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Life of Pi Journal Response

The narrator of this book has his own view about zoos. He tries to make it seem as if his view is absolutely true and is scientifically proven and that he is 100% politically correct. According to him a zoo to an animal is like a home to a human. But I totally disagree with his view on the zoos. In the book the narrator’s view is totally opposite. He assumes and thinks that keeping animals in cages is normal to them and they don’t mind… He persuades us to think that animals are perfectly fine and find it normal to be kept in cages “Animals like being in the same cages, it’s like their home, There is no place like home?

That’s certainly what animals feel. ” According to him animals would rather live in a restricted area where his basic needs are met than live in an open area full of enemies and no guarantee of food. He is saying that a cage is an animal’s home!!! How can that be possible? How can an animal call some cage where it’s been stuck forever and ever where it can’t go anywhere, call it home?!? It seems as if the narrator… I personally do not agree with the narrators view about zoos or any other enclosed dwelling for animals. We all humans know that animals do not like being kept in cages and in enclosed enclosures. Animals are territorial.

That is the key to their minds. Only a familiar territorial will allow them to fulfill the two relentless imperatives of the wild: the avoidance of enemies and the getting of food and water. So biologically sound zoo enclosure – whether cage, pit, moated island, corral, terrarium, aviary or aquarium- is just another territory…” “In a zoo, we do for animals what we have done for ourselves with houses…” Now he is comparing the animals’ cages to our homes! How is it possible to compare an animal’s cage to our houses? They are definitely vastly different.

We cannot possibly compare a place like our home to an animal’s cage. Animals are meant to live in the wild – in the forests, the desserts etc. That’s their home. Like our homes are our habitats in cities and country sides. It’s not possible to call a cage, an animal’s territory; it’s like a jail for him. “A house is a compresses territory where basic needs can be fulfilled close by and safely (with the noteworthy absence of a fireplace or the like, present in every human habitation).

Finding within it all the places it needs- a lookout, a place for resting, for eating and drinking, for bathing, for grooming-etc. – nd finding that there is no need to go hunting, food appearing six days a week, an animal will take possession of its zoo space in the same way it would lay claim…” I disagree with the fact that the cages are the animal’s territory and home. Just because the cage can fulfill the basic needs (resting, look out, eating, and bathing) that doesn’t mean its territory. The animal is being forced to live in the cages and so it has to deal with the situation and cope with it. Where he says “… fulfilled by close by and safely” he is wrong. The bars around the cage aren’t for safety for the animals but for simply keeping it inside its cage.

It’s a safety for us! How does this even make sense in the first place? It’s basically saying that, someone a human is forced to live in a cage where he/she will be supplied with food and calling that cage their home! Their safe, have a place to eat, rest, lookout… It’s the human’s territory and home now because it will stay there forcefully until it dies… You can also look at this like this. You see a lady bug crawling around. So you take a jar and cover it atop it. You give it food/water daily… So basically now the jar is its home sweet home and its own territory? That’s what the narrator is basically saying.

I disagree with the fact that animals can be compared to humans. The narrator cannot simply just start comparing human’s lifestyles to animals. How can we possibly know whether the cage is like a home to the animals? The animals belong in nature; they have their own habitats and their own ways of having a comfortable lifestyle. How can we say that a cage is a comfortable area and a home to an animal? We do not know what animals think, we don’t know what they are saying… Even though we see the animals in their enclosures all peaceful and quite we cannot simply assume that they love it.

It’s like we were separated from our families and put in a cage to stay… Humans and animals are very different. Humans are able to do things that animals can’t… They can build houses out of nature (with wood etc). Animals are limited. They get raised and are taught to hunt so they can eat and live… In conclusion I defiantly do not agree with the narrator on the fact that animals love the zoo, and like being kept in cages/enclosures. I disagree with his view and opinion on zoos.

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Keeping Animals in Zoos

On Sunday afternoons in every major city many families go to the zoo with kids. They always have a lot of fun, see many rare animals, funny monkeys, tall giraffes, huge elephants and cute koalas. But what is going on with animals? On the one hand, animals are safe in zoos, which means they cannot be hurt in their cages. Secondly, animals have enough food, for example, they can always eat in a zoo, while they may be starving in nature. Furthermore, many poachers kill animals for their skin, fur and meat, but they cannot do it to animals in zoos.

What is more, there are many species that are almost exterminated, but zoos help them reproduce and keep their species existing. The last but not least, if the natural habitat of some species is destroyed, ruined or is no longer for living in, zoos make cages that look exactly like the natural habitat. On the other hand, animals are kept away from their natural place of living. For instance, lions can never live in Berlin. Another major disadvantage of keeping animals imprisoned is too much noise and stress for them.

Many people come to see them. For example, kids come near the cages and tease them, so they have a very stressful life unlike their natural way of living. Not to mention the fact that animals are not free. They are trapped in their cells like in prisons. In conclusion, there are many advantages and disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos and everyone is to judge by himself. However, before that think about yourself being kept in a cage and being seen just as an amusement!

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The Zoo Story

Daniel Castellanos THE2000 Ms Janet Roney 12/1/12 The Zoo Story Edward Albee’s “The Zoo Story” is a one act play that shows what alienation and loneliness can drive a man to do. It is a unique story in the sense that you almost feel as though you are reading in on a social experiment. I consider it is an experiment because of how the reactions between the two characters Peter and Jerry lead up to an intense and life affecting climax between the two. The idea of The Zoo Story is about a middle class man with a wife and two daughters named peter who you can say is quite receptive to what life has given him so far.

However, you also have a man named jerry who is just about the opposite. Jerry is unfortunately friendless and not to happy with what life has brought to his plate. One day these two characters have a date with destiny on a New York City park bench. As Peter is minding to himself Jerry comes along and tries to befriend him. The socialization between the two doesn’t go as planned for Jerry. Nevertheless, Jerry walked into that conversation with another plan. It was one that included his own death.

Eventually, it ends up into a confrontation between the two where Jerry is punching thus forcing Peter into defending himself. Jerry then pulls out a knife and tosses it towards Peter forcing his hand. In self defense, Peter picks up the knife and holds it up which then leads to Jerry charging towards the knife and thus murdering himself. Peter reactively says “Oh my God” whereas then with Jerry’s last breath he says “Oh…My… God is a combination of scornful mimicry and supplication”. His last words give you an insight on what this novels idea could be.

