The Causes and Impacts of Youth Smoking on Hong Kong

Title: The causes and impacts of youth smoking on Hong Kong smoking young people’s quality of life |Content |Page | |Chapter 1 : Introduction |P. 3-4 | |Chapter 2 : Literature Review and Methodology |p. 5-11 | |2. 1 Literature Review | | |2. Methodology | | |2. 3 Limitations | | |2. 4 Chapter summary | | |Chapter 3 : Findings |p. 12-19 | |3. 1 Reasons of smoking among Hong Kong young people | | |3. Non-smokers’ view towards smoking | | |3. 3 Effects of smoking on smokers’ quality of life in the economic and social aspects | | |3. 4 Suggestions to help smokers to quit smoking | | |3. 5 The effectiveness of government measures in encouraging and helping smokers to quit smoking | | |3. Chapter summary | | |Chapter 4 : Analysis and Discussion |p. 20-26 | |4. 1 The truth about youth smoking | | |4. 2 The effectiveness of government measures on encouraging and helping smokers to quit smoking | | |4. 3 Suggestions to help smokers to quit smoking | | |4. Limitation of the study | | |4. 5 Areas for further study | | |4. 6 After thoughts | | |Bibliography |p. 27 | |List of Appendices |p. 8-43 | |Table of contents: | | |Summary table of the results of questionnaires | | |Questionnaire samples ( in Chinese and English versions) | | Chapter 1 : Introduction Smoking is not good for health and it smells bad. I want to know why some young people still smoke. Hong Kong government has passed some laws about banning smoking in indoor areas and some public areas such as parks.

The government also shot some advertisement about quitting smoking, such as the smoke-free Hong Kong advertisement. I want to know whether these measures are effective in helping smokers to quit smoking. My grandfather died because of tuberculosis. He was a heavy smoker. I want to know how smoking affect people’s health. My uncle also has a smoking habit. I want to know some ways to help smokers to quit smoking through this Independent Enquiry Studies. The focus questions of my Independent Enquiry Studies are “ Why do some Hong Kong young people start smoking? , “What are the non-smokers and smokers’ views towards smoking? ”, “ How does smoking affect Hong Kong young people’s quality of life in economic and social aspect? ” and “What can we do to help the smokers to quit smoking? ” In this Independent Enquiry Studies, “smoking” refers to the smoking of all forms of tobacco, including cigarette, cigar, hand rolled cigarette and pipe-smoking. “Hong Kong smoking young people” refers to Hong Kong residents aged 10-25 who at the time of doing the survey have a smoking habit, no matter what type of tobacco they smoked and their smoking pattern. People who smoked before and have now quitted smoking” refers to people who previously had a smoking habit for at least 1 month continuously. “Quality of life” refers to the degree of satisfaction in the material and spiritual aspects of life. There are 4 chapters in the Independent Enquiry Studies. Chapter 1 is Introduction. It includes the background of the Independent Enquiry Studies. Chapter 2 is Methodology. It includes the method of doing research in the Independent Enquiry Studies. Chapter 3 is Findings. It includes the findings of the research. Chapter 4 is Analysis.

After analyzing the findings, I will suggest some possible answers to the focus questions. In the appendix, samples of questionnaires and a summarizing table of the findings are attached. Through the Independent Enquiry Studies, we should be able to gain knowledge of non-smokers view towards smoking, assess the effectiveness of government’s measures on helping and encouraging smokers to quit smoking and know some effective methods in helping smokers to quit smoking. Chapter 2 : Literature Review and Methodology 2. 1 Literature Review 2. 1. 1 Youth smokers

According to the survey on Pattern of Smoking conducted by the Census and Statistical Department during December 2007 to March 2008, 10500 people in Hong Kong aging from 15 to 19 smoked. 2. 4% of them are daily smokers. 107800 people in Hong Kong aging from 20 to 29 smoked. 15. 9% of them are daily smokers. The percentage of daily smokers was on a gradually decreasing trend over the past 15 years from 1993 to 2008. Average daily consumption of cigarettes of 15-19 smokers was 11 cigarettes in the survey conducted during Dec 2007-Mar 2008, while the average consumption of cigarettes of 20-29 cigarettes smokers was 12 cigarettes. 1] 2. 1. 2 Causes of youth smoking According to the survey on Pattern of Smoking conducted by the Census and Statistical Department during December 2007 to March 2008, 59. 8% of daily cigarette smokers started smoking because of “influence of friends”, 36. 7% “out of curiosity”. Other reasons included “necessity in social functions” (8. 1%), “influence of family members” (7. 8%) , “easing tension” (4. 2%), “refreshing one’s mind” (3. 7%) and “killing time” (3. 4%). [2] 2. 1. 3 Impacts of youth smoking Many sources suggest that smoking can cause various diseases and hence has a negative impact on smoker’s health.

