TExES History 7-12

TExES History 7-12

1529
Spanish explorer Alonso Alvarez de Pineda maps Texas Coast
1528-34
Alvar Nunez Cabez de Vaca explores Texas for trade
1685
LaSalle established Ft. St. Louis @ Matagorda Bay, providing the basis of French claim to Texas territory
1688
The French colony is massacred
1689
The French continue to claim Texas but no longer physically occupies any part of the territory
1690
Alonso de Leon established Catholic missions throughout Texas
1762
The French give up their claims to Texas and cede Louisiana to Spain until 1800
1800
Much of north Texas is returned to France and later sold to the U.S. in the Louisiana Purchase
1823
Stephen F. Austin begins a colony known as the Old Three Hundred along the Brazos River
1832
Battle of Velasco-first casualties of Texas Revolution
1832-33
“The Conventions” responded to unrest over the Policies of the Mexican government
1835
The Texas Revolution officially began in an effort to obtain freedom from Mexico
1836
The “Convention of 1836” signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. The Battle of the Alamo. Santa Anna executed nearly 400 Texans @ the Massacre @ Goliad. Sam Houston leads an army of 800 to victory by capturing the entire Mexican army @ the Battle of San Jacinto. The Treaty of Velasco is signed by Santa Anna and Republic of Texas officials
1837
Sam Houston moves the capital of Texas five times ending in Houston
1839
Austin becomes the capital of the Republic of Texas
1842
Mexican forces twice capture San Antonio and retreat
1845
Texas admitted to the Union as a state
1850
The Compromise of 1850 adjusts the state boundary assumes Texas’ debt
1861
Texas secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy
1865
Union troops landed in Galveston and put the Emancipation Proclamation into effect in Texas ending slavery
1870
Texas is readmitted to the Union
1900
Galveston is destroyed and 8000 people are killed by a category 4 hurricane
1901
The Lucas Gusher comes in: starting the Texas oil boom
1607
Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement
1787
The Constitution was written
1803
Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territory from France
1861-1865
The Civil War
Lexington, Massachusetts
The first shots of the American Revolution were fired in April 1775
Concord, Massachusetts
The site of the first battle of the American Revolution
Battle of Saratoga
The turning point of the American Revolution
Yorktown, Virginia
The British were defeated by George Washington’s troops and signaled the end of the American Revolution.
Fort Sumter
The first shots of the Civil War were fired here
Battle of Gettysburg
The turning point in the Civil War for the North. Confederate troops were forced to retreat and never invaded the North again.
Vicksburg, Mississippi
Captured by the North in 1863, effectively split the Confederacy in two and gave control of the Mississippi River to the Union.
Appomattox Court House
The small town in Virginia where Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Ulysses S. Grant ending the Civil War.
Mercantilism
An economic theory that a country’s strength is measured by the amount of gold it has, that a country should sell more than it buys and that the colonies exist for the benefit of the Mother Country.
Abolitionist
A person who wanted to end slavery in the United States.
Tariff
A tax on goods brought into a country.
Protective Tariff
A tax placed on goods from another country to protect the home industry.
Sectionalism
A strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country.
Temperance Movement
A campaign against the sale of drinking of alcohol.
House of Burgesses
The first representative assembly in the new world.
Three Branches of Government
Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, and the Executive Branch
Federalism
The sharing of power between the states and the national government
Popular Sovereignty
The practice of allowing each territory to decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery.
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong national government.
Antifederalists
People opposed to the Constitution, preferring more power be given to the state governments than to the national government.
Magna Carta
Signed in 1215 by King John, was the first document that limited power of the ruler
Declaration of Independence
A document written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the colonies independence from England.
Articles of Confederation
The first American constitution. It was a very weak document that limited the power of the Congress by giving states the final authority over all decisions.
Monroe Doctrine
A foreign policy statement by President James Monroe stating that the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs and that the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/or interference by European nations.
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Ended the French and Indian War and effectively kicked the French out of North America
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to recognize the United States as an independent nation.
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to convince colonists that it was time to become independent from Britain.
