Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataSubphylum: VertebrataClass: Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)Subclass: Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays)Order: OrectolobiformesFamily: RhincodontidaeGenus: RhincodonSpecies: Rhincodon typus| Integumentary system Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) has the toughest and thickest skin of all the animals in the world. It reaches up to 14 cm of thick; whale shark is pale on the underside and dark gray-brown color with white spots on the top. This can serve as a camouflage looking up or down the sea for shark’s preys (SRI, 2008).
As all the other Chondrichtyes, Whale Shark skin is covered with little cartilaginous tooth-like structures, this are dermal placoid scales arranged to reduce the turbulence of water flowing along the body surface during swimming (Hickman, 2006). Whale shark maintains internal salt concentrations lower than seawater by pumping salt out through rectal glands and kidneys. Sharks retain urea dissolved in their body fluids. They also produce Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) use to protect their proteins from denaturation by urea waste products.
Retention of this organic solutes in their body fluids makes their osmolality slightly hypertonic to sea water (Hickman, 2008) Whale Sharks are ectothermic; this means that their body temperature is similar to the surroundings. They may regulate their body temperature by behavioral mechanism such as spending time in warmer surface water (Thumbs, 2012). Musculo-Skeletal System As mentioned, Whale Shark is an elasmobranch; the skeleton of this animal is made out of cartilage instead of bone. This along with the big liver filled with oil helps the shark to float easier an spend less energy on its movement (SRI, 2008).
They also posses an pelvic fins supported by appendicular skeletons, dorsal fins, a medial caudal fin and a median anal fin. The heterocercal tail in sharks shows that the upturned tail axis tends to produce a thrust directed downwards behind the center of balance of the fish and thus gives a moment turning the head upwards. This is countered in two ways—by the rotation of the tail along its longitudinal axis during each lateral beat, and through the action of the ventral hypochordal lobe.
The shape of the tail and the mode of action of the tail in all sharks so far considered reflects a balance between these three factors, in all of them the net effect being the production of a forward thrust from the tail that passes directly through the center of balance of the fish (Stewart, Keith and Simanek, Dan, 2012). Respiration System Whale Shark possesses 5 pair of gill slits located on the side of their heads (SRI, 2008). Water must continually flow across the gill slits in order for the shark to breath; They do not have gill covers like bony fishes do, so whale shark need to continually swim for constant flow.
When water passes over the gill, a system of very fine blood vessels takes up the oxygen from the water. Digestive System Whale Shark is a filter feeder. As it swims with its mouth open, masses of water filled with prey enter to its mouth consisted of 5 large gill arches. After closing its mouth, shark uses specialized organs called gill rakers to filter the nourishment from the water. Basically anything that does not pass trough the gills is eaten. (SRI, 2008). Preys may include plankton, krill, small fish and even squid. This shark can process over 6000 liters of water each our.
Urinary System Urea and trimethylamine (TMAO) in their blood and tissues help to maintain their osmotic balance. They are without the usual urinary tract, so they concentrate urea in their blood and excrete it through their skin (Hickman, 2006). Reproductive System According to the Shark research institute, Reproduction behavior is uncertain. In their article “Whale Shark FAQ” they state; “Only one pregnant female shark has ever been exanimated by scientist Dr. Jennifer V. Schmidt, Director of SRI genetics Program” (12). The only pregnant female caught ontained in her tween uterus 307 embryo’s measuring between 42 and 63 cm in length, 15 where fully- developed and ready to born. Having this information whale sharks where found to fall into the classification of ovoviviparous. This information also suggests that Whale Sharks could be one of the most productive live bearing shark species. But it remains unknown why their population is small. Sexual maturity in whale sharks may occur until they reach about 9 meters long which is about 30 years old. Whale sharks live for about 70 to 800 years. (SRI, 2009) Bullfrog (Rana castabeiana) Kingdom: Animal
Phylum: Chordate Class: Amphibians Order: Salientia Family: Ranidae Genus: Rana Species: Rana catesbeiana (Bullfrog) Integumentary system Frog skin is thin and loosely attached to some of the muscles in the body. It is composed the skin is known to be permeable, which means that let the water pass in and out through the skin membrane. Bullfrog’s skin is periodically shed as other frogs and toads do. The epidermis of the Bullfrog contains two types of glands: mucous glands, which help to protect the frog from dehydration and a large serous of glands that produce watery, poison material (Hickman, 2006).