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On the website of Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health, it suggests that cigarette smoking is hazardous to health. Smoking can cause different cancers, such as cancers of the mouth and throat, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and stomach cancer. Smoking also causes cardiac diseases, pulmonary and respiratory diseases and genital diseases, such as impotence in male smokers. [3], The website of Tobacco Control Office Department of Health also suggests that smoking is a causative agent of many fatal diseases and cancers.

Smoking can cause disorders and problems such as impotence, infertility, wrinkling and halitosis. Smoking would also bring about socio-economical consequences. [4] 2. 1. 4 Methods of quitting smoking The website of Tobacco Control Office Department of Health includes some tips and methods that can help smokers to quit smoking. When you start to quit smoking, you will still have urges to smoke. The urge will last for just a few minutes and you will be able to get over it. The website provides some methods to help smokers get over this urge.

For example, when smokers have urges to smoke, they can try to divert their attentions to smoke by washing face, listen to music, etc. [5] 2. 2 Methodology Questionnaire will be employed to collect the data for the IES. There are many good points. 1. Quantitative Research Orientation 1. Scientific approach Quantitative researchers work on simplifying complicated social phenomena into measurable figures. After calculation, the researcher can know the general situation of different social phenomena and their interrelationships. 2. Objective approach

The personal opinions of respondents may affect their answers to some questions. For example, when the respondents are asked whether the government policy is effective in tackling smoking, it is difficult to define effective. However, the researcher can use a more objective approach, such as when using literature review, the researcher can compare the number of smokers before and after the government policies are implemented. Assume there are 10000 people quit smoking after the banning smoking in restaurants. Some people may think that it is effective while some people may think that it is not effective.

From this figure, we can know the actual situation. 3. Require less time and resources Instead of arranging a time doing interview with the respondents face-to-face, we can send the questionnaire to target respondents through mails. We may also upload the questionnaire online and invite respondents to answer the questionnaire through online forums and social-networking software and websites. 4. Can reach more respondents As the time required for each respondent to give response is shorter, there is more time to invite more respondents to give responses.

Some people may be scared or shy when doing a face-to-face interview, a questionnaire is more suitable to these respondents. Since Hong Kong people are busy, many of them cannot arrange time for doing the interview. Sending a questionnaire to them enables them to answer when they have time. 1. Research Procedures The mini pilot questionnaire Before actual questionnaires were distributed, the researcher discussed the questionnaire with his teacher and classmates to ascertain whether the questions are understandable and sensible to the respondents.

This also gives rough ideas of the suitability of wording and the appropriateness of the sequence of questions and the questions being asked. The questionnaires The researcher used online questionnaire at first to save time and resources between 1 February 2011 and 20 March 2011. However, the number of respondents was not satisfactory (237), while the target sample size was 300 and the researcher decided to distribute questionnaires directly in Causeway Bay on 27 March 2011. In the research, the researcher divided the respondents into three target groups, including non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers.

Each target group had a unique set of questions in order to answer different focus questions in the research. The questions were provided with choices to make data analysis easier and save respondents’ time. Questionnaire questions Most of the questionnaire questions were provided with options and the option “others” for respondents to give answers that were not given in the options. There were a lot of options in the questions so as to cover most possible opinions of respondents. This surely saved respondent’s time in completing the questionnaire and the researcher can analyze the data easily.

The questionnaire had both Chinese and English versions, so the respondents could understand the questions easily and give appropriate responses. Examples were also given after the some relatively difficult words to ensure the respondents understand the questions clearly. 1. Data Analysis Numerical expression of data In order to make the data comparable, all answers are arranged in different categories and both numbers of respondents choosing that option and the percentage of respondents choosing that option (only in questions that the respondents could only choose one option) were shown. . Limitations The questionnaires are distributed online and in the Causeway Bay, so people who do not live in Causeway Bay and cannot access to the internet cannot get the questionnaire. Therefore, the responses may be biased and confined. 3. Chapter Summary This chapter has given the theoretical framework for this research, including the literature review and methodology of this research. In this research, questionnaire was used mainly.

To enhance readers’ understanding of the research, both the research procedure and data analysis with also its objective and scientific approach were included. Chapter 3: Findings In this chapter, the researcher is going to present the data collected through questionnaires. The research emphasizes on the causes and impacts of youth smoking on Hong Kong smoking young people’s quality of life. In 3. 1, there will be a discussion on the reasons why some Hong Kong young people start smoking. In 3. 2, the Hong Kong non-smoking young people’s view towards smoking will be investigated.

