The Depression Level of 4th Year College Students

Acknowledgement The researcher proudly acknowledge to the ones who supported this research for making it possible to accomplish this factual research. First of all, the researcher would proudly acknowledge our Almighty God for bestowing us the eternal blessings of knowledge in this research, for securing us from harm at all times and gave us guidance to finish this research. The researcher would also proudly acknowledge our beloved professor Dr. Maria Rosario E. Monce, for giving enough knowledge to perform and finish this research.

This research will surely prepare us for the future challenges and it will help us to become a far more responsible and hardworking person. Also, I would also like to give thanks to the 4th year college students of the University of the East for their swift cooperation in answering the researcher’s depression test. DEDICATION The researcher dedicates this study to her beloved family especially to her mom to show her efforts, gratitude, sincerity and most of all her unending love and appreciation for all she have sacrificed for her. To the researcher’s friends who gave support and encouragement.

To the researcher’s beloved Professor, Dr. Maria Rosario E. Monce, who taught her how to trust herself and to have a positive outlook in life. Abstract Research Title:The Depression Level of 4th Year College Students of the University of the East Researcher:Criselle Joy M. Masungsong Degree Granted:Bachelor of Science, Major in Psychology Granting Institution:College of Arts and Sciences, University of the East, Manila Research design:Descriptive Method Respondents:50 4th year college students Statistical Tools Used:T-test for independence samples, Chi-square Summary . The age of the respondents ranges from 18-24 years old. The respondent with the age of 18 have the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 19 have the frequency of 16 or 32%. The respondents with the age of 20 have the frequency of 19 or 38%. The respondents with the age of 21 have the frequency of 10 or 20%. The respondent with the age 22 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondent with the age of 23 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 24 have the frequency of 2 or 4%. 2. The year level is all 4th year college students. 3.

The number of male and female respondents is equal. There are 25 male respondents and 25 female respondents which equals to 50 respondents. 4. The 2 respondents with the age of 20 have High Depression Level. The 3 respondents with the age of 19 and 20 have Above Average Depression Level. The 9 respondents with the age of 19, 20, and 21 have Average Depression Level. The 22 respondents with the age of 19,20,21,23 and 24 have Below Average Depression Level. The 14 respondents with the age of 19, 20, 21 and 22 have Low Depression level. 5. The Depression level of 4th year college students is 3. 7. It means the respondents have Below Average Depression Level. 6. The Depression level of male respondents is 3. 64 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. The Depression level of female respondents is 3. 71 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. 7. The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 8. The obtained value of 0. 7 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Conclusion The researcher came up with the following conclusions: 1. The majority of the respondents according to age in the demographic profile are 20 years old. The respondents according to gender in the demographic profile are equal. The respondents according to year level are all 4th year college students. 2.

We will write a custom essay sample on
The Depression Level of 4th Year College Students
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

The level of depression of 4th year college students by age is the same. The students with the age of 18-24 can have the same depression level. 3. The level of depression of 4th year college students by gender is the same. The students have below average depression level. The gender cannot affect the depression level of 4th year college students. Both male and female can have high depression, above average depression, average depression, below average depression and low depression level. 4. The year level of all respondents is the same so it won’t have any effect on the depression level of the respondents. . The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 6. The obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Recommendation 1.

Researcher must have wider range of research to support her study and to prove if there is a significant difference between the depression level of 4th year college students at University of the East-Manila. 2. Add more respondents to be able to gather better proof and understanding in depression level of 4th year college students. 3. The researcher should study more than just one year level. 4. Look for more studies that are related in the researcher’s topic. 5. Never lose hope. 6. Depression can be fought with a positive outlook in life and control to yourself. Chapter 1 Problem and its Background Introduction

Depression has been recognized as a common disease. It is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well-being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, or problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions; and may contemplate or attempt suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may be present.

Depression can last for years and can end up people in mental hospitals. Some used to say their depressed but they only feel sad. Too much and too long sadness can become depression. This research will contain factual information regarding the depression degree of people’s current state of adolescence and young adults. At this age is the beginning of difficult and complicated trials anchored with different types of negative elements such as temptation, greed or jealousy in their journey to adulthood, this is also the stage of building one’s selves hidden talent and forging of who they will become in the future.