Musculo-skeletal system As many other amphibians bullfrogs live mainly in fresh water, but they can also migrate to other pounds lakes or reservoirs specially when is rainy or hummed. Bullfrogs have a well-developed endoskeleton made out principle of bone and some cartilage; this provides support for muscular movements (Hickman 2006). Bullfrog tent to develop strong and big muscles used for locomotion outside or inside the water. Bullfrogs as most of the other frogs and toads, are faced with an unusual locomotory challenge. They have to swim and jump using primary the hind limbs.
The foot possess five rays and hand posses fore rays. Hind limbs and fore limbs posses a web-like structure to help frog locomotion also in water (Nauwalaerts, Sandra et al, 2007). Respiratory system Bullfrogs as many other amphibians use three respiratory surfaces for gas exchange: skin, mouth, and lungs. In bullfrogs lungs are present in adults (Hickman, 2006). On land Bullfrogs breath with their mouths closed. Bullfrogs present a positive lung pressure for breathing (Heckman, 2007). Their throat movements pull air through the nostrils to the lungs. Then breathe out with body contractions.
Bullfrogs can also respire under the water through the skin using a process called cutaneous gas exchange. They use their skin for oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange (Stinner N, Jerry, and Shoemaker, H. Vaughan, 1987) Digestive system Bullfrogs are voracious eaters, and will eat just about any animal they can swallow. These include: insects, crayfish, worms, minnows, other frogs (even Bullfrogs), small turtles, snakes, baby birds, and small mammals. They are most active at night. The frog digestive system, like most other digestive systems, starts in the mouth.
Prey, which is sometimes caught by the frog’s sticky tongue, is diced by tooth-like structures in the mouth. The food then moves down through the esophagus, into the stomach, where, much like in the shark, the food is softened, broken down somewhat, and stored. From the stomach, food moves into the small intestine, where the most of the chemical digestion (i. e. the pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, the liver secretes bile, etc. ) and nutrient absorption take place. One special attribute of the frog small intestine is that it has villi, small projections that greatly ncrease the surface area of the small intestine, allowing more nutrient absorption. Urinary system The urinary system of Bullfrogs as most of the frogs is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. The kidney excretes and re-absorbs electrolytes (e. g. sodium, potassium and calcium) under the influence of local and systemic hormones. pH balance is regulated by the excretion of bound acids and ammonium ions. Reproductive system Bullfrog’s are known to be oviparous and breeding occurs in permanent bodies of water that typically contain thick grows of algae and rooted aquatic plants.
Breeding pools usually are rich in aquatic animal life and have a soft mud bottom (Hammerson, Geoffrey A, 1999). They initiate amplexus by making physical contact with an adult male. Amplexus and oviposition generally last from 15 min to 2. 5 hours and occur about midnight. Bullfrogs have found to mate and lay eggs in areas outside the sites defended by calling males. (Hammerson, Geoffrey A, 1999). Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines (turtles and tortoises)? Family: Cheloniidae (true sea turtles)? Genus: Chelonia?
Species: Chelonia mydas Integumentary System Green sea turtles, as all the turtle’s species have evolved a bony outer shell, which protects them from predators. This shell covers both dorsal and ventral surfaces and it is consider the most highly developed protective armor of any vertebrate species to have ever lived. (Green Sea Turtles, 2001). The dorsal portion of the shell is known as carapace and it is covered with a large scale-like structures called scutes. The ventral portion of the shell is known as the plastron. This two structures are connected by hard shelled plates called lateral bridges.
A difference of land turtles and tortoises, sea turtles are not able to retract their heads into their shells, and they heads remain out at all times (Green sea turtles, 2001) Green Sea turtles are ectothermic animals, which means that they regulate their internal temperature from their environment, this also explains why this turtles live in warm temperatures. Chelonia mydas maintain homeostasis using a specialized gland called salt gland; it helps them controlling their internal environment and it is located just behind each eye. Using this gland they excrete the excess of salt levels in blood in forms of “tears”. “Green Sea Turtles,” 2001). Musculo-skeletal system The skeleton is composed of bones and cartilages. Typically, it is divided into 3 main parts: the skull, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton in sea turtles, each of these bony groups is a composite of several structures. The skull includes the braincase, jaws, and hyoid apparatus the axial skeleton is composed of the carapace, vertebrae, and ribs and the derivatives of the ribs. The plastron is a composite including derivatives of the axial and appendicular skeleton (ventral ribs plus shoulder elements).