In 3. 3, how smoking affects Hong Kong smoking young people’s quality of life in the economic and social aspects will be explored. In 3. 4, the researcher will attempt to give some suggestions to help Hong Kong smoking young people to quit smoking. In 3. 5, the researcher will give a discussion on the effectiveness of government measures on encouraging and helping smokers to quit smoking. 3. 1 Reasons of smoking among Hong Kong young people The researcher has distributed 100 questionnaires to Hong Kong smoking young people.

As shown in figure 1, the reasons why some Hong Kong young people smoke are influence of friends (60%), curiosity (36%), influence of family members (8%), releasing pressure (8%) killing time (4%) and refreshing one’s mind (4%) |Options |Number of respondents | |Influence of friends |60 | |Influence of family members |8 | |Curiosity |36 | |Release pressure |8 | |killing time |4 | |refreshing one’s mind |4 |

Figure 1: Summary table showing the reasons why some Hong Kong young people smoke 3. 2 Non-smokers’ view towards smoking The researcher has also distributed 100 questionnaires to Hong Kong non-smoking young people. As shown in figure 2, among 100 Hong Kong non-smoking young people, 95 of them do not like people who smoke, only 5 of them like people who smoke. [pic] Figure 2: a pie chart showing the general opinions of Hong Kong non-smoking young people on Hong Kong smoking young people As shown in figure 3, among the 5 Hong Kong non-smoking young people who like smoking people, all of them like people who smoke because they think that smoking people are attractive. 4 of them also like the smell of cigarettes. Options |Number of respondents | |Smoking people are attractive |5 | |I like the smell of cigarettes |4 | |Secondhand smoke is good for my health |0 | Figure 3: Summary table showing the reasons why some Hong Kong non-smoking young people like people who smoke. (they can choose more than 1 option) As shown in figure 4, among the 95 Hong Kong non-smoking young people, 80 of them dilikes people who smoke because they think that smoking people are not attractive. 85 of them hate the smell of cigarettes. All of them agrees that secondhand smoke is bad for their health,so they dislike people who smoke. Options |Number of respondents | |Smoking people are not attractive |80 | |I hate the smell of cigarettes |85 | |Secondhand smoke is bad for my health |95 | Figure 4: Summary table showing the reasons why some Hong Kong non-smoking young people dislike people who smoke (Respondents can choose more than 1 option) 3. 3 Effects of smoking on smokers’ quality of life in the economic and social aspects As shown in figure 5, among the 100 Hong Kong smoking young people, 9% of them spend $0-50 in buying cigarettes per week. 80% of them spend $51-100 in buying cigarettes per week. 11% of them spend $101-150 in buying cigarettes per week. So, smokers have a greater expense and thus smoking have a negative impact on smokers’ quality of life in the economic aspect. Options |Number of respondents |percentage | |$0-50 |9 |9% | |$51-100 |80 |80% | |$101-150 |11 |11% | |$151-200 |0 |0% | |$201-250 |0 |0% | |$251-300 |0 |0% | |$301-350 |0 |0% | |$350 or above |0 |0% | Figure 5: Summary table showing how much do Hong Kong smoking young people spend on buying cigarettes per week

As shown in figure 2, 95% of Hong Kong non-smoking young people responded dislike people who smoke. This shows that smoking has adverse impacts on the relationship between smokers and non-smokers. Hence, smoking adversely affects smokers’ quality of life in social aspect. 3. 4 Suggestions to help smokers to quit smoking The researcher has conducted questionnaires with 100 ex-smokers in Hong Kong. As shown in figure 6, among 100 ex-smokers responded, all of them discarded all cigarettes and ashtrays to quit smoking. 80 of them used medications for quitting smoking. 90 of them tried to avoid staying in places where people smoke. 77 of them used smoking cessation services provided by smoking cessation clinics. Options |Number of respondents | |Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays |100 | |Using medications for quitting smoking (such as nicotine |80 | |patch and nicotine gum) | | |Avoid staying in places where people smoke |90 | |Using smoking cessation services provided by smoking |77 | |cessation clinics | | Figure 6: Summary table showing what measures ex-smokers took to quit smoking (Respondents can choose more than 1 option) 3. The effectiveness of government measures in encouraging and helping smokers to quit smoking According to figure 7, 76 of the 100 ex-smokers responded decided to quit smoking because of the advice from health care professionals. 54 of them decided to quit smoking because of health reasons. 23 of them decided to quit smoking because of influence of friends. 59 of them decided to quit smoking due to influence of family members. 9 of them decided to quit smoking as requested by boss or teachers. 43 of them decided to quit smoking due to government policies. |Options |Number of respondents | |Health reasons (with advice from doctors/ other health care 76 | |professional) | | |Smoking is not good to my health |54 | |Influence of friends |23 | |Influence of family members |59 | |Requested by boss/ teachers |9 | |Government policies(such as expanding statutory no smoking |43 | |areas) | |

