The City and Its Workers

Chapter 19 The city and its workers (1870-1900) Jump Start: March 14, 2011 As the 19th century closes and the 20th century begins, different technologies help spur the many changes taking place. What symbolism can we take from the construction of the Brooklyn Bridge? It is a marker of time periods (separates this time period from that time period) March 16,2011

Why did some immigrant groups decide to stay in the United States after arriving, while other groups only stayed long enough to make some money? March 17, 2011 What were Jim Crow Laws? Give an example of how they were applied. March 18, 2011 Who was Jacob Riis? What did he produce? Why was it important? March 21,2011 Explain the new emerging class systems, which were based upon occupation. White collar blue collar- largely unskilled( jobs require more physical than intellectual) United states emerged as a major industrial power by the end of the 19th century * Large scale immigration, urbanization, and technological innovation help out great promise for future, even as these dramatic changes led to social dislocation, urban squalor, labor strife, and death. * Constructed between 1869-1883, the Brooklyn bridge stood as a testament to the wonders and horrors of America at the close of the nineteenth and opening of the twentieth century * Its construction cost the lives of wenty men and it was considered both a work of art and an engineering marvel upon completion The rise of the city * By the end of the nineteenth century, the emergence of the modern city represented the most dramatic demographic development in the united states * From New york to Chicago to Los Angeles, cities exploded in size, fed in part by the rapid pace of global migrations, especially from southern and eastern Europe * BEFORE 1880 immigrants came from the northern and western Europe * AFTER 1880 immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe.

Racism and the cry for Immigration Restriction * Workers often found themselves pitted against one another, with ethnic rivalry dividing the skilled northern European workers and the unskilled southern and eastern European workers. * Even among educated people of the nineteenth century, the ethnic and religious differences of immigrants were perceived as racial characteristics. * The idea of social Darwinism further supported “white” society’s claim to racial superiority. African Americans in the North African Americans began their migration north in search of equality * In an effort to leave behind the segregation and Jim Crow Laws of the south, they found jobs on the bottoms rung of the occupational ladder. Asian Americans * Asians= scapegoats of the changing economy A new king of racism * Many Americans saw newcomers as impossible to assimilate * Trade Unions and old-stock aristocrats criticized America’s Immigration policies * A literacy test for new European immigrants passed through Congress but was vetoed by President Grover Cleveland.

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