The appendicular skeleton includes the flippers, hind limbs, and their supporting structures (the pectoral and pelvic girdles). (Wyneken, 2001. ) Sea turtles are interesting because they have very highly evolved flippers to help them propel through the water. In addition to being able to propel themselves through the water, the sea turtles use their flippers to climb up steep, rocky shores and can use their flippers to evade all sorts of different predators of the sea turtles. While sea turtles all have the same basic anatomy, there are some things that set some species of sea urtles apart from other sea turtles. For example, Green sea turtles have prefrontal scales on the head, a differing number of scutes on the carapace, and the type of inframarginal scutes that appear on the pastron. (Wtbeken, 2001. ) Respiratory system The sea turtle requires a respiratory system that is able to support it through diverse depths and distances. Due to sea turtles’s excessive breath-hold, the respiratory system must be able to compensate for time elapsed without exhalation. When exhalation does occur, it is brief. The main component that bears the respiratory weight is essentially the lung.
The lung, “functions as the major oxygen store and can supply sufficient oxygen for most routine dives (up to 20 mins) to be aerobic” (Lutz, 1985). Moreover, the lung almost carries the complete load of respiration in the sea turtle. “The respiratory properties of sea turtle blood are particularly well suited to lung-tissue transport during routine brethhold periods, surviving prolonged dives of at least three hours by having a high anaerobic capacity” (Lutz, 1985). A difference of the amphibians, turtles posses a negative lung preassure. Digestive system
Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, get their name from the color of their body fat, which is green from the algae or limu they eat. Adult green sea turtles are herbivores, meaning that they eat only plants, and therefore do not pose a threat to any other marine animals. Juvenile green sea turtles on the other hand are carnivorous. Their diet consists of jellyfish and other invertebrates (Green sea turtles, 2001). Although the carapaces of green sea turtles are mostly dark brown in color, they can be covered with patches of algae on which fishes in turn feed (Green sea turtles, 2001).
This particular relationship of the fish eating algae off the turtle’s shell would be considered a form of mutualism. Urinary System The excretory system of the turtle is responsible for removing harmful wastes from the turtle’s body and blood. The kidney of the turtle performs the blood filtering process and the wastes are then sent to the bladder as urine. In sea turtles the kidneys are also aided by the salt gland to get rid of the excess salt in the sea water (Green Sea Turtles, 2001). The bladder is the storage place of the urine. From the bladder the urine goes to the cloaca, which is where urine leaves the body.
The cloaca is also used to take in oxygen and other nutrients in sea turtles when they reach critical levels. Reproductive System Although green sea turtles live most of their lives in the ocean, adult females must return to land in order to lay their eggs. Biologists believe that nesting female turtles return to the same beach where they were born. Hawaii’s green sea turtles migrate as far as 800 miles from their feeding areas along the coasts of the main Hawaiian islands to their nesting beaches in the Northwestern Hawaiian islands (Green Sea Turtles, 2001).
Males accompany the females during the migration, which usually occurs in the late spring, and mate with them off the shores of the nesting beaches. Females do not mate every year, but when they do, they come ashore often- as many as five times every 15 days to make nests in the sand and lay eggs. Green sea turtles nest only at night. The female must pull herself out of the water and all the way to the dry sand of the upper beach using only her front flippers. This is a difficult task as her front limbs have been modified into highly effective swimming flippers, and do not support the bulk of her weight in the sand.
After placing the eggs female basically has completed her parenting job, then she returns to the sea leaving her young’s to fend for them-selves. Unfortunately, not all of the hatchlings reach the ocean. Many are snatched up by hungry crabs and other predators along the way or become lost and die. In addition, some are eaten by sharks and other carnivorous fishes while at sea. Only a few baby turtles from each nest will survive into adulthood. Jaguar (Panthera Onca) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata SubPhylum: Vertebrata Class: Mamalia Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Pantherinae Genus: Panthera Species: Panthera onca Integumentary system Mammal’s bodies are covered by hairs, tegumentary features that contribute to the regulation of body temperature. In the skin there are a quantity of sweat glands and sebaceous or oil glands that help to keep the skin in good health by lubricating it and eliminating toxic byproducts through the sweat. In addition to this elimination function, the sweat contributes to thermo-regulation, cooling the surface through evaporation.
In addition to hairs, the skin grows other structures, such as nails, claws or hooves as well as the horns and callous foot pads of certain mammals.?? Heterodontia is characteristic of mammals, that is to say that they have teeth of different structure, as opposed to homodontia, in which all the teeth are alike. Musculo-skeletal system The Jaguar is a large and muscular animal that has a heavier and sturdier body than that of a Leopard. They have a large, broad head with jaws so strong that they are said to have the most powerful bite of all the world’s Cats. Jaguar, 2008). They are also fast runners, but they get tired quickly. They can also climb very well and are good swimmers. (Felines, 2002) The jaguar’s skeleton is not so different from the human skeleton. Jaguars have more bones and many are identical to those in the human being. They have have 13 ribs; humans have 12. They also do have clavicles but unlike humans, they are not attached to other bones. The outside of a bone, the cortex, is composed of minerals and protein and gives the bone its rigidity. Inside the bone is the marrow cavity that produces red blood cells.