After reading, I started to relate to how Aristotle’s theory on Plot matches to “The Zoo Story”. When you think of plot you would consider the arraignment of events such as rising action and climax. Now when you start to stick together the structural plots in this story you would begin with the exposition where Peter is sitting on the park bench and soon then enters Jerry. The rising action would have to be the conversation they both shared leading up until the moment Jerry spits and then punches Peter. Of course, the climax is the scene when Jerry then tosses the knife on the floor and hen forces Peter to choose between leaving or quite possibly killing a man with his own weapon. The falling action is when Jerry runs into the blade consequently killing him. Therefore, leading to the resolution which is the last words Jerry is able to say to Peter after his initial reaction to his death. The idea of characters would mainly consist of the protagonist and the antagonist. In The Zoo Story it puts you in the life of Jerry who, to some, would come off as the antagonist however to me I see him as the protagonist.

It is clear that Jerry is a man who is lonely and desperate to make a friend. It starts with Jerry trying to make an effort to communicate with Peter, yet he doesn’t seem all interested. As each new topic Jerry comes up with is diminished it gives me the feeling that all Jerry is trying to do is socialize with another human being. The theme of a play is usually the reason why the playwright would write the play. The theme we come across in this play is Loneliness.

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Reasoning for Animal Extinction: a Zoo Essay

Zoo Essay Reasoning for animal extinction There are many reasons for animal extinction in the wild, here are some of them: Some animals due to adaptive radiation can become more effective in hunting and reproducing which increases their chance of survival and their ammount of offspring which means the other animals become more prone to decline in numbers. However, there are reasons for animal extinction as a result of human action: Habitat Destruction – Animal Habitats are often destroyed in construction of homes, roads etc.

Tree’s (deforestation), ponds and other types of habitats are removed in order to make room for this type of construction. Pollution – Pollution and climate change have seen a lot of animals become endangered. Acid rain has caused many marine animals to become extinct due to the change in pH of their habitat. Melting ice caps due to changes in C02 levels has resulted in many animals in the north/south pole become extinct. Hunting/Fishing – Many animals have become endagered due to excessive human hunting of the animals for their fur, meat, bones etc.

Why are the species of the Philippine Islands endangered? The species of the Philippine islands have become endangered due to mass deforestation. The majority of the forestry in the Philippines has now been lost, eliminating habitats for species present there. There are also low population numbers of species in islands due to a limited geographic range and animals are limited to a small space so potential for finding better land for a habitat is very small. Are there any endangered British species? Yes, the European otter is endangered due to habitat destruction and pollution. Also, the door mouse has become endangered because of destruction of woodland habitat. The Giraffe and the Okapi The giraffe and the Okapi are both examples of Adaptive Radiation. They both have a common ancestor but both have very different sized necks. A mutation has cause some of the offspring of their common ancestor to either have a very long neck, which is ideal for reaching food in tall trees, or a very small neck to reach small shrubs near the ground. This mutation has allowed the organism to become more successful in feeding and therefore in survival and so has become a better adaptation for the organism.

Zoo’s responsibility in conservation of animals Zoo’s have an important role in conservation of animals as a part of the income of the zoo’s is used for animal conservation such as building habitats for animals and educating locals around the world on the endangerment of these animals, mainly in places where these animals are succumb to poaching for skin, meat and bones etc. Some people may consider keeping animals in captivity cruel but if the animal is endangered it can be protected in captivity so they can produce offspring that could be released into the wild to boost population numbers.

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A Visit to Zoo

A Visit to the Zoo Last Sunday it was cloudy. I, along with my friends visited the zoo. As we reached the main gate of the zoo, we saw a huge crowd. Some were buying, entrance tickets, some were gossiping and chatting while others were relaxing under the shady trees. We entered the zoological gardens and ca me across a beautiful lake, where some water-birds, like ducks, were swimming. Seeing the white ducks on the smooth surface of water is a charming sight. As we moved further, we came to the enclosure where birds were kept. They ranged from sparrows, eagles and parrots to pigeons of various colours.

The birds were chirping. It was enchanting music. We enjoyed it very much. In the next enclosure were kept lions and leopards, tigers and tigresses, whose roars were deafening. As we approached the net, a lion rushed towards us and we were terrified. Their fierce looks were frightening. After seeing this, we came across a garden having stags, very smart and beautiful. In one of the corners, monkeys were jumping. Their tricks and pranks were very pleasing. Some people threw peanuts to them and they immediately jumped down the trees to eat them.

Many children were making faces at them. Our next halt was at an aquarium in which we were most interested. A large number of fishes were kept there. There were fish of many species and colours. To see them fidgeting in water was really a delightful spectacle. There were many other aquatic animals. Just by the side of this enclosure we came across polar bears, which looked sad and deserted. The black bear’s enclosure attracted a mammoth gathering. The bear was playing many tricks which thrilled the spectators. Some people offered him eatables which he gulped at once.

The zoological parks are so vast that it is very difficult to describe all the cages and enclosures fully. After taking a complete round of the zoo, we relaxed for some time in a cool and beautiful garden nearby. The fragrance of the flowers was tremendously intoxicating. Then we had snacks and drinks, which refreshed us very much. It was evening and the sun was setting. We came out of the zoo like many other visitors. We boarded the bus while casting our last and lingering look at the zoo, which is surrounded on one side by the old but majestic wall of the old fort, which, no doubt, added to the beauty and grandeur of the zoo.

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A Visit to the Zoo

A visit to a zoo is one of the most enthralling and exciting things. It is an interesting way to let the children see animals, which they cannot see otherwise. A visit to a zoo is an entertaining activity not just for children but also for adults as it increases their knowledge and makes them wonder at the marvellous of nature. During our educational tour to Delhi, last month, we were also taken to the zoo as it is near the old fort. The zoo is one of the largest in the country spread in a vast area of 35 acres, approximately.

The zoo is thickly vegetated with a large variety of birds and animals. We firstly visited the Birds’ section, which was a colourful treat to our eyes. This section was echoing with the chirping of the birds all over. The multi-coloured birds were twittering all over, we saw the graceful pelicans, lovely kingfishers and the cranes, the dignified swans, and peacocks, peahens, sparrows of different kinds, nightingales, Siberian cranes, storks, ducks, the wild parrot and a wide variety of mountain birds. Next we went to the Animals’ section.

