Texas History Exam 1

Midland Minnie
The “first mother of Texas”
Found her bones on Scharbauer Ranch near Midland
37,000 years old
Atl-atl
A device used for hunting
Paleo-Indian’s solution for the bow and arrow
Agricultural Revolution
100 B.C. to 800 A.D.
Shift from the culture of hunting and gathering to farming
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American Triad/Three Sisters
Corn or maize, beans and squash
Crops all native to America that women domesticated
Growers planted all three seeds in one mound
Caddo location, beliefs and lifestyle
East Texas and Louisiana
Hasinai were most significant tribe
Built temples on top of mounds- believed in one god or great spirit who created the world called Caddi-Ayo and in a devil called Caddaja. They worshipped corn, Mother Earth, rain and fire
Politics: Hereditary chief, caddi- xinesi= high chief
By 1100 AD, they started declining and by 1300AD disappeared altogether
Karankawa location, beliefs and lifestyle
Galveston Bay to Corpus Christi Bay
Athletic; painted and tattooed their bodies
Raised and domesticated dogs
Nomadic; Hunters and gatherers- ritual cannibalism
Lived in small bands
Declined after the Spaniards arrived
Coahuiltecan location, beliefs and lifestyle
Lived south of the Karankawa
Traveled wider than the Karankawa
Finding food was their main problem
All in the band were related; they functioned as equals with no social classes; the people remained with the group as long as they did not hurt their relatives/neighbors
Declined after the Spaniards arrived
Jumano location, beliefs and lifestyle
New Mexico, Mexico and West Texas
Lived on farms- corn, squash, beans and pumpkins
Relied heavily on buffalo
Part of a vast trade network
Declined in the 1600s and disappeared by the 1700s
Plains Indian use of the buffalo
They returned the buffalo to the ground via a sun dance
Álvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
A fourth survivor of the Narvaez expedition
Shipwrecked then captured by a tribe
Escaped and traveled two years across Texas
Marcos de Niza
Esteván
First black to see Texas
Learned the native’s sign language to communicate with them
Became a celebrity in Mexico City
Francisco de Coronado
Led a Spanish expedition in the early 1540s to the Seven Cities of Cibola
Realized that the buildings weren’t gold but adobe
Made the Indians convert to Catholicism
Sieur de La Salle
First Frenchman to go into the interior of the US
Claimed the MS river valley for France- named Louisiana
Challenged Spain’s rule of the land
Ship got wrecked and he didn’t make it very far
Father Massenet
French Catholic missionary
Established the San Francisco de los Tejas
Failed because of the Spanish mistreatment of the Indians
Establishment of San Antonio and La Bahía
Spanish founded San Antonio so that its commander could watch over New Spain’s efforts of East Texas
La Bahia was founded by Spaniard Domingo Ramon
St. Denís
Canadian trader who was sent to Texas by the French to open trade with the Caddo tribes
Spanish authorities arrested him
Said that the French and Spanish could work together and they founded four new missions
Peninsulares, creoles, and mestizos
Peninsulares- Spanish people born in Spain
Creoles- Spanish people born in America
Mestizos- people with both Spanish and Indian blood
Ranching
Most of the colonists brought livestock with them
The first ranchers were missionaries who received grants from the King who just supervised Native Americans
Then private ranches–> then cattle drives
By the 1780s mission ranches declined and private ranches started ascending
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Hidalgo began to unite the creoles, mestizos and Indians against the peninsulares because they formed a large land-holding aristocracy that dominated all politics and economics
Fought against the Spanish government and was executed on July 30, 1811
Augustín de Iturbide
Organized an army to overthrow Spanish rule
Became the first ruler of Mexico
Gutierrez-Magee Expedition
1811
Joint Mexican-US filibustering expedition against Spanish Texas during the early years of the Mexican War of Independence.
James Long
From Virginia
Led a filibustering expedition related to the western boundary of the LA territory
Adams-Onis Treaty Line
Western boundary of the Louisiana Territory that excluded Texas
Federalists
Favored a republic where states have more power than the federal government
Centralists
Traditional monarchy
Included the aristocracy, military and church leaders

