demonstrators were gunned down.

Whole villages were razed to the ground. Thousands were arrested, and two Vietnamese scholars who had spoken against French policies were executed. But in Vietnam and Africa, while French commercial operations were benefiting privately owned French companies, revenues from France’s colonies were not paying the cost of maintenance and administration. Average French taxpayers — like British taxpayers — were subsidizing their nation’s colonies. -________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Vietnam War Outcome Influenced by the Media

Term 3 Paper: The Media and Vietnam War The Vietnam War was a war of mass destruction, leaving Vietnam to become bitterly divided and claiming the many lives of Vietnamese civilians as well as American soldiers. Out of all the wars in American history, the Vietnam War was the first war to be broadly televised and covered by the media. It came to be known as the first “Television War”. Journalists began to pour into Vietnam from all over the nation, to cover the lives of the American Soldiers as well as Vietnamese civilians.

As television brought horrendous images of the war into American living rooms, the perception of an American solider as a hero slowly became the image of the American enemy. Thus, the media is a major factor that resulted to the Vietnamization of the conflict, following the end of the war during the fall of Saigon. Television was the main source of news for the American public, and perhaps the most influence on the public opinion of the war. A study showed that “In 1950, only nine percent of homes owned a television. By 1966, this rose to ninety-three percent. (McLaughlin). As television popularity rose, Americans began to depend of television as an accurate source of how they understood the war. In addition, no censorship was established to limit the amount of information being put out to the American public. In the website article, Vietnam: A Censored War, John a. Cloud states “the fact that there was no military censorship, there was still censorship among the government” (Cloud). Due to lack of censorship, journalists could follow the military into combat and report their observations without formal censorship.

Therefore, journalists that experienced the violent combat were able to present the public with more graphic images that the nation has ever seen. One of the most influential journalists was Walter Cronkite, “Cronkite turned against the war and called for peace negotiations. ” (NPR). As an anchor for “CBS Evening News”, Cronkite made his statement against the war. This influenced all other journalists to follow his lead. As a result, journalists reported the actions of the soldiers negatively. Gradually, Support for the war began to decrease by the fall of 1967.

One of the most turning events of the Vietnam War was the Tet Offensive in 1968. During the Tet Offensive, the media presented images of soldiers sweeping through over one-hundred southern Vietnamese cities. After the televised coverage of the Battle of Tet, majority Americans withdrew their support for the war. In the book Eyewitness Vietnam War, Admiral Grant Sharp argued “the reality of the 1968 Tet Offensive was that Hanoi had taken a big gamble and lost on the battlefield, but they won a solid physiological victory in the United States. ” (Murray 18).

This proves that, the media was creating false claims to provoke the people into pushing the government to stop the war. The media also portrayed the attack as a defeat for the United States, “the media, not the military confirmed the growing perception that the U. S was unable to with the war. ” (McLaughlin). With this advantage, the north Viet Cong was using the media to win the sympathy of the American public, so that they would turn against their government. The anti-war movement by 1965 influenced many Americans to oppose their government’s involvement in the war.

Thus, “… after the Tet offensive, the number of protesters skyrocketed” (Langer 235). One example is the Kent State Massacre, which led to the death of four students. There was a significant national response to the shooting, such as the closing of schools thought the United States due to student strikes. However, the most damaging event for a U. S soldier’s reputation was the massacre of My Lai, “images of dead children, women, and families flooded newspapers and television. ” (Murray 23). When the incident became public, it promoted the widespread outrage thought the world.

The American solider was now portrayed as “monstrous killers with no qualms about killing Vietnamese civilians. ” (Cloud). Critics of the war created accusations towards the soldiers such as: drug use, rape, and barbaric acts. This led the people to question the purpose of America’s involvement of the war. The media was also used to expose government information regarding the Vietnam War. There was a conspiracy that, an alleged attack on the U. S spy ship (USS Maddox) was purposely created to become the pretext for war in Vietnam. Also known as the “Gulf of Tonkin”, the event granted congress permission to invade Vietnam.

American journalist, Nigel Sheehan exposed the documents that told the truth about the start of the war. As a reporter for The New York Times, “in 1971, Sheehan obtained the classified Pentagon Papers from Daniel Ellsberg. ” (Shah). Sheehan collaborated with Ellsberg (a former pentagon staff) to publish the series of articles that contained the history of the U. S involvement in the war. The official secret history of the war would reveal that “administration officials had drafted the gulf of Tonkin resolution themselves, two months before the attack of Maddox. ”(Shah).

This caused the people to become outraged, censuring the government for the start of the war instead of the Viet Cong. An article from Media Beat in 1994, explains that the “heavy reliance on U. S government officials as sources of information and reluctance to question official statements on national security issues, led to a lot of inaccurate media reporting” (Langer 256). Many stories about atrocities of the war were witnessed, but were initially never reported. Even if atrocities were reported, they were perceived as a tragedy because the government did not want to take the blame.

For example, when the My Lai Massacre was reported on the “Newsweek” the banner headline was “An American Tragedy” (Murray). This caused sympathy for the invader and deflected from the truth about the atrocities. Above all, the atrocities were in fact, a Vietnamese tragedy. With the influence of media, the Americans failed to have public support for the war to carry on. Moreover, tensions between the news media and the Nixon administration only increased as the war dragged on. Finally, Nixon was pressured to find a resolution to end the war.

As a result, on November 3, 1969, President Richard M. Nixon made a televised speech laying out his policy toward Vietnam, “promising to continue to support the South Vietnamese government and held out a plan for the withdrawal of American combat troops. ” (Wyatt). With this he created Vietnamization to slowly withdraw troops out of Vietnam, along with plans to end the war. In brief, the media was a major factor that motivated the American public to pressure the government to stop involvement of the war. As a result, the media is one of the factors that resulted in America’s cost of the war.

Works cited Cloud, John A. “Vietnam: A Censored War. ” Thecrimson. com. The Harvard Crimson, 9 Mar. 1991. Web. <http://www. thecrimson. com/article/1991/3/9/vietnam-a-censored-war-pby bou-cant/> Considered, All Things. “Cronkite on Vietnam War : NPR. ” NPR : National Public Radio : News & Analysis, World, US, Music & Arts : NPR. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. <http://www. npr. org/templates/story/story. php? storyId=1147965>. Langer, Howard. The Vietnam War: An Encyclopedia of Quotations / Howard J. Langer. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2005.

Print. McLaughlin, Erin. “The Media and the Vietnam War. ” The Warbird’s Forum: AVG Flying Tigers, Brewster Buffaloes, Flying Wings, Japan at War, Vietnam, and Other Military History Stuff. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. ;http://www. warbirdforum. com/media. htm;. Murray, Stuart. Eyewitness Vietnam War. NY: DK Pub. , 2005. Print. Shah, Anup. “Media, Propaganda and Vietnam — Global Issues. ” Global Issues : Social, Political, Economic and Environmental Issues That Affect Us All — Global Issues. 24 Oct. 2003. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. ;http://www. globalissues. rg/article/402/media-propaganda-and-vietnam;. Cloud, John A. “Vietnam: A Censored War. ” Thecrimson. com. The Harvard Crimson, 9 Mar. 1991. Web. ;http://www. thecrimson. com/article/1991/3/9/vietnam-a-censored-war-pbybou-cant/; Considered, All Things. “Cronkite on Vietnam War : NPR. ” NPR : National Public Radio : News ; Analysis, World, US, Music ; Arts : NPR. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. ;http://www. npr. org/templates/story/story. php? storyId=1147965;. Langer, Howard. The Vietnam War: An Encyclopedia of Quotations / Howard J. Langer.

Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2005. Print. McLaughlin, Erin. “The Media and the Vietnam War. ” The Warbird’s Forum: AVG Flying Tigers, Brewster Buffaloes, Flying Wings, Japan at War, Vietnam, and Other Military History Stuff. Web. 17 Feb. 2012. <http://www. warbirdforum. com/media. htm>. Murray, Stuart. Eyewitness Vietnam War. NY: DK Pub. , 2005. Print. Shah, Anup. “Media, Propaganda and Vietnam — Global Issues. ” Global Issues : Social, Political, Economic and Environmental Issues That Affect Us All — Global Issues. 24 Oct. 2003. Web. 17 Feb. 2012.

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Media and the Vietnam and Iraq Wars

Despite the differences in American culture from the time of the Vietnam war to the Iraq war, similarities exist in the way Americans perceived both wars. Vietnam and Iraq both raised questions about the appropriateness of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs and, in some cases, resulted in negative perceptions of the U.S. military. As the link between those fighting the war and those at home watching and reading about the events of the war, the media played an important role in both cases.

Relationship between the media and the military

During the beginning of Vietnam there was no official policy of censorship. Censorship would have been difficult to manage because as a guest of South Vietnam, the U.S. would have had to allow the South Vietnamese to control the censorship. Additionally, according to Daniel Hallin, the U.S. administration wanted to deny that there was a war happening there, and to impose censorship is one of the signs that a country is really going to war. 1

By 1963, reporters in Vietnam had begun receiving increasingly contradictory information about the war. Military officials in Saigon maintained that the war was going well, while personnel in the field told a different story. One glaring example was the defeat of the South Vietnamese at Ap Bac. Eight days after the incident, military officials declared the operation a success. Reporter Mal Browne recalls that when the astonished press challenged this statement, they were told by the Commander in Chief of U.S. forces to “get on the team.”1 This was the beginning of a more strained relationship between the media and the military.

It was in 1963 also that news programs were extended to a half hour and began showing footage of the war. This was the first time American viewers were able to experience the war right in their living rooms. In 1965, Morley Safer brought the Cam Ne report to viewers. The Cam Ne incident marked the first time the average American was exposed to images of their soldiers engaged in activities that were less than noble – burning huts in a small village as women and children ran away screaming. Though not officially tied to the report, shortly after it aired the government issued new rules of engagement designed to protect South Vietnamese civilians.

By the time the U.S. engaged in war with Iraq, the world had become a different place. The military had learned the value of public perception and the need to manage it. Restrictions were placed on the press limiting where they were allowed to go and what they were allowed to report. Unfortunately for the administration, what they couldn’t manage was the amount of amateur footage that made its way into the public eye.

Digital cameras and the internet made it possible for anyone to post photos and other footage in front of a broad audience. Some of the most sensational stories reported during the war – including the Abu Ghraib incident – were the result of amateur photography that found its way into professional media outlets. While of questionable value as a news source, this footage showing graphic scenes intrigued viewers and affected their perception of the U.S. military and their mission in Iraq.

Another effect of technology was that reporters were able to feed information to networks “real time.” This to-the-second coverage allowed viewers to experience the war as it happened, but the information they received was not always accurate. When the military unit in which a reporter was embedded came under attack, the reporter could only report what he was experiencing without the benefit of objectivity or the “big picture” view. While they did provide some provocative footage, these reports did not increase understanding of the situation. Morley Safer stated this eloquently when he said, “Live coverage…only adds heat, it does not add light.”1

Accuracy of reporting

Norman Solomon, syndicated columnist on media and politics, suggests that the media has been fundamental in making war possible for the U.S. through fraudulent reporting. He cites reporting of the Gulf of Tonkin in Vietnam and of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq as examples.2

Tim Ryan, Army Lieutenant Colonel, has also expressed concern about the accuracy of reporting and its effect on public perception during the Iraq war. He has suggested that the media intentionally focused on negatives or failures during the war and ignored positives for the sake of a more sensational report. He stated that “even the Arab media was more willing to show positives,” such as school renovations or the creation of a youth center, than were American journalists.3

During both wars, questions have been raised about the absence of reporting on U.S. interests in the countries in which they were fighting. In Vietnam, manganese, rubber and minerals were of economic interest to the U.S. In Iraq, of course, it was oil. The possibility that the U.S. had less than noble reasons for entering into these wars was rarely addressed in mainstream media.

Media influence

There are differing opinions on whether the media actually influenced the Vietnam or Iraq wars or whether they simply provided documentation of what was happening. As the above examples show, some commentators believe that the media did affect events by making it easier for the government to wage war through fraudulent reporting, or by negatively affecting the morale of American soldiers and citizens.

Contrarily, the organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) claims that the media has been falsely accused of affecting the war.4 According to FAIR, reporters merely reflect the opinions and concerns of the public. As reporter Chris Hedges stated “when everyone’s waving a flag, the media waves a flag. When middle class families start wondering why their boy is coming home in a rubber bag, then the media starts asking questions too.”1

Regardless of whether they merely presented or actually influenced the Vietnam and Iraq wars, it’s clear that the media encountered similar challenges during both wars. Despite all the changes that occurred in the 40-plus years between the two wars and the fact that confidence in mainstream media waned in that time, the public still looked to the media to help them understand the facts and to represent their interests when they were concerned about the actions being taken.

Works Cited

1) “Which side are you on?” Episode 2, Reporting America at War. PBS, November, 2003. Online transcript

2) Solomon, Norman. Adapted from keynote speech at annual awards ceremony of Project Censored at Sonoma State University, CA, October 22, 2005. Online source

3) Ryan, Tim. “Media and the Iraq War.” Editorial, San Diego Union-Tribune, January 30, 2005.

4) Cohen, Jeff. “The Myth of the Media’s Role in Vietnam.” May 6, 2001.

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Pomina-Vietnam Analasys

Pomina Steel Company was established in 1999 with chartered capital 42 billion VND and the capacity of 300,000 tons/ year. Their main businesses are iron and steel production, recycling of scrap metal and trading of steel products. Pomina is one of the most trustworthy brands in producing steel in the south of Viet Nam and is the first firm in the south gets 2 certificates about quality and environment ISO 9001, ISO 14001. Start up in Binh Duong was considered like the good land to grow the firm.

They put the quality on the top of concern to create the difference and the comparative advantages in the intensive competitive environment, so the founders has selected to invest in leading technological lines of steel lamination is Vai-Pomini and Simac from Italy. In 2002, Pomina can provide for the market above 600,000 tons of laminating steel per year. In 2005 Pomina invested in Phu My industrial zone to build the draft refining company with the capacity 500,000 tons/ year.

This was also the first refining company using Consteel technology in Viet Nam and the 20th in the world. In 2007, the total capacity of Pomina’s companies reached 500,000 tons of refining and 600,000 tons of laminating per year. Besides serving domestic customers, Pomina also exported to Cambodia and by 2006, the revenue of exportation was 20 million USD. In July 2009, Pomina increased the chartered capital to 820 billion VND by separate issue and they were accepted as a public company by The State Securities Commission.

On the other hand, Pomina run a lot of social activities and charity in trying helping poor people, which make them have a lot of favor from society, customers and create the development more and more. In April 2010, Pomina made its initial public offer on the HCM City Stock Exchange (HOSE) with the par value of 48,000 VND per share. The list code of the company is POM. The number of listed shares was 80 million shares and separate issue of 10 million shares for institution that want to invest.

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Effects of the Vietnam War

Abstract While it takes societies to start wars, war changes societies. Whether it be the loss of life, wealth or influence, war determines what a society becomes. This paper will look at some of the effects on U. S. society following the war in Viet Nam. The Effects of the Vietnam War on American Society The Conflict in Southeast Asia had lasting effects on the United States society. It was sold to the American people as necessary to stop the spread of Communism and quickly become one of the longest and costliest wars in U. S. history.

Looking at the war strictly from the point-of-view of society, the after effects of the war were staggering. There was weakened public faith in the government and a change in the public image of the American soldier. The loss of national pride was deep. America had effectively lost a war to what Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had called “a fourth-rate power. ” The U. S. was no longer looked at as an invincible giant. Because President Johnson wanted to fund the war without raising taxes, the government deficit skyrocketed. Additionally, troops returning home could not find jobs in the private sector.

These factors together caused double digit inflation and unemployment rates. The people felt that the government was not taking care of them like it used to. These factors led to a change in the country’s role around the world. Congress was worried that the world was viewing the U. S. as the planet’s policeman, ready to jump in anytime another country seemed ready to fall victim to Communism. In 1973, the mostly Democratic Congress enacted the War Powers Resolution, which limited the president’s powers. The Commander-in-Chief could only send U. S. troops into combat for less than ninety days without congressional approval.

Besides the lack of jobs, returning soldiers were not given parades and hailed by the people as conquering heroes as they were following previous conflicts. Instead, they were viewed with disdain, both for losing the war and for the vicious actions taken by a few soldiers. The hero gave way to the villain, the soldier became the baby-killer. The American sensibilities had changed as well. While soldiers were fighting and dying in Viet Nam, the United States had a few other conflicts within its own borders. Race riots and anti-war protests were shown side by side with battlefield reports on the nightly news.

National Guard intervention and the shooting of students at Kent State and Jackson State universities did little to gain support for the government. According to Sen. Frank Church, Viet Nam “has already stretched the generation gap so wide that it threatens to pull the country apart. ” (“Vietnam War Quotations”, para. 13) Whether the outcome of the war was beneficial or detrimental depends entirely on your point of view. On one hand, the more liberal attitude of government towards foreign intervention, the redefining of the right to protest and the skepticism toward the government can be looked at as positive effects of an unpopular war.

On the other hand, the image of the country in the eyes of the world, the loss of traditional values and the blow to the economy can be viewed as negative. No matter what personal stance one has on the Viet Nam Conflict, there is one truth; The War in Southeast Asia definitely changed the United States as a world power, as a country and as a people. References Frey-Wouters, E. , & Laufer, R. S. (1986). The Vietnam Generation’s Views of the Combatants. In Legacy of a war: the American soldier in Vietnam. (pp. 108-109). M. E. Sharpe. Sitikoff, H. (n. d. ). The Postwar Impact of Vietnam.

Universtiy of Illinois. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from http://www. english. illinois. edu/maps/vietnam/postwar. htm The Vietnam War: An Overview. (n. d. ). The Wars for Viet Nam: 1945 to 1975. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from http://vietnam. vassar. edu/overview/index. html Vietnam War and the American Economy. (n. d. ). History Central. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from http://www. historycentral. com/sixty/Economics/Vietnam. html Vietnam War Quotations. (n. d. ). VietnamWar. net. Retrieved February 18, 2012, from http://www. vietnamwar. net/quotations/quotations. htm

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Scooter Sales in Vietnam

Hom kia ong th? y em g? i cho em 1 cai article kha hay v? th? tru? ng xe 2B VN kha hay, m? i cac bac xem. EM xin l? i vi no la ti? ng Anh nhung vi? t cung kha d? hi? u . Qua bai bao nay em gi? t minh khi bi? t con s? ban ra c? a xe AB hon 120K , kh? ng thi? t . Va cac bac th? ng? m Hon Da VN da moc tui bao nhieu ti? n c? a dan minh [pic] Em xin phep VietNamNet Bridge – Two years ago the Vietnamese media was driven into a frenzy when Hollywood stars Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie came to visit Vietnam for the first time.

The image of the couple in casual clothes riding a black Yamaha Nouvo scooter in downtown HCMC was widely seen in newspapers and magazines. Scooter riders seen in downtown HCMC. Vietnamese consumers have an increasing preference for scooters. This actually gave free publicity to Yamaha. Sales of the Yamha Nouvo scooter have rocketed in Vietnam as this scooter has become a fashion for not only women but also men. Yamaha’s good business has led to other motorcycle makers to enter the market or boost scooter production to capitalize on the growing demand. The race starts

Italy’s Piaggio, the world’s fourth largest scooter and motorcycle manufacturer, started construction of its first factory in Vietnam. Honda and Yamaha from Japan will open their second Vietnam factories soon. Honda Vietnam, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in Vietnam, has shifted focus to scooters for men. It started a campaign to enter the market six months after the trip of Vietnam by Mr. and Mrs. Smith. It launched the Air Blade scooter designed with a sporty fashion. As a favorite motorcycle brand, Honda caused an instant fever on the market after launching this scooter.

When placing an order for an Air Blade at a Honda authorized exclusive dealer in HCMC, customers will get a shake of the head. The dealers are flooded with a lot of orders. A Honda dealer on Nguyen Trai Street in District 1 says it still has more than 600 orders to fulfill. But those really wishing to own an Air Blade scooter can go to plenty of private retailers in the city, but the price is usually VND8-10 million higher than Honda’s list price. Despite the strong demand, the company says it is unable to scale up production as its factory in the northern province of Vinh Phuc is running at full capacity.

As an adaptive measure, Honda has increased shifts to fulfill the mounting orders. Koji Onishi, general director of Honda Vietnam, says that by end-April this year, more than 120,000 Air Blade units had been sold, becoming the best-seller of the scooter category on the local market. Not to miss the race, Yamaha introduced the new Yamaha Nouvo Elegance scooter that comes with an engine of 135cc in late April, which is higher than those of the previous scooter versions. With a list price of VND29. 2 million, including VAT, the new Nouvo scooter is going like hot cakes.