Background of the study The researcher used many sources and books to conclude and finish the study. So many time was given and sleepless nights to endure. Complete understanding was used in the research to have a good result. Depression was called melancholia many years ago. The name was changed and become clinical depression, major depression or simply depression and commonly referred to as major depressive disorder by many health care professionals. There is no single cause for depression.

Many factors play a role including genetics, environment, life events, medical conditions, and the way people react to things that happen in their lives. Research shows that depression runs in families and some people inherit genes that make them more likely to get depressed. Not everyone who has the genetic makeup for depression gets depressed, though. Some can get depress even if they don’t have genetic makeup for depression. The death of a family member, friend, or pet can go beyond normal grief and sometimes lead to depression.

Other difficult life events, such as when parents divorce, separate, or remarry, can trigger depression. Even events like moving or changing schools can be emotionally challenging enough that a person becomes depressed. For some teens, a negative, stressful, or unhappy family atmosphere can affect their self-esteem and lead to depression. This can also include high-stress living situations such as poverty; homelessness; and violence in the family, relationships, or community. Substance use and abuse also can cause chemical changes in the brain that affect mood — lcohol and some drugs are known to have depressant effects. The negative social and personal consequences of substance abuse also can lead to severe unhappiness and depression. Certain medical conditions can affect hormone balance and therefore have an effect on mood. Some conditions, such as hypothyroidism, are known to cause a depressed mood in some people. When these medical conditions are diagnosed and treated by a doctor, the depression usually disappears. Theoretical Framework The researcher was able to search about Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI, BDI-II), created by Dr. Aaron T.

Beck, is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression. Also, the researcher was able to study about Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Theory of Depression. Different cognitive behavioral theorists have developed their own unique twist on the Cognitive way of thinking. According to Dr. Aaron Beck, negative thoughts, generated by dysfunctional beliefs are typically the primary cause of depressive symptoms. A direct relationship occurs between the amount and severity of someone’s negative thoughts and the severity of their depressive symptoms.

In other words, the more negative thoughts you experience, the more depressed you will become. Beck also asserts that there are three main dysfunctional belief themes (or “schemas”) that dominate depressed people’s thinking: 1) I am defective or inadequate, 2) All of my experiences result in defeats or failures, and 3) The future is hopeless. Together, these three themes are described as the Negative Cognitive Triad. When these beliefs are present in someone’s cognition, depression is very likely to occur (if it has not already occurred).

Beck’s main argument was that depression was instituted by one’s view of oneself, instead of one having a negative view of oneself due to depression. This has large social implications of how we as a group perceive each other and relate our dissatisfactions with one another. Abela and D’Alessandro’s (2002) study on college admissions is a good example of this phenomenon. In their study they found that the student’s negative views about their future strongly controlled the interaction between dysfunctional attitudes and the increase in depressed mood.

The research clearly backed up Beck’s claim that those at risk for depression due to dysfunctional attitudes who did not get into their college of choice then doubted their futures, and these thoughts lead to symptoms of depression. Therefore, the students’ self-perceptions became negative after failing to get into college, and many showed signs of depression due to this thinking. Conceptual Framework InputProcessOutput The diagram shows how the study is being conducted. The 4th year college students are the independent variable and the level of depression is the dependent variable.

To determine whether the independent variable really affects the dependent variable, a depression test is processed. Statement of the Problem 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents according to their: 1. Age; 2. Gender 3. Course/Year? 2. What is the level of depression of the respondents? 1. Is there significant difference between the depression level of male and female adolescents? 2. Is there significant difference between the ages of adolescents in their depression level? 3. Is there significant difference between the year level of adolescents in their depression level?

Hypotheses Null: There is no significant difference between the level of depression of male and female 4th year college students in the University of the East Manila. There is no significant difference between the ages of 4th year college students in their level of depression? There is no significant difference between the year level of 4th year college students in their level of depression? Alternative: There is a significant difference between the level of depression of male and female 4th year college students in the University of the East Manila.