Figure 7: Summary table showing why ex-smokers decided to quit smoking ( Respondents can choose more than one option) 3. 6 Chapter summary With the aids of pie charts and tables, the chapter attempts to give a discussion on the reasons why some Hong Kong young people start smoking, the non-smokers’ views towards smoking, how smoking affect smokers’ quality of life in the economic and social aspects, the effectiveness of government measures in helping and encouraging the smokers to quit smoking and suggestions to help smokers to quit smoking. The main reasons why some Hong Kong young people start smoking are influence of friends and curiosity.

Most Hong Kong non-smoking young people dislike people who smoke. Smoking has adverse impacts on smokers’ quality of life in both economic and social aspects. Government measures are effective in helping the smokers to quit smoking as 77 of the 100 ex-smokers responded used smoking cessation services provided by government smoking cessation clinics. Government measures are not effective in encouraging the smokers to quit smoking since only 43 of the 100 ex-smokers responded quit smoking because of government policies such as expanding statutory no smoking areas. Further discussion and analysis are to be followed in chapter 4. Chapter 4: Analysis and Discussion

Based on the findings done in Chapter 3 and related studies, this chapter would discuss the causes of youth smoking, the impacts of youth smoking on Hong Kong smoking young people’s quality of life in the economic and social aspect, the effectiveness of government measures in encouraging and helping the smokers to quit smoking and further explore some methods to help smokers to quit smoking. 4. 1. The truth about youth smoking 4. 1. 1. The causes of youth smoking As said in chapter 3, the causes of youth smoking are influence of friends, curiosity, influence of family members, releasing pressure, killing time and refreshing one’s mind. To explain the causes of youth smoking, the following may serve as reference. • Influence of friends In general, adolescents value the relationship with their friends.

In order to have a good relationship with their peers, they will try their best to obtain their affirmation and acceptance. So, influence of friends is a main reason why some Hong Kong young people start smoking. • Curiosity Nowadays, smoking scenes frequently appears on television and films. Hong Kong young people and children often see people smoking on the street. They may have a wrong concept that smoking people are cool. They begin to develop the curiosity to smoke. When there are some chances for them to start smoking, such as being invited by friends they are more likely to start smoking. • Influence of family members In the childhood, parents are the idols of their children. Children tend to follow what their parents do.

If children see their parents smoking, they will have a higher tendency to follow their parents and start smoking. They will also have a higher curiosity towards smoking. Smoking parents is harder to stop their children from smoking because the parents themselves smoke, too. So, influence of family members is also one main cause of youth smoking. 4. 1. 2 The impacts of smoking on smokers’ quality of life As mentioned of chapter 3, smoking has adverse impacts on smokers’ quality of life in the economic and social aspect. The following will explain the impacts of smoking on smokers in details. • In the economic aspect Smokers have to spend money on buying cigarettes.

The government has recently increased the tobacco tax and worked hare to tackle contraband and counterfeit cigarettes problem. The prices of cigarettes therefore increases and smokers have to pay more on cigarettes. As shown in chapter 2, smoking is detrimental to health as it may lead to different cancers and other diseases such as infertility. So, smokers may be easier to get a disease and their medical expenses may increase. Therefore, smoking brings negative impacts on smokers’ quality of life in the economic aspect. • In the social aspect As shown in chapter 3, most non-smokers dislike people who smoke. Therefore, smokers have a poor relationship with most non-smokers.

Smokers have a poorer relationship with non-smokers and hence the social aspect of quality of life of smokers is negatively affected. On the other hand, smokers may have a better relationship with other smokers. For example, cigarettes are often used as gifts among businessmen in China. People can get recognition from other smokers by smoking. So, smokers have a better relationship with other smokers and hence smoking brings positive impacts on smokers’ quality of life in the social aspect. 4. 2. The effectiveness of government measures on encouraging and helping smokers to quit smoking 4. 2. 1 The effectiveness of government measures Smokers are often addicted to cigarettes.

They experience many withdrawal symptoms when they try to quit smoking, such as dizziness, headache and poor concentration. Therefore, it is difficult for smokers to quit smoking. As mentioned in chapter 3, the effectiveness of government measures on encouraging smokers to quit smoking is low. 2. The effectiveness of government measures on helping smokers to quit smoking As stated in chapter 3, many ex-smokers used smoking cessation services provided by smoking cessation clinics to quit smoking. This shows that government measures are effective in helping smokers to quit smoking. 2. Suggestions to help smokers to quit smoking It is difficult to quit smoking.