Just around 10 days after the new Nouvo version came out, Honda announced the launch of two new Air Blade versions with a sportier and more fashionable design. They retail for VND28. 5 million (VAT included) and come with three colors – dark blue, white and red. In addition to the new Air Blade, a sporty Air Blade Repsol version with the color of Repsol Honda racing team in MotoGP World Championship has been introduced this time at VND29. 5 million. The market is so lucrative that another Japanese motorcycle maker, Suzuki Vietnam Corp. , has also forayed into the scooter market, with the launch of he Hayate priced between VND21. 8 million and VND22. 8 million. The 125cc Hayate has a sporty design and targets male motorcyclists and is expected to strongly compete with Honda’s Air Blade and Yamaha’s Nouvo. The Suzuki prices are lower VND7-8 million than the other two brands, so the Hayate has a competitive advantage in pricing. The competition in design Vietnam Manufacturing and Export Processing Co. (VMEP), Sanyang’s motorbike maker in Vietnam, was the first to make scooters in Vietnam with the SYM brand. Taiwan’s SYM is one of the successful stories.

The company launched the Attila scooter in 1997, which has since gained increasing popularity among young people. SYM leaders say that the introduction of the Attila has paved the way for the company to gain a competitive edge over cheap Chinese motorcycles, which overwhelmed the local market in the late 1990s and early 2000s, as well as others. The Attila was then the best-selling locally assembled scooter model. Imported scooters like Dylan,@ and Spacy of Honda, Majesty of Yamaha, and Epicuro and Aventis of Suzuki are prohibitively expensive but the compact and fashionable design and moderate price have made the Attila more competitive.

The Attila retails for about VND30 million, around one- and two-thirds of imports. Buoyed by SYM’s success, other foreign companies including Yamaha, Suzuki, Honda from Japan later jumped into the market. Experts formerly showed concern that SYM would find it hard to maintain its dominance on the scooter market since more Japanese producers were aggressively increasing investment in scooter innovation and design to gain a slice of the pie. But brands like Honda Click, Yamaha Mio Classical and Suzuki Amity seem to be not the archrivals of the Attila which is particularly popular among urban females.

SYM’s Attila Elizabeth version has become a favorite among young women thanks to its fashionable, elegant and compact design. The demand for the Attila Elizabeth has outpaced SYM’s supply, leading to its price outside the company’ dealers increasing by VND2-3 million per unit. The good outlook The growth prospects of the market are good as young consumers in cities have an increasing preference for scooters. Many motorcycle assemblers have switched to scooter production to capitalize on this market trend and have been expanding production to meet local demand. Taiwan’s biggest bike maker Kwang Yang Motor Co. Ltd. (KYMCO) is an example.

It has become the majority owner of Hoa Lam Kymco Motors Corp. after acquiring a 60% stake from its local partner. Hoa Lam Automobile-Motorcycle Joint-Stock Co. transferred its 60% stake in this joint venture to the Taiwanese company, thus reducing its holding to 30% from the previous 40%. KYMCO’s stake in the venture, meanwhile, is up to 90%. Nguyen Tien Sy, deputy general director of Hoa Lam Kymco Motors Corp. , says that the authorities have endorsed the stake transfer between the two partners. The acquisition, whose value is not disclosed, is part of the Taiwanese company’s plan to deepen its investment in Vietnam.

KYMCO will develop a new factory in HCMC’s District 2 besides the joint venture factory that is mainly assembling motorcycles in Binh Chanh District. The new factory in Cat Lai Industrial Park will produce motorcycle parts for local sale and export to ASEAN markets, Sy says. KYMCO will move its production lines from a factory in Taiwan next month to the new factory, which will mainly manufacture scooters. KYMCO attributes its increased investment in Vietnam to the strong demand for motorcycles. This firm forecast the domestic scooter market will continue expanding in the next five to 10 years.

KYMCO entered Vietnam in late 2004 by buying a 30% stake in the bike manufacturing plant, which was wholly owned by Vietnam’s Hoa Lam Automobile-Motorcycle Joint-Stock Co. The value of the factory then was set at US$15 million. The brand name KYMCO, however, is not popular in Vietnam, but the Taiwanese company has reaped success elsewhere, exporting products to 81 countries worldwide, including Europe. KYMCO has set up nine motorcycle factories in Asia. The two market leaders, Honda and Yamaha, also started work on their second factories in northern Vietnam last year. Honda’s new factory worth US$65million will mainly produce scooters.

The plant, which is located next to the first one in Vinh Phuc Province, is part of Honda’s expansion plan after its success over the past 13 years. The new 28-hectare plant is scheduled for mass production in the third quarter of this year, with initial annual production capacity of 500,000 units, says Koji Onishi, general director of Honda Vietnam. Together with the existing plant’s annual capacity of one million units, this plant will help meet the increasing demand of Vietnamese customers, he says, adding state-of-the-art technology would be applied to ensure high quality. The most modern and latest technology of Honda will be applied to this new plant that may produce the perfect quality products for Vietnamese customers,” he says. “The income level is increasing and the infrastructure is developed. Thus, the demand for scooters becomes higher and higher. In addition, its easy operation and modern design can sharpen customers’ personality. Thanks to the growth of the Vietnamese economy, we realize that young people especially in big cities prefer the scooters,” says Yasuhiro Imazato, director of Honda Vietnam brand in HCMC.

Meanwhile, Piaggio, the world’s fourth largest scooter and motorcycle manufacturer, is building its first factory in northern Vietnam. The company will spend US$45 million on the factory which covers eight hectares in Binh Xuyen Industrial Park in Vinh Phuc Province, and will be commissioned in mid-2009, with an initial annual output capacity of 50,000 units for local sale and export. The project is part of Piaggio’s broader three-year plan to expand its operations in Asia by setting up shop in Vietnam and India, Piaggio chief executive Roberto Colaninno.

He says the company’s products are already available in Vietnam, but it still wants a factory plus a sales network in the country. Piaggio brand is generally targeted at high-end customers. The Italian firm has five local companies as distributors – Sapa Trade Co. , Xuan Cau Co. , Viet Nhat Motor Co. , Y Viet Motor Co and International Friendship Co. However, Piaggio’s investment in Vietnam is still smaller than Japanese and Taiwan motorbike producers. Taiwan’s Sanyang Industry, which is known for SYM brand, looks to Vietnam as one of its major motorbike production hubs in Asia and its biggest investment markets.

Under a motorcycle industry development plan recently approved by the Ministry of Industry and Trade, Vietnam will become a major Asian center for motorcycle design and production. The plan envisages local motorcycle demand reaching 2-2. 2million units a year. By 2015, there will have been some 31 million motorcycles in use nationwide and some 33 million by 2020, compared to the current 20 million, according to the plan. An additional 1. 8 million motorbikes will hit the road a year. (Source: SGT)

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The Sociological Reactions to the Return of Vietnam Veterans

The Sociological Reactions to the Return of Vietnam Veterans Upon their return from the Vietnam War, many veterans were shocked upon the reaction (or lack thereof) displayed by the citizens of the States who had remained on the home front. When finally landing back on American soil, many veterans expected to be greeted with celebration and maybe even a parade, acknowledging their service and dedication to the Vietnam cause.

However, veterans were instead greeted by protestors who did not agree with the United States’ participation in the war (ironically, not all veterans wholly supported the cause itself, but instead went out of respect and devotion to their country). In an article written by Vietnam veteran Bill Hunt, it is clear to see that not only were strangers hostile towards veterans, but even friends and family treated the returning soldiers with annoyance, anger, or at the best, apathy.

He states that it felt like family members had not even known he was at war; they reacted to his return much like one would react to someone returning from the grocery store: with just a casual hello, disregarding the danger and the high level of devotion that had been experienced. Hunt’s family barely acknowledged that he had ever even gone to war. The experiences of Vietnam vets were simply viewed as a part of every-day life.

The war was not even taken seriously by many people, and veterans (specifically Hunt) were appalled by the flippant and insensitive (though innocent and thoughtless) comments made by others, family included. To the vets, it had been a hellish experience, and many experienced Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression, and many became dependent on drugs and alcohol to get through the psychological after-effects of being involved in such stressful and torturous circumstances.

However, appallingly, many were unable to get the help they needed. Medical aid was not made available to them right away, and a shocking percentage of Americans viewed them as crazy and dangerous to society. Some even thought that the veterans deserved their psychological conditions. Suicide became increasingly common as many veterans experienced completely unfounded hatred and degradation. Part of this is due to the younger generation, which had begun the hippie movement.

The ideas of “peace” and “love” were emphasized. Because of this, many returning veterans were greeted with shouts of “baby killer” and other completely untrue and offensive things. They were also given stereotypes of overarching drug use. Additionally, television was available to households for the first time. Because of this, there was no watering-down or censorship of the conditions of the Vietnam War. Many veterans were portrayed incorrectly and much confusion was experienced by the public due to mixed messages.

Regardless of the cause, the fact remains that the Vietnam veterans are one of the most unjustly maligned groups of people in American history. The war was politically unpopular and many veterans were accused of a lack of dedication and “not fighting hard enough”. The disrespect that had been shown towards these veterans was and still is disgusting: regardless of whether or not one agrees with the cause, it is inexcusable that these veterans were not commended for their sacrifice. Comparison to The Return of a Private and Currently Returning Veterans The Return of a Private

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The Securities Market in Vietnam

The Securities Market in Vietnam – 14 March 2007 This article is an introduction to the legal framework that governs the securities market in Vietnam, in particular public offers, listing, public companies and buying shares. This article focuses on the provision of Law 70-2006QH11 of the National Assembly on Securities (Law 70) and Decree 14-2007-ND-CP of the Government dated 19 January 2007 Providing Detailed Regulations for Implementation of a Number of Articles of the Law on Securities (Decree 14) .

The MOF is to shortly issue a regulation to further provide guidance to the SSC on regulating and establishing investment funds, securities companies and fund management companies. An update will be provided once the regulation has been promulgated. 1. 1. 1 Relevant bodies The State Securities Commission (SSC) The SSC is the official regulator of the stock exchange, and is overseen by the Ministry of Finance (MOF). The HCMC Securities Trading Centre (HCMCSTC) The HCMCSTC is an administrative unit of the SSC.

It is a securities trading and listing market and offers and official mechanism through which new government bonds are issued and is the secondary markets for several existing bonds. Currently, the HCMCSTC is an administrative unit under the SSC. Under Law 70 it is to covert to either a Stock Exchange or a Securities Trading Centre in the form of a limited liability company or a shareholding company by July 2008. It is expected that the HCMCSTC will be converted into a Stock Exchange. 1. 2 1. 3 The Hanoi Securities Trading Centre (HASTC) The HASTC is an administrative unit of the SSC.

It is a securities trading and listing market and offers and is also Vietnam’s official over-the-counter market for securities. Under Law 70 it is to covert to either a Stock Exchange or a Securities Trading Centre in the form of a limited liability company or a shareholding company by July 2008. It is expected that the HASTC will be converted into a Securities Trading Centre. 2. Public offer (PO) In Vietnam the processes of a public offer (PO) and listing are different, although companies may do the two simultaneously.

A PO is an offer to sell shares, bonds or fund certificates via the mass media, or to at least 100 investors excluding institutional investors or to an unspecified number of investors. 2. 1 Participants (a) The issuer or issuing organization. This is the enterprise making the PO. The securities may be listed or unlisted. Underwriters. Securities in a PO may be distributed by underwriters. Underwriters must be securities companies authorized to underwrite issues of securities or a commercial banks approved by the SSC to underwrite issues of bonds, on conditions regulated by the MOF.

The role of the underwriter is to assist the issuer to complete procedures prior to the PO, to purchase the securities for resale or the unsold portion of the securities from the issuer, and to assist the issuer to distribute the securities to the public. Custodian banks. These are commercial banks that are either domestic or foreign invested (that is, not an offshore licensed bank) and are licensed to carry out securities depository activities including the keeping and maintaining of securities. © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws (b) (c) (d) Investors. Investors who wish to purchase securities may be Vietnamese or foreign investors but foreign investor must first apply for a securities trading code. Foreign investment is also subject to limitations (discussed below). 2. 2 Currency and par value Securities offered by a PO must be denominated in Vietnamese dong. The par value for shares and fund certificates is VND10,000 and the minimum par value for bonds is VND100,000. Conditions for a PO (a) Shares.

An issuer of shares must be a shareholding company with paid-up capital of at least VND10 billion at the time of registration of the PO, must have made a profit in the year prior to the PO and must not have accumulated losses as at the year of registration of the offer. The general meeting of shareholders1 of the issuer must pass an issue plan and plan for utilization of the proceeds earned. 2. 3 Under Decree 14 other specific conditions apply to newly established enterprises conducting an initial public offer if the enterprise is in the infrastructure or high-tech sectors.

These conditions include the obligation for there to be an underwriter, and the obligation for there to be a bank supervising utilization of the proceeds earned from the offer. (b) Bonds. An issuer of bonds must have paid-up capital of at least VND10 billion at the time of registration of the PO, must have made a profit in the year prior to the PO, must not have accumulated losses as at the year of registration of the offer and must not have more than 100 overdue debts payable. The board of management or members’ council of the issuer (as applicable) must pass an issue plan and plan for utilization and repayment of the proceeds earned.

The issuer of bonds must also give an undertaking to investors to discharge it obligations. In the case of convertible bonds the issue plan and plan for utilization proceeds must also have a plan for issuance of the shares for conversion and all plans must be passed by the general meeting of shareholders (not the board of management). (c) Fund Certificates. Issued fund certificates must have total value of at least VND50 billion. There must also be an issue plan and a plan for investment of the capital funds earned. 2. 4

Prospectus Issuers of a PO must prepare a prospectus. The main contents for a prospectus are prescribed in Law 70 and the MOF has been delegated the task of creating a sample form prospectus. Among other things, the prospectus must include the financial statements of the issuer for the 2 years prior to the issue of the PO. The prospectus must be signed by the chairman of the board of management, the general director, the financial director/accountant (only in the case of shares and bonds) and the legal representative of the underwriter. . 5 Registration The issuer must register the PO with the SSC. To register, the issuer must submit a request for registration and attach those documents that are required by Law 70 (and which will be given more detail in specific regulations of the MOF). The documents required include the prospectus, the charter (or in the case of a PO of fund certificates, the proposed charter of the securities investment fund) and relevant resolutions and undertakings by the issuer. In the case of a PO for fund certificates the 1

In the case of a enterprise with foreign owned capital that is converting to a shareholding company in combination with making a public offer of shares, Decree 14 clarifies that the issue plan and plan for utilization is passed by the owner of the enterprise with 100% foreign owned capital and the board of management of a joint venture enterprise. 2 © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws contract for supervision between the custodian bank and the securities investment fund must also be submitted. The SSC has 30 days from receipt of the registration statement to certify registration. . 6 Announcement Within 7 days from certification of registration the issuer must make a public announcement in 3 consecutive newspaper issues. The announcement must stipulate the time in which investors have to register to purchase the securities. The time limit can be set by the issuer but must be a minimum of 20 days. Registration to purchase and payment of monies When an investor registers to purchase the securities it must pay the purchase price into an escrow bank account and this money will remain in escrow until completion of the PO.

Allocation and delivery The issuer must allocate the securities within 90 days from the SSC’s certificate of acceptance, and physically deliver the securities to investors within 30 days from the date the offer ends. 2. 7 2. 8 3. Listing Listing is the process of taking a privately-owned organisation including an equitized or equitizing State owned enterprise (SOE) and making the transition to a publicly-owned entity whose shares can be traded on the HCMCSTC or HASTC. 3. Conditions, application and procedures for listing The regulations on the conditions, application files and procedures for listing a company are not contained in Law 70, they are contained in Decree 14. The conditions for listing on the stock exchange (of which there are currently none in Vietnam) are different from the conditions to list on a securities trading centre. However, in anticipation of the HCMCSTC converting to a stock exchange, new registrations for listing on the HCMCSTC must satisfy the conditions applicable for stock exchange listings, while existing listed companies on the HCMCSTC have two years to satisfy these conditions.

Companies failing to meet these requirements will have their listing moved to the HASTC. Conditions, application and procedures for listing on the Stock Exchange/HCMCSTC (a) Shares. The listing company must be a shareholding company with paid-up capital of at least VND80 billion at the time of registration for listing, must have made a profit in the two years prior to year of listing and must not have accumulated losses as at the year of registration for listing.

There must not be overdue debts payable (unless a lawful reserve has been made for them) and there must be public disclosure of all debts owed to the company by officers2 and major shareholders. At least 100 shareholders must own 20% of the voting shares of the listing company, and there must be an undertaking from shareholders who are also officers of the company to hold 100% of their shares for 6 months from the date of listing and 50% of their shares for the following 6 months. Bonds.

The listing company or SOE must have paid-up capital of at least VND80 billion at the time of registration for listing, must have made a profit in the two years prior to year of listing and must not have overdue debts of more than 1 year. There must be at least 50 bondholders in any one bond issue. 3. 2 (b) 2 Officers are the members of the board of management, members of the board of controllers, director, general director, deputy director, deputy general director and chief accountant. © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws (c) Fund Certificates. Issued fund certificates must have total value of at least VND50 billion. There must be an undertaking from the initial shareholdings and members of the committee of representatives of the fund to hold 100% of their shares for 6 months from the date of listing and 50% of their shares for the following 6 months. There must be at least 100 owners of fund certificates. 3. 3 Conditions, application and procedures for listing on the HASTC (a) Shares.

The listing company must be a shareholding company with paid-up capital of at least VND10 billion at the time of registration for listing, must have made a profit in year prior to year of listing and must not have overdue debts of more than 1 year (with no current debts or financial obligations to the State). There must be at least 100 shareholders with voting shares, and there must be an undertaking from shareholders who are also officers of the company to hold 100% of their shares for 6 months from the date of listing and 50% of their shares for the following 6 months.

The conditions relating to profitable business operations and overdue debts do not apply to newly established enterprises in infrastructure and high-tech sectors or equitizing SOEs. (b) Bonds. The listing company or SOE must have paid-up capital of at least VND10 billion at the time of registration for listing, and all bonds in the issue must have the same maturity date. Other types of securities. The task of stipulating conditions for listing other types of securities has been delegated to the MOF. (c) 3. 4 Registration The listing enterprise must register with the relevant exchange or trading centre.

To register the listing enterprise must submit a registration slip and attach those documents that are required by Law 70 (and which will be given more detail in specific regulations of the exchange/trading centre). The documents required include the prospectus, relevant corporate resolutions, register of shareholders/bondholders and required undertakings. The exchange/trading centre has 30 days from receipt of the registration slip to approve or refuse the application. 3. 5 Trading Current guidelines on securities, membership of the HCMCSTC/HASTCand trading in securities are contained in Circular 583 implementing Decree 1444.

In time, Circular 58 should also be repealed by a new circular implementing Law 70 and Decree 14. In the interim the HCMCSTC and the HASTC continue to apply the day to day trading rules contained in the Circular 58. In addition, under Law 70, the HCMCSTC and the HASTC each are given the responsibility to issue regulations on the trading of listed securities within their respective centres. 3. 6 Other trading Securities listed on a Stock Exchange cannot be traded outside the Stock Exchange, unless otherwise stipulated in the trading rules of the Stock Exchange.

In comparison, securities listed on a securities trading centre (STC) can be traded at a securities company which is a trading member of the STC. 3. 7 Taxation holidays – almost over Previously, to encourage investment in Vietnam’s securities market, various incentives were offered, 3 4 Circular 58-2004-TT-BTC of the Ministry of Finance dated 17 June 2004. Both Circular 58 and Decree 144 were issued before Law 70 and Decree 14, and must be read down to the extent of the inconsistency. 4 © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws ncluding preferential corporate income tax rates to companies upon listing. However, this preferential tax treatment ceased on 1 January 2007. Dividends from shares have been free of personal income tax since 1994. However this very long “temporary exemption” is expected to come to an end under the proposed Law on Personal Income Tax, which was considered by the National Assembly in October-November 2006 and is expected to be passed in 2007. If passed in its current draft form, dividends from shares will be subject to personal income tax at a proposed rate of 5% from 1 January 2009. . Public companies A public company is a newly introduced concept in Vietnam. A public company is a shareholding company with any of the following characteristics: • • • Shares have been issued via a PO. Shares are listed on the HCMCSTC or the HASTC. Shares are owned by 100 or more investors, excluding professional securities investors, and have a paid-up charter capital of VND10 billion or more. Importantly, a company does not have to be listed to be deemed a public company. New rules introduced for public companies include: 4. Filing A public company must lodge the public company file with the SSC within 90 days of becoming a public company. The public company files comprises the company’s charter and business registration certificate, the most recent financial statement and summarized information on its business operations scale, management organization and shareholding structure. Major shareholders A shareholder of a public company is deemed to be a major shareholder when it holds directly or indirectly (undefined) 5% or more of the voting shares the company.