Jaguar’s muscles are tough and well-coordinated and help to make the animal an agile hunter. Basically, jaguar’s muscles are designed for walking, running, leaping, and twisting. Their muscular control and skeletal flexibility enable it to right its body during a fall with incredible speed—a trick that is unique to the family felidae. Respiratory System The respiratory system functions primarily to transfer oxygen from the air to the blood and to remove carbon dioxide from the blood and carry it out of the body into the air. Oxygen is vital to the body’s maintenance.
Carbon dioxide is a waste product of the maintenance process. Jaguar breathes in air through its nose and mouth. The nose and mouth join to form the pharynx. The trachea is a tube that extends from the pharynx to the lungs. The epiglottis covers the trachea when swallowing occurs to prevent food and water from entering the lungs. At the lungs the trachea branches into smaller tubes called bronchi or bronchial tubes. The bronchi divide into smaller and smaller bronchioles until they become dead end sacs called alveoli. It is in the alveoli where the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur.
Digestive system The jaguar is a carnivore. It hunts mostly at night. Its prey includes capybara, peccaries, deer, large ground birds, fish, snakes, turtles and rabbits. It will also eat livestock like horses, cows and sheep. The jaguar hunts mostly on the ground, but it sometimes climbs a tree and pounces on its prey from above. The jaguar has very powerful jaws and sharp teeth and usually kills its prey with one crushing bite to the skull. ( Jaguar, 2008) Jaguar’s digestive system is comprised of the alimentary canal and accessory glands.
The alimentary canal consists of the lips, mouth, teeth, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. The accessory glands are the liver, pancreas, and the salivary glands. All the organs work to process the food a cat eats. The intestines work to extract and absorb the nutrients and eliminate the wastes. (Foss, A. Michael, et al, 2008) Urinary System The important organs of the cat’s urinary system are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys are located on either side of the body in the lumbar region (between ribs and pelvis).
Blood is filtered through the kidneys and the liquid waste product is called urine. Urine is passed through the ureters to the bladder where it is stored. The urine is then discharged through the urethra, a tube connecting the bladder to the exterior of the body. (Foss, A. Michael, et al, 2008) Reproductive system Despite the fact that most Jaguar cubs are generally born between the months of December and March, it is not uncommon for them to be born at other times of the year. During the mating season, the female Jaguar will use loud vocal calls to attract a male into her territory. Female Jaguars typically give birth to two or three cubs.
Once their cubs are born however, the female Jaguar will not tolerate the male in her territory as she becomes very protective of her young at this stage. Jaguar cubs are born blind and gain their sight after about two weeks. They are weaned by their mother when they are around 3 months old, although the cubs will rely on their mother to hunt and provide for them until they are about 6 months old. At 6 months, the Jaguar cubs will then start to accompany the female jaguar on hunts but will not venture out on their own until they are one or two years old and have established a territory for themselves. Jaguar, 2008) Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) Kingdon: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Psittaciformes Family: Pisttacinae Genus: Ara Lacepede, 1799 Species: Ara macao Subspecies: Ara macao cyanopterus Integumentary system Scarlet macaws are brightly colored birds with feathers ranging in color bands from scarlet on their head and shoulders, to yellow on their back and mid wing feathers and blue on the wing tips and tail feathers. The face has short white feathers. This area surrounds the light yellow colored eyes. The long, thick beak is light on the top and dark black on the bottom.
The legs and feet are also black (David, 2003) Birds are endothermal, or warm-blooded. That means they have an internal furnace, fueled by food, that generates heat and allows them to keep their bodies at a constant temperature, even though the temperature of their environment changes. Birds are also able to regulate their body temperature by conserving or losing heat through a variety of ways -— feathers help retain heat, while panting helps get rid of heat. (Bird Life, 2008) Musculo-skeletal system Macaws are the largest parrots in the world — the body of the scarlet macaw from beak to tail can be as long as 33 inches.