Great Compromise
Created two houses of Congress. One based on population, the other gave equal representation to each state.
Sam Adams
A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.
King George III
The King of England who disbanded the colonial legislatures, taxed the colonies, and refused the Olive Branch Petition leading to the final break with the colonies.
Andrew Jackson
The leader of the original Democratic Party and a “President of the people”. He was also responsible for the Trail of Tears, which forced Native Americans west of the Mississippi River.
John C. Calhoun
A South Carolina Congressman and Senator who spoke for the South before and during the Civil War.
Henry clay
A powerful Kentucky Congressman and Senator who proposed the American System and the Compromise of 1850.
Daniel Webster
A Massachusetts Congressman and Senator who spoke for the North and the preservation of the Union.
Jefferson Davis
The President of the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Ulysses S. Grant
The General of the Union Army and was responsible for winning the Civil War for the North.
Robert E. Lee
The General of the Confederate Army.
James Madison
Considered to be the “Father of the Constitution”.
Frederick Douglas
A former slave who became the best-known black abolitionist in the country.
Harriet Tubman
An escaped slave who became a Conductor on the Underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves to freedom in the North.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Organized the Seneca Falls Convention creating the Women’s Rights Movement in the United States.
First Amendment
Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition.
Second Amendment
The right to bear arms.
Third Amendment
Forbids the government to order private citizens to allow soldiers to live in their homes.
Fourth Amendment
Requires that warrants be issued if property is to be searched or seized by the government.
Fifth Amendment
Protects an accused person from having to testify against him or herself (self-incrimination); bans double jeopardy, and guarantees that no person will suffer the loss of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Seventh Amendment
Guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil suits.
Sixth Amendment
Guarantees the right to a speedy public trial by an impartial jury, the right to a lawyer, the right to cross examine witnesses, and the right to force witnesses at a trial to testify.
Eighth Amendment
Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail or fines.
Ninth Amendment
People have rights other than those specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
Tenth Amendment
States that powers not given to the Federal government belong to the States.
Thirteenth Amendment
Abolished Slavery
Fourteenth Amendment
Guarantees citizenship and rights to all people born or naturalized in the United States.
Fifteenth Amendment
The right to vote to all citizens regardless of race.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 Court decision that gave the Supreme Court the right to determine whether a law violates the Constitution. It set up the principle of judicial review.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
The Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property and not citizens.
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney that speeded the cleaning of cotton fibers and in effect, increased the need for slaves.
Steamboat
Robert Fulton revolutionized transportation and trade in the United States with this invention.
Pythagoras
580 B.C.-Greek Philosopher and mathematician (Pythagorean theorem)
Oscar Romero
1917-1980- Archbishop from El Salvador- during the Civil War he was assinated-turning point of war. Fought for the poor.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
1712-1790- Enlightenment, created ideas that helped inspire French and American Revolutions-went insane. From Switzerland.
Adam Smith
1723-1790- From Scotland, wrote book that greatly impacted industrial revolution and became basis of capitalism.
Mother Teresa
1910-1997- Albanian nun- began a charity in Calcutta, India: Missionaries of Charity. Nobel Peace Prize 1997
Hideki Tojo
1884-1948- Led Japan to join Axis powers. Was Prime Minister of Japan and ordered the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Found guilty for multiple crimes-most notably for the death of 4 million Chinese. Executed.
Voltaire
1694-1778- Frenchmen who wrote satires of the Church and French government.
James Watt
1736-1819- Scotsman who invented the rotary steam engine.
Woodrow Wilson
1856-1924- U.S. President (Federal Reserve Act, The Clayton Antitrust Act), WWI Fourteen Points for peace-League of Nations, Senate rejected Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations.
Elizabeth I
1533-1603-Never married, defeated Spanish Armada. Virginia named after this Queen.
Queen Victoria
1819-1901- Longest reigning monarch of U.K., her reign went from monarchy to constitutional monarchy (nine kids). Grandmother of Europe.
Justinian
483-565- Emperor of Byzantine Empire, code of laws (Roman), innocent until proven guilty.
Nalan Sharansky
1948-Russian Jew, spoke out against oppression- imprisoned- moved to Israel.