It was amazing to see the tigers, lions, cheetahs, leopards, bears, rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, zebras, antelopes, stages, horses, and rabbits etc. the Deer, Antelopes and Stages were very active and alert. The Hares and Rabbits were naughty while the tall giraffes and twin-coloured zebras were busy eating or grazing. The rhinoceros and Hippopotamuses seemed to be very lazy. But they were interesting to look at with their huge and bulky bodies. We were hypnotized by their massive size. The Tiger, Leopards, Cheetahs, Bears were huge and fearful to look at.

The sharp teeth and claws were very frightening. The king of the jungle was awesome in his den. His loud roar echoed and reverberated up to the skies. We all could watch him for hours together. The best attraction, however, were the Monkeys, Chimpanzees, Baboons, Gorillas etc. They were so amusing with their pranks and swinging tails. We kept on watching them for a long time. Some other spectators gave them groundnuts to eat. We did not want to go ahead and leave the Monkey’s section, as we could never tire from watching them eat and swing from one branch to another.

But, alas, we had to move on. Lastly, we went to the Reptiles’ section. We saw the Crocodiles lying in the sun and a wide variety of Snakes, Cripers and Cobras. Some of them hissed when we knocked at their glass frames and others were coiled up and did not bother to see us. We also saw many kinds of fishes, but they were not many in number. We visited the entire zoo and it took us a few hours to enjoy the vast expanse. Walking around made us feel hungry, so we decided to eat as soon as were to. It took us another half an hour to get out of the zoo.

We enjoyed the lunch and proceed to see other places. The visit was an extremely knowledgeable one. We saw so many birds and animals in real. Until now we had seen them only in books or on television. But when saw them in real for the first time; we realized how wonderful and marvelous, the nature is. We wondered at the vast variety it presents us with and how we city people do not have much time and opportunity to see such marvels. We really enjoyed our visit to the zoo and made up our minds to visit many more such places.

When we returned, we also prepared a file, posted pictures of animals on internet which we saw in the zoo and whose snaps we had taken and wrote the information about the animals As a kid, I always loved going to the zoo. I was fortunate in that when I was little, my family lived within walking distance of the municipal zoo. I was also fortunate in that at the time, it was one of the very best in the USA. These days, I’m an expatriate living with my wife on a subtropical paradise whose main civilian industry is the tourist trade. Okinawa has perhaps one of the best aquariums in the whole world in the Churaumi Aquarium.

In addition to the aquarium, they have several privately owned zoos that have been built for the benefit of the tourism trade as well as a host of petting zoos scattered across the island. They also have one municipally owned and operated zoo that due to a host of reasons has seen better days. The children’s zoo in centrally located Okinawa City is a huge place. In addition to the municipal zoo, the park hosts a children’s interactive learning facility, a huge park with a manmade lake, paddle boats, and an amphitheatre capable of hosting concerts and shows.

Once upon a time, it even had its very own amusement park complete with a Ferris wheel, rollercoaster and a host of thrill rides. Every year on Children’s Day, a national holiday in Japan, they open the doors to the public free of charge. Additionally, every Christmas season, the whole park is decorated appropriate to the holiday season and opened in the evening hours so everyone can enjoy the holiday lights. During these two times of the year, the park actually lives up to its potential. The rest of the year, the park and zoo are dismally disappointing.

Attendance is extremely poor on the weekends and practically non-existent during the rest of the week. During the school summer vacation season, when attendance should be up, it’s not. In part this is due to the oppressive heat and humidity here. Tourists and their families are more often than not, prefer to stay at a luxury resort and enjoy the first class amenities offered right at the hotel. Local people head for the air conditioned comfort of the shopping malls. Even opening the zoo during the evening hours when the temperatures are more agreeable hasn’t helped.

The biggest problem with the Okinawa zoo is that a large part of the facility is rather old and as such, inadequate. Lions and tigers live in tiny cages and are almost invisible. Although the whole park is more than adequate in size, only a tiny portion of the facility is utilized by the zoo. It would be nice to see a greater effort to see the facility updated and expanded with new and spacious facilities for some of the more exotic animals such as those already mentioned. Progress here is slow. On the plus side, the zoo now boasts a facility for some new Asian elephants and the giraffe area is huge.

There is a new reptile house for all the snakes and an air conditioned elevator that makes the zoo, situated on a steep hillside, more accessible for the elderly as well as those who, due to no fault of their own, were previously unable to enjoy the facility. Another plus side is a dedicated staff. We found everyone we encountered on our trip ready, willing and able to assist us. One young lady keeping the animals was especially accommodating. While busy with her tasks, she noticed our cameras and the problems we were having taking pictures through the mesh screens in the bird and bat house.

As we were leaving, she ran after us with a Ryukyu Flying Fox that she raised from a baby. She brought it out of the cages and allowed us to photograph it in a more natural setting. The really great thing about the Okinawa Children’s Zoo is that it is so affordable. Admission for adults is only 500 Yen, about $4. 50 U. S. Children can enter the park for 300 Yen with infants and toddlers being free of charge. For the price of one take out pizza, a family of four can enjoy several hours of quality time together so it’s well worth the price of admission In a crowded city such as Manhattan, it was no wonder that a man like Jerry felt lonely.

He was without a friend, a mother and father, and the typical “wife, two children, and a dog,” that many others had. Jerry was thrown in a world that he felt did not want him, and his human flaw of wanting to escape loneliness led to his tragic death. In Edward Albee’s play, The Zoo Story, all Jerry wanted was to be heard and understood, and in the end, after sharing his life story with a complete stranger, he got his final wish – death. The Zoo Story not only tells of the alienation of man in modern society, but also reflects the philosophy of twentieth century existentialism.

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The Morality of Zoos

The word zoo is a fairly broad term. Zoos are most commonly thought of as an attraction rather than a means for education. More importantly, they are rarely associated with the survival of the human race. While zoos are a form of entertainment for the public and a taxable industry for the government; most of them do in fact research the animals they have in their captivity. This research can be beneficial and life saving for humans and if it were not for this testing, we would not have many key vaccines that we have today. For the sake of this paper the term zoo can be applied to all animals in captivity.

This includes those for entertainment, medical testing, and rehabilitation/protection. Tom Reagan wrote on if zoos are morally defensible, but included all of the previously listed forms of captivity under the title of “zoo”. He argues that zoos are immoral because of rights based principles; however, he fails to see the implications of assuming that animals have equal rights to humans. Although his conclusion is false, it is morally wrong and unnecessary to keep an animal in captivity purely for public amusement and financial gain. Reagan presents two views in proving the immorality of zoos.