There is a significant difference between the ages of 4th year college students in their level of depression? There is a significant difference between the year level of 4th year college students in their level of depression? Assumption Females are more sensitive than males. Female thinks too much which leads to stress and with prolonged problems and sadness, depression is developed. Male doesn’t think too much about their problems in life. They just play computer games or do their interest to help themselves and make their sadness fade. The researcher will assume that females have higher depression level than males.

Significance of the study This study will help to guide the readers on understanding of what is really depression, the main causes of depression especially at their age and understanding the theoretical studies of depression that will broaden the concept of readers regarding the topic of this research. The significance of this study will make a person aware of their Depression level and whether they have low/high depression level. The researcher will help the respondents in improving and knowing what to do for their selves. Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study limits its respondents to 50 4th year college students. These 50 persons are students in University of the East Manila, specifically ranging from age of 18 up to 24 years old. The researcher provided definitions, backgrounds about the study, tests, reasons and preventions, computations and frameworks. Definitions Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well-being. Beck’s Depression Inventory is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used instruments for measuring the severity of depression.

Insomnia (or sleeplessness) is most often defined by an individual’s report of sleeping difficulties Stress It refers to the consequence of the failure of an organism — human or other animal — to respond adequately to mental, emotional, or physical demands, whether actual or imagined. Themes (or “schemas”) are a mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES According to the article of “Hopelessness, Family Stress, and Depression among Mexican-Heritage Mothers in the Southwest” made by: Flavio F.

Marsiglia, Stephen Kulis, Hilda Garcia Perez, and Monica Bermudez-Parsai Hopelessness is conceptualized as an individual’s negative expectancy regarding the future, and it is characterized by negative emotions, pessimistic expectations, and loss of pleasure in life (Beck. Weissman,Lester, , 1974; Heilemann, Coffey-Love, , 2004). Hopelessness is the expectation that negative outcomes are inevitable or that positive outcomes will not develop. These expectations are paired with the feeling that one cannot do anything to change the future (Abela, Gagnon, & Auerbach, 2007).

Individuals who are pessimistic about the causes and consequences of events and who tend to ascribe negative self-characteristics after negative events have been found to be more at risk for hopelessness and depression (Brozina & Abela, 2006). According to the article of: Wayne Katon, Jurgen Unutzer, and Joan Russo, patients with major depression have a great deal of heterogeneity in the level of depression severity, number of earlier episodes, comorbidity with dysthymia, anxiety disorders, chronic medical disorders and chronic ain, comorbidity with personality disorders and maladaptive coping styles (such as high levels of neuroticism), and socioeconomic status. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter shows the information and further make clear of the present study. This part include the research design, the determination of the sample size, sampling design and technique, the description of the subjects, the research instrument, and validation of the instrument, data gathering and procedure, data processing method and the statistical treatment of data. RESEARCH DESIGN

In this study, the researcher used the descriptive method as the research design to present the study. This method shows the different sides and the nature of the study. The researcher will measure the variables depression level, age, gender and the year level and determine the nature and difference between them. SAMPLING DESIGN AND TECHNIQUE In selecting the respondents of the study, the researcher used the convenience sampling method. The researcher asked the approval of the selected students from 4thy year college students from the University campus. THE SUBJECTS

The researcher gathered respondents from 4th year college students of the University of the East to serve as samples in the said study. THE INSTRUMENT OF THE STUDY The instrument used by the researcher was a self-constructed test of Depression test. Table 1 The table shows the level of Depression based on their weighted mean. |Mean Score | Verbal Interpretation | |1. 00-1. 80 |High Depression | |1. 1-2. 60 |Above Average Depression | |2. 61-3. 40 |Average Depression | |3. 41-4. 20 |Below Average Depression | |4. 21-5. 00 |Low Depression | VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT USED

The Depression test was face-validated by Dr. Maria Rosario E. Monce and went through several modifications. TREATMENT OF THE DATA 1. The statistical treatment of the data that was used in the study is the percentage, weig Formula for weighted mean: X=? X N Where: ?X= total scoresN= Number of respondents 2. Formula for the computation of t-test for 2 independent samples. t= X1-X2Where: vS1 S2X1 / X2= means of independent samples +N1 / N2= total of samples N1 N2S= standard deviation S=? X12-(? X1)2 + ? X22-(? X2)2d. f. = N1 + N2 – 2 N1 N2 N1+N2-2 3. Formula for Chi square, a test of relationship/difference.