However, smokers can use some methods adopted by most ex-smokers to quit smoking. Here are some examples. • Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays • Avoid staying in places where people smoke • Using medications for quitting smoking ( such as nicotine patch and nicotine gun) 3. Limitation of the study First and foremost, the study involving 300 respondents for sampling may not be able to represent the opinions of non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. The distribution of questionnaires are done online and in Causeway Bay, so people who do not have the access to the internet nor live in Causeway Bay may not get the questionnaire. Therefore, the responses may be biased and confined.

Due to the limited resources, the researcher has already tried to work out the generalized pattern of people’s opinions towards smoking as much as possible. The researcher has also studied similar studies done by the government in a much larger scale. Hence, the reliability of the study can be increased. Time has always been a constraint to the researcher. So as to ensure the general trend of people’s opinions, the researcher has spent considerable time on analyzing the data and arranging them into summary tables and pie charts. 4. Areas for further study Despite the limitations, the study can hopefully uphold the complexity of the causes and impacts of youth smoking. This study has brought some insights to the policy makers in encouraging and helping Hong Kong smoking people to quit smoking.

The following suggestions may also serve as good topics for further studies • New methods to stop people from starting to smoke • New methods of encouraging and helping smokers to quit smoking by other stakeholders (besides the government and individuals) The rationale behind these suggestions is highly understandable. “Prevention is better than curing. ” It is easier to stop people from starting to smoke than helping smokers to quit smoking because smokers are addicted to cigarettes. Therefore, looking for methods to encourage people not to start smoking is a more useful method to reduce the smoking population in Hong Kong. As stated in 4. 2. , the current government measures are not effective in encouraging smokers to quit smoking. Also, development of new cheaper and more comfortable methods to quit smoking may encourage smokers to quit smoking. Therefore, a research on new methods to encourage and help smokers to quit smoking is contributive to reduce smoking population in Hong Kong. 5. Afterthoughts To the researcher’s belief, this study helps readers to gain knowledge of people’s view towards smoking and know some effective methods in helping smokers to quit smoking. This study has also assessed the effectiveness of government’s measures in encouraging and helping smokers to quit smoking. Bibliography Books: Census and Statistical Department. Pattern of smoking”, Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics (Hong Kong, June 2009) Websites: Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health. “Risks? Active Smoking” http://smokefree. hk/en/content/web. do? page=ActiveSmoking (Retrieved on 17 April 2011) Tobacco Control Office Department of Health. “Smoking and Health” http://www. tco. gov. hk/english/infostation_sh. html (Retrieved on 17 April 2011) Tobacco Control Office Department of Health. “Quitting Smoking” http://www. tco. gov. hk/english/quittting/quitting_vcqs. thml (Retrieved on 17 April 2011) Appendix I Summary table of the results of the questionnaires For non-smokers 1. How old are you? Choices |Number of respondents | |10-15 |23 | |16-20 |45 | |21-25 |32 | 2. What is your sex? |Choices |Number of respondents | |Male |79 | |Female |21 | 3. Can you suggest some methods that you think that are effective in helping smokers quit smoking? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays |100 | |Using medications for quitting smoking (such as nicotine |90 | |patch and nicotine gum) | | |Avoid staying in places where people smoke |90 | |Using smoking cessation services provided by smoking |93 | |cessation clinics | | |Others(please state) |0 | 4. Do you like people who smoke? |Choices |Number of respondents | |Yes (please go to question 5) |95 | |No (please go to question 6) |5 | 5. Why do you like people who smoke? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Smoking people are attractive |5 | |I like the smell of cigarettes |4 | |Secondhand smoke is good for my health |0 | |Others(please state) |0 | 6. Why do you hate people who smoke? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Smoking people are not attractive |80 | |I hate the smell of cigarettes |85 | |Secondhand smoke is bad for my health |95 | |Others(please state) |0 | 7. Do you have relatives or friends who smoke? Choices |Number of respondents | |Yes (please go to question 8) |63 | |No (Thank you for completing the survey) |37 | 8. Have you tried to persuade your relatives or friends to quit smoking? |Choices |Number of respondents | |Yes (please go to question 9) |27 | |No (Thank you for completing the survey) |26 | 9. After your persuasion, did your relatives or friends try to quit smoking? Choices |Number of respondents | |Yes |8 | |No |15 | |I do not know |4 | For smokers 1. How old are you? |Choices |Number of respondents | |10-15 |3 | |16-20 |45 | |21-25 |52 | 2.