Archemedes
287 B.C.- Lever, Catapult, Greek scientist, pulley
Nelson Mandela
1918-2013- South African, black president, went to prison- appartaide
Galileo
1564-1662- Italian astronomer, developed his own telescope (saw 4 moons of Jupiter) sun-centered, Church put him through court.
Mao Zedong
1893-1976- Leader of Communist Revolution in China
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830- Led South American’s against Spain, Bolivia named after him- drew up constitution.
Golda Meir
1898-1978- First Israeli Prime Minister, from Russia, Yom Kippur
Louis Pasteur
1822-1895- Chemist/Biologist, discovered penicillin, discovered vaccine for rabies (French).
Lech Walesa
1943- Polish- worker’s rights, known fro his right to strike. Elected President in 1990 of Poland when Russia left.
Robert Boyle
1627-1691- Englishman- Chemistry- Royals Society
Isaac Newton
1643-1727- Gravity, father of Modern scientist/physicist.
Indira Ghandi
1917-Influential woman of India, Prime Minister who was assassinated by her own bodyguards.
William Wilberforce
1759-1833- Deeply religious, against slavery-Sierra Leone, Member of Parliament of England-ended British slave trade.
Hammurabi
1750 BC- Babylonian King- first law of code-282 laws, “an eye for an eye”
Thomas Aquinas
1225-1274- Italian priest-used Greek to claim God exists
Copernicus
1473-1543- Challenged earth-centered theory, from Poland.
Ronald Reagan
1911-2004- Credited bringing U.S.S.R. to end, Reaganomics, actor
William Blackstone
1723-1780- Englishman- Lawyer, parliament
John Calvin
1509-1564- Protestant, Calvinists, reformation.
Eratosthenes
285-204 BC- Greek geographer- earth was round.
Thomas Hobbes
1588-1679- English philosopher, ideas used in U.S. system of government.
Three-Fifths Compromise
Slave count, lack of Bill of Rights
Alexander Hamilton
Supported the establishment of a national bank.
Nineteenth Amendment
Women granted the right to vote.
Caddo Nation
Mound Builders, once largest and most powerful Indian group in Texas. Mainly agricultural.
Apaches
High Plains of Central Texas- hunters
Plains Indians
Centered their lives around the buffalo
Comanches
Dominated the Southern Plains. Like the Plains, they were nomadic and relied on the buffalo. Quanah Parker, famous chief.
Sam Houston
First President of Texas
Communism
An economic system in which the government owns all businesses and makes all production decisions. All citizens are supposed to share equally in the country’s wealth.
Socialism
Based on the idea of a cooperative society in which wealth is equally distributed. The government controls some basic industries and public utilities, whereas other businesses are owned by individuals. Provide many social welfare programs such as health care and aid to the poor.
Capitalism
An economic system in which individuals control the means of production, distribution, and exchange. The government usually does not interfere in business. A free-enterprise system because, with the exception of some limitations imposed by the government, citizens may engage in whatever business they choose and may produce and charge what they want.
Federal Reserve System
Consists of twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks. It is a regulatory agency with the power to supervise the country’s banks and adjust the money supply.
Inflation
A general rise in prices. People can buy less with the same amount of money.
Consumer Price Index
A way of measuring the dollar’s value.
Genghis Kahn
1162-1227- Leader and founder of Mongol tribes of Asia. Ruled from 1206-1227. Occupied most of Asia during reign.
Mohammed
570-632- Born in Mecca, died in Medina. Founder of Islam. Regarded by Muslims as a prophet of God. Teachings make up the Qu’ran.
Cleopatra
69-30 BC- Last Pharoh of Egypt. After she died, Egypt became a Roman province. Had children with Roman generals Julius Caesar and Marc Antony.
Confucius
551-479 BC- Chinese thinker and social philosopher. Influenced Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese cultures.
Plato
428-347 BC- Classical Greek philosopher. Laid Western philosophical foundations with his teacher, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle. Founder of first institution of higher learning in the Western world, the Academy in Athens.