X2= (fo-fe)2E= R x Kd. f. = (R-1) (K-1) fe T Where:Where: fo= observed frequencyR= total row scores fe= expected frequencyK= total column scores T= total scores Weighted mean, T-test and Chi-square Chapter 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data The researcher finished the table after gathering all the data needed. These tables show the results and serve as the tool to clearly understand the study. 1. Demographic profile of the respondents according to the following: Table 1. 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Age Age |Frequency |Percentage | |18 |1 |2% | |19 |16 |32% | |20 |19 |38% | |21 |10 |20% | |22 |1 |2% | |23 |1 |2% | |24 |2 |4% | |Total |50 |100% |

The table above shows the age of the respondents ranging 18 to 24 years old, the age that accumulated the largest frequency is the 20 years old which has total 19 and percentage of 38%. Then the lowest frequency is the 18, 22 and 23 years old which has only 1 and percentage of 2%. The other frequency are the 19 years old which has the frequency of 16 and percentage of 32% and the 21 years old which has frequency of 10 and percentage of 20%. Also, the 24 years old this has frequency of 2 and percentage of 4%. The overall frequency is 50 and with the percentage of 100%. Table 1. 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Gender Gender |Amount |Percentage | |  |  |  | |M |25 |50% | |F |25 |50% | |  |50 |100% | The table above shows the number of female and male respondents. The number of female and male respondents is equal. Table 1. 3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents According to Year/Level |Year/Level |Frequency |Percentage | |Fourth Year |50 |100% | |Total: |50 |100% | The table above shows that all of the respondents are 4th year college students with the frequency 50 and percentage of 100%. 2. Level of depression of the respondents. Table 2 Gained Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation Respondent # |Mean Score |Verbal Interpretation | |1-50 |3. 67 |Below Average Depression | The table above shows that the level of depression of the 50 respondents was in the verbal interpretation of Below Average Depression. 3. Significant difference between the depression level of male and female adolescents. Table 3 T-value obtained by the respondents in the depression test |d. f. |Obtained Value |Critical Value |Decision | |48 |0. 3 |2. 0126 |No significant difference | Since the obtained value of 0. 33 is lower than the critical value of 2. 0126 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the male and female 4th year college students in their depression level. 4. Significant relationship between gender and age of adolescents to depression. |Profile Variable |df |Obtained Value |Critical Value |Decision | |Age |24 |25. 3 |36. 42 |No significant difference | |Gender |4 |0. 57 |9. 49 |No significant difference | Age The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. This proves that 4th year students with the age of 18-24 can have the same depression level. Gender The obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 5 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. The gender does not affect the depression level of male and female 4th year college students. Chapter 5 Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations In this chapter, the researcher will mainly discuss the summary of the all findings, conclusion and recommendation of the study. Summary 9. The age of the respondents ranges from 18-24 years old. The respondent with the age of 18 have the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 19 have the frequency of 16 or 32%.

The respondents with the age of 20 have the frequency of 19 or 38%. The respondents with the age of 21 have the frequency of 10 or 20%. The respondent with the age 22 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondent with the age of 23 has the frequency of 1 or 2%. The respondents with the age of 24 have the frequency of 2 or 4%. 10. The year level is all 4th year college students. 11. The number of male and female respondents is equal. There are 25 male respondents and 25 female respondents which equals to 50 respondents. 12. The 2 respondents with the age of 20 have High Depression Level. The 3 respondents with the age of 19 and 20 have Above Average Depression Level.