How long have you been smoking? |Choices |Number of respondents | |1-3 years |63 | |4-6 years |19 | |7-10 years |15 | |10 years or above |3 | 3. Do you agree that smoking is bad to your health? Choices |Number of respondents | |Agree |92 | |Disagree |8 | 4. Do you agree that you are addicted to cigarettes? |Choices |Number of respondents | |Agree |87 | |Disagree |13 | 5. How many cigarettes you smoke per day? Choices |Number of respondents | |1-3 |12 | |4-6 |34 | |7-9 |40 | |10-12 |13 | |13-15 |1 | |16-18 |0 | |18-21 |0 | | 22 or above |0 | 6. How much do you spend on buying cigarettes per week? (Hong Kong Dollars) Choices |Number of respondents | |$0-50 |9 | |$51-100 |11 | |$101-150 |80 | |$151-200 |0 | |$201-250 | 0 | |$251-300 |0 | |$301-350 | 0 | |$350 or above |0 | ? $301-350 ? $350 or above 7. Where do your money buying cigarettes come from? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Work |44 | |Petty cash from family members |78 | |From illegal ways |0 | |Borrow from family members/friends |23 | |Others(please state) |0 | 8. Do you relatives or friends know that you smoke? Choices |Number of respondents | |Yes (please go to question 9) |67 | |No (please go to question 10) |33 | 9. Generally, do they support you to smoke? |Choices |Number of respondents | |Yes |13 | |No |33 | |I do not know |21 | 10. Why do you smoke? (You may choose more than 1 option) Choices |Number of respondents | |Influence of friends |60 | |Influence of family members |8 | |Curiosity |36 | |Release pressure |8 | |Killing time |4 | |refreshing one’s mind |4 | |Others(please state) |0 | 11. What are the bad effects of smoking on you? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |I am not welcomed |23 | |I am less healthy |92 | |Not enough money |30 | |Makes me ugly |43 | |Bad image |33 | |Poor relationship with relatives |37 | |Poor relationship with friends |29 | |Others(please state) |0 | 12. What are the good effects of smoking on you? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |I am welcomed |63 | |I am more healthy |8 | |I have more money |47 | |I am more handsome/beautiful |57 | |Good image |57 | |Better relationship with relatives |10 | |Better relationship with friends |70 | |Others(please state) |0 | 13. Have you tried to quit smoking? |Choices |Number of respondents | |Yes (please go to question 14) |20 | |No (Thank you for completing the survey) |80 | 14. Why did you quit smoking? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Health reasons(with advice from doctors/ other health care |3 | |professional) | | |Smoking is not good to my health |5 | |Influence of friends |2 | |Influence of family members |13 | |Requested by boss/ teachers |15 | |Government policies(such as expanding statutory no smoking |3 | |areas) | | |Others(please state) |0 | 15. What methods did you use to quit smoking? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays |20 | |Using medications for quitting smoking (such as nicotine |17 | |patch and nicotine gum) | | |Avoid staying in places where people smoke |18 | |Using smoking cessation services provided by smoking |18 | |cessation clinics | | |Others(please state) |0 | 16. Why did you fail to quit smoking? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Not determined enough |20 | |Smoking has become a habit/favourite |20 | |Quitting smoking is suffering |20 | |Others(please state) |0 | For ex-smokers 1. How old are you? |Choices |Number of respondents | |10-15 |0 | |16-20 |15 | |21-25 |85 | 2. Why did you smoke? (You may choose more than 1 option) Choices |Number of respondents | |Influence of friends |83 | |Influence of family members |15 | |Curiosity |40 | |Release pressure |13 | |killing time |15 | |refreshing one’s mind |3 | |Others(please state) |0 | 3. Why do you quit smoking? You may choose more than 1 option) |Choices |Number of respondents | |Health