Upon becoming a major shareholder, the shareholder must report to the SSC and the HCMCSTC or HASTC (depending on where the shares of the public company are listed/offered). The information that must be reported is not extensive: only details of the investor (name, address) and details of the shares (number, percentage). However, important changes to this information, including a change of the number of shares in excess of 1%, must also be reported. Takeovers An offer to purchaser 25% or more of the voting shares in a public company must be made by a “public offer to acquire”.

The public offer to acquire must be registered with and approved by the SSC (the law does not detail any criteria or basis for the approval) and must be announced in the mass media. Of note, if after implementation of the public offer to acquire, the acquirer holds 80% or more in the public company, the acquirer must, if the remaining shareholders so request, acquire the remaining shares at the announced price of the offer to acquire. 4. 4 Disclosure requirements A public company must publicly disclose certain information and report it to the SSC.

Annually, a public company must disclose its audited financial statements. In addition, it must disclose information within a short period (24 hours, or 72 hours) upon the happening of a prescribed event, for example if an account of the public company is frozen (within 24 hours) or if a decision is made to borrow bonds with a value of 30% or more of the company’s equity (within 72 hours). 4. 2 4. 3 5 © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws 5. 5. 1 Foreign investors – how to purchase shares

Unlisted shares To contribute capital or purchase shares in Vietnamese enterprises, foreign investors must open a Vietnamese dong capital contribution and share purchase account (Account) at a commercial bank operating in Vietnam. All transfers of funds for the purpose of contributing capital, purchasing and selling shares, transferring capital contribution, receiving and using dividends or profits distribution, or purchasing foreign currency from authorised banks for remittance abroad and other transactions relating to any activity of capital contribution or purchase of shares in

Vietnamese enterprises by foreign investors must be performed through this Account. Further, this Account may only be used for capital contributions and share purchase activities. Within 2 working days from the date of opening the Account at a commercial bank, the foreign investor must register the Account with the State Bank (Department of Foreign Exchange Control). Under law, the State Bank must certify registration of the account within 5 working days, or otherwise provide written notice of its reasons for refusing to provide certification.

A foreign investor is only allowed to perform receipt or payment transactions through the Account after obtaining a document on certification of account registration from the State Bank. Therefore it is important for potential investors to organize this account well in advance of the relevant share purchase date. Other than the controls over the Account, trading in unlisted shares is largely unregulated. 5. 2 Listed shares The foreign investor must apply for a securities trading code from the HCMCSTC/HASTC.

The application consists of an application form and supporting documents. Unfortunately, the supporting documents that originate outside Vietnam (for example the constitution and establishment documents of the foreign investor) are subject to the tedious requirements of notarization and certification. Investors must then open a VND securities trading account with a registered broker in accordance with Decision 15505 to service activities of the purchase and sale of securities.

The following accounts must be opened by the broker at an authorized bank in Vietnam: (a) a specialized, on-call foreign currency deposit account, into which foreign currency of the foreign investor is deposited (i) for the purpose of conversion into VND for purchase of securities or (ii) after conversion from VND for the purpose of remittance overseas or other authorized foreign currency remittances in Vietnam; and (b) a specialized, on-call VND deposit account, into which all VND amounts (after conversion from foreign currency) and all VND income from securities nvestment is transferred and from which all VND remittances for purchase of securities or for conversion into foreign currency is made. Listed share certificates must be centrally deposited at the Vietnam Securities Depository (VSD). This happens in two steps: first, the owner deposits the certificates with a depository member (for example, the broker or depository bank) and second, the depository member in turn deposits the certificates at the VSD. Cash settlement is made via the settlement bank, which is the BIDV. 6. 6. 1

Foreign investors – restrictions Prohibited and conditional sectors Four prohibited sectors are listed in the 2005 Law on Investment. These sectors apply equally to foreign and local investors. Nine conditional sectors are listed in the 2005 Law on Investment. These sectors also apply equally to foreign and local investors. In addition foreign investment is conditional in 13 sectors specified in Decree 108 and ‘other investment sectors in international treaties of which Vietnam is a member and which restrict the opening of the 5

Decision 1550-2004-QD-NHNN of the State Bank of Vietnam dated 6 December 2004. 6 © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws market to foreign investors’. It is not yet clear what the conditions are, and whether they may include restrictions on indirect investment. 6. 2 Other restrictions The current (to the extent that they have not been specifically repealed) laws of Vietnam consist of the following restrictions: (a) (b) (c) There is a cap on total foreign shareholdings in or capital contributions to any one unlisted domestic business of 30% of the charter capital (30% rule).

The range of unlisted companies in which foreign investors may purchase shares is also restricted by sector (only 35 business lines are permitted). Foreign investors may hold a maximum of 49% of the total shares of any one company listed at a stock exchange or registered for trading at a securities trading centre (49% rule). Although not yet specifically repealed these restrictions may be affected by the 2005 Law on Investment which stipulates “investors must be permitted to invest in all sectors and in all industries and trades which are not prohibited by law”.

Therefore under this general rule foreign investors should be (in theory) permitted to invest in all sectors and all industries provided that they are not in a prohibited or conditional sector (as above). It is not clear if the authorities will interpret the 30% rule and the 49% rule as being repealed by or alternatively, qualifying the Law on Investment. We consider that the better view is that these rules should be repealed by the Law on Investment. This view is consistent with the WTO principle of national treatment.

However, we understand that in a meeting held on 18 January 2007 between the Government Office, the Ministry of Finance and the SSC the Government Office expressed the Prime Minister’s opinion that the 49% rule would continue to be applied ‘temporarily’. In any event, specific restrictions will continue to apply to conditional sectors (for example, banks) in accordance with commitments made under international agreements. 7. 7. 1 Securities Industry Players General Securities companies and fund management companies are the key players in the Vietnamese securities industry.

This section provides an overview of the scope of activities under Law 70 of these companies Securities company As at 29 December 2006, the SSC has issued 55 operational licenses to securities companies under the previous securities law regime. After the effective date of Law 70, being 1 January 2007, there have not been any operational licenses issued and the most likely reason is that the implementing regulations for Law 70 have not been promulgated to guide the SSC in its work.

Under Law 70, securities companies are permitted to engage in any or all of the following activities (the minimum legal capital is listed along side each of the activity): (a) (b) securities brokerage (VND 25 billion); securities self-trading (if the securities company engages in this activity it can only conduct the other activity of underwriting) (VND 100 billion); underwriting issues of securities (VND 165 billion); securities investment consultancy (VND 10 billion); financial consultancy services; and other financial services. . 2 (c) (d) (e) (f) The permitted areas of activity are limited compared to the business areas permitted under the old securities law regime. The prescribed minimum legal capital has also increased. This explains why there was a rush towards the end of 2006 to obtain a securities company license from the SSC. 7 © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws 7. 3 Fund Management Company Prior to the effective date of Law 70, eighteen operational licenses were issued by the SSC to fund management companies.

Again there was a rush to obtain a license towards the end of 2006 because the scope of business activities has been restricted under Law 70. A fund management company can only engage in fund management and portfolio management and the minimum legal capital for establishment is VND 25 billion. 8. Funds This section provides a brief overview of investment funds as this is the subject of a detailed paper which will be released once the MOF has settled the regulation on investments funds and other related matters. Investment funds have been driving the bullish Vietnamese stock market.

There have been a growing number of offshore and onshore investment funds established in recent years. At least 25 investment funds are operating in the market with an objective of investing in Vietnam. The Prime Minister has reportedly indicated that regulations on capital controls would be tightened to prevent capital flight which probably means that the MOF’s soon to be released regulations would introduce further regulatory controls on the operation of Funds. In brief, Law 70 sets the framework for the establishment of onshore public and members’ funds.

Public funds and members’ funds must have at least VND 50 billion in start up capital and managed by a fund management company. A public fund may be an open or closed ended fund with at least 100 investors. A members’ fund must have up to 30 investors. Assets of a fund are to be held by a custodian bank. The MOF’s future regulation is expected to contain other operational requirements. This article was written by Julia Howes, a lawyer with Allens Arthur Robinson who has been practicing in Vietnam for 3 years.

Allens Arthur Robinson is one of the largest international law firms in Asia, with more than 900 lawyers, including 179 partners. Allens Arthur Robinson has been providing legal services for clients in Australia for more than 180 years and in Asia for the past 30 years. Our Vietnam practice is managed by partners Bill Magennis in Hanoi and Nigel Russell in Ho Chi Minh City, both of whom joined the Allens Arthur Robinson partnership from 1 January 2007. The Vietnam practice was established in 1993 and is one of the largest and most successful among foreign law firms in the country.

For further information, please contact: Bill Magennis Partner, Hanoi Ph: +84 4 936 0990 Bill. [email protected] com. au Nigel Russell Partner, Ho Chi Minh City Ph: +84 8 822 1717 Nigel. [email protected] com. au Steve Pemberton Partner, Singapore Ph: +65 6535 6622 Steve. [email protected] com. au Jim Dunstan Executive Partner – Banking & Finance and Asia offices, Sydney Ph: +61 2 9230 4571 Jim. [email protected] com. au Simon Lynch Partner, Melbourne Ph: +61 3 9613 8922 Simon. [email protected] com. au Jeremy Low Partner, Sydney Ph: +61 2 9230 4041 Jeremy. [email protected] com. au This publication is copyright.

Except as permitted under relevant laws, no part of this publication may be reproduced by any process, electronic or otherwise, without the specific written permission of the copyright owner. © Allens Arthur Robinson 8 © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws The material contained in Vietnam Client Updates is intended to inform you of recent legal developments in Vietnam. It is not intended, and should not be relied upon, as legal advice. Should you wish further information in relation to any legal instrument or matter mentioned in this issue, please do not hesitate to contact one of our offices.

Ho Chi Minh City Suite 605 Saigon Tower 29 Le Duan Boulevard District 1 Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam Tel +84 8 822 1717 Fax +84 8 822 1818 nigel. [email protected] com. au Hanoi Suite 401 Hanoi Tower 49 Hai Ba Trung Hanoi, Vietnam Tel +84 4 936 0990 Fax +84 4 936 0984 bill. [email protected] com. au Allens Arthur Robinson – a leading international law firm with lawyers in: Bangkok | Beijing | Brisbane | Hanoi | Ho Chi Minh City | Hong Kong | Jakarta | Melbourne | Perth | Phnom Penh | Port Moresby | Shanghai | Singapore | Sydney 9 © Allens Arthur Robinson – Vietnam Laws

Free Essays

Vietnam War Impact on New Zealand

The Vietnam War had several social effects in New Zealand. The New Zealand publics’ opinion was polarized due to New Zealand’s involvement in the war, and public debate was generated over New Zealand’s foreign policy in particular how it relied on an alliance-based security. An anti-war movement developed in New Zealand, who disagreed with the strategy of forward defense. They also questioned the validity of the domino theory, and thought communism in south-East Asia did not in any way threaten New Zealand.

The members of the anti-war movement also condemned the western intervention in Vietnam; they argued that they should not support a corrupt regime such as Ngo Dinh Diem, that it was immoral. The anti-war activists urged the New Zealand government to get a more independent foreign policy, instead of being submissive to the American government. The anti-war movement grew steadily, by the 1970s mobilizations that involved thousands of New Zealanders marching to protest the war where occurring in cities all over New Zealand.

Young and highly educated New Zealanders made up a most of the anti-war war movement, which was also supported by church groups, students, and growing numbers of the public. This was a large social effect the Vietnam war had on New Zealand as it meant people where coming together to protest the war, and it caused New Zealanders to be more aware of politics and become more politically involved. The Vietnam War also had large political impacts in New Zealand.

While New Zealand troops where in Vietnam the political ideas of National and labor towards the war became markedly different. Initially both parties supported sending troops, national publically stating New Zealand had a duty to support its ally, but as the war continued Labor began to adopt the ideas of the anti-war movement. From 1969 labor promised if they were elected New Zealand troops would be withdrawn from Vietnam. Labor supported a more independent foreign policy, which would reflect New Zealand as a small multicultural country situated in the south pacific.

Labor hoped it would be able to achieve this and keep New Zealand in its alliances. National however remained committed to an alliance based foreign policy, arguing a small country such as New Zealand had to rely and co-operate on powerful allies. New Zealand’s involvement in the Vietnam War lead to the end of the earlier Bipartisan cold war consensus between National and Labor on foreign policy, marking it a significant turning point in the development of a new direction for New Zealand’s foreign policy.

The Vietnam War had both long term impacts on the New Zealand soldiers involved and more immediate impacts. A more immediate impact was while in Vietnam New Zealand soldiers were put under a lot of stress. The Viet Cong were an “invisible enemy” who fought using guerilla tactics. New Zealand soldiers also patrolled in silence, using hand gestures to communicate, so as to not reveal their position to the enemy. This meant the soldiers did not know where the Viet Cong were, and knew they could appear at any moment.

This would have frightened the soldiers and put more stress on them, as they were never sure when they would run into the Viet Cong, knowing that each time they went round a corner they could run into the Viet Cong. Veterans recall “endless fear, tension and adrenalin. ” during their time in Vietnam. Some of the missions New Zealand soldiers were required to go on resulted in the deaths of Vietnamese women and children, many soldiers suffered psychological damage as a result of seeing the bodies and realizing who they had killed.

Upon returning home soldiers faced hostility from the public, who described them as “war-mongers” and “baby-killers. ” This had an emotional effect on soldiers, who had been an expecting a hero’s welcome, many where surprised and hurt by the public’s reaction. This was one of the factors that caused veterans to think of themselves as “ cynical” and “distrusting. ” New Zealand soldiers also suffered from long term affects from the Vietnam war, in particular many suffered from exposure to the defoliant agent orange.

Agent Orange was a dangerous toxin used by the US to kill the foliage the Viet Cong hid in. it was sprayed by air and by hand. Zone three, where New Zealand soldiers were serving had over 20 million liters of Agent Orange sprayed on it, more than the other zones got combined. Exposure to Agent Orange caused high rates of cancers such as liver, Non-Hodgkins lymphoma and lung cancer among veterans, around 30 to 40 years after they left. Agent Orange also had an intergenerational impact, affecting the veteran’s children.

After the war many of their wives had still or premature births. One soldier’s wife had seven miscarriages. Agent Orange caused genetic mutations to occur; the women who did manage to have kids gave birth to children with deformities and disabilities. Initially the New Zealand government refused to acknowledge the effects of Agent Orange, and would not give recognition of the harm that had been done to New Zealand soldiers. However after incontrovertible proof was provided to a governments select comity it was officially agreed that New Zealand soldiers had been put at risk.

Free Essays

Sales Planning for Ginvera Vietnam

Contents I. Introduction3 II. The Body5 1. The marketing communication mix5 1. 1. Personal selling6 1. 2. Sale Promotion6 1. 3. The relationship between communication mix’s elements8 2. Understanding of buying behavior9 2. 1. Stimulus10 2. 2. Process15 2. 3. Respond17 3. Environmental and managerial forces affecting personal selling for Ginvera products in Vietnam19 3. 1. External Environmental factors19 3. 2. Internal Managerial factors23 4. Main types of personal selling suitable for Ginvera Vietnam26 4. . In Business to Customer market26 4. 2. In Business to business market27 5. Principle of personal selling applicable for Ginvera Vietnam29 5. 1. Sales professionalism29 5. 2. Negotiation skills29 5. 3. Relationship marketing30 6. The stages in the personal selling for Ginvera Vietnam32 6. 1. Prospecting33 6. 2. Planning33 6. 3. Approach34 6. 4. Presentation34 6. 5. Handling Objection35 6. 6. Closing the sales35 6. 7. Follow up35 III. Conclusion36 Appendix37 Table of images37 Table of figure37 References38

I. Introduction From the first day of establishing from 1985 by talented founder L. D. Waxson, Ginvera has climb step by step to the peak of beauty care industry in the South East Asia as the most prominent leader. The company appears as home of more than 500 dedicated employees and thousands others who work in production. The wide ranges of about 90 Ginvera’s products diversify from skin care to bath products, from shampoo to diapers, which are developed sensibly for both men and women, adults and kids.

Furthermore, by taking advantages of modern technology, coupled with strong and strategic foresight along with determination of the talented founders, all products are created, developed and improved in the more effective, much safer and more affordable away. With clear mission, vision and objective as well as appropriate business strategies which help the company keep a constant profitably and grow in stable way, Ginvera has built a significant reputation around Asia, especially South East Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and even China.

However, in Ginvera’ point of view, Vietnam does still appears as a brand new and potential market which can help the company not only reinforce its reputation effectively but also a considerable revenue every year. One the other hand, in Vietnamese customers’ perspective, Ginvera still appears as unfamiliar name although their products are sold in most of the supermarket especially in mega cities like Hanoi and Ho chi Minh city. As a result, on the way of market developing, Ginvera has planned to do some researches on Vietnamese market as well as customers’ behavior in order to have a comprehensive overview about this potential market.

Based on this purpose, this report will provide Ginvera an overall best practice of Sale Planning and Operation exclusively for Vietnam market which mostly mention about personal selling, including the principles, types of personal selling, both environmental and managerial forces affecting personal selling, the stages of this process as well as how the understanding of buyers’ behavior can be applied and use effectively in this process. Moreover, before mention all kinds of these issues, the report will bring an overview about communication mix and its roles in relationship with Ginvera Vietnam with wo instant examples: Advertising and personal selling. II. The Body 1. The marketing communication mix Marketing mix as known as 4P’s includes 4 main elements: product, price, place and promotion in which the promotion is considered as the appearance of any marketing campaign. The promotion does not only decide how the images of product are built but also decides partly how the product was sold to the hand of the customers. In order to build an effective and reasonable promotion, Companies often seeks for help from communication mix which includes: personal selling, advertising, public relations, sale promotion and direct marketing.

In order to achieve a distinguish look between two main groups, this report will discuss about two first different types: personal selling and sales promotion, representative for personal and non – personal selling. Figure 1. The Communication Mix 2. 1. Personal selling Personal selling is defined as direct oral communication designed to explain how an individual’s or firm’s goods, services, or ideas fit the needs of one or more prospective customers. This type of selling is often used in high – valuable products’ purchasing such as a house or car.

Naturally, when a people decide to buy a product or service valuable, especially compare with their income, they will consider very carefully with high degree of involvement. On the other hand, this type of selling is also popular in personal product or services which beauty cares appear as instant example. Personal selling is considered as the most intensive but expensive method in the communication mix. While other non – personal selling methods focus on the general public, personal selling as its name, focus on individuals as well as personal aspect.

Every person has different personality, different characteristics with different objectives and different requirements. In some industries like beauty care, is it necessary for the customers to have personal consults, in this case, personal selling plays the leader role as the most suitable and effective way for both company and customers’ perspective as in the win – win formula. By this way, the salesperson can understand exactly what the customers’ needs and wants, hence, provide some appropriate advices which can satisfy the customer.

In personal selling, selling is not the most important way as its impression; the more important thing is building long – term relationship with the customers. Obviously, even if the customer cannot find her necessary products at this time, however, it does not mean that she will not come back if she still feel satisfy with the services. Moreover, salespeople appear as the face, indicate the spirit of the company, play an important role in building image of the company in the customers’ heart. However, personal selling does not appear as a perfect selling method, where put the customer in the center of sales deals.

Firstly, the cost for this method is significantly higher than these other non – personal selling methods. Secondly, not all products or all market are considered suitable with this method. 2. 2. Sale Promotion Unlike personal selling, sale promotion is defined as any initiative undertaken by an organization to promote an increase in sales, usage or trial of a product or service. In more details, sales promotion activities are temporary changes in the marketing mix, used to achieve tactical objectives. Moreover, this type of selling is also designed to attract not only end consumer as usual but also the sale team and intermediaries.

Examples include contests, coupons, freebies, loss leaders, point of purchase displays, premiums, discounted price, prizes, product samples, and rebates. Among these types, discount, coupon and product samples are the most popular types in Vietnam’s beauty care market, both online and offline. Firstly, Sale promotions often used when the company releases a new line of products as a way to introduce them to the customer and encourage them to try on and feedback to Company. Secondly, companies often use sale promotion as “push and pull” strategy by hitting directly on the customers’ psychology.

Most of Vietnamese housewives or young girls love discount, coupon and so forth. In some cases, they buy lots of unnecessary thing only because of the gift or sales’ percentages. Understanding this behavior, companies often release a lot of sale promotion campaign as a way to stimulus the buying power and increase sale volume significantly. Image 1. Coupon, discount, free gift set, etc is some example of Sale Promotion On the other hand, as other non – personal selling types, sales promotion playing the vital role on creating and maintaining awareness about the products for the customers.