The 9 respondents with the age of 19, 20, and 21 have Average Depression Level. The 22 respondents with the age of 19,20,21,23 and 24 have Below Average Depression Level. The 14 respondents with the age of 19, 20, 21 and 22 have Low Depression level. 13. The Depression level of 4th year college students is 3. 67. It means the respondents have Below Average Depression Level. 14. The Depression level of male respondents is 3. 64 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. The Depression level of female respondents is 3. 71 which mean they have Below Average Depression Level. 15. The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 5 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 16. The obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Conclusion The researcher came up with the following conclusions: 7. The majority of the respondents according to age in the demographic profile are 20 years old. The respondents according to gender in the demographic profile are equal. The respondents according to year level are all 4th year college students. 8.

The level of depression of 4th year college students by age is the same. The students with the age of 18-24 can have the same depression level. 9. The level of depression of 4th year college students by gender is the same. The students have below average depression level. The gender cannot affect the depression level of 4th year college students. Both male and female can have high depression, above average depression, average depression, below average depression and low depression level. 10. The year level of all respondents is the same so it won’t have any effect on the depression level of the respondents. 11. The obtained value of 25. 13 is lower than the critical value of 36. 42 at the 0. 5 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the ages of the 4th year college students in their depression level. 12. The obtained value of 0. 57 is lower than the critical value of 9. 49 at the 0. 05 level of significance therefore; the researcher accepts the null hypothesis, which means there is no significant difference between the genders of the 4th year college students in their depression level. Recommendation 7. Researcher must have wider range of research to support her study and to prove if there is a significant difference between the depression level of 4th year college students at University of the East-Manila. 8.