reasons(with advice from doctors/ other health care |76 | |professional) | | |Smoking is not good to my health |54 | |Influence of friends |23 | |Influence of family members |59 | |Requested by boss/ teachers |9 | |Government policies(such as expanding statutory no smoking |43 | |areas) | | |Others(please state) |0 | 4. What methods did you use to quit smoking? You may choose more than 1 option) |Options |Number of respondents | |Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays |100 | |Using medications for quitting smoking (such as nicotine |80 | |patch and nicotine gum) | | |Avoid staying in places where people smoke |90 | |Using smoking cessation services provided by smoking |77 | |cessation clinics | | 5. What is the most important factor that help you to quit smoking successfully? Choices |Number of respondents | |Health reasons(with advice from doctors/ other health care |76 | |professional) | | |Determination to quit smoking |100 | |Support from family member and/or friends |67 | |Requested by boss/ teachers |13 | |Government policies(such as expanding statutory no smoking |43 | |areas) | | |Others(please state) |0 | Appendix II Samples of Questionnaires ????? (???? ) ???? ??? 2007?????????? 10500? 15?? 19??????????????????? ,???????????????????? ,????????????????????????????? 10?? 25?????? 1. ?????? ? 10-15? 16-20? 21-25 2. ?????? ? ? ? ? 3. ?????????????????? (??? ) ? ?????? (??????????? ) ? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?? (??? ) 4. ???????? ??? (???? 5? ) ???? (???? 6? ) 5. ??????????? (??? ) ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ??? (??? ) 6. ???????????? (??? ) ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?? (??? ) 7. ???????????? ?? (???? 8? )??? (???????? ) 8. ??????????????? ?? (???? 9? )??? (???????? ) 9. ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? (??? ) ???? ???? ,??????????????? 2007?????????? 10500? 15?? 19??????????????????? ,???????????????????? ,????????????????????????????? 10?? 25?????? 1. ?????? ? 10-15? 16-20? 21-25 2. ?????? ? ? ?? 3. ??????? ?1-3? ?4-6? ? 6-10? ? 10??? 4. ???????????? ??? ???? 5. ?????????????????? ??????? 6. ????????? ?1-3 ? 4-6 ? 7-9 ? 10-12 ? 13-15 ?16-18 ? 19-21 ? 22???? 7. ????????????? (?? ) ?$0-50 ? $51-100 ? $101-150 ? $151-200 ? $201-250 ? $251-300 ? $301-350 ? $350??? 8. ????????????? (??? ) ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?? (??? ) 9. ?????????????? ?? (???? 10? ) ??? ???? 11? ) 10. ????? ,?????????????? ??? ???? ????? 11. ???????? (??? ) ? ?? ? ????? ? ????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ???? ? ?? (??? ) 12. ???????????? (??? ) ? ???? ? ???? ? ???? ? ??? /?? ? ??? ? ???? ? ???????? ? ???????? ? ?? (??? ) 13. ???????????? (??? ) ? ???? ? ???? ? ???? ? ?? ? ??????? ? ??????? ? ?? (??? ) 14. ???????? ????? (???? 15? ) ????? (???????? ) 15. ?????????? (??? ) ? ???? (????????????? ) ? ?????????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ???? (????????? ) ? ?? (??? ) 16. ??????????? (??? ) ? ?????? (??????????? ) ? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?? (??? ) 17. ????????? (??? ) ? ???? ? ??????? /?? ? ??????? ? ??????? ??? (??? ) ???????? ???? (???? ) ???? ???? ,??????????????? 2007?????????? 10500? 15?? 19??????????????????? ,???????????????????? ,????????????????????????????? 10?? 25?????? 2. ?????? ? 10-15? 16-20? 21-25 2. ?????? ? ? ? ? 3. ??????????? (??? ) ? ????? ? ????? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ?? ? ???? ? ?? (??? ) 4. ??????????? (??? ) ? ???? (????????????? ) ? ?????????? ? ?? /??????? ? ????? ? ????? ? ???? (????????? ) ? ?? (??? ) 5. ??????????? (??? ) ? ?????? (??????????? ) ? ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?? (??? ) 6. ??????????????? ? ???? (????????????? ) ? ????? ? ???????? ? ???? (????????? ) ? ?? /??????? ? ?? (??? ) ???????? Youth Smoking (non-smokers)