First is the utilitarian standpoint which claims that the suffering of animals being in captivity far outweighs the suffering of humans had the animals not been in captivity. The second view is the rights based principle, which is that animals have rights and should not be in captivity. He sides with the latter of the two theories, deciding that the utilitarian view fails to asses all of the components of human suffering without zoos. He claims that animals morally have rights to freedom and respect thus making it immoral for humans to take this away from them.

The real hitch in his theory though, is how he proposes the moral rights of animals. He claims that they have rights because of their awareness to their existence and therefore knowledge of suffering and pleasure. However, although animals are aware, they are not conscious of cause and effect. They don’t see the morality behind suffering, they just instinctually avoid it. To ascertain that they have the same rationalization powers as humans do on deciding if their actions are causing pleasure or pain, is to give their awareness too much credit.

A good paper to prove this point, is Carl Cohen’s Do Animals Have Rights? In it he responds to Regan’s theory that animals have rights. Cohen decides that Regan’s biggest error is associating two different versions of the broadly used term “inherent value” to formulate his conclusion. Regan claims that because animals have inherent value they are moral agents and should not be used in a fashion that makes them less important than humans. However, Cohen says that just because they have inherent value it does not mean they are moral beings.

Surely because they feel pain it is immoral to cause them to suffer needlessly but this does not give them the same rights as humans. Animals live in an amoral world without respect or knowledge of other living thing’s rights. Since they are unaware of morals and rights, it seems absurd to hold them to the same moral standard as humans. It would appear then that when deciding on the moral legitimacy of zoos, it would be correct to separate human rights from the natural laws that animals live by. The natural world is based on survival.

Animals kill other animals to survive and out of instinct. House cats torture their prey before killing it, and bears eat their prey alive. Animals act without the knowledge of other living beings having a right to life because it is not a matter of rationalization for them. They do not see the suffering of other animals as a moral issue because they are incapable of grasping such a concept. Because we as humans do have the ability to rationalize we also have the responsibility to avoid causing harm and suffering to other living things.

However, humans need to survive too, and if it means keeping animals for medical testing then this should not be looked at any differently than a wolf attacking a human so as to not starve. Animals already use other animals as tools for survival; and if this is the case as it is in medical testing, then captivity should be allowed. Same goes for animal rehabilitation and protection from extinction. Although wildlife preserves are more ideal for most animals in this case, even a small enclosure zoo could be in that particular animal’s best interest concerning its health.

Small enclosures and preserves can also give humans lots on insight into the daily routines of animals so as to better protect them from extinction. What is inhumane and immoral however, is using zoos for monetary gain and personal entertainment. Through evolution some animals have become accustomed to human interaction and unnatural surroundings. Those that are not, however, should not be put in captivity for no reason. That’s why we have house pets.

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The Impact the Economy Has on Zoos in the Us

The Impact the Economy has on Zoos in the US Throughout the course of this semester, I have learned much about macroeconomics. I came into this class knowing and understanding very little about this topic and found it very hard to grasp at first. As the weeks passed, I found myself starting to understand it a little better than previously once I started to apply it to a topic that interested me. Being able to choose a topic to write this paper on was a very good way to get students, like myself, to actually look into real life scenarios and apply what we have learned.

This is what I will be doing throughout the course of this paper. The topic I chose to apply the concepts I have learned throughout class is the effect the economy has on zoos in the United States. Zoos have been affected dramatically since our economy has started to decline. This decline has affected many, many companies, businesses, and people. Because of all this the zoos have suffered greatly over the past few years. Many different examples of zoos and how they were affected will be given throughout this paper to show the enormity of the situation they are currently in.

All of the terms I use throughout this paper have been learned from my Macroeconomics book by the authors McConnell, Brue, and Flynn as cited at the end of this paper. Having said this, I am ready to talk about two struggling zoos and what cutbacks they were forced to make. The first zoo I would like to talk about is the Bronx Zoo in New York. This zoo is the largest urban zoo in the country and it has been hit hard by the dropping economy. With New York being such a large city, the state and city budgets have been cut drastically.

This makes the zoo have to cut things out of their budget as well like people, exhibits, and even the animals themselves. The labor force at the zoo has been cut by 15%, this was 186 people who are not out of a job like so many others across the country. Just some more names to add to the unemployment list I guess. The zoo also had to close three of its exhibits. The animals from the exhibits were sent all over the country to others zoos that could afford to take them in (Luhby). Not only do these cuts affect the zoo itself, but it also affects the economy as a whole in New York.

It is estimated that four million visitors come through the gates of the Bronx and the New York Aquarium each year. In the Fiscal year of 2008, the zoo hired 800 seasonal employees and they are the largest youth employers in the Bronx (Wildlife Conservation Society). This provides a very positive impact on the area and now that they had their nominal income lessened, these jobs are no longer available for these people to have. These are just some of the problems the Bronx Zoo is facing, but what about some other zoos? The Lincoln Park Zoo in Illinois has also been suffering with budget shortfalls like Bronx Zoo.

Not only did they face cuts in their labor force and more than a million dollars cut from their budget, but they had to find other ways to make cuts as well (Mullen). They have been using substitute goods for feeding their animals. Blueberries are very expensive so they have not been buying them for their gorillas. They use these blueberries as treats, but since there is a lack of funds they have had to find other treats for them to eat. Choosing less expensive fruit is a small, but effective way to cut costs (Fountain). This is just another way another zoo was affected by the economies current state.

Now that I gave you a few examples of how certain zoos are struggling, I would like to discuss just how they are impacted as a whole. There is an organization called the Association of Zoos and Aquariums or known as AZA. This organization sees over zoos all across the world. AZA hired a very recognized economist, Dr. Stephen Fuller to conduct a state-by-state economic analysis. This 21-page analysis has been used in many articles I have examined he seems to have a very strong grasp on just how the economy has affected these AZA accredited zoos.