As a new comer in Vietnam market, Ginvera can apply this method to attract customers’ attention and create a friendly image in their mind. However, due to fact that the sale promotion is often used to achieve tactical objective, hence, unless Ginvera plans to use cost leadership or cost focus, the sale promotion should not be used too frequently. 2. 3. The relationship between communication mix’s elements Generally, while personal selling appears as an intensive and expensive method, it is still consider as the most effective way to building desire, changing attitudes and the most important, convert them to sales and revenue.

Furthermore, unlike other non – personal method such as advertising and Public relation mainly focus on creating awareness but does not affect significantly on customer’s action, the sale promotion have one common with personal selling on hitting the mark of customers’ behavior, convert them into sale but in more public instead of personal aspect. In fact, each elements from communication mix has its own strength and weakness, hence, they can support for each other effectively. Normally, the companies often used a combination of these element in parallel way in order to achieve the most effective results.

For example, the customer can know about Ginvera’s skin care products’ line through Direct marketing (e. g. through flyers) or Advertising, at this time, sale persons in showroom or through consulting online system appear to provide them more detail about the products. In this process, the sale promotion as first discount can support effectively as a stimulus factor. Level of effectiveness Advertising, PR, exhibition, etc Personal selling O Awareness InterestDesireAction Decision making process Figure [ 2 ]. The supporting of communication elements to each other in nfluence on decision making process (Sources: course book, page 469) 2. Understanding of buying behavior Selling is an art, and salespeople are artists. Mainly focusing on each individual customer, understanding buying behavior appears as the golden key for any salesperson to achieve the customers’ heart both in short term and long term as well as close the sale. In Vietnam, personal selling is still considered as a new comer with most of the customers. However, in near future, it will be more popular and familiar with the customers due to the improvement of the standard of livings.

Twenty years ago, the only thing Vietnamese people care about is how to fulfill their starving stomach, now everything has changed positively. As a result, salespeople are required to understand how the customers think and behavior. One of the models which reflect this process briefly is SPR. Figure 3. SPR model 3. 4. Stimulus 3. 5. 1. Marketing Mix Marketing mix is one of the most popular tools which are used for analyzing about products, price, place and promotion in order to build up an effective marketing campaign. Basically, all these elements influence in customers’ behavior and buying process in a comprehensive way Figure 4. elements of marketing mix * Product: Ginvera’s products diversities from skin care for both men and women, products for kids to households’ products. Living in a tropical country, most of Vietnamese women own an oily or combination oily skin with blemishes. Fortunately, the main rocket of skincare line from Ginvera is exacted from green tea, which is very suitable for working with Vietnamese skin’s problems. Therefore, the company can hope for the welcome from potential Vietnamese customers. Moreover, the salesperson can also base on this competitive advantage to attract customers and persuade them to buy Ginvera’s products.

On the other hand, other product in skin care like such as bio – essence or white radian are also received a lot of positive comments from consumers which can help the salesperson effectively in attracting customers and selling. Image 2. Some products of Ginvera * Place: In Hanoi, the only popular product which can be seen in supermarket and cosmetic stores is Bath products. Beside other popular brands come from Unilever, Ginvera’s products are arranged with other foreign brand such as The Body Shop (UK), Shiseido (Japan), Queen Helen (US), etc.

Obviously, on the reputation’s aspect, Ginvera cannot compare with such brands, however, in the customers’ mind; it partly determines the origin as well as the quality of Ginvera’s products. When Ginvera comes to Vietnam, beside the regular selling in supermarket chain such as Citimex, Intermex, Co – op mart, etc, the company should consider about establishing its own showrooms in shopping malls and plaza not only as way to determine the quality and enhance the reputation of this brand in Vietnam but also provide the effective consult through salesperson team for the customers.

Image 3. Ginvera’ bath products are arranged with other products in Star Supermarket 36, Cat Linh Street, Hanoi (Photo taken in March 27, 2011) * Price: According www. ginvera. com, Ginvera’s product price is pretty high than other popular brand in Vietnam, in both skin care and body bath line. In fact, the price of skin care line is almost equivalent with other famous brands from UK and Korea which is very popular in Vietnam these recent years. Product| Origin| Capacity| Price| GINVERA Green Tea Jade Dark Eye Circles Roll Away| Malaysia| 15ml| S$18. – 320,000VND| Pond’s Age miracle Eye cream| Thailand| 20ml| 200,000VND| Skin food Salmon Brightening Eye cream| Korea| 30g| 350,000VND (portable way)| The Body shop Vitamin E eye cream| UK| 15ml| 299,000VND (showroom)| Moreover, in Vietnamese perception, UK or Korean appears more trustworthy rather than one coming from Malaysia. Therefore, the salesperson should point out some convincible features of the product to persuade the customer that the money they given worth with the effectiveness that the product will bring them. * Promotion: At this time, the products from Ginvera in

Vietnam are imported directly from Malaysia through import countries with limited kind of product and quantity. Because this reason, the products are not got the promotion in an appropriate way, except the discount from the supermarket chains where it is sold. As a result, even the Ginvera’s bath products are presented in most of big supermarkets, it does still appear hardly for customer to notice and give them a try. Moreover, promotion also plays an important role in stimulus customers open their pocket, even in case they do really need the products or not.

Image 4. In Malaysia and Singapore, Ginvera ask some famous artist to be their spokesperson in promotion campaign 3. 5. 2. The social influences The social factors which have the most powerful influence on customers’ buyer behavior as well as buying process include: culture, social class and reference groups (family, friends, etc). * Culture: One culture factor that effect on the Vietnamese customers’ choices is preferring – foreign – product mind. Accept Chinese products, every product which have foreign label are welcomed in Vietnam.

Coming from Malaysia, Ginvera can expect for the similar welcome from potential Vietnamese customer. On the other hand, Ginvera’s products are produce locally in Malaysia, where some famous cosmetics companies such as Maybelline (US) established their factory. The salesperson can focus on this point to persuade the customer buy the products. Another factor coming from the preconception about the price of the products: the higher must be the better which can appear as an advantage for Ginvera. Beside, the different buying culture between the geographic areas should be care about by salesperson in order to win customer heart.

While Northern people have to consider carefully before buying anything, the Southern people tend to open the pocket easily when they feel that they like the product. Therefore, understanding these behaviors will help salesperson deal with customer more effectively. However, there is a very negative preconception about personal selling exist in Vietnamese mind. Some years ago, when the personal selling started in Vietnam, a lot of deceptions happened in which swindles play salesperson and took a lot of money from unluckily customers.

This fact lead to antipathy eye look stares in any salesperson that rings the door bell. Therefore a direct marketing type like this should not be deployed in Vietnam. More details will be discussed later in this report. * Reference groups: In fact, reference groups can be family, friends, etc. Obviously, the review of products coming from other users, especially acquaintances, will appear more trustworthy rather than the introduction from salespeople. In recent year, Google has made information become more accessible.

As a result, women do not need to wait the salesperson provide information about the products. Just by a click, they can find out a lot of comment about the products through beauty blog, products’ review pages from magazine and the most popular now is forums. The beauty forums where women gathered to exchange information about products, beauty methodology always receives a lot of care with considerable high views. Naturally, women do easily fall in love with some products just because of positive feedbacks from other women.

In this case, the relationships of customers as well as peer group’s pressure should be taken advantages by salesperson. One of the effective ways is referencing policy which means after selling the product to customers, the salesperson of Ginvera should ask them for feedbacks but also recommending for other friends. * Social class: Actually, about twenty years ago, investing money on the beauty care appears as something very luxury and dreamy that only high – class women can think about. Now, everything has changed due to the improvement of living standard.

Understanding the potential demand, cosmetic companies given out various line of products from popular line to luxury one, which can satisfy any women who care about beauty. In Ginvera situation, the target segment can be middle and high income women who live in mega cities and cities like Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City. 3. 5. Process The next element of SPR model mentioned about the process. While the first S mostly focus on external factors influence on buying behavior of customers, the P elements mostly focus on the internal ones where the personality of the customers as well as psychological influences play important role. . 6. 3. Personal Influences There are many personal factors can influence on the buying behavior of the customers, includes ages, income, gender, living style and so forth. These factors divide customers to different segment with different target products. In this situation, the salesperson needs to understand deeply and comprehensively about these differentiations, hence, they can satisfy every customer by their appropriate consults and also close the sale. The different between ages lead to different thinking and mind and different care.

Jumping out from sour purity, a lot of Vietnamese girls from 18 – 24 years olds meet with oily and blemishes skin problems. Unfortunately, the pollution environment in Vietnam pushes everything in significant worse situation. Givera’s green tea skin care line can working well with these problems. One positive thing that, these girls are young and free to trying new thing, even they coming from Malaysia rather than other famous brand of Korea or Europe. One the other hand, women who walks over 30 years old keep their attention to wrinkle and anti – aging problems where the bio – essence can uphold their power.

However, these women often consider very carefully before open their pocket for products coming from Malaysia due to the preconception. Income is another factor that the salespeople should care about. High income does not means that they are always ready to burn their money immediately after listening palatable consult from salespeople. According to the price of Ginvera products, the target segment should be middle and high income customers. However, it does not mean that the salesperson only care about one high – income lady who comes to the showroom after an low – income young student who comes first.

Obviously, the student can earn high income in the future and become a potential customer. More dangerous, after being ignoring, the young student can leaving negative comment about the sales team of Ginvera with other people she know and burn the reputation of the company. 3. 6. 4. Psychological Influences Why people buy? They buy for both practical and emotional reasons. Everything is presented by the golden word “motivation”. People buy something they need result from a lack of something desirable. For example, a girl with dry skin needs moisturizer cream in the winter.

In other situation, some other girl wants are need learned by other person; hence, they use a lot of products so that they can give them an appropriate review on. In this aspect, the influences from reference groups also uphold their power as this report discussed above. For example, a girl who need to find a whitening cream, she find out a lot of recommendations from Internet through beauty blogs, beauty forums, etc. Obviously, these recommends appear more trustworthy than consult from salesperson, in spite of the fact that everybody has different skin.

Therefore, salesperson needs to get a good hold of information through Internet in order to handle in every situation and satisfy the customer. The next factor is “Economic needs” which means the best value for the money. When people consider buying something, they will wonder if the money they pay worth the product they purchase, especially in the inflation storm in this time. However, in some cases, some girls and women cannot control how much they spends on beauty care stuff such as clothes, shoes, skin care stuff and so on. As a result, they are willing to open pocket even they does not really need the products or not.

In this case, the salesperson from Ginvera can use some special techniques to close the sale before the customers change their mind and burn their money on something else. The most important factor under psychological influences is buyer’s perception. This perception can come from customers’ past experiences or from the knowledge they learnt. The modern women have more chances to understanding bout beauty care rather than the women who come from last decades. As the development of the Internet, the customer can access information about the product only by one click.

Therefore, salespeople always have to keep in mind that, the customer are testing their knowledge about beauty care as well as the products and close the sale or not depend on the quality of their consultation. The most important thing is the salesperson should providing the disadvantages instead of hiding them in order to provide consult effectively. 3. 6. Respond Figure 5. Buying process Each step in buying process is influence significantly by both internal and external factors. As this report discussed above, for example, the first step – problem recognition is influence by the psychological factor named motivation.

Meanwhile, the next two steps: information search and evaluation of alternatives are influence by social influences such as culture and especially the references groups. After these stimulus and process steps, customers will respond by making decision, buying or not buying. The respond behavior can be expressed through buying behavior as well as buying practice or post purchase behavior. Normally, the customers, especially women are easily to fall in love with the products after hearing lots of positive review from other users or palatable sentences from salesperson.

It is the golden time that the salesperson hold in order to close the sale before the customers can change their mind. However, in this time, instead of convince the customers that the products is 100% perfect and they need to buy it, the salesperson better use the technique named “push and pull”. Obviously, “You do not need to buy it immediately, but I am not sure that this amazing moisturizer will be still available or not when you come back” appears more effective than “You must buy this moisturizer before it is out of stock”.

Ginvera’s salespeople need to keep in mind that the decision belongs to customers instead of them. Therefore, the customers will feel that they are respected and will not feel regret after buying products. After buying and using the products, customers will have feedback for the products, even if the product works for them or not. It is the time for company to collect information and provide after sale services. One call asking about the feedback will satisfy any customers because they can feel that their opinion is valuable with the company.

In these call, the salesperson should ask the recommendation for other customers. Maybe, this product does not work well with the customers, but it does not mean that they will not say something positively about the product or the service to other people or even comeback to Ginvera to choose another products. Therefore, it appears as golden chances for the salesperson to build up long – term relationship with customers and develop other new relationships. 3.

Environmental and managerial forces affecting personal selling for Ginvera products in Vietnam In order to establishing effective marketing planning for enthusiastic sales team, Ginvera Vietnam must be identify what environmental factors that effect on salesperson as well as personal selling process. Basically, the marketing environment can be divided into two parts which are external environment and internal management. 4. 7. External Environmental factors 4. 8. 5. Macro factors In order to analyze macro factors effectively, this report will use the PESTEL model by Michael Porter. Figure 6. PESTEL model Politic and Legal: Vietnam is a socialist republic country with only one Party: Vietnamese Communist Party. The unity in political system makes Vietnam appear more potential with a political environment stably without any significant signs of terrorism or civil war. In addition, Vietnamese government has built a Law on Foreign Investment which occurred from 12/11/1996 in order to help foreign firms like Ginvera can approach the Vietnam’s business environment easily. However, the import tax for cosmetic and skin care product still stay in 36%, higher than other South East Asia countries from 4 to 5 times.

Therefore, the cosmetic price in Vietnam still stays in high place compare with customer pocket. * Economic: In 2010, Vietnam’s GDP increased 6. 78% compared to 2009 while the number of the first quarter in 2011 decreased to 5. 43%. According to the delighted number, Vietnam stills a potential and charming destination for foreign investment. However, the inflation still maintain in high peak which is forecasted at 9. 5% according to the World Bank. Moreover, the increase in dollar exchange rate, the petrol and the electricity make the population tighten their belts.

In this case, cosmetics and beauty care stuffs will enter the luxury goods list that people will be consider very carefully before open their pocket. As a result, Ginvera salespeople will meet more hinders in order to persuade customers buy and use their products. * Social: Vietnam has a high population with over 86 million people. Therefore, with stable and advantaged business environment, Vietnam appears as potential market with any foreign investor due to the potential demand, and Ginvera Vietnam is not a special exception. Additionally, the Vietnam population is considered as the young population level with 55. % populations in working age who have open mind and feel free to try on new things such as Ginvera. Moreover, the living standard of Vietnamese people is improved significantly in recent year, hence, people have more chances to care about beauty as well as approach high – quality products. For instance, the online cosmetic market through portable way in www. muare. vn, www. enbac. com, etc, is operating in high degree, reflect the tremendous demand of this potential market. * Technology: Infrastructure in Vietnam is quite adequate with enough developed transportation system.

Therefore, Ginvera Vietnam does not have to meet with any significant difficult in transport and deliver goods through distribution channel to the customers. Moreover, technology plays an important role in the communication between the company and the customer. The development on the telephone and especially the Internet bring the change in purchases routine of customers. Instead of going to the far store to buy anything buy cash, the only thing customer have to do is make a phone call or a click, transfer money through banks and wait for goods delivery.

Therefore, the company should develop the online selling system in order to give benefit to the customer, make them satisfy and building long – term relationships with them. Moreover, Ginvera should establish a consultation online system with professional sales team who trains carefully. Beside the consultation functions, this system is also used effectively for providing after sales services for customers as well as collect feedback from them. * Environment: In fact, all the products of Ginvera are imported directly from Malaysia.

Therefore, they do not need to care about the manufacturing environment criteria which imposed by Vietnamese government. However, the products from Ginvera still have to satisfy the minimum safety standard of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in order to enter Vietnam. In other word, the ingredient of the products must not contain toxic chemicals which are prohibited in Vietnam. In this case, Ginvera’s sales team has to understand this fact as the essential information about the products in case some hard – to – please customers can ask about. 4. 8. 6. Micro factors

According to Michael Porter (1996), there are five basic competitive forces which is considered as the micro environment influence on company, includes: bargaining power of customers, bargaining powers of suppliers, competitors, threats of substitutes and threats of new entrants. In order to determine the attractiveness from beauty care industry as well as understanding the intensity of competition in right way, Ginvera Vietnam should analyzing the micro environment by applying 5 forces model. Figure 7. Michael Porter’s 5 forces * The threat of new entrants: In beauty care industry, it appears not so difficult to entering the market.

For instance, a girl can produce natural handmade skin care product such as rose toner, waki pumpkin jelly, handmade soap, etc and open a shop online through internet. With small economic of scale, the shop does not need construction permit in order to operation. However, these small shops appear not power enough to compete with well – known brands. In other aspect, with significant bigger economic of scale, everything has changed. The required capital for establishing a company is not low; adding with complicated produces can keep the threat of new entrants not so high. The threat of substitute product: Handmade beauty care products which are produced 100% from natural ingredient appear once more time. However, Ginvera’s products are also exact from natural material such as green tea; bring more customers more convenient in packaging with longer expired time. This fact appears advantages of all industry beauty care product that the salespeople can point out for customer. Therefore, the threat of substitute product remains low level. * The bargain power of buyers: Vietnamese market is considered as a potential market with more than 86 million people.

With such prices, Beside Ginvera, the customers have more choices on other well – known brand name from Europe, USA, Korea, Japan, etc. Moreover, the switching cost in beauty care is not so high that a girl only loses about some hundred thousand VND to change her skincare products. Therefore, the customers are easy to change from their old skin care or household products to Ginvera, but also easy to change from Ginvera to another skin care or household products. In this situation, the bargain power of buyers stays in high level, which require appropriate selling and after selling policy from the company as well as salespeople. The bargain power of supplier: Due to the fact that, all Ginvera products will be imported to Vietnam, hence, the input of the company totally depend on the headquarter in Malaysia. Therefore, the bargain power of suppliers in this case remains in high degree. * The current rivals: The first rival groups come from beauty care industry. In the recent 2 years, the entering of well – known brands from Korea such as Skin food, The Face shop, Natural Republic, Baviphat, Tonymoly, etc through portable way as well as showrooms make the cosmetic market blooming.

These brands are considered affordable with good quality, compared with high – end brands such as SKII, Chanel, etc. As a result, a new comer like Ginvera will meet with fierce competition in this potential market. The second rival groups come from bath and household products and the products for kids. One tour around the supermarket indicated a lot of sub brand name comes from Unilever Corporation. In other word, this company are dominated the market and appear as the most redoubtable rivals of Ginvera. 4. 8. Internal Managerial factors

The Managerial force includes factors inside a company that impact its personal selling significantly, includes The capacity of the management, the structure of the company, the influences by other department, the selling strategy in the market, and the reward policies for sales people. 4. 9. 7. The capacity of the management Selling Manager of Ginvera is the one who build up the selling strategies and policies as well as the sales planning for the company in Vietnam market. As a result, their capacity appears as one of the most important managerial factor which affects the personal selling of the company.

If management has well capacity, they will give out right strategies and policies that make the personal selling for Ginvera achieve the success. On another case, if their capacity is not good that they brings out wrong decisions in their strategies or policies, the sales team of Ginvera will face with many obstacles when they perform their job, hence, cannot bring sales and revenue for the company. 4. 9. 8. The structure of the company The organizational structure has a remarkable impact on any single operation activity of every company, and Givera is not an special exception.

Besides, it will effect on how the department work together in a comprehensive system to run the company well and achieve good result. If the structure is too complicated, Sales people will finds hardly to cooperate with other departments, hence their selling process not only become very complicated but also waste a lot of valuable time. On another hand, if the structure appears too simple in which sales people may have to handle many tasks at the same time, therefore, they cannot concentrate in develop more sales. As a result, Ginvera Vietnam has to establish an appropriate structure which suitable and advantageous for the sales purpose. . 9. 9. The influences of other department Each company operate in comprehensive system in which each department influence on operation of other departments in two – side way. Therefore, the operation as well to the performance of sales department can be influence significantly by others such as Finance, HR, Marketing, R&D, etc. For example, the sales team is considered as the soul of selling department that they are people who decided the success of business by converting the selling plan to sales, revenue and profit, products to money and reputation.

In fact, these talented and enthusiastic people are recruited and trained by Human Resources Department. On the other hand, this department also decides the salary and reward policy for the sale teams, encourages them to perform their best ability. 4. 9. 10. The selling strategy in the market The selling strategy appear as the guideline for sales people to sell Ginvera in Vietnam market. If the strategy is appropriate with the Vietnamese market, personal selling can uphold its power effectively and bring more revenue to the company.

