“He believed he was being persecuted wherever he went, despite his best efforts to win people and God to his side” Miller about Parris and how he doesn’t belong to the community but belongs to religion pg13 “To the European world the whole province was a barbaric frontier inhabited by a sect of fanatics” Belonging to a place – Miller says this about Salem 13 “Their creed forbade anything resembling a theatre or ‘vain enjoyment’. ” Miller says what belonging to a community/group can lead people to feel/do 14 A holiday from work meant only that they must concentrate even more upon prayer” Miller tells us about what THEOCRATIC society required 14 “This predilection for minding other people’s business was time-honoured among the people of Salem” Miller explains what it meant when people belonged to a community 14 “The edge of the wilderness was close by…and it was full of mystery for them. ” Miller states that belonging to such a wild place may be reason for the witch hunts 14 “…the Salem folk believed that the virgin forest was the Devil’s last preserve, his home base and the citadel of his final stand”.
This again shows that Miller believes that the location played a role in their beliefs. Highlights also their strong beliefs in religion and how theocracy ruled their society. 15 “…their church found it necessary to deny any other sect its freedom” Miller highlights that you either belonged with their church or didn’t belong at all. 15 “…the people of Salem developed a theocracy, a combine of state and religious power whose function was to keep the community together” Miller informs us, in the introduction, that Salem was theocratic and their intentions in it 16 …the people of Salem…[wanted] to prevent any kind of disunity that might open it to destruction by material or ideological enemies” This is, as Miller points out, the purpose of their theocratic society, but also gives reasons for what happened when people didn’t belong. 16 “when one rises above the individual villainy displayed, one can only pity them all, just as we shall be pitied one day” This is a clear link that Miller makes between the witch hunts of Salem and the communist witch hunts in mid century America 16 “a sense of confusion hangs about him”
Stage directions that paint Parris as someone who doesn’t belong, from the very beginning 17 “trouble in this house usually lands on her back” Stage directions of act one tell us that Tituba, a slave from Barbados, does not belong in this community because she is different. 17 “Go directly home and speak nothing of unnatural causes” Parris says this to Susanna, highlighting his fear of being accused of not protecting their community, thereby not belonging to the community. 18 “Uncle, the rumour of witchcraft is all about; I think you best go down and deny it yourself” Abigail pleads with Parris to make amends.
I hear her singing her Barbados songs and tempting me with…” Abigail again reinforces her position and shows how strong she is in terms of leading the peer group; sways the community against Tituba. 46 “You will confess yourself or I will take you out and whip you to your death, Tituba! ” Parris gives Tituba a fairly unfair ultimatum and shows again that being an outsider is bad. He also implies that you need to be a strong person to stand by your own name and convictions in this community. 46 “No, no, don’t hang Tituba! I tell him I don’t desire to work for him, sir. Tituba realises she must go against the truth and convictions to stay alive. She goes along with Abigail’s stories and makes it seem as though she wants to stop. 46 HALE: You have confessed yourself to witchcraft, and that speaks a wish to come to Heaven’s side. TITUBA: Oh, God bless you, Mr Hale! HALE: …You are God’s instrument put in our hands to…cleanse our village. Hale uses the metaphor to prove that people within the community believe Abigail, but also that Tituba has the opportunity to belong for the first time. 48 “I want the light of God, I want the sweet love of Jesus!… I saw Sarah Good with the Devil!
I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the Devil! ” The calling out – Abigail starts accusing and setting people as outsiders for nothing. 49 “A fireplace is at the left, and behind it a stairway leading upstairs…he swings a pot out of the fire and smells it. ” Miller paints a domestic picture and then juxtaposes it with the frosty portrayal of marriage 51 “It’s as warm as blood beneath the clods. ” An interesting description of the unseasonably warm ground Proctor provides his wife. 52 PROCTOR: If the crop is good I’ll buy George Jacob’s heifer. How would that please you?