Add more respondents to be able to gather better proof and understanding in depression level of 4th year college students. 9. The researcher should study more than just one year level. 10. Look for more studies that are related in the researcher’s topic. 11. Never lose hope. 12. Depression can be fought with a positive outlook in life and control to yourself. BIBLIOGRAPHY Webiology • http://depression. about. com/cs/diagnosis/l/bldepscreenquiz. htm • http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_depression • http://helpguide. org/mental/depression_signs_types_diagnosis_treatment. htm • http://kidshealth. org/teen/your_mind/mental_health/depression. html# • http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Depression_%28mood%29 • www. mentalhelp. net www. wikipedia. com • http://itl. nist. gov/div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda3672. htm APPENDIX A Table for the Computation Table of Weighted Scores of the Respondents and Verbal Interpretation |Male | |Respondent # |Weighted Scores |Verbal Interpretation | |1 |3. 22 |Average Depression | |2 |4. 32 |low Depression | |3 |4. 2 Below Average Depression | |4 |2. 5 |Above Average Depression | |5 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |6 |4. 28 |low Depression | |7 |3. 06 |Average Depression | |8 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |9 |3. 64 |Below Average Depression | |10 |3. 4 |Average Depression | |11 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |12 |3. 48 |Below Average Depression | |13 |4. 26 |low Depression | |14 |3. 68 |Below Average Depression | |15 |4. 36 |low Depression | |16 |4. 22 |low Depression | |17 |3. 2 |Below Average Depression | |18 |3. 28 |Average Depression | |19 |3. 78 |Below Average Depression | |20 |3. 86 |Below Average Depression | |21 |4. 3 |low Depression | |22 |3. 84 |Below Average Depression | |23 |3. 58 |Below Average Depression | |24 |3. 6 |Average Depression | |25 |1. 52 |High Depression | |Female | |Respondent # |Weighted Scores |Verbal Interpretation | |1 |4. 2 |Below Average Depression | |2 |3. 02 |Average Depression | |3 |3. 4 |Average Depression | |4 |4. 18 |Below Average Depression | |5 |3. 76 |Below Average Depression | |6 |4. 38 |Low Depression | |7 |3. 72 |Below Average Depression | |8 |3. 88 |Below Average Depression | |9 |3. 8 |Below Average Depression | |10 |4 |Below Average Depression | |11 |3. 2 |Average Depression | |12 |2. 54 |Above Average Depression | |13 |4. 56 |Low Depression | |14 |3. 98 |Below Average Depression | |15 |4. 54 |Low Depression | |16 |3. 8 |Below Average Depression | |17 |4. 14 |Below Average Depression | |18 |4. 6 |Low Depression | |19 |4. 5 |Low Depression | |20 |2. 9 |Average Depression | |21 |4. 3 |Low Depression | |22 |3. |Below Average Depression | |23 |1. 14 |High Depression | |24 |4. 54 |Low Depression | |25 |2. 28 |Above Average Depression | APPENDIX B Computation for the t-test independent Sample |Female |X? 2 | |  |  | |1 |17. 64 | |2 |9. 1204 | 3 |9. 2416 | |4 |17. 4724 | |5 |14. 1376 | |6 |19. 1844 | |7 |13. 8384 | |8 |15. 0544 | |9 |14. 2884 | |10 |16 | |11 |10. 6276 | |12 |6. 4516 | |13 |20. 7936 | |14 |15. 8404 | 15 |20. 0116 | |16 |12. 1104 | |17 |17. 1396 | |18 |21. 16 | |19 |20. 25 | |20 |8. 41 | |21 |18. 49 | |22 |15. 21 | |23 |1. 2996 | |24 |20. 6116 | |25 |5. 1984 | |Male |X? 2 | 1 |10. 3684 | |2 |18. 6624 | |3 |17. 64 | |4 |6. 25 | |5 |14. 2884 | |6 |18. 3184 | |7 |9. 3636 | |8 |14. 2884 | |9 |13. 2496 | |10 |9. 