Examples of his findings from two different states will be discussed below. An example state was use to show just how much the economy was impacted by the zoos itself. Indiana brought in $84. 3 million for the national Gross Domestic Product alone. This created 947 jobs and allowed personal earnings to reach $30 million (Zoo Impact: Tens of Millions of Dollars, Hundreds of Jobs). Another example was the impact the Houston Zoo had on its’ surrounding area. Fuller said that in 2010, more than 2 million visitors were recorded to enter the gates. The operating budget at this time was around $28. million. I know that sounds like a lot to run a zoo, but in return they created an economic impact of $70. 7 million. Also in 2010, a capital budget of $24. 5 million generated an impact of $65. 9 million. This all totaled to a whopping $135. 97 million (Your Houston News). All this money is just on a state scale. Across the United States, 224 zoos were surveyed and in total they contributed $16 billion dollars to the Gross Domestic Product. That’s right, it is in the billions! It created around 142,000 jobs and their personal earnings were right around $4. billion (Zoo Impact: Tens of Millions of Dollars, Hundreds of Jobs). All of these numbers could increase if they simply had the funds. The economic crisis that we are in right now has caused their budgets to dwindle down and it does not just affect the zoo itself like I have shown. It affects the people whose jobs get cut because there isn’t enough money, animals lose their homes and get shipped away, and it causes zoos to make cutbacks on the food and care the animals are receiving. In whole, all of this affects the surrounding areas of the zoo and all who live there.

This impact then affects the whole United States, impacting the Gross Domestic Product. People just think we can take away money from these zoos to help ourselves out, but in reality it is still hurting us. I’m not only concerned about how it affects us, but the animals are suffering as well. These animals were not asked to be given less food or smaller space to roam, but have to suffer the consequences of us humans not being able to care for them because of the economy. We do not always see how we affect the environment and things around us because we are too worried about ourselves.

So not only did I take away knowing and understanding terms like GDP, Nominal income, and operating costs, but also on how each individual plays an important role in the economy. All of this has allowed me to understand just how we affect zoos because we are the economy. The economy is determined by our spending of money on goods and services and if we didn’t it would collapse completely like we are starting to witness with other countries today. ? Works Cited “Bronx Zoo, New York Aquarium and Other City Cultural Organizations Have Whale-Sized, Positive Impact on New York City Economy – Wildlife Conservation Society. WCS. org – Wildlife Conservation Society. 28 May 2009. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. . Fountain, Henry. “In Zoo Cuts, It’s Man vs. Beast. ” Nytimes. com. 17 Mar. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. . Fuller, Steven S. “The Economic Impact of Spending for Operations and Construction by AZA-Accredited Zoos and Aquariums. ” Aza. com. Mar. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. . “Houston Zoo’s Economic Impact Extends beyond Region, Study Says – Your Houston News: West University. ” Your Houston News: Local Matters. 12 Aug. 2011. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. . Livingston, Guy. “The Economic Impact of The ZOO on the Northwest Florida Regional Economy. Uwf. edu. 15 Mar. 2004. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. . Luhby, Tami. “Zoo Animals Face Budget Knife. ” CNNMoney – Business, Financial and Personal Finance News. 19 May 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. . McConnell, Campbell R. , Stanley L. Brue, and Sean Masaki. Flynn. Macroeconomics: Principles, Problems, and Policies. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2009. Print. Mullen, William. “Lincoln Park Zoo Plans Cuts. ” Chicago Breaking News. 14 Jan. 2009. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. . “Zoo Impact: Tens of Millions of Dollars, Hundreds of Jobs – Newsroom. ” Inside INdiana Business with Gerry Dick. 28 June 2011. Web. 08 Dec. 2011. .

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Zoology Chordata Vertebrates

Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataSubphylum: VertebrataClass: Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)Subclass: Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays)Order: OrectolobiformesFamily: RhincodontidaeGenus: RhincodonSpecies: Rhincodon typus| Integumentary system Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) has the toughest and thickest skin of all the animals in the world. It reaches up to 14 cm of thick; whale shark is pale on the underside and dark gray-brown color with white spots on the top. This can serve as a camouflage looking up or down the sea for shark’s preys (SRI, 2008).

As all the other Chondrichtyes, Whale Shark skin is covered with little cartilaginous tooth-like structures, this are dermal placoid scales arranged to reduce the turbulence of water flowing along the body surface during swimming (Hickman, 2006). Whale shark maintains internal salt concentrations lower than seawater by pumping salt out through rectal glands and kidneys. Sharks retain urea dissolved in their body fluids. They also produce Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) use to protect their proteins from denaturation by urea waste products.

Retention of this organic solutes in their body fluids makes their osmolality slightly hypertonic to sea water (Hickman, 2008) Whale Sharks are ectothermic; this means that their body temperature is similar to the surroundings. They may regulate their body temperature by behavioral mechanism such as spending time in warmer surface water (Thumbs, 2012). Musculo-Skeletal System As mentioned, Whale Shark is an elasmobranch; the skeleton of this animal is made out of cartilage instead of bone. This along with the big liver filled with oil helps the shark to float easier an spend less energy on its movement (SRI, 2008).

They also posses an pelvic fins supported by appendicular skeletons, dorsal fins, a medial caudal fin and a median anal fin. The heterocercal tail in sharks shows that the upturned tail axis tends to produce a thrust directed downwards behind the center of balance of the fish and thus gives a moment turning the head upwards. This is countered in two ways—by the rotation of the tail along its longitudinal axis during each lateral beat, and through the action of the ventral hypochordal lobe.

The shape of the tail and the mode of action of the tail in all sharks so far considered reflects a balance between these three factors, in all of them the net effect being the production of a forward thrust from the tail that passes directly through the center of balance of the fish (Stewart, Keith and Simanek, Dan, 2012). Respiration System Whale Shark possesses 5 pair of gill slits located on the side of their heads (SRI, 2008). Water must continually flow across the gill slits in order for the shark to breath; They do not have gill covers like bony fishes do, so whale shark need to continually swim for constant flow.

When water passes over the gill, a system of very fine blood vessels takes up the oxygen from the water. Digestive System Whale Shark is a filter feeder. As it swims with its mouth open, masses of water filled with prey enter to its mouth consisted of 5 large gill arches. After closing its mouth, shark uses specialized organs called gill rakers to filter the nourishment from the water. Basically anything that does not pass trough the gills is eaten. (SRI, 2008). Preys may include plankton, krill, small fish and even squid. This shark can process over 6000 liters of water each our.