For instance, in case Ginvera target its segment for the skin care products correctively, the sales people can take advantages of the blooming and demanding market, and bring more sales to the company effectively. On the other hand, if the targeting is wrong, even if the sales people try all their best, they still meet with significant hinders when they sell the product to customers. Therefore, a judicious selling strategy play the vital role which decide partly the success of the business, hence, it must be carefully researched and issues by the management of the company. . 9. 11. The reward policy for salespeople Basically, the reward policies from Ginvera will influence significantly on the sales team as well as the revenue bring by these team. Normally, reward is considered as the biggest motivation for any sales person to perform their job. If the reward policies of the Ginvera are acceptable by the sales people, they will be motivated to try their best and bring more sales to the company. Meanwhile, if the reward is not worth the effort of sales people, they will not try much and have fewer sales.

This is the reason why management of Ginvera has to consider the rewards policies for sales team as a very important elements in their marketing and selling strategy. 4. Main types of personal selling suitable for Ginvera Vietnam The personal selling is considered as one of the elements of communication mix. Today, the personal main selling types can be classified based on the selling environment or based on the way salespeople approach the customer. Each type have different characteristic with different advantages and disadvantages.

As a result, not every method appears applicable and realistic in case of Ginvera Vietnam. In order to finding out the what is appropriate personal selling types that the company should apply, these method will be analyzed and compared with each other. 5. 9. In Business to Customer market Based on the selling environment, personal selling is divided into 3 main types: telemarketing, over – the – counter selling and field selling. Telemarketing is a kind of direct marketing in which the salesperson using telephone to marketing the product with customers and persuade them to buy products or use services.

In Vietnam, this type of selling has entered the market in some recent years. Through business relationships, the salesperson can have contact of potential customers and phone them to market the product. However, with most of Vietnamese people, this type of selling appears so annoying that burn their valuable time and disturb their working when salesperson keep on calling and calling. Another method which is also not welcomed by customer is field selling. In fact, this type of personal selling is very popular in other foreign countries such as Malaysia.

However, the significant number of deceptions cases which are issued by fake salespeople when fielding selling was adopted in Vietnam some years ago has create an lack – of – sympathy preconception among Vietnamese mind. Moreover, this type of selling can also make people wonder about the quality of the products as another preconception. While in both telemarketing and field selling, the salespeople go to the customer, in over – the – counter selling, the customers go to the salesperson. The sales team is suggested to e the salespeople who work in showrooms, supermarket chains and through telephone and online consulting system of Ginvera Vietnam. In fact, most of Vietnamese customers feel familiar with this type rather than telemarketing or field selling. There are two type of salesperson in over – the – counter selling, include order taker (a salesperson who only processes the purchase that the customer has already selected) and order getter ( a salesperson who seeks to actively provide information to prospects, persuade prospective customers, and close the sales).

One technique that the order getter can use that suggestion selling, in which the salesperson points out available complementary items in line with the selected item, in order to encourage an additional purchases. For example, when a customer chose the Green Tea Whitening Marvel Gel, the salesperson can suggest other products from Green Tea line for customer to get the best result. Therefore, in this case, the salesperson does not only satisfy customers by her consultation but also increase the sales volume significantly.

On the other hand, if Ginvera Vietnam establishes the showrooms chain in shopping mall like Vincom plaza, Diamond Plaza, etc, it will create a high – quality products awareness among the customers. 5. 10. In Business to business market In Business to business market, Ginvera Vietnam should change the application of personal selling type in order to achieve the goal of sale volume as well as profit. In this situation, customers can be retailers such as big supermarket chain (Metro, Fivimart, Citimart, Intimex, etc) or distribution companies.

With these customers, they always love the discount price in order to achieve profit from it, therefore, the selling policy that company imposed must be different. However, as well as single customers, the more important is building long – term relationships with customers. In Vietnamese market situation, the better choice for Ginvera Vietnam is field selling. Image 5. Big supermarket chains appear as potential business customer of Ginvera Vietnam Field selling is defined as a direct marketing method, which involve calling on prospective customers in either their business or home locations.

In business to business market, it means that the salesperson needs to come to the company to introduce the product as well as establish the relationship with these customers. Firstly, the intermediaries, especially the supermarket chain appear very open and welcome product coming from foreign countries which has clear origin. On the other hand, some supermarket chain has already arranged Ginvera products on their cases through import companies. Therefore, they are open to receive the origin product from Origin Company.

Secondly, the number of big supermarket is not so high; hence, Ginvera Vietnam can meet with the human resources for this market but still saving the expensive cost for personal selling types. Thirdly, the customers in this case are big size companies, therefore, they will required the discount percentages as wholesales price. In this case, it is necessary for Ginvera to have professional salespeople who are flexible enough to deal with these customers. 5.

Principle of personal selling applicable for Ginvera Vietnam In order to achieve the goal of selling, the sales people from Ginvera Vietnam need to obey all the essential principles of personal selling, include: sale professionalism, negotiation skills and last but not least, relationship marketing. 6. 11. Sales professionalism The aim of sales professionalism is to provide the salespeople with a basic understanding of the sales process and to demonstrate skills and techniques used during this process to ensure that there is a professional approach employed at all times.

The sales professionalism is considered as the first vital principle that all salespeople are required to obey in order to achieve the sale. The professionalism of sales team can reflect through the selling process actively, from how the customer approaches the product, handling the sales to provide after selling service. Firstly, every salespeople need to care about sales job as the long – term career, even if they do not plan to become a fulltime salesperson. They have to keep in mind the word golden key word “professional” all the time.

Moreover, with the professional mind, the salespeople will aware to learn how to convert the mind into actions, and learn experience through doing effectively. In addition, the customers must be considered as the center of selling process, based on the market – orientation that Ginvera imposed on the company. Customer is the king, and they need to be taken care and cheated as a king. By that way, salespeople can satisfy all the customers even products are sold or not. Besides, the salesperson must be accountable to his customer and maintains a professional attitude. 6. 12. Negotiation skills

One of specific characteristics of sales jobs is working with people. Thus, the sales people need to be trained very carefully about how to negotiate effectively with both business and single customers. In fact, each group of customers has different characteristics as well as different interests that required the difference negotiation skills. For example, both intermediaries and single consumers of Ginvera desire to buy high – quality products with cheap price. In fact, while the intermediaries love low price base on the profit objectives, the consumers care more about how the products can work effectively for their skin.

Moreover, the salesperson needs to build up the required flexibility in order to handle with all different selling situations. In every situation, salesperson needs to go over the negotiation without making concessions which will affect to the profit of company. However, in some case, the salesperson must be flexible that suffer lost or reach to break even, in order to building long – term relationship with customers, especially with business customers. In theory, there are two kinds of exchange in marketing: routinized exchange and negotiated exchange. Routinized exchange is to manage program of pricing and distribution.

On the other hand, in negotiated exchange, price and others term area set via bargaining behavior. 6. 13. Relationship marketing Practically, marketing as well as selling does not only focus on increasing the sales volume, the revenue and the profit as much as possible. The other important thing is building long – term relationship with customers by providing high – quality and affordable product as well as a good follow up policy after selling. In order to build relationship with customers effectively, the salespeople from Ginvera need to learn how to be a friend with customers.

In this case, the sales person should put himself on the customers’ position, think as the way customers think, care about their demand from little thing. By that way, they can provide the customers appropriate consultations and introduce to them which product is suitable for their problem. In beauty care industry, the harmony between the product and customers’ skin play the vital role in process of achieving the best result that one product can work for a this person’s skin does not mean it will work well with all others.

As a result, when the salesperson consult in whole – hearted and friendly way, the customers will fell that they are cheated as friends that the salesperson wants to provide the best and suitable thing for them, instead of to be cheated as customers in term of sale volume and money. Therefore, even in case they cannot find out the appropriate products for their problems, customer still feel satisfy and come back to the Ginvera’s store again. On the other hand, long – term customer can bring to the company stable revenue year by year by their repurchasing. Image 6.

Relationship marketing network between salespeople, customers and customers. Moreover, one relationship between customer and Ginvera can be developed to a relationship network with other customers. For example, if a customer bought and use a skin care product regularly and receive the good result, she can leave a review on her blogs or leave a post on beauty forum to share her experience. Therefore, due to the fact that women are easily to fall in love with beauty care product, a lot of other girl will be attract and desire to buy and use this skin care product.

However, if the customers complain about the product or the quality of service from company, other potential customers will fell apprehensive when she wants to buy and use the product. Therefore, the salesperson need to have the professional skill to satisfy all the customers, even they decide to buy the product or not. 6. The stages in the personal selling for Ginvera Vietnam Figure 8. The sales process Basically, every sales person has to follow all steps described above in order to achieve the sale as well as satisfy the customers.

Today, Ginvera produces more than 90 products from top to bottom ranging from shampoo to diapers. Therefore, each range of products need different requirement on personal selling. In order to analyze the important stages effectively, the single product range Ginvera Green Tea Skin Care will be chosen as the target product. Image 7. The Green Tea product line of Ginvera 7. 14. Prospecting The first step of selling process is identifying prospecting or qualifying products’ potential.

In definition, a prospect is a lead that has been qualified in terms of needs or want, ability to buy, authority to buy, accessibility, and eligibility. As this report mentioned before, most of Vietnamese women have oily or combination oily skin with blemish. These annoying spots drive women crazy that they are looking for suitable products which can defeat consequences from skin problems. Basically, green tea appear as an natural remedy which contain some actives elements which is very good at killing bacteria, reducing blemish and prevent them comeback.

Exacting directly from green tea, Ginvera green tea skin care line is consider as an appropriate choice which can work very well with Vietnamese skin. Moreover, Ginvera comes from Malaysia, an Asian country. Therefore, they understand they environment as well as the characteristic of Asian skin, hence, they can research and release skin care products appear suitable with Asian skin. Moreover, according to www. ginvera. com, the price of products is quite equal to the same line from other brand such as the Body shop (UK) or Skin food (Korean) which are affordable for middle to high income.

In case Ginvera enter Vietnam, the customer can buy the product easily from showrooms or even online, hence, the authority as well as the accessibility does not appear as hinder for both customers and company. 7. 15. Planning The next stage in the personal selling process is planning or pre approaching. The cautious preparation will help the salesperson approach the customers and close the sale easily. Firstly, the sales team must be train carefully in term of understanding about products as well as technique on selling art.

Working as professional salespeople, they have to have ability to provide customers the essential information about the product and handle them effectively to achieve the sales. The salesperson also needs to understand exactly the target prospects as well as the analysis between Ginvera Green Tea and rival products. From that, the salesperson can build up themselves enough knowledge and skills to work with customers and brings sales and revenue to Ginvera Vietnam. Last but not least, the company management should issue the appropriate selling strategy and planning in order to help the sales team perform the work in best condition. . 16. Approach Approaching customers is an art in which the salesperson need to achieve the acceptance from the customers that they are willing to listening about the products. In many cases, the salesperson through telemarketing receives the “busy” word as “cop” sound from customers. Therefore, where are the solutions for this problem? One of the answers is the salesperson should try to be the customers’ friends instead of playing a salesperson’ role who are trying to sell products to customers. The friendly attitude with smile will make the customers feel comfortable and feel free to share and receive information.

Especially, in beauty care industry, using salesperson as promotion girl or guide appears popular by its effectiveness. For example, the girl who owns a trouble skin with blemish will be attracted strongly by people who have the bright and smooth skin. This method will help salespeople approach the customers more easily and consult to the customer under sharing experience form as friend to friend. Ginvera should apply this method as one of marketing tactics at the same time with selling operation. 7. 17. Presentation

After approaching customers, it is the time for salesperson introduce to the customers about Ginvera Green Tea products. The presentation should display enough essential information about the products, emphasize on how the products will work effectively with customer’s skin problems. However, the salesperson also should reveal the disadvantages of the products, instead of hiding them or especially lying customers. The development of Internet bring customers a chances to access information about products, including both advantages and disadvantages features recommended by other users.

Therefore, the sales team always has to keep in mind that the customer might test their knowledge about products as well as beauty care. Moreover, lying to customer mean salesperson do not respect customers, hence, break the relationship between company and customer? On the other hand, the information should be providing just enough for the customer in order to stimulus them find and ask more information about the products or even give them a free trial. 7. 18. Handling Objection After one – way communication, the process will change to handling objections stages.

In other words, it is the time for salesperson to persuade the customers to buy and try on the products. Before making purchasing decision, every customer will present objections to salesperson (i. e. “I need skin care products which can defeat my strong and annoying blemishes”). In this case, the salesperson who was trained in the skills of handling objections will have to know handles them in a confident way. Ginvera’s sales person has to put themselves on customers’ position and consider their care and demand.

Therefore, they can understand what customers need and wants, hence, they can consult them effectively. This is considering as golden rule for any salesperson. In case the appropriate handling objective method is applied, the salesperson can provide more information about Ginvera Tea Tree products, and convert the customers’ objective to the reasons why they should try on and buy the products. 7. 19. Closing the sales After handling the objections, the salespeople have to decide when is the right moment to close the sale before the customers change their mind.

There are many types of closing the sales can be applied, include: direct close, assumptive close, summative close, demonstration close, negative close or special concession close. Based on the personality as well as characteristic of the customer, the salesperson from Ginvera will decides which one is appropriate method to apply. Closing sale occurs when the salespeople meet with prospects’ desire. Through the sign from prospects such as asking for warranty or checking the money left on wallet, the salesperson can catch the chance to close the sales. Moreover, the salesperson can use some professional technique to increase the sale.

For example, after persuade a girl to buy and use Green Tea products, the salesperson can ask customers if she had sisters or close friend meet with the same problems. 7. 20. Follow up The final stage of personal selling process is follow up or providing after selling service. In fact, Vietnamese companies often postpone this stage or display it under warranty form. Actually, this stage play the most important role in maintaining long – term relationship between salesperson and customers as well as the company and the customers. Ginvera Green Tea is a skin care product line.

Therefore, after the customers buy the product, salesperson should make a warm phone call or sell an email to ensure that the products are used in right way and customers do not caught allergic by products. In addition, based on the 21 days of skin resurrection circle, after that period of time, salesperson should also arrange another phone call or email to check out whether the products work well and receiving the feedback from customers. As a result, the customers will feel they are respect and care 100% that the salesperson and company take all responsibilities with their products.

Therefore, a good following up stage can help Ginvera have stable revenue through repurchasing sale volume by the long – term customers. In case the products do not work with customers, it does not mean they will not leave the positive comment if the quality of service satisfies them. III. Conclusion Entering WTO in 2007, Vietnamese government has to follow exactly which committed to WTO including open the market and reduce the import as well as tax rate for foreign product imported to Vietnam.

As a result, Vietnamese appear as a potential market with foreign firm, including which work in beauty care industry like Ginvera Vietnam. In fact, in order to enter Vietnamese market successfully, it is necessary for the company to do some market researches and build up a reasonable, realistic and suitable business strategy as well as effective functional plan. One of the most important things must be selling and personal selling plan. From the beginning, this report mention about the communication mix as well as the important role of it in Ginvera Vietnam case.

From this element, the personal selling has been chosen to identify and analyze deeply, include some relevant topics such as the application of understanding buying behavior, the factor influence on personal selling process, proposal for appropriate personal selling types in B2B and B2C market, the principle of modern salesperson and analyzing about stages of this process. However, understanding about the application of personal selling appears not enough for the company to win Vietnamese customers heart.

In order to achieve this goal and earn money from Vietnamese pocket, the company must plan to do more than that. Appendix Table of images Image 1. Coupon, discount, free gift set, etc is some example of Sale Promotion7 Image 2. Some products of Ginvera11 Image 3. Ginvera’ bath products are arranged with other products in Star Supermarket 36, Cat Linh street, Hanoi (Photo taken in March 27, 2011)12 Image 4. In Malaysia and Singapore, Ginvera ask some famous artist to be their spokesperson in promotion campaign13 Image 5.

Big supermarket chains appear as potential business customer of Ginvera Vietnam28 Image 6. Relationship marketing network between salespeople, customers and customers. 31 Image 7. The Green Tea product line of Ginvera32 Table of figure Figure 1. The Communication Mix5 Figure 2. The supporting of communication elements to each other in influence on decision making process (Sources: course book, page 469)9 Figure 3. SPR model10 Figure 4. 4 elements of marketing mix11 Figure 5. Buying process18 Figure 6. PESTEL model20 Figure 7. Michael Porter’s 5 forces23 Figure 8.

The sales process33 References * BPP Professional Education, 2004, Sales Planning and Operations, London: BPP Professional Education. * BPP Professional Education, 2004, Business Strategy, London: BPP Professional Education. * BPP Professional Education, 2004, Marketing Intelligence, London: BPP Professional Education. * Kotler, P. , Wong,V. , Saunders, J and Armstrong, G. (2001), Principles of Marketing. 3rd European ed. , FT/Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA. * Jeffery Lim, 2011. SPO lectures slide. * Ginvera, 2011. [Online]. Available at: http://ginvera. com/default. tm [Access on: April 10, 2011] * Wikipedia, 2011. Sales promotion [Online] Available at: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sales_promotion [Access: April 10, 2011] * Neil Rackham, 2010. Principle of personal selling [Online] Available at: http://www. slideshare. net/mochkurniawan/principle-of-personal-selling [Access: April 11, 2011] * WTEC, 2011. Sales professionalism [Online] Available at: http://www. wtec. ie/sales-training/sales-professionalism. html [Access: April 12, 2011 ] * General Statistic Office, 2011. Social – economic in 2010 [Online] Available at: http://www. so. gov. vn/default. aspx? tabid=621&ItemID=10835 [Access: April 11, 2011] * Vnexpress, 2011. World Bank forecast on Vietnam inflation in 2011 at 9. 5% [Online] Available at: http://vnexpress. net/gl/kinh-doanh/2011/03/ngan-hang-the-gioi-lam-phat-2011-cua-vn-se-la-9-5/ [Access: April 15, 2011] * General Statistic Office, 2011. Social – economic in 2010 [Online] Available at http://www. gso. gov. vn/default. aspx? tabid=387&idmid=3&ItemID=9865[Access: April 11, 2011] * General Statistic Office, 2011. Social – economic in 2010 [Online] Available at http://www. so. gov. vn/default. aspx? tabid=387&idmid=3&ItemID=9856 [Access: April 11, 2011] ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Hoffman et al [ 2 ]. http://marketingteacher. com/lesson-store/lesson-sales-promotion. html [ 3 ]. Course book, page 467 [ 4 ]. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sales_promotion [ 5 ]. http://www. g

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Author| URL| Retrieved| Skwirk| From the arrival of the first fleet, Vietnam was a divisive issue * Australia deployed a total of 60000 troops, 521 died and 3000 were wounded * In reflection, Vietnam is described as the cause of the greatest political and social dissent and upheaval * Many draft resisters, conscientious objectors, and protesters were fined or jailed, while soldiers met a hostile reception on their return home.

The experience of Vietnam lingered with the soldiers for long after they returned home. Social Impacts: * Public response went through several stages during the war. * Early on, when Australia’s involvement was minimal with only the role of training

Vietnamese soldiers, public opinion was less critical, troops only sent to physically fight in 1965, they were just training South Vietnamese soldiers form 1962 onwards * Many, as was the trend in the early 60s, began to embrace the US connection and hence support resulted * Most agreed with the threat of the communist domino affect(although Menzies masterminded a lot of this), which also led to the acceptance of Australian involvement in the early 60s * Also, in the early 60s, Australia was still very conservative, and the idea of rebellion and challenging authority only set in later in the decade and the 70s.

This meant that early on many cautioned from questioning the government’s decision. * As much as war wasn’t ideal, in the early parts, before conscription, Australian’s accepted the war or paid little attention as the Australians fighting were soldiers who joined the Army * The socially divisive impact of Vietnam showed up post 1964 when the National Service Act was introduced. This had the ramifications of sending unwilling Australians to war. Draft resistors who were deemed to not have legitimate excuses were jailed on failing to comply with the National Service Act * They were released in 1972 when Whitlam ended conscription * The amendment of the Act in 1965 confirmed the inevitable that national servants could be deployed overseas, to Vietnam. * First time, an Australian was conscripted to fight outside of Aust. erritory * Socially, some disagreed more with the notion of conscription than the war itself, this maybe hinted at the fact that communist discontentment was still strong and the Domino theory was real, just not strong enough to make people overlook personal freedoms. * This led to anti-war and anti-conscription protest groups including * DENNIS TEXT * YCAC-Youth Campaign Against Conscription. 1964-7 SOS-Save our Sons. * Formed by parent groups who didn’t want their sons sent to Vietnam. * Formed in 1965, Australia wide, mainly female dominated agency. * Women were accused of being ‘bad mothers’ and communists when they approached MPs or authority * SOS saw many Liberal voters shift to the Labor camp. SOS was one of the first theatres that allowed women expression. * Basically saw ‘everyday suburban’ women become nvolved in politics and taking action to influence political decisions * The women’s movement of the 70s benefitted from anti-conscription lobby groups such as SOS * Draft Resistance Movement. Formed 1968 * The Committee for Defiance of the National Service Act. Formed 1969 * Vietnam Moratorium Movement * Formed in 1970, by then Vietnam was the longest war we had served in * Took form of peaceful protests involving many Australians from all states.