This beautiful macaw has a creamy white, almost featherless face, with bright red plumage covering most of its body, wings and long tail. Brilliant blue and yellow feathers also adorn the lower wings. The bird’s strong beak is adapted to breaking hard nuts found in the rainforest. (David, 2003) Respiratory system The high metabolism and athletic life-style of birds require a great deal of oxygen. Four organs work together to carry oxygen to the cells: nostrils, trachea, lungs, and air sacs. With each breath, air moves through the nostrils, down the trachea and into the lungs and air sacs. From the lungs, xygen passes into the bloodstream and then to the body cells. The air that passes into the air sacs cools the internal organs and helps maintain body temperature. Nearly all of the air in the lungs is replaced with each breath. When flying, birds require ten to twenty times more oxygen than at rest. To supply the extra oxygen, birds increase their breathing rates. (Bird Life, 2008) Digestive system Wild Scarlet Macaws mostly eat fruits and seeds, including large, hard seeds. Like other parrots, they are seed predators, they destroy the seeds that they eat and do not disperse them. Some macaws are sometimes seen eating clay from river banks. Bird Life, 2008 Since birds have no teeth, the digestive system must grind up food so that the energy stored in it can be used. A hollow digestive tube extends from the mouth through the entire length of the body to an external opening called the cloaca. The tube is divided into the throat (pharynx), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Urinary system The urinary system of birds is different from mammals, as birds produce both urine and urates. The kidneys possess two different types of nephrons, the units that filter the blood to remove toxins and products of metabolism.
Birds cannot concentrate their urine as well as mammals can. Birds also are uricotelic, meaning that they excrete the end product of nitrogen metabolism as uric acid, which is made in the liver and they excreted from the blood. Uric acid is the creamy white portion of the dropping. Urine is the clear portion. The feces constitute the third portion of a dropping, and this consists of the solid portion, usually brown or green, depending on what the bird has been eating. A bird is able to urinate independently of defecating, or passing feces, but most of the time, the bird will pass urine, urates and feces at the same time. Bird Life 2008) Reproductive system Like most parrots, the female Scarlet Macaw lays 2 to 4 white eggs in a tree cavity. The young hatch after 24 to 25 days. They fledge about 105 days later and leave their parents a year later. (bird life, 2008) The scarlet macaw protects its baby by staying in the nest with the baby or babies and being aware of any type of danger. It pinches predators with its beak and screams noises for help when a predator wants to eat the baby and/ or female. The female stays with the baby 1-2 years. It stays most of the day and the male fetch food for the baby or babies. Brightsmith, 2004) Works cited Shark Research Institute. Whale Shark FAQ. Dlvingdog productions Inc. Nov 2006. Shark Research Institute. November 7, 2012. (Greey Literature) Thums, Michele. “Why Whale Sharks Need to Swim Near the Surface”. PHYS. ORG. Benson Jhon, October 19, 2012. Web. November 7, 2012. (Gray literature) Stewart, Keith and Simanek, Dan. “Body Form and Locomotion in Sharks”. Integrative and Comparative Biology Vol 17. 2 (2012): 343-354. Print (Scientific Journal) Roberts, Hickman, et al. Integrated Principles of Zoology. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2006.
Print Hammerson, Geoffrey A. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado, A Colorado Field Guide. Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 1999. Print Nauwalaerts, Sandra et al. “Morphological correlates of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in semi-aquatic frog”. Journal of Anatomy. Vol. 210. 3 (2007): 304-317. Print. (Journal) Stinner N, Jerry, and Shoemaker, H. Vaughan. “Cutaneous gas exchange and low evaporative water loss in the frogs”. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology. Vol 157. 4 (1987): 423-427.
Print. (journal) Earthtrust. 2001. Green sea turtles. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from website: http://earthrust. org/wlcurruc/turtles. html Wyneken, J. 2001. The Anatomy of Sea Turtles. U. S. Department of Commerce NOAA Thechnical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-470, 1-172. Print Lutz, P. L. and T. B. Bentley. 1985. Respiratory Physiology of Diving in the Sea Turtle. Copeia. 3: 671-679 “Felines”. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2002. Encyclopedia. com. 10 November, 2012 Jaguar. OpenCrypt membership software. 2008. Web. November 9, 2012. Foss, A. Michael, et al. Cat Anatomy and Physiology”. 4-H Youth Development. 4. 3. (2008) :210-267. Print Jukofsky, Diane. Encyclopedia of Rainforests. Connecticut: Oryx Press, 2002. Alderton, David (2003). The ultimate encyclopedia of caged and aviary birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 234. BirdLife International 2008. Ara macao. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009. 1. <www. iucnredlist. org>. Brightsmith, D. 2004. “Macaws, their Nesting Sites and the Macaw Project” (On-line). Rainforest Expeditions. at http://www. perunature. com/info01. asp.