8596 | |11 |14. 2884 | |12 |12. 1104 | 13 |18. 1476 | |14 |13. 5424 | |15 |19. 0096 | |16 |17. 8084 | |17 |15. 3664 | |18 |10. 7584 | |19 |14. 2884 | |20 |14. 8996 | |21 |18. 49 | |22 |14. 7456 | |23 |12. 8164 | |24 |9. 9856 | 25 |2. 3104 | T= X? – X? [pic] [pic] = [pic]- [pic] + [pic] – [pic] N1 N2 N1 + N2 -2 [pic]= 340. 85. 04 – (90. 94) 2 + 360. 182 – (92. 62)2 25 25 25+25-2 [pic]= 340. 85. 04 – (8270. 0836) + 360. 182 – (8578. 4644) 25 25 25+25-2 = (340. 8504 – 330. 803344) + (360. 182 – 343. 138576) 48 = 10. 047056 + 17. 043424 48 = 27. 09048 48 [pic] = 0. 56 APPENDIX C Computation for Chi square Formula: E=R x KX2= (fo-fe)2 T fe Where:Where: E= expected frequencyfo= frequency observed R= total row scoresfe= frequency expected K= total column scores T= total scores Table According to Profile Variable Age Age |High |Above Average |Average |Below Average |Low |Total | |18 |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 |1 | |19 |0 |2 |2 |7 |5 |16 | |20 |2 |1 |4 |8 |4 |19 | |21 |0 |0 |3 |3 |4 |10 | |22 |0 |0 |0 |0 |1 |1 | |23 |0 |0 |0 |1 |0 |1 | |24 |0 |0 |0 |2 |0 |2 | | |2 |3 |9 |22 |14 |50 | X2=-25. 13 d. f. = (r-1) (k-1) = (4-1) (4-1) = (3) (3) = 9 C. V. 0. 05= 36. 42 |fo |fe |(fo – fe) |(fo-fe)2 |(fo-fe)2/fe | |  |  |  |  |  | |0 |0. 04 |0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 4 | |0 |0. 64 |0. 64 |0. 4096 |0. 64 | |2 |0. 76 |1. 24 |1. 5376 |2. 023157895 | |0 |0. 4 |0. 4 |0. 16 |0. 4 | |0 |0. 04 |0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 04 | |0 |0. 04 |0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 04 | |0 |0. 08 |0. 08 |0. 0064 |0. 08 | |0 |0. 06 |0. 06 |0. 0036 |0. 6 | |2 |0. 96 |1. 04 |1. 0816 |1. 126666667 | |1 |1. 14 |-0. 14 |0. 0196 |0. 017192982 | |0 |0. 6 |0. 6 |0. 36 |0. 6 | |0 |0. 06 |0. 06 |0. 0036 |0. 06 | |0 |0. 06 |0. 06 |0. 0036 |0. 06 | |0 |0. 12 |0. 12 |0. 0144 |0. 12 | |0 |0. 18 |0. 18 |0. 0324 |0. 8 | |2 |2. 88 |-0. 88 |0. 7744 |0. 268888888 | |4 |3. 42 |0. 58 |0. 3364 |0. 098362573 | |3 |1. 8 |1. 2 |1. 44 |0. 8 | |0 |0. 18 |0. 18 |0. 0324 |0. 18 | |0 |0. 18 |0. 18 |0. 0324 |0. 18 | |0 |0. 36 |0. 36 |0. 1296 |0. 36 | |1 |0. 44 |0. 56 |0. 3136 |0. 12727272 | |7 |7. 04 |-0. 04 |0. 0016 |0. 000227272 | |8 |8. 36 |-0. 36 |0. 1296 |0. 015502392 | |3 |4. 4 |-1. 4 |1. 96 |0. 445454545 | |0 |0. 44 |0. 44 |0. 1936 |0. 44 | |1 |0. 44 |0. 56 |0. 3136 |0. 712727272 | |2 |0. 88 |1. 12 |1. 2544 |1. 425454545 | |0 |0. 28 |0. 28 |0. 0784 |0. 8 | |5 |4. 48 |0. 52 |0. 2704 |0. 060357142 | |4 |5. 32 |-1. 32 |1. 7424 |0. 327518797 | |4 |2. 8 |1. 2 |1. 44 |0. 514285714 | |1 |0. 28 |0. 72 |0. 1584 |1. 851428571 | |0 |0. 28 |0. 28 |0. 0784 |0. 28 | |0 |0. 56 |0. 56 |0. 3136 |0. 56 | Table According to Profile Variable Gender Gender |High |Above Average |Average |Below Average |Low |Total | |Male |1 |1 |5 |12 |6 |25 | |Female |1 |2 |4 |11 |7 |25 | |total |2 |3 |9 |23 |14 |50 | |  |Gender |  |  |  | |1 |1 |0 |0 |0 | |1 |1 |0 |0 |0 | |1 |1. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 66666666 | |2 |1. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 166666666 | |5 |4. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 055555555 | |4 |4. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 055555555 | |12 |11. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 02173913 | |11 |11. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 02173913 | |6 |6. 5 |-0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 038461538 | |7 |6. 5 |0. 5 |0. 25 |0. 038461538 |