This highlighted the growing opposition, and to some extent shocked the government * ALP, and Gough fed of this massive public demonstration * Moratorium events were on a massive scale and largely peaceful, these demonstrations seemed to have a larger impact on government and political change. The government realised that, non-radical Australians had strong feelings about the war. * Really instigated the decline of Aust. Involvement in the war * The fact that every night, the horrors of Vietnam were broadcasted on Aust. elevision sets, the movement gathered motion * The Movement galvanised the people, the less radical who wouldn’t normally protest, protested such was the intense feelings about the war * This movement actively campaigned for two causes; the abolishment of conscription and the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam * Politically influenced the Labor parties win of the 1972 election, ending 23 years of Liberal rule * Interestingly, only in 1969 however did an opinion poll suggest that a majority opposed the war itself.

Up until then, the outcry was mainly rooted in the issue of conscription rather than conflict itself * However, as unrest grew, many anti-conscript groups became anti-war in the hope that only the end of the war would end conscription. * Another massive catalyst for anti-conscript protests was the reporting of the war. * Vietnam is considered the first ‘live war’ where the atrocities occurring were being broadcasted into Australian living rooms. This made sending young Australians into war against their will even more illegitimate. This also led to a questioning of whether this was was ‘just’, or being undertaken in the most human way possible. * This had the effect of also turning many anti-conscript groups, to become anti-war altogether. The fact that Vietnam was ‘live’ also helped the demise of the Liberal government as people had direct evidence to question what the government was getting Australia and particularly our young men into. Following the Labor victory, and Gough Whitlam’s order for withdrawal, social impact for the returning soldiers would ensue * Trade Unions also opposed the war, they labelled it ‘blood for Dollars’ or ‘diggers for dollars’ because they believed we were only fighting to the US would maintain its investment into Australia. This view was not entirely correct * By the latter stages, the larger majority of opposition came from university students. At first, the reaction was modest and many just viewed the war along their preferred political party lines * However, following conscription, uni students began to come out in full force.

Some of this sentiment began to be shared in the wider community as the war progressed into the late 60s * One of the major social impacts of the war was the fate of the returned soldiers. Due to the public nature of Vietnam and the atrocities that Australian people witnessed the veterans were not lauded in the same fashion as previous war vets * This was a massive change from before when the ANZACs were treated as heroes * The tragedy of this was that as much as the Aust.

People were effected by what they saw, the actual soldiers were scarred far more significantly by what they experienced first hand. * This compounded the negative experience of the returned soldiers as not only where they marginalised they had no-one but each other that could understand what they’d gone through. * These impacts lasted for much longer after the final Aust. Troops returned in 1972. * This has implications for continuity and change as following Vietnam, for the first time national servants and soldiers weren’t treated with the same admiration.

The ANZAC reverence that seemed to follow previous veterans didn’t occur with our Vietnam veterans. * This was a massive change in our attitudes towards the army Political Impacts: * On face value, it’s easy to say Vietnam cost the Liberal party government after 23 years of rule * However on closer inspection it is clear that the political consensus on Vietnam varied between 1965-1972 * White Australia Policy ended in 1972 * We opened our borders to non-white refugees. This in itself was cohesive and divisive.

Many of these refugees fought alongside our soldiers but we still had this fear of non-white immigrants threatening the ‘Aust. Way of life’ * Discontent politically only really came with Menzies introduction of Conscription on 1964. * However, Holt won the November 1966 election in a massive victory, highlighting that social discontent was not at its peak. Conscription peaked later * The political effect of Vietnam also became more prominent post 1967 when Edward Gough Whitlam became leader of the opposition. He lead a fierce campaign against conscription which captivated a swing of Liberal voters to the Labor party * This is when the protest movement as well peaked and was in full flight * 1969 election, under Gorton highlighted the swing of voters. From the ALPs flogging of 1966 they increased their share in the House of Reps from 41 to 59 seats highlighting the change in votes. * The Liberal advantage was only 7 seats now * Whitlam would go on to win the 1972 election with promises of withdrawal from Vietnam and the abolishment of conscription. The political landscape was finally shifting to progressivism after many years on conservative rule. This also began to happen on a state level * WA, NSW, TAS and SA all went from Liberal to Labour in elections between 1972-1975 shortly after the war * The Liberal’s National Services Act, was the single policy that really brought about the downfall of the Government * In terms of Political party support, the all major parties supported the war early on * Liberal support continued throughout * The DLP were very anti-communist so also supported the war. The ALP slowly began to oppose the war, as a means of attacking the government and also their disapproval also spiked when conscription was introduced * Gough Whitlam no doubt used the divisive nature, and ALPs disapproval of Vietnam to the most advantage. * Trade Unions also opposed the war, they labelled it ‘blood for Dollars’ or ‘diggers for dollars’ because they believed we were only fighting to the US would maintain its investment into Australia. This view was not entirely correct VIEWPOINTS ON THE VIETNAM WAR At the start of the period(1962) the perspective was that sending willing soldiers(not conscripts) was fine * Early on, when Australia’s involvement was minimal with only the role of training Vietnamese soldiers, public opinion was less critical, troops only sent to physically fight in 1965, they were just training South Vietnamese soldiers form 1962 onwards * We had to protect ourselves from the communist menace as well as honour our obligations as port of SEATO and ANZUS * Menzies masterminded a lot of the fear that convinced us that war was right * We were still quite conservative, trusted govt decisions * The gruesome nature of the war was not yet revelealed At Menzies announcement of sending troops in 1965, many different perspectives on the conflict emerged. Some more valid than others. * A lot thought communism was worth fighting against but found that conscripting to do so undermined other rights that were held dearly in a modern democracy * This fuelled anti-conscription protests as the reality that young men unwillingly could be sent to Vietnam. Most anti-war groups played on the injustice that this exemplified. * Importantly, the horrors of Vietnam exposed through media had not yet peaked so the atrocities that were taking place weren’t as well known about which led to that not being such a big anti-war factor. Some factions believed that training up a military was justifiable as we had done from 1962-65, but fighting for the South Vietnamese in what was really Vietnam’s civil war was not right. The idea of getting involved in other people’s business emerged * The Government claimed that as part of our SEATO agreement we were obligated to assist the fight against communism in South East Asia, i. e Vietnam. * The grey area with this is that, what does ‘assisting’ constitute? Was training the army enough or should we be physically fighting for the anti-communist forces. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE * CHANGE * During and following Vietnam, Australians began to question authority more. Beforehand, they were well trained to trust the governments judgement, but what Vietnam revealed was that governments aren’t always right *

This questioning came to full voice during the Vietnam protests but overall the experience changed Australia into a more progressive country that no longer was content to swallow everything the government told them * This represented change as previously, we were much more conservative * The exposure to ‘speaking out’ gained from the late 60s during the Vietnam years also may have had some impact on the social movements that picked up in the late 60s, early 70s(lagging behind America) * Women probably benefitted most as movements such as SOS, gave them a voice and they continued to use that to instigate change in the 70s * The general shift from conservatism was highlighted politically as well as socially. Vietnam played a major factor in Whitlam and the ALP winning government for the first time in 23 years in 1972. Political change * The change was also solidified on a state level as WA, NSW, SA and Tasmania all elected Labor governments in elections between 1972-1975 shortly after the war.

Highlighting the progressivism emerging Australia wide * People wanted change with Vietnam, and to an extent the White Australia policy and Whitlam delivered that. Also note that many too were uncomfortable with the end of White Australia as well. * The attitudes towards soldiers and veterans changed significantly for the worst. No longer where they held in such high esteem amongst society * The tragedy of this was that most of them were in desperate need for help and received little to no support other than from the RSL. * This was the first ‘live war’ as some called it. For the first time, citizens had a relatively clear understanding of what occurred in the battlefields * CONTINUITY * The war emphasised the continuation of ANZUS.

We stayed with the US right till the end effectively with us withdrawing in ‘72, a year before the last US troops * Despite the political outcry, politically we were still militarily tied to the US. We still are today * Second war with the US, first Korea then Vietnam GROUPS AFFECTED * ABORIGINALS * Aboriginals were exempt from national service, many didn’t even know their birthdate so including them in a fair ballot was difficult * The Department for Labour and National Service (DLNS) pushed for the removal of exemption but it never happened as only some states had accurate birth records and some didn’t making conscription difficult. * VETERANS * Received little support after the war * Weren’t lauded as national heroes like the ANZACS were * Suffered from mental trauma * YOUTHS The war inspired them and affected them greatly to make them speak out on a large scale for the first time in history * One of the largest groups that embodied the progressive culture that was emerging * Vietnam, and the distrust of government fuelled their rebellion against authority during the 60s and 70s * FAMILIES * WOMEN * Had a greater influence on politics for the first time * Definitely, they gained confidence from their first exposure to speaking out COHESION: * Youths voice * Youths gained a greater expression in society; this was seen by their major roles in demonstrations. * This impact however can also be seen as a divisive argument because a link to the new ‘teenage rebellion’ that followed Vietnam is quite noticeable * Women’s new status * Similarly to youths, women gained a new voice and expression during Vietnam. * Never before had they been so active in making their views on political policies known. This was the first time effectively where their actions influenced policy this was seen by the effect groups like SOS etc. had on shifting power form the Liberals to the ALP. T * his newfound voice gave them confidence to push for other reforms in the women’s movement. * The Vietnam war changed the status of women in society forever and widely this was accepted as a good thing. * Progressive mindset * Vietnam brought out a new progressive mindset in Australians that had barely seen the light of day under the conservative rule of the Menzies government. * Vietnam made people more judgmental and progressive in their thinking as the war made them realise that they shouldn’t swallow everything the government tells them. This change was evident by the swing of voters to the ALP and away from Liberal * Australia was never going to be as conservative * This was on the whole a good thing but opinion would still be split as the overall effect was that now government’s had less influence as people were now thinking for themselves * This idea of ‘thinking for yourselves’ scared some conservatives. * The change was evident in Federal politics with Whitlam’s election in 1972, but also on a state level the shift was taking place * WA, NSW, TAS and SA all went from Liberal to Labour in elections between 1972-1975 shortly after the war * DIVISIVE: * The treatment of returned Servicemen * This was a major issue Many of the retuned soldiers weren’t lauded as heroes * Some of them felt the cold treatment was unjust especially seeing some were forced(conscripted) to fight * Conscription: * Most divisive aspect other than maybe the war itself * Divisive on a few levels * Limited rights * Sent soldiers into one of the most atrocious battlefields, the public knew this because of what the media showed them * Left them scarred even after they came home. * The War itself: * Chemical weapons * The media brought this side of the war to peoples living rooms * Scarring of soldiers * Conscription * Removal of rights * ethics * How ethical was it to be getting over involved in Vietnams own civil

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Vietnam Piracy History

II. The Prioriry actions requested in 2012: IIPA had hoped that the 2005 passage of the IP Code in Vietnam, revisions to the Criminal Code in 2009, an administrative enforcement Decree (No. 47) also in 2009, and a nationwide judicial reformprocess would lead to steady improvements in copyright protection, allowing a legitimate creative marketplace to emerge in Vietnam. Unfortunately, online and mobile piracy has gotten significantly worse in Vietnam, and end-user piracy of business software remains largely unchecked, among other piracy problems.

Increased Internet and mobile penetration and more widely available broadband capacity have led to a severe increase in the trade of illegal copyright files online. Technological advances in Vietnam have outpaced the government’s response to copyright issues, notwithstanding that the Vietnamese have long recognized that piracy in the country is increasingly “sophisticated” and involves violations of “most of the objects of the rights”.

The Vietnamese Government has taken very few enforcement actions over the years, and no criminal case has ever been brought to address copyright piracy. Because of that, IIPA has launched the priority actions requested in 2012 to reduce the piracy situation in Vietnam: Enforcement: * Devote greater resources and Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST) Inspectorate and Economic Police manpower to running raids and bringing cases under the Criminal Code through targeted criminal actions,e. . , against online piracy, retail and source piracy,.. * Take effective enforcement measures against notorious infringing sites whose business models are based on providing access to infringing content, including in particular those sites such as Socbay. com, Bamboo. com,… * Enforce Ordinance No. 4 and Decree No. 47 on administrative remedies for copyright infringement, imposing maximum penalties. * Reduce pirated imports from China. Reduce signal theft by removing illegal content from local cable operators and stopping retransmission of signals from neighboring countries without license. Legislation and Market Access * Issue implementing guidance for the revised Criminal Code so that prosecutions can commence, in line with Vietnam’s BTA obligation, including by confirming that the Code applies to online distributions, and providing detailed interpretations of “commercial scale” infringements that include those undertaken without a profit motive. Make necessary changes to IP Code and implementing decrees to ensure Vietnam is in full compliance with its BTA and other international obligations, and otherwise facilitate the free exercise of rights by copyright owners. * Expedite the drafting process for, and provide public consultation as to, amendments to the Internet Decree (or circular) on ISP liability that clarifies the secondary liability of ISPs and requires ISPs to take responsibility and cooperate with right holders to combat online infringements both in the hosted and the non-hosted environment. Afford U. S. right holders greater access to the Vietnamese market, by eliminating foreign investment restrictions and other entry barriers with respect to production, importation and distribution of copyright materials whether in the physical or online/mobile marketplaces. * Extend the term of protection for sound recordings to the BTA-compatible term (75 years or more) and otherwise extend copyright term in line with the international trend (life of the author plus 70 years). * Pass optical disc licensing regulation. III.

The actual out come of the 2011 decisions (the result in 2012 after applying priority actions requested in 2012) IIPA hopes the issuance and entry into force in 2012 of the Ministry of Information and Communications (MIC) and Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism (MCST) Joint Circular on Stipulations on the Responsibilities for Intermediary Service Providers in the Protection of Copyright and Related Rights on the Internet and Telecommunications Networks will lead to significant reductions in online and mobile piracy in the country, including closures of notorious websites and services built on copyright infringement.

The IP Code, Criminal Code, administrative enforcement Ordinances and Decrees, and judicial reform, must all be brought to bear to significantly reduce all forms of piracy, including online and mobile piracy, enterprise end-user piracy of software, physical piracy, and book piracy which remain largely unchecked in Vietnam. And the results after applying priority actions requested in 2012, Piracy Situation and enforcement challenges in Viet Nam are summarized as follows: 1.

Internet and Mobile Piracy Causing Severe Damage to Copyright Owners: Increased Internet and mobile penetration and more widely available broadband capacity have led to a severe increase in the trade of illegal copyright files online. Internet penetration continued on an upward path, with reportedly 31. 1 million Internet users according to the Ministry of Information and Communications (MIC) of Vietnam, with 3G mobile Internet users reaching 16 million (18% of the country’s population).

Vietnam ranks 18th in the world, 8th in Asia, and 3rd in Southeast Asia in the total number of Internet users. According to MIC, there are 19 Internet service providers, some 1,064 licensed websites, and 335 social networks operating in Vietnam. Unfortunately, the vast majority of websites dealing in copyright content remain unlicensed, although there are now a few operators of online services providing licensed music (representing, however, only 1% of online music services).

The rest are streaming and download sites (50%), forums (21%), video websites (17%), search engines (8%), deeplinking, cyberlocker, and social network sites all being employed to deliver unlicensed copyright content, including music, movies, entertainment and software, and published materials. Not only the repertoire of VietNam but international and other Asian repertoire such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean music can also be found on these sites. And University networks are increasingly being used for dissemination of infringing content.

Specific example for this case is Zing. vn. Zing. vn is one notorious website which was identified by IIPA in its annual notorious markets filing with the U. S. Trade Representative, and USTR placed Zing. vn on its “Notorious Markets” list. Zing. vn is an online portal service operated by VNG Corporation (previously called VinaGame) in Vietnam. Zing. vn provides various services including an online music portal, social networking, a search engine, instant messaging, movies, karaoke, video and photos. Zing. n, well documented in last year’s IIPA Special 301 report, was proposed by IIPA as a “notoriousmarket” in its Special 301 out-of-cycle review submission in September 2012, and USTR agreed in its December 2012 announcement. USTR noted in its announcement, “In addition to being a social media site, Vietnam-based Zing. vn also includes an infringing deeplinking music portal, which reportedly attracts large numbers of users to the site. ” They also indicated, “We understand that VNG, Zing’s parent company is currently in talks with rights holders to obtain the necessary licenses to transition

Zing into an authorized digital music platform. ” With rapid increases in mobile phone subscribers in Vietnam, there has also been an increase in mobile piracy over the year. Right holders now face two major challenges in the mobile space: 1) the loading by mobile device vendors of illegal copyright content onto devices at the point of sale; and 2) illegal music channels or “apps” set up to be accessed on mobile platforms, without any intervention from the authorities to cease such activities.

As an example of this phenomenon, sites like Socbay. com offer illegal downloads of ringtones to mobile phones, but Socbay has now developed a mobile “app” called Socbay iMedia which provides a variety of unauthorized entertainment content, including, inter alia, music files. This second phenomenon will, if allowed unchecked, threaten the entire online/mobile market for music and other copyright materials into the future and must be addressed. 2.

Enterprise End-User Piracy of Software Harms the Software Industry and Stunts the Growth of the IT Sector: The software industry reports a continued high level of software piracy in Vietnam. In 2011, the software piracy rate in Vietnam was 81% (among the highest in the world), representing a commercial value of unlicensed software of US$395 million. 13 This includes widespread unlicensed software use by enterprises in Vietnam, retail piracy, and hard disk loading of unlicensed software. Most leading cities, such as Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Da N? ng, and H? Phong are still key software piracy hotspots. The industry also notes the desperate need for legalization of software usage within the Vietnamese government. It has been recognized by some within the Vietnamese government that use of unlicensed commercial software is occurring within government ministries. Some initial discussions on government legalization have commenced between BSA and the Ministry of Information and Communications (MIC), with a focus on legalization procedures and the government avoiding any mandates orpreferences for the purchase of specific types of software. . Physical Piracy Remains Rampant, Including Pirate Imports, Pirate Burned Content, Factory Production, and “Media Box” Piracy: Evidence of physical piracy, including virtually 100% piracy of home video entertainment, can still be found everywhere in Vietnam, especially in urban areas like Ha Noi, HCM City,… It remains very easy to buy almost imported discs (from China mainly),burned discs or factory discs of any kind of content, and pirated software is readily available at shops on the socalled “PC streets” or other “CD-DVD” shops.

Vietnamese-sourced pirate products flood the domestic markets and have been found in other markets in recent years in Asia, North America, and even Eastern Europe. For the music industry, with piracy levels still extremely high, financial returns for recorded music sales have dropped so deeply that the companies involved are unable to invest in new albums and artists, choosing to recoup investment through ring tones, ring-back tones, ancillary revenues for personality rights, and music channel licensing. 4. Book and Journal Piracy Severely Harms Publishers:

Book and journal publishers continue to suffer from rampant piracy in Vietnam, in the form of illegal reprints and unauthorized photocopies. Bookshops, roadside vendors and copy shops all sell unauthorized copies of bestselling trade books, travel books and academic textbooks, and unlicensed print overruns continue to harm foreign publishers. Unauthorized translations produced by university lecturers or professors have been detected, in which the lecturers or professors append their name to the translated textbook.

State-sector publishers also have an interest in making sure their licenses (such as those of the Ministry of Youth and the General Publishing House of Ho Chi Minh City) are not misused. 5. Signal Piracy/Pay TV Piracy: Vietnam’s Pay-TV sector is one of the fastest developing markets in the Asia Pacific, and is set to rank fourth in the region in growth over the next four years. With 4. 2 million overall connections, and digital systems taking hold (including through Vietnamese Government infusion of capital), signal piracy in Vietnam still holds back the legitimate Pay-TV market, and causes major damages to right holders. Overspill” is also a problem in Vietnam as cable operators capture signals from neighboring countries’ satellite systems. These are endemic problems which the government should address. A relatively new and dangerous problem in Vietnam involves the operation of websites which steal pay-TV signals and stream them onto the Internet. Several sites have been identified as streaming premium content channels without authorization, mainly focusing on motion pictures or sports content.