Had a tight hold on political power

Moses Austin
Founder of the lead industry in America
Wanted to bring 300 Catholic settlers to Texas
Died before he assumed the land
Stephen Austin
Got the land in Texas after his father’s death
Had to go to Mexico City to negotiate the land grant
Guadalupe Victoria
First president of the Republic of Mexico
He joined Father Hidalgo’s revolt in 1811
Ruled under republic ideals- giving the people much freedom
Texas Colonization Law
Both Americans and Mexicans could immigrate to Texas
Settlers received a league of pasture and a labor for cultivation- exempt from taxes
Expected to enrich the country by having successful farms and ranches
Empresarios
Immigration agents
Green De Witt
From Kentucky and was given a grant like Austin’s in 1825 to bring 400 families to Texas
Brought 130+ families to Texas by 1831
Haden Edwards
From Virginia- southern planter aristocracy
Got a contract in 1825 for 800 families in eastern Texas with Nacogdoches being the main urban center
He showed contempt for Mexican law and his land grant was annulled in 1826
Republic of Fredonia/Fredonian Rebellion
Edwards, when he lost his grant, declared independence from Mexico
Nacogdoches was his headquarters
The revolutionaries fled when the Mexicans reached Nacogdoches in 1827
Some say this was a precursor to the Texas Rev.
Law of April 6, 1830
Mexican law that declared all empresario contracts that had not been fulfilled void to stop further immigration from the US
John D. Bradburn
Anglo serving in the Mexican army
His job was to assist with collections of customs, to establish a town and a garrison, to prevent smuggling on the Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers, to prevent illegal immigration from the US in accord with the new immigration law
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Federalist president of Mexico trying to oust the Centralist government in Mexico city
Turned on Iturbide and called for a republic in 1822
Valentín Gómez Farías
Major ethnic groups in Mexican Texas
Anglos (Americans), Black Americans, Native Americans (Plains Indians lasted the longest/Caddos the shortest), Hispanics
Causes of the Revolution
Santa Anna’s coup
Texan contempt for Mexican and political and social systems- refused to adopt Catholicism, supported slavery
Ethnocentrism
Character of the rebel army
Small, weak, lack of unified leadership, disorganized,
Battle of Gonzales
1835
The people of Gonzales were ordered to surrender a small cannon to Mexico
First battle of the war
“come and take it”
Martín Perfecto de Cos
Mexican general who wanted to punish the rebels
Marched to La Bahia (Golaid) and occupied it before going to San Antonio
Texan siege of San Antonio
Oct 28, 1835
Texian forces led by Stephen F. Austin advanced to San Antonio where General Cos was
90 Texans led by Jim Bowie and James Fannin fought
Cos lead a surprise attack on the Texans but The Texans drove off the Mexicans
Began the siege of Bexar
James C. Neill
Hero at the battle of San Antonio who became the Alamo’s commander.
Realized the significance of the Alamo as the only fort between Santa Anna and eastern Texas. He worked considerably hard to build the Alamo’s defense by requesting more men, which brought William B. Travis, Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie to the mission in San Antonio.
From North Carolina
William B. Travis
A Lieutenant Colonel in the Texas army who took command of the Alamo after Neill’s leave of absence. Shared command of the Alamo with James Bowie until he fell ill and Travis led the over 180 volunteers and army men through Santa Anna’s attack on the Alamo.
Gave Sam Houston time to organize his army
“Victory or death”
Jim Bowie
American solider who played a huge part in the defense of the Alamo
Santa Anna’s siege of the Alamo
Texans were vastly outnumbered
Santa Anna won
1800 Mexican troops storm the Alamo and kill all rebel
combatants in a battle that lasts only ninety minutes. A handful of women, children and slaves are the only survivors.
Convention of 1836
44 delegates attended the first day with 59 delegates total
At Washington-on-the-Brazos
Wrote the Constitution of the Republic of Texas and declared independence from Mexico
James Fannin
A Colonel during the Texas Revolution of 1835-36.
After being outnumbered and surrendering to Mexican forces at the Battle of Coleto Creek, Colonel Fannin and nearly all his 344 men were executed soon afterward at Goliad, Texas, under Santa Anna’s orders for all rebels to be executed.
Battle of Coleto Creek/Goliad Massacre
Ordered by Sam Houston to retreat from Goliad, Col. James W. Fannin and his men are trapped by Mexican forces in the middle of a prairie near Coleto Creek. Outnumbered and with no protection, the Texians
surrender to General Urrea.
Mar 27, 1836
Mexican soldiers execute James Fannin and 344 of his men near Goliad. Twenty-eight Texians escape and tell of the Goliad Massacre
Runaway Scrape
Early 1836
Began with the Siege and Fall of the Alamo and ending with the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21.
It was a period of terror and panic among the settlements of Texas, as Santa Anna and the Mexican armies swept eastward from San Antonio, virtually unopposed.
Sam Houston
Elected general of the Texas army
Won the Battle of San Jacinto
President of Texas twice
Battle of San Jacinto
The battle that won the Texas Revolution in April of 1836.
The city of Cincinnati gave General Houston two cannons, which represented the United States support of the Texan’s efforts. Santa Anna’s line of defense buckled and the entire battle was won in 18 minutes.
Treaties of Velasco
May 1836
Two different components: one public, one private
Agreed that fighting would stop, troops would be withdrawn, Mexico would not wage war of Texas again
Santa Anna would recognize Texas as a sovereign nation
Treaty was violated on both sides and nullified
The Republic’s major problems
Financial stability- the war left Texas with no money at all
Foreign diplomacy- no nations would recognize Texas as sovereign
Held Santa Anna captive for a while until they returned him to Mexico via President Andrew Jackson
Houston’s 1st administration: land policy
Houston’s 1st administration: diplomacy
Houston’s 1st administration: fiscal policy
Houston’s 1st administration: defense and Indian policy
Lamar’s administration: movement of the capital, public education, foreign policy, the Santa Fe Expedition, Indian policy, Chief Duwali, Council House Fight
Houston’s 2nd Administration: Vasquez and Woll Raids, Mier Expedition, the Black Bean Episode
Anson Jones and the annexation of Texas

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