Urinary System Urea and trimethylamine (TMAO) in their blood and tissues help to maintain their osmotic balance. They are without the usual urinary tract, so they concentrate urea in their blood and excrete it through their skin (Hickman, 2006). Reproductive System According to the Shark research institute, Reproduction behavior is uncertain. In their article “Whale Shark FAQ” they state; “Only one pregnant female shark has ever been exanimated by scientist Dr. Jennifer V. Schmidt, Director of SRI genetics Program” (12). The only pregnant female caught ontained in her tween uterus 307 embryo’s measuring between 42 and 63 cm in length, 15 where fully- developed and ready to born. Having this information whale sharks where found to fall into the classification of ovoviviparous. This information also suggests that Whale Sharks could be one of the most productive live bearing shark species. But it remains unknown why their population is small. Sexual maturity in whale sharks may occur until they reach about 9 meters long which is about 30 years old. Whale sharks live for about 70 to 800 years. (SRI, 2009) Bullfrog (Rana castabeiana) Kingdom: Animal

Phylum: Chordate Class: Amphibians Order: Salientia Family: Ranidae Genus: Rana Species: Rana catesbeiana (Bullfrog) Integumentary system Frog skin is thin and loosely attached to some of the muscles in the body. It is composed the skin is known to be permeable, which means that let the water pass in and out through the skin membrane. Bullfrog’s skin is periodically shed as other frogs and toads do. The epidermis of the Bullfrog contains two types of glands: mucous glands, which help to protect the frog from dehydration and a large serous of glands that produce watery, poison material (Hickman, 2006).

Musculo-skeletal system As many other amphibians bullfrogs live mainly in fresh water, but they can also migrate to other pounds lakes or reservoirs specially when is rainy or hummed. Bullfrogs have a well-developed endoskeleton made out principle of bone and some cartilage; this provides support for muscular movements (Hickman 2006). Bullfrog tent to develop strong and big muscles used for locomotion outside or inside the water. Bullfrogs as most of the other frogs and toads, are faced with an unusual locomotory challenge. They have to swim and jump using primary the hind limbs.

The foot possess five rays and hand posses fore rays. Hind limbs and fore limbs posses a web-like structure to help frog locomotion also in water (Nauwalaerts, Sandra et al, 2007). Respiratory system Bullfrogs as many other amphibians use three respiratory surfaces for gas exchange: skin, mouth, and lungs. In bullfrogs lungs are present in adults (Hickman, 2006). On land Bullfrogs breath with their mouths closed. Bullfrogs present a positive lung pressure for breathing (Heckman, 2007). Their throat movements pull air through the nostrils to the lungs. Then breathe out with body contractions.

Bullfrogs can also respire under the water through the skin using a process called cutaneous gas exchange. They use their skin for oxygen/carbon dioxide exchange (Stinner N, Jerry, and Shoemaker, H. Vaughan, 1987) Digestive system Bullfrogs are voracious eaters, and will eat just about any animal they can swallow. These include: insects, crayfish, worms, minnows, other frogs (even Bullfrogs), small turtles, snakes, baby birds, and small mammals. They are most active at night. The frog digestive system, like most other digestive systems, starts in the mouth.

Prey, which is sometimes caught by the frog’s sticky tongue, is diced by tooth-like structures in the mouth. The food then moves down through the esophagus, into the stomach, where, much like in the shark, the food is softened, broken down somewhat, and stored. From the stomach, food moves into the small intestine, where the most of the chemical digestion (i. e. the pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, the liver secretes bile, etc. ) and nutrient absorption take place. One special attribute of the frog small intestine is that it has villi, small projections that greatly ncrease the surface area of the small intestine, allowing more nutrient absorption. Urinary system The urinary system of Bullfrogs as most of the frogs is the organ system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. The kidney excretes and re-absorbs electrolytes (e. g. sodium, potassium and calcium) under the influence of local and systemic hormones. pH balance is regulated by the excretion of bound acids and ammonium ions. Reproductive system Bullfrog’s are known to be oviparous and breeding occurs in permanent bodies of water that typically contain thick grows of algae and rooted aquatic plants.

Breeding pools usually are rich in aquatic animal life and have a soft mud bottom (Hammerson, Geoffrey A, 1999). They initiate amplexus by making physical contact with an adult male. Amplexus and oviposition generally last from 15 min to 2. 5 hours and occur about midnight. Bullfrogs have found to mate and lay eggs in areas outside the sites defended by calling males. (Hammerson, Geoffrey A, 1999). Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines (turtles and tortoises)? Family: Cheloniidae (true sea turtles)? Genus: Chelonia?

Species: Chelonia mydas Integumentary System Green sea turtles, as all the turtle’s species have evolved a bony outer shell, which protects them from predators. This shell covers both dorsal and ventral surfaces and it is consider the most highly developed protective armor of any vertebrate species to have ever lived. (Green Sea Turtles, 2001). The dorsal portion of the shell is known as carapace and it is covered with a large scale-like structures called scutes. The ventral portion of the shell is known as the plastron. This two structures are connected by hard shelled plates called lateral bridges.

A difference of land turtles and tortoises, sea turtles are not able to retract their heads into their shells, and they heads remain out at all times (Green sea turtles, 2001) Green Sea turtles are ectothermic animals, which means that they regulate their internal temperature from their environment, this also explains why this turtles live in warm temperatures. Chelonia mydas maintain homeostasis using a specialized gland called salt gland; it helps them controlling their internal environment and it is located just behind each eye. Using this gland they excrete the excess of salt levels in blood in forms of “tears”. “Green Sea Turtles,” 2001). Musculo-skeletal system The skeleton is composed of bones and cartilages. Typically, it is divided into 3 main parts: the skull, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton in sea turtles, each of these bony groups is a composite of several structures. The skull includes the braincase, jaws, and hyoid apparatus the axial skeleton is composed of the carapace, vertebrae, and ribs and the derivatives of the ribs. The plastron is a composite including derivatives of the axial and appendicular skeleton (ventral ribs plus shoulder elements).

The appendicular skeleton includes the flippers, hind limbs, and their supporting structures (the pectoral and pelvic girdles). (Wyneken, 2001. ) Sea turtles are interesting because they have very highly evolved flippers to help them propel through the water. In addition to being able to propel themselves through the water, the sea turtles use their flippers to climb up steep, rocky shores and can use their flippers to evade all sorts of different predators of the sea turtles. While sea turtles all have the same basic anatomy, there are some things that set some species of sea urtles apart from other sea turtles. For example, Green sea turtles have prefrontal scales on the head, a differing number of scutes on the carapace, and the type of inframarginal scutes that appear on the pastron. (Wtbeken, 2001. ) Respiratory system The sea turtle requires a respiratory system that is able to support it through diverse depths and distances. Due to sea turtles’s excessive breath-hold, the respiratory system must be able to compensate for time elapsed without exhalation. When exhalation does occur, it is brief. The main component that bears the respiratory weight is essentially the lung.