In general, after applying the above policy, the piracy situation in Vietnam has not improved. One of the reasons for this situation is enforcement challenges. Enforcement updates in Vi? t Nam: Failure to Address Internet and Mobile Device Piracy: Despite notifying the Vietnamese government ofsites involved in piracy of music, movies, software, games, and published works (with reports of growing electronic piracy of textbooks and dictionaries, among other published products), the government has been mainly inactive and disinterested. Notorious piracy site zing. n has been brought to the attention of administrative authorities in Vietnam, but there has been no response. The problem is further compounded by existing administrative enforcement remedies being rendered ineffective by: * The lack of an effective procedure to deal with online piracy administrative complaints. * A heavy burden on right holders for production of evidence and proof of actual damages. * Continued rudimentary issues related to ability to identify and effectively deal with online infringement cases. * Lack of compliance with administrative orders

Court Reform Efforts Lacking: The inactivity of the courts in dealing with copyright infringement issues is a major disappointment. There have to date been relatively few civil court actions involving copyright infringement in Vietnam. The main reasons for this are complicated procedures, delays, and a lack of certainty as to the expected outcome. Building IP expertise must be a part of the overall judicial reform effort. Training should be provided to police and prosecutors as they play a very important role in bringing a criminal offense case to the courts.

End-User Piracy Enforcement: One relatively bright spot in enforcement seems to be in the area of addressing software piracy. In 2012, more raids were taken with participation of both MCST and the MPS Anti-High Tech Crime Police. Administrative fines remain relatively low, generally, VND50 million (around US$2,400), never reaching the maximum applicable rate of VND500 million (US$24,000). The industry also reports stronger support given to both enforcement and educational campaigns to sensitize the public to the need to use legal software.

The presence of the High Tech Police is now seen as essential for the success of raids as they possess technical knowledge which is helpful to achieving effective raids. In addition, there are training courts covered the overview of copyright laws and the value of IP and innovation. There remain no implementing guidelines for the revised Criminal Code, so no software piracy cases have ever been brought to Criminal Court. Very Little Enforcement Against Hard Goods Piracy:

Though MCST has indicated its recognition of the hard goods piracy problem, it has devoted very few resources to deal with physical piracy across Vietnam. Only a ‘zero tolerance’ campaign, including actions against open and blatant piracy activities of all kinds, with deterrent administrative fines meted out to their maximums, license revocations, shop closures, seizures of pirate imports and pirated product destined for export by Customs, and criminal penalties can result in a significant reduction in piracy in Vietnam.

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Was the Vietnam War Winnable

Was the Vietnam War Winnable? The war in Vietnam waged by America was unwinnable through the type of warfare that was used by the US . If they had concentrated on certain key aspects they may have prevented the spread of communism to South Vietnam and achieved their ultimate goal. Americas inability to obtain the “Hearts and Minds “of the Vietnamese led to a continual supply of fighters. The US was unable to fight against an ever-increasing civilian army. In Vietnam the US relied tremendously on their advanced and superior firepower to defeat the Vietcong and the ARVN.

There technology and training was inadequate in the foreign Vietnamese terrain. The Vietnamese were allied to other communist nations, if their defeat was too humiliating they may have escalated the cold war to a hot war. America was not supported by the people of Vietnam in their efforts to rid South Vietnam of “evil’ communism, even before the war began. This is one vital area the Americans failed. Their “Hearts and Minds” operation that begun years before the official beginning, of the war, was short-lived. The People of Vietnam considered “U. S. Diem is using fascist violence to provoke war, contrary to the will of the people and therefore must certainly be defeated” ( Le Duan, 1956). The hatred Vietnam had of outsiders trying to control them was spurred by years of colonisation by the French before the War started. This became a major setback as it was not corrected before the US attacked the communists. The angered civilians refused to cooperate with the Americans and this was one of their largest setbacks during the war. American soldiers entered Vietnam believing themselves to be fighting for the Vietnamese people protecting them from the “evils” of communism. he Vietnamese resisted the Americans believing them to be disrupting their peace. This infuriated the solders causing them to lash out at the locals. They had “raped, cut off ears, cut off heads, taped wires from portable telephones to human genitals and turned up the power, cut off limbs, blown up bodies, randomly shot at civilians, razed villages in fashion reminiscent of Genghis Khan”( Kerry, 1971). The civilians retaliated by aiding the Viet Cong eventually joining them. This continued over the span of the war thereby creating an ever-increasing number of People fighting against the Americans.

Americas inability to attain the “Hearts and Minds” of the Vietnamese population led to a constantly growing opposition ensuring that for every one “gook” the Americans killed there were always 2 more to replace him. No matter how many casualties USA inflicted on Vietnam the continuous supply of people would eventually beat the policy restricted US. ‘You can kill 10 of my men for everyone I kill of yours, but in the end I will win and you will lose”. American did not have the people of Vietnam backing them. To the Vietnamese they were intruders who murdered their families forcing the people of Vietnam to fight back.

The Vietnamese’s refusal to cooperate with America prompted backlash from the solders. The Vietnamese’s responded with even more resistance to the US. This chain reaction fuelled the hatred the Vietnamese had for America. The USA was extremely vain when going to war in Vietnam. They had extreme firepower. With a few weeks notice at the time, had the power to turn Vietnam into a region of radioactive glass. The US’s strategy of search and destroy conflicted directly with the Vietnamese’s strategy of hanging onto their belts (caplan,2012).

Unlike previous American victories against Japan and Germany, massive American bombing of enemy cities and use of heavy artillery would not be as effective. The Viet Cong used a guerrilla warfare which did not allow the use of American artillery and bombs to kill them. The dense jungle fighting created low visibility from the air, which made it hard for the United States to utilize their far superior weapons. America dropped seven million tons of bombs on North Vietnam and the neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia United States air forces only dropped 2. 2 million tons of ordnance in the largest war in history, WW2 .

America dropped over ,three times more bombs, but it was still not effective enough to defeat North Vietnam. The US strategy of destroying enemy troops and supplies faster than they can reproduce them was not a viable strategy. The Vietnamese who had been fighting for independence for hundreds of years and were not about to give up. The US, at that time relied on their extremely advanced technology to combat the Vietnamese. This failed as the Vietnam is covered in dense jungle which rendered the Americans fighting style useless, they were accustomed to fighting in larger open areas instead of dense jungle and narrow city treets. Vietnam not only had an almost infinite number of people but also was supplied by both the Soviets and the Chinese. The Chinese were essential in North Vietnams eventual unification of Vietnam. They provided military experts to advise generals in decision making large amounts of military equipment and eventually solders to aid their war efforts against the South. This not only supplemented their strength but was also a separate major threat for USA. China and the Soviets being communist aimed at spreading communism around the world directly clashed with USA’s policy of preventing the spread of communism.

The most successful part in America’s strategy was operation “Rolling Thunder” which was a large amount of bombings over Vietnam. This was the most successful of all American tactics. It incapacitated their enemy around 1972. Even though the most bombs in history, were dropped over Vietnam, America still feared the Chinese’s. If they hit too hard with the bombings on Vietnam their communist allies may involve themselves turning the cold war that they fought through Vietnam and other smaller nations into a hot war with Mutually Assured Destruction for the entire world.

Had they continued the routine bombings and adjusted their fighting styles accordingly they may have triumphed in this conflict. The Vietnam war may have been winnable if the United States had focused more on re-educating the local people of Vietnam had adjusted their stratergy to fit the type of warfare and terrain in South Vietnam. They would have had to defeat the communists subtley to avoid humiliating the Chinees ans Soviets. Unfortunately the Americans “plunged boldly into the thick” of Vietnam without careing to attin the hearts and minds of its people.

They fought against the natural terrain instead of adapting to it which was highly advantageous to the Vietnamese as it his them for so long. The USA is not known for being for being subtle and enjoy going full out into wars. By disgracing other communists states they would turn the cold war into a hot war annihilating much of the planet. Therefore using a stratery that depende of heavy firepower and without the support of the locals the Vietnam war was unwinnable, if they had won the war and left Vietnam in a state of disgrace theywould have turned the cold war into a hot war. The perpose of the war was to atop the spread of communism and

Free Essays

Investment in Vietnam

GUIDEBOOK ON BUSINESS AND INVESTMENT IN VIETNAM BERLIN, 2011 FOREWORD Over the past two decades, Viet Nam’s economy has bee n developing rapidly owing to its “Doi moi” (Renovation) policy and activeness to integrate itself into the global economy. W ith its enormous efforts and determination, and effective cooperation with international partners and friends worldwide, Viet Nam is taking firm steps towards industrialization and modernization.

With a stable political environment and great economic potentials, Viet Nam is an attractive destination for doing business and investment. The Government of Viet Nam has been ceaselessly endeavoring to improve the investment climate with the aim at creating an increasingly business-friendly environment in Viet Nam. Germany is the biggest economic partner of Viet Nam in Europe. The economic cooperation between the two countries has been fruitfully burgeoning.

In an effort to further strengthen the economic cooperation between Viet Nam and Germany, t he Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam in coordination with the relevant ministries of Viet Nam to publish the Guidebook on Business and Investment of Viet Nam, which is expected to provide German businesses with an overview of the Viet Nam’s economy and its business and investment climate.

We are confident that German businesses can find helpful information and guidelines on investment and doing business in Viet Nam from the Guidebook, and thereby have a deeper understanding of the Viet Nam’s economy, a dynamically emerging and reliable destination for international investment flows. We deeply thank the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Planning and Investment of Viet Nam for their kind support and assistance. We would like to express our sincere thanks to Dr.

Andreas Stoffers, Board Member of German Business Association Vietnam and Member Executive Committee Euroean Chamber of Commerce Vietman for reviewing this book. W e also heartedly thank Marktforschung und Kommunikation GmbH for her great cooperation and excellent coordination in publishing the Guidebook. Dr. Do Hoa Binh Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Ambassador of the S. R. Viet Nam to the Federal Republic of Germany 2 ABBREVIATION ASEAN BCC BOM BOT BT BTO CEPT CIT CPC DOLISA DPI EIAR EL EPC EPZ EU EZ FIC FOB GDP HTZ IL IZ JVC LTT LUR LURC MFN MOIT MOLISA MONRE MOST MPI NOIP ODA PCT PIT PPP RO SBV TTC USD VAT VCAD VND

W TO Association of Southeast Asian Nations Business co-operation contract Board of Management of IZs, EPZs, HTZs and EZs Build-operate-transfer (including its derivative forms, BTO and BT) Build-transfer Build-transfer-operate Common Effective Preferential Tariff Scheme Corporate income tax Civil Proceedings Code Provincial Department of Labour, War Invalids and Social Affairs Provincial Department of Planning and Investment Environmental impact assessment report Enterprise Law Environment protection commitment Export processing zone European Union Economic zone Foreign-invested company Free on board Gross Domestic Product

High-tech zone Investment Law Industrial zone Joint venture company Law on Technology Transfer Land use rights Certificate of land use rights Most Favoured Nation Ministry of Industry and Trade Ministry of Labour, War Invalids and Social Affairs Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Ministry of Science and Technology Ministry of Planning and Investment National Office of Intellectual Property Official development assistance Patent Cooperation Treaty Personal income tax Public Private Partnership Representative Office State Bank of Vietnam Technology transfer contract United States of America dollar

Value-added tax Vietnam Competition Administration Department Vietnamese Dong W orld Trade Organisation 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 VIETNAM AT A GLANCE …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 I: KEY FACTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 II: POLITICAL SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………… III: ECONOMY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 IV: INFRASTRUCTURE ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 13 V: VIETNAM- GERMANY ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIP…………………………………………….. 21 LEGAL GUIDE FOR INVESTING AND DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM ………………………….. 24 I: INVESTMENT REGULATIONS …………………………………………………………………………. 24 II:

TRADE REGULATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………… 30 III: TAXATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35 IV: CUSTOMS REGULATIONS ……………………………………………………………………………… 42 V: LAND LAW ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44 VI: FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND LOANS ………………………………………………………………….. 9 VII: EMPLOYMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52 VIII: COMPETITION LAW ……………………………………………………………………………………… 58 IX: ENVIRONMENT …………………………………………………………………………………………… 62 X: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY …………………………………………………………………………….. 64 XI: TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ……………………………………………………………………………… 1 XII: DISPUTE RESOLUTION ………………………………………………………………………………….. 73 BUSINESS TRAVEL GUIDE TO VIETNAM ………………………………………………………………. 77 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: LIST OF SECTORS ENTITLED TO INVESTMENT INCENTIVES ……………………….. 80 APPENDIX 2: LIST OF GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS OF INVESTMENT INCENTIVES ………………. 84 APPENDIX 3: USEFUL CONTACTS AND ADDRESSES IN VIETNAM ………………………………….. 87 4 VIETNAM AT A GLANCE I: KEY FACTS ? Official name: The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Capital: Hanoi. ? Largest city: Ho Chi Minh City. ? Administrative subdivisions: 58 provinces and 5 municipalities (Hanoi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Ho Chi Minh and Can Tho). ? Official language: Vietnamese. ? Location: In the center of Southeast Asia, neighboring on China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and the East Sea and Pacific Ocean to the East and South. ? Area: 331,690 km2. ? Coast line: 3,260 km. ? Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (mid May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March). Population (2010): 86. 9 million, by area (urban: 30% and rural: 70%) and by age (less than 15 years old: 24. 7%, 15 -64 years old: 68. 5% and more than 65 years old: 6. 8%). ? Population density: 262 people/km2. ? Literacy: 93. 7%. ? Natural resource: Energy resources (oil, gas, coal, hydropower and wind power); minerals (bauxite, iron ore, lead, gold, precious stones, tin, chromate, anthracite, construction materials, granite, marble, clay, white sand and graphite); sea and tropical forestry resources and agricultural potential. ?

Currency: Vietnamese Dong (VND). ? Exchange rate (April 2011): 1 USD = 20,725 VND. ? GDP (2010): 104. 7 billion USD. ? GDP per capita (2010): 1,204 USD. ? GDP real growth rate (2010): 6. 78%. ? GDP by sector (2010): Agriculture (20. 6%), Industry (41. 1%) and Service (38. 3%). ? Exports: Crude oil, garments, shoes, marine products, electronic products and components, funitures, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper. ? Major export markets: USA, Japan, China, Australia, Singapore, Germany, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Netherland. ?

Imports: Machinery & equipment, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, fertilizer, steel products, metal, textile, garment and shoe inputs, vehicles. 5 ? II: Major import markets: China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, USA, Malaysia, India, Germany. POLITICAL SYSTEM The current Constitution was adopted in 1992 and amended in 2001. It clearly indicates that the State is “of the people, by the people and for the people”. The people access the State power through the National Assembly and People’s Councils, which are composed of elected representatives who represent the people’s will and aspirations.

The Constitution endows all citizens, men and women alike, with equal rights in all political, economic, cultural and social spheres as well as in family affairs, the right to and freedom of belief and religion and the right to choose and practice a religion, the right to and freedom of movement and residence in Vietnam, and the right to go abroad and return home as stipulated by laws. The National Assembly is the highest representative body of the people, endowed with the highest State power of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

It governs constitutional and legislative rights, decides fundamental domestic and foreign policies, socioeconomic tasks, and national defence and security issues, etc. It exercises the right to supreme supervision of all activities of the State. The State President is the Head of State, elected by the National Assembly from among its deputies to represent the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in domestic and foreign affairs. The term of office of the President is the same as that of the Chairman of the National Assembly.

The Government is the executive body of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It has the same term of office as the National Assembly and administers the implementation of State affairs in the fields of politics, economics, culture, society, national defence and security and foreign relations. The government is headed by the Prime Minister and comprises Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and other government members. The Supreme People’s Court is the judicial body of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

It supervises and directs the judicial work of local People’s Courts, Military Tribunals, Special Tribunals and other tribunals, unless otherwise prescribed by the National Assembly at the establishment of such Tribunals. The Supreme People’s Procuracy oversees the enforcement of the law and exercises the right to prosecution, and ensures serious and uniform implementation of the law. III: ECONOMY Since the Doi moi (reforms) were introduced in the mid-1980s, Vietnamese economy has changed rapidly.

Replacing the old centrally-planned economy, Vietnam has shifted to a new economic structure namely a socialist-oriented market economy, and has gained significant success. Today the aim of Vietnam is to become a basically industrialized country by 2020. 6 Overall achievements Vietnam embarked on Doi moi in 1986 and the country has seen many dramatic changes since. Over the last decade it has recorded an average GDP growth rate of 7. 3 percent per annum, ranking it second in the region after China. Its economy suffered from the 2008-09 economic crisis but recovered rapidly, with GDP growth rate of 6. 78 percent in 2010.

ADB forecasts that the economy of Vietnam will increase by 6. 1 and 6. 7 percent in 2011 and 2012 respectively. Vietnam already became a lower middle income country with its GDP per capita of 1,204 USD in 2010. To a large extent, Vietnam has successfully transformed from a centrally-planned economy with heavy bureaucracy and subsidies to a socialist -oriented market economy characterized by strong dynamism and rapidly growing entrepreneurship. The country’s economy has integrated deeply into the global and regional economies, bringing about a sharp rise in trade volumes as well as an influx of foreign investment.

The economy is well on the way to being a multi-sector model operating according to market mechanisms. The private sector has enjoyed very favourable conditions created by the Enterprise Law of 2000, which institutionalizes the freedom of all individuals to conduct business in areas not prohibited by law and removes a large number of administrative obstacles that hampered enterprises. With a view to raising the efficiency of the state -owned sector, the government has adopted assertive policy measures to reorganize the sector through equitization.

As a result, more than 3,970 state-owned enterprises were equitized by the end of 2010. GDP of Vietnam, 2000-2010 120 9. 0 8. 0 7. 0 80 6. 0 5. 0 60 4. 0 40 3. 0 2. 0 20 1. 0 0 0. 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year GDP GDP growth rate Source: General Statistics Office 7 GDP growth rate (%) GDP (billion USD) 100 Progress in particular sectors As Vietnam’s GDP continuously increases the country’s economic structure has also seen notable changes. From 1990 to 2010 the share of the agriculture sector reduced from 38. 7 percent to 20. percent, while that of industry and construction increased from 22. 7 percent in 1990 to 41. 1 percent in 2010. The service sector remained relatively constant: 38. 6 percent in 1990 and 38. 3 percent in 2010. Agriculture still plays a critical role in Vietnam’s socio-economic life since it generates about 57 percent of total employment and makes important contribution to the expansion of the country’s foreign trade. Vietnam are among the leading countries in terms of agricultural exports such as rice, coffee, cashew nuts and aqua-products, etc.

Industry continues to grow rapidly in terms of gross output, at an average rate of 10-15 percent per annum. Besides state enterprises, foreign-invested and the private enterprises play an increasingly important role in industrial development and exports. Services are growing at an average rate of 7-8 percent. In 2010 the value added of service sector grew 7. 52 percent with good performances being recorded in the trade, finance, and hotels and restaurant sub-sectors as consumption and tourism remained buoyant. Industry and services continue to increase their sha re in the economy.

This reflects market oriented reforms, a gradual reduction in barriers to competition and to private sector development, and improvements in physical infrastructure. Greater diversification in industrial production and services lays the foundation for further sustained growth in output and employment. VA growth rate by sector of Vietnam, 2000-2010 12. 0 10. 0 Percent 8. 0 6. 0 4. 0 2. 0 0. 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Agriculture Industry Source: General Statistics Office 8 Service International economic integration

Vietnam has made major steps forward in its commitments to regional and international economic integration. Following the introduction of Doi moi it signed an economic and trade cooperation agreement with the EU in 1995, joined ASEAN in 1995, adhered to CEPT/AFTA in 1996 and became an APEC member in 1998. The Bilateral Trade Agreement (BTA) with the United States was signed in 2000, which resulted in a dramatic increase in the trade volume between the two countries. Vietnam became the 150th member of the World Trade Organization on January 11, 2007.

Vietnam’s commitments in the WTO increase market access for exports of goods and services of WTO’s members and establish greater transparency in regulatory trade practices as well as a more level playing field between Vietnamese and foreign companies. Vietnam undertook commitments on goods (tariffs, quotas and ceilings on agricultural subsidies) and services (provisions of access to foreign service providers and related conditions), and to implement agreements on intellectual property (TRIPS), investment measures (TRIMS), customs valuation, technical barriers to trade, sanitary nd phytosanitary measures, import licensing provisions, anti-dumping and countervailing measures, and rules of origin. At present, Viet Nam has established diplomatic relations with 172 countries and signed 55 bilateral investment agreements and 58 double taxation agreements with countries and territories including Germany. It has economic and trading relations with about 165 countries and territories. Vietnam holds membership in 63 international organizations and over 650 non-governmental organizations.