Background Information In recent years, the number of youth smoking increases steadily. A survey in 2007 reveals that 10500 Hong Kong people aged 15-19 smoked. Through this survey, I want to identify the opinions of non-smokers and smokers towards smoking, the reasons why smokers smoke and how smoking affect smoker’s and non-smoker’s quality of life. This survey is only set for people aged 10-25 1. How old are you? ? 10-15? 16-20? 21-25 2. What is your sex? ? male ? female 3. Can you suggest some methods that you think that are effective in helping smokers quit smoking? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays Using medications for quitting smoking (such as nicotine patch and nicotine gum) ? Avoid staying in places where people smoke ? Using smoking cessation services provided by smoking cessation clinics ? Others(please state) 4. Do you like people who smoke? ? Yes (please go to question 5) ? No (please go to question 6) 5. Why do you like people who smoke? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Smoking people are attractive ? I like the smell of cigarettes ? Secondhand smoke is good for my health ? Others(please state) 6. Why do you hate people who smoke? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Smoking people are not attractive ? I hate the smell of cigarettes ?

Secondhand smoke is bad for my health ? Others(please state) 7. Do you have relatives or friends who smoke? ? Yes (please go to question 8) ? No (Thank you for completing the survey) 8. Have you tried to persuade your relatives or friends to quit smoking? ? Yes (please go to question 9) ? No (Thank you for completing the survey) 9. After your persuasion, did your relatives or friends try to quit smoking? ? Yes? No ? I do not know Thank you for completing the survey Youth Smoking (smokers) Background Information In recent years, the number of youth smoking increases steadily. A survey in 2007 reveals that 10500 Hong Kong people aged 15-19 smoked.

Through this survey, I want to identify the opinions of non-smokers and smokers towards smoking, the reasons why smokers smoke and how smoking affect smoker’s and non-smoker’s quality of life. This survey is only set for people aged 10-25 1. How old are you? ? 10-15? 16-20? 21-25 2. How long have you been smoking? ? 1-3 years? 4-6 years? 7-10 years ? 10 years or above 3. Do you agree that smoking is bad to your health? ? Agree ? Disagree 4. Do you agree that you are addicted to cigarettes? ? Agree ? Disagree 5. How many cigarettes you smoke per day? ? 1-3 ? 4-6? 7-9? 10-12? 13-15? 16-18 ?18-21? 22 or above 6. How much do you spend on buying cigarettes per week? (Hong Kong Dollars) ? $0-50 ? $51-100 ? 101-150 ? $151-200 ? $201-250 ? $251-300 ? $301-350 ? $350 or above 7. Where do your money buying cigarettes come from? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Work ? Petty cash from family members ? From illegal ways ? Borrow from family members/friends ? Others(Please state) 8. Do you relatives or friends know that you smoke? ? Yes (please go to question 9) ? No (please go to question 10) 9. Generally, do they support you to smoke? ? Yes? No ? I don’t know 10. Why do you smoke? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Influence of friends ? Influence of family members ? Curiosity ? Release pressure ? killing time ? refreshing one’s mind ?

Others(please state) 11. What are the bad effects of smoking on you? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? I am not welcomed ? I am less healthy ? Not enough money ? Makes me ugly ? Bad image ? Poor relationship with relatives ? Poor relationship with friends ? Others(please state) 12. What are the good effects of smoking on you? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? I am welcomed ? I am more healthy ? I have more money ? I have better relationship with relatives ? I am more handsome/beautiful ? good image ? I have better relationship with friends ? Others(please state) 13. Have you tried to quit smoking? ? Yes (please go to question 14) No (Thank you for completing the survey) 14. Why did you quit smoking? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Health reasons(with advice from doctors/ other health care professional) ? Smoking is not good to my health ? Influence of friends ? Influence of family members ? Requested by boss/ teachers ? Government policies(such as expanding statutory no smoking areas) ? Others(Please state) 15. What methods did you use to quit smoking? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays ? Using medications for quitting smoking (such as nicotine patch and nicotine gum) ? Avoid staying in places where people smoke Using smoking cessation services provided by smoking cessation clinics ? Others(please state) 16. Why did you fail to quit smoking? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Not determined enough ? Smoking has become a habit/favourite ? Quitting smoking is suffering ? Others(please state) Thank you for completing the survey Youth Smoking (Ex-smokers) Background Information In recent years, the number of youth smoking increases steadily. A survey in 2007 reveals that 10500 Hong Kong people aged 15-19 smoked. Through this survey, I want to identify the opinions of non-smokers and smokers towards smoking, the reasons why smokers smoke and how smoking affect smoker’s and non-smoker’s quality of life.

This survey is only set for people aged 10-25 1. How old are you? ? 10-15? 16-20? 21-25 2. Why did you smoke? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Influence of friends ? Influence of family members ? Curiosity ? Release pressure ? killing time ? refreshing one’s mind ? Others(please state) 3. Why do you quit smoking? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Health reasons(with advice from doctors/ other health care professional) ? Smoking is not good to my health ? Influence of friends ? Influence of family members ? Requested by boss/ teachers ? Government policies(such as expanding statutory no smoking areas) ? Others(Please state) 4.

What methods did you use to quit smoking? (You may choose more than 1 option) ? Discard all cigarettes and ashtrays ? Using medications for quitting smoking (such as nicotine patch and nicotine gum) ? Avoid staying in places where people smoke ? Using smoking cessation services provided by smoking cessation clinics ? Others(please state) 5. What is the most important factor that help you to quit smoking successfully? ? Health reasons(with advice from doctors/ other health care professional) ? Determination to quit smoking ? Support from family member and/or friends ? Requested by boss/ teachers ? Government policies(such as expanding statutory no smoking areas) ?

Others(Please state) Thank you for completing the survey ———————– [1] Census and Statistical Departmen

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