The Axial and Appendicular Skeleton Laszlo Vass, Ed. D. Version 42-0021-00-01 Lab RepoRt assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report Assistant is simply a summary of the experiment’s questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students’ writing of lab reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor. Purpose: ? What is the purpose of this exercise? ?Are there any safety concerns associated with this exercise?
If so, list what they are and what precautions should be taken. Exercise 1: The Skull Questions A. Name the eight bones of the cranium. The eight bones of the cranium are the frontal, occipital, left parietal, right parietal, left temporal, right temporal, ethmoid, and sphenoid. B. What function do the cranial bones serve? The cranial bones serve to protect organs, such as the eyes, and the brain. C. List the bones that form the eye orbit. Zygomas, maxilla, lacrimal, frontal bone, sphenoid, ethmoid and palatine are all the bones that form the eye orbit.
D. Examine the skull on the skeleton model and describe some ways in which the mandible is different from the other bones of the skull. The mandible is a joint that has no real attachment to any part of the body. It has a different range of motion than other joints in the body. E. Other than the skull, what are the other two components of the axial skeleton? xVertebral Column and Thoracic cage are two components of the axial skeleton. Exercise 2: Skull Markings Questions A. Which bone is palpated when touching the forehead?
The temporal bone is palpated when the forehead is touched. B. What bone is palpated when touching the temple? The temporal bone is touched. Exercise 3: The Vertebral Column Questions A. What are the five categories of vertebrae in your vertebral column? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral and Coccyx are the five categories of the vertebrae. B. Why are lumbar vertebrae particularly prone to injury? A lot of individuals use their back instead of their legs to lift something heavy, which puts stress on the lower back. C. What is an intervertebral disc?
What is its function? They are discs that are made of fibrocartilage and they are used to cushion the spine from shock. D. How are the sacrum and coccyx different from the other vertebrae? The vertebrae in these column sections are fused together as opposed to separately stacked. E. What is the overall function of vertebrae? It is one of the body’s major structure supports. It encloses the spinal cord and keeps the nerves from becoming damaged. Exercise 4: The Bony Thorax Questions A. What bones make up the bony thorax?
The sternum, the ribs, and thoracic vertebrae make up the bony thorax. B. What is the function of the bony thorax? The function of the bony thorax is to protect the organs that are there. C. What category of bones are the sternum and ribs? The sternum and ribs are considered flat bones. D. Why are ribs 11 and 12 referred to as “floating” ribs? These two ribs are considered “floating” ribs because they aren’t attached directly to the sternum, but they are held on by cartilage. E. Propose a reason why the ribs are attached anteriorly by cartilage.
A logical reason to why the ribs are attached anteriorly by cartilage is because of how the body flexes while still being able to protect some of the other vital organs in the thoracic cavity. Exercise 5: The Appendicular Skeleton Questions A. What is the pelvic girdle? What is its function? The pelvic girdle is where two coxal bones are placed. The take the weight of the body and is what the two lower extremities are attached to. B. What is the pectoral girdle? What is its function? This is where the scapula and the clavicle form the upper part of the body.
This attaches the upper extremities to the core and is a main source of strength for the neck and upper body. C. Name the bones of the upper appendages (arm, forearm and hand). The upper appendage consist of the Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Olecranon Process, Carpals, Metacarpals and the Phalanges. D. Name the bones of the lower appendages (thigh, leg and foot). The lower appendage consists of the Femur, Patella, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, Talus, Calcaneus, Metatarsals and the Phalanges. E. Which of the four categories of bones do MOST of the bones of the appendicular skeleton fit into?
Most of the bones in the human body are categorized as long bones. Conclusions Why is it important to relate the structures of the axial and appendicular skeleton to one another? It is important to relate the structure of the axial and appendicular skeleton because some of the bones function differently, yet look the same or they look the same and have different functions (i. e. legs are for walking while arms are for holding). A lot of the other bones form a structure for weight bearing and others are more shock absorbers.