Chapter 20: Development Experience Of India Pakistan And China- A Comparative Study Learning Objectives: INTRODUCTION : *China *Pakistan COMPARITIVE STUDY: INDIA, CHINA AND PAKISTAN • Demographic Indicators • Growth Indicators • Human development Indicators. • Appraisal of Development Strategies ( China and Pakistan ) Q1. Compare between India, China,& Pakistan in terms of GDP growthrate. Ans: After the Independence in 1947, India & Pakistan adopted planned development programmes which relied on public sector to spearhead the process of growth and development. China adopted more rigorous model of growth in 1949 and it decided to bring all critical areas of production activity under government control. • The great leap forward (GLF) campaign was launched in 1958, focusing on widespread Industrialization of the Economy. People were encouraged to launch household Industry in the country yards. • China adopted Commune system of agricultural production which was a system of collective cultivation. • Great Proletarian Cultural revolution launched in 1065 and making it mandatory for the students and professionals to go to the country side to work and learn from the countryside. Chinas Export driven manufacturing is the key parameter of its success story in economic growth. • Till about 1980, the economies of India, china, & Pakistan did not show much divergence in the GDP growth rate and it was around 4% annually. • It was around early 1980s in China, mid 80’s in Pakistan, 90’s in India that the breakthrough in GDP Growth rate was recorded. • In 2005, India & Pakistan both recorded GDP growth of 6 to 8 percent, where as china recorded GDP growth of about 10% per annum. 2.
Compare the structure of growth between India, China, and Pakistan. % Share in GDP % share in employment India Pakistan China India Pakistan China Primary 23 23 15 60 49 54 Secondary 26 23 53 16 18 27 Tertiary 51 54 32 24 33 19 China has succeeded in placing greater reliance on Industrial sector compared to India &Pakistan. It is due to (i) GLF , a campaign launched in China in 1958 focusing on widespread Industrialization of the Country . (ii) Policy of reforms and opening up launched in 1978 which gave big push to china’s manufacturing exports.
Page | 74 Sector Q4. What is the important implication of the one child norm in China? Ans : One child norm in China has successfully reduced the growth rate of population . • After few decades in china there will be more elderly people in proportion to young people. • This will force China to take steps to provide social security measures with fewer workers. Q5. Compare the Demographic profile of India, China, and Pakistan. Ans: One child policy in china adopted since 1979 has reduced the growth rate of population from 1. 3 percent in 1979 to0. 64% in 2005. (i) Growth rate of Population Country Growth rate of Population 0. 64 China 1. 33 India 2. 5 Pakistan Fertility rate is also very low in china as Compared to India & Pakistan. ii)Low Density of Population Country Person per square kilometer China 138 India 358 Pakistan 193 iii) Urbanization Country % of Population China 36% India 28% Pakistan 34% iv) Sex ratio Country Female per 1000 male China 937 India 933 Pakistan 922 Q6. Compare between the parameter of Human development. Ans.
Human development i)HDI Ranking Country Ranking in the world China 81 India 128 Pakistan 136 ii) INFANT MORTALITY RATE Country Per thousand China 30 India 63 Pakistan 81 iii) Maternal Mortality Rate Country Per Lack China 56 Page | 75 India Pakistan iv) Improved Sanitation Country China India Pakistan v) Safe Drinking Water facility Country China India China vi) Below Poverty Line Country China India Pakistan 540 500 Of Population 44% 30% 54% Of Population 77% 86% 77% Of Population 16. 6% 21. 8% 13. 4% Q7. Mention the common success story of India &Pakistan.
Ans; i) A substantial rise in GDP per capita. ii) Self-sufficiency in food production. iii) Dualistic nature of the economy is gradually declining. iv) Considerable increase in the incidence of poverty. Q8. Mention the common failures of India and Pakistan. Ans. I) Relatively slow pace of GDP growth rate as Compared to China. 2) Poor performance in HDI ranking. 3) Poor fiscal management. 4) Lack of political interest for social prosperity. Q 9. Mention the areas where India has an edge over Pakistan. Ans. i) Skilled manpower ii) Investment in Education. ii) Health facilities. Q10. Mention the areas where Pakistan has an edge over India. Ans: 1) Urbanization 2) Less percentage of population below poverty line. 3) More percentage of population having access to improved water sources. Q11. Mention the areas where China has an edge over India. Ans. 1) China has successfully focused on Pro-poor reforms. 2) Agrarian reforms have been effectively carried out. 3) Export driven manufacturing has significantly grown, adding to the pace of GDP growth. 4) SEZ policy has proved to be a boon for FDI flow in India. Page | 76