The policy of “multi-lateralization and diversification” in international relations has helped Vietnam to integrate more deeply into the global and regional economies and increase trade and investment ties with nations all over the world. More importantly, Vietnam has improved its enable business friendly environment over time. World Bank recognized that Vietnam is one of the 10 most-improved economies in ease of doing business in 2010. Currently, its ranking is 78 and even higher than other Asia countries such as Indonesia, Philippines, China, India. Vietnam’s rankings according to various indices Index 2011-2010 rank 2010-2009 rank

World Bank’s Ease of doing business 78/183 88/183 World Economic Forum’s Global competitiveness index 59/139 75/133 12/top 20 12/top 25 (*) ATKEARNEY’ FDI confidence index Note (*) data for 2007 9 International trade Total export volume of Vietnam increased by 18 percent per year on average in the last decade and its import volume also did so by 19. 2 percent per year. In 2010 its total trade volume reached $155. 6 billion ($71. 6 billion of export and $84 billion of import), equal to 149 percent of its GDP. Both the composition and quality of exports have improved significantly. The proportion of industrial products has risen considerably.

The five biggest export items include oil, textiles, footwear, seafood and wood products. Vietnam is in the early stage of the industrialisation and modernisation process and receives a large inflow of FDI therefore it relies largely on the imp orted equipment and materials. Trade relations with foreign countries, especially other countries in the region, have expanded over time. The biggest trading partners of Viet Nam include China, America, ASEAN, EU, Japan and South Korea. International trade of Vietnam, 2000-2010 160 70 140 60 120 50 100 40 80 30 60 20 40 10 20 0 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Year Export Import Trade in goods as % GDP Source: General Statistics Office 10 Trade in goods as % GDP (percent) 180 80 Trade (billion US$) 90 Top 10 export and import items of Vietnam, 2010 Garment Machinery & equipment Footwear Steel products Seafood Petroleum products Crude oil Fabric Electronic products Electronic products Furniture Vehicles Rice Platics Machinery & equipment Garment and shoe inputs Precious stone & metals Metals Rubber Animal feed 0. 0 5. 0 10. 0 15. 0 0. 0 5. 0 10. 0 15. 0 Import volume (billion USD) Export volume (billion USD) Export item Import item Source: General Statistics Office

Foreign direct investment Since the introduction of the Law on Foreign Investment in 1987, by the end of 2010, 12,236 foreign investment projects were licensed with total registered capital of $193. 4 billion and total disbursed capital of over $61 billion. The investors from 92 countries and territories have committed investments in Viet Nam. Most of them are from Asia, Europe and America. Taiwan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Japan and Malaysia and are the top five countries and territories investing in Vietnam. The next five countries and territories are British Virgin Islands, America, Hongkong, Cayman Islands and Thailand.

These “top ten” countries and territories account for over three quarters of the total licensed projects and foreign registered capital in Viet Nam. Since 1996 there has been a tendency towards investment in producing goods for export, infrastructure construction, producing import substitutes and in labour intensive industries. There are more than 8,327 projects in the manufacturing and processing, real estate and construction industries with a total capital of about US$153,5 billion, accounting for nearly 80% of the registered capital.

While there are foreign invested projects in all provinces and cities in Viet Nam, most investment has been in the key economic areas in the South including Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Binh Duong, Ba Ria, Vung Tau, and in the North including Hanoi, Hai Duong, Hai Phong and Quang Ninh. The foreign invested sector has increased rapidly, gradually asserting itself as a dynamic component of the economy, and has made an important contribution to enhancing the competitiveness and efficiency of the economy. In 20 10, the foreign invested sector has accounted for 21. 5% of the country’s total investment, contributed 18. percent to GDP, 54. 2 percent to export volume (crude oil included), 44. 4 percent to industrial gross output and employed 1. 6 million persons. 11 FDI Inflow of Vietnam, 2000-2010 Project number Registered capital Service, 10. 7% Telecom. & transportation 4. 1% Service, 19. 2% Processing & manufacturing 48. 7% Agriculture, 1. 6% Processing & manufacturing 59. 8% Agriculture 3. 9% Telecom. & transportation 7. 7% Real estate & construction 30. 8% Power, water, gas, 2. 5% Mining, 1. 5% Real estate & construction 8. 4% Power, water, gas, 0. 5% Mining, 0. 6% Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment FDI of Vietnam by sector, 2010 600 60 1400 1200 50 1000 40 800 30 600 20 400 10 200 0 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year Disbursement Total investment Note: Accumulated inflow of FDI by the end of 2010 Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment 12 No. of project 1800 70 FDI inflow (billion US$) 80 Top 10 destinations and investors of Vietnam, 2010 Top 10 FDI receiving provinces Top 10 investing countries and territories Ho Chi Minh City Chinese Taipei Ba Ria – Vung Tau Korea Republic Ha Noi Singapore Dong Nai Japan Binh Duong Malaysia Ha Tinh British Virgin Islands Phu Yen America Thanh Hoa Hong Kong Hai Phong Cayman Islands

Quang Nam Thailand 0. 0 10. 0 20. 0 30. 0 Total registered investment (billion USD) 0. 0 5. 0 10. 0 15. 0 20. 0 25. 0 Total registered investment (billion USD) Note: Accumulated inflow of FDI by the end of 2010 Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment IV: INFRASTRUCTURE ? Road network: – ? 171,392 km country-wide. 2 North-South pivot routes: (i) the 1A National Highway of 2,260km in length from Lang Son to Ca Mau and (ii) the Ho Chi Minh Highway of 3,167km in length from Cao Bang to Ca Mau. Railway network: – ? Total length of 2,632 km. 278 stations country-wide. Hanoi – Ho Chi Minh City line: 1,726 km (it takes 29. hours for express train). – Linked to China railways in two directions, one from Lao Cai province to Yunnan province and one from Lang Son province to Kwangsi province of China. – Planned to construct the railway lines connecting with Laos and Cambodia. Inland waterway: – More than 2,300 rivers and canals with total length of 198,000 km. – Inland waterway system of 35,386 km. 13 ? Sea ports: – – ? Vietnam has 3,260km coastline, a strategic position close to international shipping routes and favored natural conditions of foundation, sea depth, current, tidal, sedimentation and channels for developing seaport business. 7 national level sea ports, 23 provincial level sea ports and 9 offshore oil and gas sea ports. Current major important ports include Cai Lan and Hai Phong in the North, Da Nang and Quy Nhon in the Centre and Sai Gon and Cai Mep in the South. Airports: – ? 8 international airports: Cam Ranh (Nha Trang), Cat Bi (Hai Phong), Da Nang (Da Nang), Lien Khuong (Lam Dong), Noi Bai (Ha Noi), Phu Bai (Hue), Tra Noc (Can Tho), Tan Son Nhat (Ho Chi Minh City). In 2010, Tan Son Nhat Airport received 15. 5 million passergers and Noi Bai airport did 9. 5 million passengers. 14 domestic airports: Buon Ma Thuot (Dac Lac), Ca Mau (Ca Mau), Chu Lai (Quang Nam), Co Ong (Ba Ria – Vung Tau), Dien Bien Phu (Dien Bien Phu), Dong Tac (Phu Yen), Dong Hoi (Quang Binh), Gia Lam (Ha Noi), Na San (Son La), Pleiku (Gia Lai), Phu Cat (Binh Dinh), Phu Quoc (Kien Giang), Rach Gia (Kien Giang), Vinh (Nghe An). Business development zones: – ? 3 high-tech zones (Hoa Lac, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh City) with total area of 3,509 ha of land. ? 260 industrial zones and export processing zones with total area of 71,394 ha of land. 15 economic zones located along sea coast with total area of 638,633 ha of land.

Energy: – Electricity output reached 92. 7 billion kWh. – Crude oil and gas exploited 23 million ton. – Coal exploited 44 million ton. Telecommunication: – 26. 8 million Internet users. – 153. 7 million mobile subscriptions. – 16. 4 million fixed phone subscriptions. 14 15 Vietnam rail network 16 National seaports of Vietnam No. Seaport Province Current capacity of ship (DWT) 1 Cam Pha Quang Ninh 50,000 2 Hon Gai Quang Ninh 40,000 3 Hai Phong Hai Phong 20,000 4 Nghi Son Thanh Hoa 20,000 5 Cua Lo Nghe An 10,000 6 Vung Ang Ha Tinh 30,000 7 Chan May Thua Thien Hue 30,000 8 Da Nang Da Nang 30,000 9 Dung Quat Quang Ngai 0,000 10 Quy Nhon Binh Dinh 30,000 11 Van Phong Khanh Hoa 50,000 12 Nha Trang Khanh Hoa 20,000 13 Ba Ngoi Khanh Hoa 30,000 14 Ho Chi Minh City Ho Chi Minh City 30,000 15 Vung Tau Ba Ria – Vung Tau 50,000 16 Dong Nai Dong Nai 20,000 17 Can Tho Can Tho 10,000 Source: Decision 2190/QD-TTg dated 24/12/2009 17 Number and size of IPs and EPZs in Vietnam 300 71,394 70,000 60,000 40,000 150 26,971 260 100 183 11,830 50 50,000 43,687 200 300 1 2,370 12 30,000 20,000 130 10,000 65 0 1991 1995 2000 2005 2007 Year Number of IPs Size (ha) Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment 18 2010 Size of IPs (ha) Number of IPs 250

Economic zones of Vietnam 19 SWOT Analysis of Vietnam Strengths Weaknesses ? One of fastest growing economies ? Few skilled professionals in Asia with average GDP growth of available; 7. 2% per year over the last decade; ? High bureaucratic barriers; ? Stable political and social security; ? Weak infrastructure (power, ? Abundance of human resources transportation); (labour force of 46. 2 million people; ? Underdeveloped supporting young, motivated and educated industries. workforce; 60% of population under 35 years old); ? Competitive business and production costs (cost labor, industrial land rent, energy cost, elephone cost, marine transportation, taxation); ? Available mineral and natural resources (coal, oil & gas, iron ore, bauxite, rare earth,.. ); ? Central location in South East Asia, long distance coast. Opportunities Threats ? Global integration (ASEAN, APEC, WTO membership); one of the world’s most open economies; ? High inflation; ? High trade deficit; ? Devaluation of VND; ? Higher demand for consumer goods and capital goods with better ? Banking and finance sector in infant stage; quality because of being a lower middle income country, aiming at ? Low national reserves. an industrialized country and ncreasing urban population; ? Export oriented and labour intensive industries; ? Infrastruture (road, railway, seaport, airport, power) projects funded by international donors or foreign investors. 20 V: VIETNAM- GERMANY ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIP Trade Germany is the biggest trade partner of Vietnam in Europe. In 2010, despite the global economic downturn, bilateral trade reached nearly USD 6 billion, a substantial increase over the previous year. Total export value of Vietnam to Germany reached nearly USD 4 billion, accounting for 19% of total Vietnam’s export to the EU while its import value from German amounted to USD 2 billion.

Vietnam’s main export items to Germany are garments, footwear, coffees, furnitures, see foods, leather and leather apparel, office machinery, iron, metal products, articles of plastics, ceramic products, crude rubber. Germany is the second-largest market worldwide for robusta coffee and black pepper of Vietnam. Main import items from Germany to Vietnam include: machines (in mining, construction and civil engineering, textile, food and beverage,…), aircraft, units for electricity generation nd distribution, passenger cars, chemical products, pharmaceutical products, measurement, control and regulation technology products, industrial plants, plastics, lifting and handling equipment, medical equipment and orthopedic appliances, engines, iron, metal products, elec tronic components… After WTO accession, Vietnam is becoming an emerging and lucrative market in Asia. As Vietnam is accelerating its industrialization process to become an “industrialized country” by 2020, the trend towards sophisticated production facilities is evident and it is likely to result in increased demand for hi -tech machinery made in Germany.

Investment There have been over 230 German companies operating and investing in Vietnam, including many Germany’s leading groups such as Siemens, Deutsche Bank, Mercedes, Metro, Bosch etc. By the end of April 2011, German companies have invested in 163 projects with registered capital of USD 825 million in Vietnam. Three fourths of total investment projects and two thirds of investment capital of Germany mainly concentrate in manufacturing, processing, technique services, information and communication technology, banking and finance services.

Although German investment projects have been located in 26 locatio ns in Vietnam, most of them have been implemented in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi, Binh Duong and Dong Nai. In the upcoming time, the active implementation of mega infrastructure development and energy projects partially funded by German ODA such as the metro line No. 2 Ben Thanh – An Suong in Ho Chi Minh City (with length of 11 km and total investment capital of USD 1. 25 billion), O Mon IV thermo power, Phu Lac wind power, Vietnamese Green Line,… will have positive impacts on promoting German investment flow into Vietnam.

German foreign trade and investment promotion is well positioned in Viet Nam. German companies and investors can access to supports and advices from AHK Vietnam, German Business Association (GBA), a correspondent of Germany Trade and Invest (GTAI) in Vietnam. 21 Development cooperation Vietnam is an important partner of Germany in development cooperation. As one of the biggest donors among the EU members, Germany has provided Vietnam with more than EUR 1 billion in ODA since 1990. During 2011 – 2012, Germany committed nearly EUR 300 million for Vietnam. This is a clear evidence for strong support by Germany to the development of Vietnam.

German-Vietnamese development cooperation focuses on the three priority areas: (i) Sustainable economic development and vocational training; (ii) Environmental policy, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; (iii) Health. German development cooperation has been utilizing effectively and contributing positively to socio-economic development of Vietnam, especially in vocational training, human resource development, infrastructure, clean energy source. During the visit of German Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel to Viet Nam in October 2011, Hanoi Declaration was signed by Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung and Chancellor Dr.

Angela Merkel. It is the start of the strategic partnership between Vietnam and Germany. Export and import between Vietnam and Germany, 2007-2010 4000 3500 Value (USD million) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2007 2008 Export from Vietnam to Germany 2009 2010 Year Import to Vietnam from Germany Source: German Federal Statistical Office 22 Gernam investment flow into Vietnam by sector, 2010 Registered capital Service, 10. 5 Agriculture, Telecom. & 5. 4 transportation 0. 4 Real estate & construction 1. 0 Project number Processing & manufacturing 53. 6 Processing & manufacturing 46. 7 Service, 34. 2 Agriculture 2. 0 Power, water & gas, 29. Telecom. & Mining, 0. 7 transportation Real estate & 10. 5 construction Power, water & gas, 2. 0 3. 9 Mining, 0. 0 Source: Ministry of Planning and Investment 23 LEGAL GUIDE FOR INVESTING AND DOING BUSINESS IN VIETNAM I: INVESTMENT REGULATIONS On 1 July 2006, the investment regime comprised of a unified Enterprise Law (“EL”), which regulates corporations, and a common Investment Law (“ IL”), which regulates investment, came into effect. The promulgation of these two important legislations is considered a significant watershed for improvement of the legal environment on investment activities and corporate governance in Vietnam. . Overview To do business under the IL and EL, foreign investors are required to obtain investment certificates from an appropriate Licensing Authority. Under the IL, investors may invest in all sectors not prohibited by law. prohibited by law include: Areas ? Investment projects detrimental to national defence, security, and the public interest; ? Investment projects detrimental to historical and cultural traditions and the ethics or customs of Vietnam; ? Investment projects harming people’s health or destroying natural resources and the environment; and ?

Investment projects treating toxic waste imported to Vietnam and investment projects manufacturing toxic chemicals banned by international law. 2. Licensing Investors shall follow the licensing and registration steps depending on the size and the sector of the investment project. Investment Certification Process 24 Conditional sectors: Investment projects in conditional sectors shall satisfy certain conditions in order to be licensed. Conditional sectors include: ? Broadcasting and television; ? Production, publishing and distribution of cultural products; ?

Exploration and exploitation of minerals; ? Establishment of infrastructure for telecommunications network, transmission and provision of internet and telecommunications services; ? Establishment of public postal network and provision of postal services and express services; ? Construction and operation of river ports, sea ports, terminals and airports; ? Transportation of goods and passengers by railway, airway, roadway and sea and inland waterways; ? Catching of aquaculture; ? Production of tobacco; ? Real estate business; ? Import, export and distribution business; Education and training; ? Hospitals and clinics; and ? Other investment sectors in international treaties of which Vietnam is a member and which restrict the opening of the market to foreign investors. Investment Registration: Foreign investment projects with a total invested capital of less than VND 300 billion (US$ 15 million) and not falling in a conditional sector are subject to “investment registration” and foreign investors of such projects shall carry out the procedures for investment registration in order to be granted an investment certificate.

The investment certificate also serves as the business registration of the corporate entity. Enterprises can subsequently register additional investment projects without the need to create a separate entity. The investor should submit application documents for investment registration to the Licensing Authority. The Licensing Authority shall check the documents and issue the investment certificate to the investors within 15 workin g days of receiving the valid application.

Investment Evaluation: Any investment project with a total invested capital of VND 300 billion (US$ 15 million) or more or investment projects falling in conditional sectors shall undergo “an investment evaluation” by the Licensing Authority and other relevant authorities. There are two different types of evaluation: ? evaluation for investment projects regardless of total invested capital falling into conditional sectors; and ? evaluation for investment projects with total invested capital of VND300 billion or more that do not fall into conditional sectors.

For the evaluation of investment projects with total invested capital of VND 300 billion or more, along with the application documents, the applicant must also submit an “economic – technical explanation” of the investment project to the Licensing Authority. This covers the economic – technical explanatory statement, 25 objectives, scale, location, investment capital, implementation schedule, land use needs, and technological and environmental solutions of the investment project.

For the evaluation of investment projects falling in conditional sectors, in addition to the application documents, the investor shall also demonstrate compliance with requirements specific to that conditional sector. When assessing the application documents, the Licensing Authority may liaise with other relevant Ministries and authorities in evaluating the proposed investment project. Items to be evaluated shall comprise: ? compliance with master planning/zoning for technical infrastructure, master planning/zoning for land use, master planning for construction, master planning for utilization of minerals and other natural resources; land use requirements; ? project implementation schedule; ? environmental solutions. The time-limit for evaluation of investment shall not exceed thirty (30) days from the date of receipt of a complete and valid file. In necessary cases, the above time -limit may be extended, but not beyond forty five (45) days. Applying for Construction License Filing for Investment Certificate Applying for the approval of Report on environment effects evaluation Agreement on land/building/office renting Evaluating preliminary technical design Environmental protection ommitment Land/building/office renting contract 26 Projects subject to Projects subject to environmental protection construction license commitment …………………… Investment Certificate Projects subject to Report on environmental effects evaluation To-Do List for Investors 3. Licensing Authority Licensing Authority 3. 1 The Board of Management (“BOM”) of industrial zones (“IZs”), export processing zones (“EPZs”), high-tech zones (“HTZs”), and economic zones (“EZs”) are responsible for licensing foreign investments within their zones. 3 . 2

National important BOT projects and PPP projects are licensed by the Ministry of Planning and Investment (“MPI”). Oil and gas projects, credit institutions, insurance projects and law firms are licensed by Ministry of Trade and Industry, State Bank of Vietnam, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Justice respectively. 3 . 3 The Provincial People’s Committee is the authority responsible for all other foreign investments. Licensing applications shall be submitted to these bodies, who will consult with other relevant governmental authorities (where so required) before issuing final approval. . 4 The Prime Minister will approve the following investment projects (unless they are not included in the approved master plan): (a) The following investment projects, irrespective of the source of investment capital and scale of investment: – construction and commercial operation of airports; air transportation; – construction and commercial operation of national sea ports; – exploration, mining and processing of petroleum; exploration and mining of minerals; – radio and television broadcasting; – commercial operation of casinos; – production of cigarettes; – stablishment of university training establishments; and 27 – establishment of IZs, EPZs, HTZs and EZs. (b) The following investment projects, irrespective of the source of investment capital but with a total invested capital of VND 1,500 billion or more in the following sectors: – business in electricity, processing of minerals, metallurgy; – construction of railway, road and internal waterway infrastructure; and – production and business of alcohol, beer; (c) The following projects with foreign-invested capital in the following sectors: – commercial operation of sea transportation; – onstruction of networks for and supply of postal and delivery, telecommunications and internet services, construction of wave transmission networks; – printing and distributing newspapers and printed matter, publishing; and – establishment of independent scientific research establishments. 4. Forms of Investment and Enterprise Under the “Law on Investment” and the “Law on Enterprises” foreign investors may choose the following forms of investment in Viet Nam: Investment forms: – Invest in business development; – Establish economic organizations (100% capital of foreign investors or joint venture); Purchase shares or contribute capital to participate in management of investment activities; – Invest in contractual forms of BBC, BO, BTO, BT, PPP; and – M of enterprises. While foreign investors are allowed to buy shares in many domestic companies without limitation, there are ownership limitations for certain companies listed on the Vietnam stock exchange and financial sectors. Foreign ownership cannot exceed 49 percent of listed companies and 30 percent of listed companies in the financial sector. Forms of enterprises: – Limited liability company (with one member or more than one member);