X2= 0. 57 C. V. 0. 05= 9. 49 Name: __________________________________________ Course & Year: _________________ Age: __________ Gender: __________ Date: _______________ Depression Test Objective: Depression test may help you identify any possible depression symptoms that you may be experiencing and whether you should seek a diagnosis or treatment for depression from a qualified doctor or mental health professional. Direction: Examine the following statements and indicate which option best describes or applies to you. As you take the test, answer each question as honestly as possible. 1 – MOST OF THE TIME 2 – OFTEN 3 – SOMETIMES 4 – RARELY 5 – NEVER   |  |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |1 |I experience extremes in mood, moving from elated and hyper to deeply depressed. |  |  |  |  |  | |2 |I feel agitated or restless. |  |  |  |  |  | |3 |I feel so guilty that I can barely take it. |  |  |  |  |  | |4 |I feel like there is nothing to look forward to when I wake up in the morning. |  |  |  |  |  | |5 |I feel that I am not loved by my friends, family, and/or my romantic partner. |  |  |  |  |  | |6 |I think about death.   |  |  |  |  | |7 |I cannot make up my mind quickly when needed. |  |  |  |  |  | |8 |I only notice the sad or negative headlines. |  |  |  |  |  | |9 |I get mad at myself if I do not achieve the goals I have set out to reach. |  |  |  |  |  | |10 |I feel anxious when I go out of the house alone. |  |  |  |  |  | |11 |I keep myself up at night thinking about the things going on in my life. |  |  |  |  |  | |12 |I have recurrent thoughts about ending my life.   |  |  |  |  | |  |  |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |13 |I feel bad about myself. |  |  |  |  |  | |14 |I still find a way to blame myself even when forces beyond my control prevent me from |  |  |  |  |  | | |reaching a goal. | | | | | | |15 |I feel like I will never get over it when things go wrong in my life. |  |  |  |  |  | |16 |I believe that I will not have a happy relationship with anyone.   |  |  |  |  | |17 |I have a persistent feeling of emptiness. |  |  |  |  |  | |18 |I wake up early in the morning and cannot go back to sleep. | | | | | | |19 |I always feel tired and irritable. |  |  |  |  |  | |20 |I feel slowed down (physically or mentally). |  |  |  |  |  | |21 |I feel tired even after a good rest. |  |  |  |  |  | |22 |I tend to think that I am not smart enough when I am struggling in work or in school. |  |  |  |  |  | |23 |I always feel sad and troubled every day.   |  |  |  |  | |24 |I do not want to tell others when bad things happen to me because the last thing I want |  |  |  |  |  | | |is for them to pity me. | | | | | | |25 |I overanalyze my relationships with others, finding problems that do not really exist. |  |  |  |  |  | |26 |I feel like crying for no apparent reason. |  |  |  |  |  | |27 |I have difficulty in concentrating and remembering things to do. |  |  |  |  |  | |28 |I cannot forgive myself if I fail to achieve what I have set out to do.   |  |  |  |  | |29 |I feel that I do not deserve to be loved. |  |  |  |  |  | |30 |I feel like ending my life. |  |  |  |  |  | |31 |I cannot seem to get started on important projects or tasks I need to take care of. |  |  |  |  |  | |32 |I have been called overly sensitive. |  |  | |  |  | |33 |I act based on what others will think of me, rather than based on how I would really like|  |  |  |  |  | | |to proceed. | | | | | | |34 |I am (or I have been told that I am) unusually irritable.   |  |  |  |  | |35 |I feel physically weak. |  |  |  |  |  | |36 |I cannot take care of myself and of those who depend on me. |  |  |  |  |  | |37 |I feel that I am unlovable or unattractive. |  |  |  |  |  | |38 |I am not contented in my life. |  |  |  |  |  | |39 |I feel like I am hurting people by just being around. |  |  |  |  |  | |40 |I mess up everything I touch. |  |  |  |  |  | |41 |I cannot think as clearly as ever.   |  |  |  |  | |42 |I do not get pleasure anymore out of most (or all) of the things and activities that I |  |  |  |  |  | | |used to enjoy. | | | | | | |43 |I keep failures and disappointments to myself to avoid being judged by others. |  |  |  |  |  | |  |  |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |44 |I feel worthless. |  |  |  |  |  | |45 |I am so tired that I cannot carry on with my usual activities.   |  |  |  |  | |46 |I feel that nobody listens to any of my sentiments. |  |  |  |  |  | |47 |I loose my concentration to everything I do. |  | |  |  |  | |48 |I tend to be sensitive in interactions with others, noticing even the subtlest insult or |  |  |  |  |  | | |mocking tone of voice. | | | | | | |49 |I have lost/gained weight without trying to. |  |  |  |  |  | |50 |I feel there is something seriously wrong with me. |  |  |  |  |  | Bibliography: http://www. essons4living. com/depression_test2. htm http://www. queendom. com/tests/access_page/index. htm? idRegTest=1123 http://www. findingstone. com/services/tests/depressiontest. htm Scoring: 1. – 1. 80 = High Depression 1. 81 – 2. 60 = Above Average Depression 2. 61 – 3. 40 = Average Depression 3. 41 – 4. 20 = Below Average Depression 4. 21 – 5. 00 = Low Depression ———————– Depression Level • High • Above Average • Average • Below Average • Low Depression Test 4th year college students in the University of the East Manila -0. 07 0. 211660104 3. 64 – 3. 71 [pic] 25 25 -0. 07 [pic] O. V. = 0. 33 C. V. = 2. 0106 0. 33 -0. 07 [pic]

Custom writing services

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out