ELIZABETH: Aye, it would. PROCTOR: [with a grin] I mean to please you, Elizabeth. ELIZABETH: [it is hard to say] I know it, John. Highlights both Proctor’s need to belong in the marriage and Elizabeth’s difficulty 52 Her back is turned to him. He turns to her and watches her. A sense of their separation rises. The stage directions highlights the distance between Proctor and his wife. 52 “She frightened all my strength away…it is a mouse no more… she says to me ‘I must go to Salem…I am an official of the court! ’” Elizabeth talks about how Mary Warren has changed as a result of her being a part of the group 53 Aye, it is a proper court they have now…there be fourteen people in jail now…and they’ll be tried, and the court have power to hang them too, she says. ” Elizabeth recounts what Mary Warren has told her about the court and the exclusion of women from society 53 “The town’s gone wild, I think. She speak of Abigail, and I thought she were a saint, to hear her. Abigail brings the other girls into the court, and where she walks the crowd will part…” Repetition of Abigail’s name in Elizabeth’s recount of Mary’s story highlights that the focus is all around her at the moment. 53 “Oh, it is a black mischief. Proctor uses this metaphor to describe what influence Abigail has on this society, and how others are flocking to “belong” 53 “John, if it were not Abigail that you must go to hurt, would you falter now? I think not. ” Elizabeth has not forgiven Proctor for his indiscretion and questions him about who and what he might belong to now. 55 “You will not judge me more, Elizabeth…you forget nothin’ and forgive nothin’. ” Proctor attempts to use high modal language to demand Elizabeth’s respect but again, he is honest in showing that he no longer truly feels as though he belongs in his marriage. 5 “I come into a court when I come into this house! ” Darkly comical metaphor used by Proctor to indicate he feels judged which limits his feelings of belonging in the marriage. 55 “Let you look sometimes for the goodness in me, and judge me not. ” Again, focussing on the judgement he feels rather than belonging. 55 “I do not judge you. The magistrate sits in your heart that judges you. I never thought you but a good man, John. ” Elizabeth tries to set Proctor right and uses the “heart” metaphor to imply he is the only one judging his actions and that he is limiting himself from belonging. 5 As though to compensate, Mary Warren goes to Elizabeth with a small rag doll. Miller makes it clear that the symbol used as Goody Proctor’s downfall is made known early on 56 “We must all love each other now, Goody Proctor. ” Mary Warren says this in reaction to the strange situations they are now faced with 56 “I never knew it before, I never knew anything before. When she come into the court I say to myself, I must not accuse this woman…but then…I feel a misty coldness climbin’ up my back…and all at once I remembered everything she done to me! Mary Warren highlights the feelings that can overtake them during the court 57 “But the proof, the proof! ” Proctor wants to be practical here. 58 “You must see it, sir, it’s God’s work we do. ” Hale, and Mary Warren both proclaim this, referring to religion and what this society is based on. 58 “The Devil’s loose in Salem, Mr Proctor; we must discover where he’s hiding! ” Hale, again referring to religion and the society 59 “There is a promise made in any bed – and she may dote on it now – I am sure she does – and thinks to kill me, then to take my place. Elizabeth points out to Proctor that his indiscretion led to a false sense of belonging for Abigail 60 “This is a strange time, Mister. No man may longer doubt the powers of the dark are gathered in monstrous attack upon this village. ” Hale makes it clear that there is some “powers of the dark” but doesn’t say Devil – maybe understanding Abigail’s power? 62 “I note that you are rarely in the church on Sabbath Day. ” A small detail noted by Hale ensures that Proctor is seen as an outsider because of his lack of conforming to religious norms. 62 …and it [the bible] tells me that a minister may pray to God without he have golden candlesticks upon the altar. ” Proctor complaining about Parris’ need to belong to objects/materialism 63 “I like it not that Mr Parris should lay his hand upon my baby. I see no light of God in that man. ” Even for Proctor, Parris is an outsider 63 “There be no mark of blame upon my life, Mr Hale. I am a covenanted Christian woman. ” Elizabeth states that she is trustworthy and honest because she is a good Christian woman – the basis of their society. 64 “Theology, sir, is a fortress; no crack in a fortress may be accounted small. Hale uses this metaphor to highlight the strength of religion; that you either belong to and with it or against it. But also implies in a way, that it is weak if compromised. 65 “And why not, if they must hang for denyin’ it? There are them that will swear to anything before they’ll hang; have you never thought of that? ” Proctor questions the very confessions the women keep making. 66 “My wife is the very brick and mortar of the church, Mr Hale. ” Giles Corey uses this metaphor to highlight the insanity of his wife’s arrest 67 “Man, remember, until an hour before the Devil fell, God thought him beautiful in heaven. Hale’s powerful statement about the fall of good into evil. The way that even those that belong can then become isolated or alienated. 68 “…the Williams girl, Abigail Williams, sir. She sat to dinner in Reverend Parris’s house tonight, and without a word nor warnin’; she falls to the floor. Like a stuck beast, he says…stuck two inches in the flesh of her belly, he draw a needle out. ” Cheever seemingly confused and alarmed by the discovery of the needle in the poppet. It highlights the lack of proof or manipulation of evidence. 70 “Why, she done it herself!
I hope you’re not takin’ this for proof, Mister! ” Proctor, again practical, and denying “proof” 70 “’Tis hard proof! ” Cheever exclaims this. Shows the craziness of the situation; the way the beliefs of the majority can cause hysteria. 70 “I’ll tell you what’s walking Salem – vengeance is walking Salem. ” 72 “I cannot charge murder on Abigail…she’ll kill me for sayin’ that! ” 74 “I cannot…they’ll turn on me…I cannot do it, I cannot! ” 74 As the curtain rises, the room is empty, but for the sunlight pouring through two high windows in the back wall. 77