The lung, “functions as the major oxygen store and can supply sufficient oxygen for most routine dives (up to 20 mins) to be aerobic” (Lutz, 1985). Moreover, the lung almost carries the complete load of respiration in the sea turtle. “The respiratory properties of sea turtle blood are particularly well suited to lung-tissue transport during routine brethhold periods, surviving prolonged dives of at least three hours by having a high anaerobic capacity” (Lutz, 1985). A difference of the amphibians, turtles posses a negative lung preassure. Digestive system

Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, get their name from the color of their body fat, which is green from the algae or limu they eat. Adult green sea turtles are herbivores, meaning that they eat only plants, and therefore do not pose a threat to any other marine animals. Juvenile green sea turtles on the other hand are carnivorous. Their diet consists of jellyfish and other invertebrates (Green sea turtles, 2001). Although the carapaces of green sea turtles are mostly dark brown in color, they can be covered with patches of algae on which fishes in turn feed (Green sea turtles, 2001).

This particular relationship of the fish eating algae off the turtle’s shell would be considered a form of mutualism. Urinary System The excretory system of the turtle is responsible for removing harmful wastes from the turtle’s body and blood. The kidney of the turtle performs the blood filtering process and the wastes are then sent to the bladder as urine. In sea turtles the kidneys are also aided by the salt gland to get rid of the excess salt in the sea water (Green Sea Turtles, 2001). The bladder is the storage place of the urine. From the bladder the urine goes to the cloaca, which is where urine leaves the body.

The cloaca is also used to take in oxygen and other nutrients in sea turtles when they reach critical levels. Reproductive System Although green sea turtles live most of their lives in the ocean, adult females must return to land in order to lay their eggs. Biologists believe that nesting female turtles return to the same beach where they were born. Hawaii’s green sea turtles migrate as far as 800 miles from their feeding areas along the coasts of the main Hawaiian islands to their nesting beaches in the Northwestern Hawaiian islands (Green Sea Turtles, 2001).

Males accompany the females during the migration, which usually occurs in the late spring, and mate with them off the shores of the nesting beaches. Females do not mate every year, but when they do, they come ashore often- as many as five times every 15 days to make nests in the sand and lay eggs. Green sea turtles nest only at night. The female must pull herself out of the water and all the way to the dry sand of the upper beach using only her front flippers. This is a difficult task as her front limbs have been modified into highly effective swimming flippers, and do not support the bulk of her weight in the sand.

After placing the eggs female basically has completed her parenting job, then she returns to the sea leaving her young’s to fend for them-selves. Unfortunately, not all of the hatchlings reach the ocean. Many are snatched up by hungry crabs and other predators along the way or become lost and die. In addition, some are eaten by sharks and other carnivorous fishes while at sea. Only a few baby turtles from each nest will survive into adulthood. Jaguar (Panthera Onca) Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata SubPhylum: Vertebrata Class: Mamalia Subclass: Theria Infraclass: Eutheria

Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Pantherinae Genus: Panthera Species: Panthera onca Integumentary system Mammal’s bodies are covered by hairs, tegumentary features that contribute to the regulation of body temperature. In the skin there are a quantity of sweat glands and sebaceous or oil glands that help to keep the skin in good health by lubricating it and eliminating toxic byproducts through the sweat. In addition to this elimination function, the sweat contributes to thermo-regulation, cooling the surface through evaporation.

In addition to hairs, the skin grows other structures, such as nails, claws or hooves as well as the horns and callous foot pads of certain mammals.?? Heterodontia is characteristic of mammals, that is to say that they have teeth of different structure, as opposed to homodontia, in which all the teeth are alike. Musculo-skeletal system The Jaguar is a large and muscular animal that has a heavier and sturdier body than that of a Leopard. They have a large, broad head with jaws so strong that they are said to have the most powerful bite of all the world’s Cats. Jaguar, 2008). They are also fast runners, but they get tired quickly. They can also climb very well and are good swimmers. (Felines, 2002) The jaguar’s skeleton is not so different from the human skeleton. Jaguars have more bones and many are identical to those in the human being. They have have 13 ribs; humans have 12. They also do have clavicles but unlike humans, they are not attached to other bones. The outside of a bone, the cortex, is composed of minerals and protein and gives the bone its rigidity. Inside the bone is the marrow cavity that produces red blood cells.

Jaguar’s muscles are tough and well-coordinated and help to make the animal an agile hunter. Basically, jaguar’s muscles are designed for walking, running, leaping, and twisting. Their muscular control and skeletal flexibility enable it to right its body during a fall with incredible speed—a trick that is unique to the family felidae. Respiratory System The respiratory system functions primarily to transfer oxygen from the air to the blood and to remove carbon dioxide from the blood and carry it out of the body into the air. Oxygen is vital to the body’s maintenance.

Carbon dioxide is a waste product of the maintenance process. Jaguar breathes in air through its nose and mouth. The nose and mouth join to form the pharynx. The trachea is a tube that extends from the pharynx to the lungs. The epiglottis covers the trachea when swallowing occurs to prevent food and water from entering the lungs. At the lungs the trachea branches into smaller tubes called bronchi or bronchial tubes. The bronchi divide into smaller and smaller bronchioles until they become dead end sacs called alveoli. It is in the alveoli where the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur.

Digestive system The jaguar is a carnivore. It hunts mostly at night. Its prey includes capybara, peccaries, deer, large ground birds, fish, snakes, turtles and rabbits. It will also eat livestock like horses, cows and sheep. The jaguar hunts mostly on the ground, but it sometimes climbs a tree and pounces on its prey from above. The jaguar has very powerful jaws and sharp teeth and usually kills its prey with one crushing bite to the skull. ( Jaguar, 2008) Jaguar’s digestive system is comprised of the alimentary canal and accessory glands.

The alimentary canal consists of the lips, mouth, teeth, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. The accessory glands are the liver, pancreas, and the salivary glands. All the organs work to process the food a cat eats. The intestines work to extract and absorb the nutrients and eliminate the wastes. (Foss, A. Michael, et al, 2008) Urinary System The important organs of the cat’s urinary system are the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys are located on either side of the body in the lumbar region (between ribs and pelvis).

Blood is filtered through the kidneys and the liquid waste product is called urine. Urine is passed through the ureters to the bladder where it is stored. The urine is then discharged through the urethra, a tube connecting the bladder to the exterior of the body. (Foss, A. Michael, et al, 2008) Reproductive system Despite the fact that most Jaguar cubs are generally born between the months of December and March, it is not uncommon for them to be born at other times of the year. During the mating season, the female Jaguar will use loud vocal calls to attract a male into her territory. Female Jaguars typically give birth to two or three cubs.