Charlemagne
747-814- A king of the Franks. Charles the Great, or Charles I. Ruled over Western and Central Europe. Conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo II in 800. Regarded as founding father of French and German monarchies, and as Father of Europe.
Norman Conquest
Began in 1066. Led by William the Conquerer. His military victory at the Battle of Hastings led to Norman control of England. This control would influence England more with continental Europe than Scandinavian culture. Would also lead to rivalry between England and France for the next millennium.
Feudalism
A political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the holding of all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
Manorialism
The economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord’s manor including the village, church, farm land and mill.
Martin Luther
1483-1546- A German priest and professor of theology who initated the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God’s punishment of sin could be purchased with money as it was taught by the Catholic Church. He was excommunicated by the Catholic Church in 1521. He translated the Bible into German, and this contributed to the further development of the German language.
Black Death
Recognized as the bubonic plague. Spread to Europe from Asia in the 1340s.
Johannes Gutenberg
1398-1468- A German goldsmith and printer who introduced modern book printing. His invention of mechanical movable type printing started the Printing Revolution.
Leonardo da Vinci
1452-1519- Italian polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer.
Napoleon Bonaparte
1769-1821- French military and political leader. General during French Revolution, Ruler of France as First Conusl of the French Republic, King of Italy, Mediator of Swiss Confederation, and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine. His actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century.
Conquest of the Aztec
One of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. The invasion began in February 1519 and was acclaimed victorious on August 13, 1521, by a coalition army of Spanish conquistadors and Tlaxcalan warriors led by Hernan Cortes and Xicotencatl the Younger against the Aztec Empire.
Glorious Revolution 1688-1689
The overthrow of King James II of England by a union of Parliamentarians and an invading army led by Dutch William of Orange who, as a result, ascended the English throne as William III of England. Last successful invasion of England. Dealt serious blows to Catholicism in England: catholics could not vote or sit in Parliament for 100 years; monarchy could not be catholic or marry into catholicism.
French Revolution
1789-1799- It was a period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history during which the French government underwent structural changes, and adopted ideals based on Enlightenment principles of nationalism, citizenship, and inalienable rights. Changes were accompanied by violent turmoil and executions.
Karl Marx
1818-1883- A German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist, and revolutionary, whose ideas played a significant role in the development of modern communism.
Russian Revolution
1917- Which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. A Bolshevik-led revolution in October 1917, lead by Vladimir Lenin, instituted dramatic change in social structure, paving the way for the USSR.
Adolf Hitler
1889-1945- Austrian-born German politician who led the National Socialist German Workers Party, commonly known as the Nazi party. Chancellor of Germany 1933-1945, and Fuhrer 1934-1945 ruling the country as an absolute dictator of Germany. Lead vast rearmament of Germany and exploited nationalism, anti-semitism, anti-communism, and other propaganda. Invaded Poland, effectively starting WWII. Responsible for the Holocaust and execution of various other “undesirables”.
Mohandas Gandhi
1869-1948- He was the pre-eminet political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. Known as “Father of The Nation” in India for his defiance of British government and success in civil rights movement.
Great Depression
Economic downturn in the U.S. associated with the stock market crash in 1929 and lasting until war economy boost in 1939.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896- Upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations, under the doctrine of “separate but equal”.
Traditional Economy
System in which resources are allocated by inheritance, which has a strong social network and is based on primitive methods and tools. Found in underdeveloped regions of South America, Asia and Africa.
Command Economy
System in which the state controls all aspects of the economy and makes all decisions about wealth distribution and the use of the economy. Found in communist states.
Market Economy
System in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. There are no governments in which a true market economy exists.
Marie Curie
1867-1934- Polish physicist and chemist. Pioneer in the field of radioactivity, and is the first and only person awarded the Nobel Prize in two different sciences.
Thomas Edison
1847-1931- American inventor and businessman. Prolific U.S. patent-holder with 1,093 to his name including the phonograph and the long-lasting light bulb.
Albert Einstein
1879-1955- German born theoretical physicist. Best known for his theory of relativity and his theory of energy equivalence. Received Nobel Prize in 1921 for physics.