Once their cubs are born however, the female Jaguar will not tolerate the male in her territory as she becomes very protective of her young at this stage. Jaguar cubs are born blind and gain their sight after about two weeks. They are weaned by their mother when they are around 3 months old, although the cubs will rely on their mother to hunt and provide for them until they are about 6 months old. At 6 months, the Jaguar cubs will then start to accompany the female jaguar on hunts but will not venture out on their own until they are one or two years old and have established a territory for themselves. Jaguar, 2008) Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) Kingdon: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Psittaciformes Family: Pisttacinae Genus: Ara Lacepede, 1799 Species: Ara macao Subspecies: Ara macao cyanopterus Integumentary system Scarlet macaws are brightly colored birds with feathers ranging in color bands from scarlet on their head and shoulders, to yellow on their back and mid wing feathers and blue on the wing tips and tail feathers. The face has short white feathers. This area surrounds the light yellow colored eyes. The long, thick beak is light on the top and dark black on the bottom.

The legs and feet are also black (David, 2003) Birds are endothermal, or warm-blooded. That means they have an internal furnace, fueled by food, that generates heat and allows them to keep their bodies at a constant temperature, even though the temperature of their environment changes. Birds are also able to regulate their body temperature by conserving or losing heat through a variety of ways -— feathers help retain heat, while panting helps get rid of heat. (Bird Life, 2008) Musculo-skeletal system Macaws are the largest parrots in the world — the body of the scarlet macaw from beak to tail can be as long as 33 inches.

This beautiful macaw has a creamy white, almost featherless face, with bright red plumage covering most of its body, wings and long tail. Brilliant blue and yellow feathers also adorn the lower wings. The bird’s strong beak is adapted to breaking hard nuts found in the rainforest. (David, 2003) Respiratory system The high metabolism and athletic life-style of birds require a great deal of oxygen. Four organs work together to carry oxygen to the cells: nostrils, trachea, lungs, and air sacs. With each breath, air moves through the nostrils, down the trachea and into the lungs and air sacs. From the lungs, xygen passes into the bloodstream and then to the body cells. The air that passes into the air sacs cools the internal organs and helps maintain body temperature. Nearly all of the air in the lungs is replaced with each breath. When flying, birds require ten to twenty times more oxygen than at rest. To supply the extra oxygen, birds increase their breathing rates. (Bird Life, 2008) Digestive system Wild Scarlet Macaws mostly eat fruits and seeds, including large, hard seeds. Like other parrots, they are seed predators, they destroy the seeds that they eat and do not disperse them. Some macaws are sometimes seen eating clay from river banks. Bird Life, 2008 Since birds have no teeth, the digestive system must grind up food so that the energy stored in it can be used. A hollow digestive tube extends from the mouth through the entire length of the body to an external opening called the cloaca. The tube is divided into the throat (pharynx), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Urinary system The urinary system of birds is different from mammals, as birds produce both urine and urates. The kidneys possess two different types of nephrons, the units that filter the blood to remove toxins and products of metabolism.

Birds cannot concentrate their urine as well as mammals can. Birds also are uricotelic, meaning that they excrete the end product of nitrogen metabolism as uric acid, which is made in the liver and they excreted from the blood. Uric acid is the creamy white portion of the dropping. Urine is the clear portion. The feces constitute the third portion of a dropping, and this consists of the solid portion, usually brown or green, depending on what the bird has been eating. A bird is able to urinate independently of defecating, or passing feces, but most of the time, the bird will pass urine, urates and feces at the same time. Bird Life 2008) Reproductive system Like most parrots, the female Scarlet Macaw lays 2 to 4 white eggs in a tree cavity. The young hatch after 24 to 25 days. They fledge about 105 days later and leave their parents a year later. (bird life, 2008) The scarlet macaw protects its baby by staying in the nest with the baby or babies and being aware of any type of danger. It pinches predators with its beak and screams noises for help when a predator wants to eat the baby and/ or female. The female stays with the baby 1-2 years. It stays most of the day and the male fetch food for the baby or babies. Brightsmith, 2004) Works cited Shark Research Institute. Whale Shark FAQ. Dlvingdog productions Inc. Nov 2006. Shark Research Institute. November 7, 2012. (Greey Literature) Thums, Michele. “Why Whale Sharks Need to Swim Near the Surface”. PHYS. ORG. Benson Jhon, October 19, 2012. Web. November 7, 2012. (Gray literature) Stewart, Keith and Simanek, Dan. “Body Form and Locomotion in Sharks”. Integrative and Comparative Biology Vol 17. 2 (2012): 343-354. Print (Scientific Journal) Roberts, Hickman, et al. Integrated Principles of Zoology. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2006.

Print Hammerson, Geoffrey A. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado, A Colorado Field Guide. Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 1999. Print Nauwalaerts, Sandra et al. “Morphological correlates of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in semi-aquatic frog”. Journal of Anatomy. Vol. 210. 3 (2007): 304-317. Print. (Journal) Stinner N, Jerry, and Shoemaker, H. Vaughan. “Cutaneous gas exchange and low evaporative water loss in the frogs”. Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology. Vol 157. 4 (1987): 423-427.

Print. (journal) Earthtrust. 2001. Green sea turtles. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from website: http://earthrust. org/wlcurruc/turtles. html Wyneken, J. 2001. The Anatomy of Sea Turtles. U. S. Department of Commerce NOAA Thechnical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-470, 1-172. Print Lutz, P. L. and T. B. Bentley. 1985. Respiratory Physiology of Diving in the Sea Turtle. Copeia. 3: 671-679 “Felines”. UXL Encyclopedia of Science. 2002. Encyclopedia. com. 10 November, 2012 Jaguar. OpenCrypt membership software. 2008. Web. November 9, 2012. Foss, A. Michael, et al. Cat Anatomy and Physiology”. 4-H Youth Development. 4. 3. (2008) :210-267. Print Jukofsky, Diane. Encyclopedia of Rainforests. Connecticut: Oryx Press, 2002. Alderton, David (2003). The ultimate encyclopedia of caged and aviary birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 234. BirdLife International 2008. Ara macao. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009. 1. <www. iucnredlist. org>. Brightsmith, D. 2004. “Macaws, their Nesting Sites and the Macaw Project” (On-line). Rainforest Expeditions. at http://www. perunature. com/info01. asp.

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