Education is the run manner of scholar on where he can confront the challenges of the universe every bit good as the society. It plays a critical function to put moral, societal and economic criterions of any state and has a really strong consequence on ideas, believes and planning of future constabularies of a state. Education is a state edifice and globally inter-related activity that unlocks the door to modernisation.
Education is the right of every kid and it is the duty of the State to supply educational installations to each and every kid. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 ( as cited in National Education Policy, 1998-2010 ) provinces, “ Everyone has the right to instruction ” .
The quality instruction is a necessary and inevitable agent for alteration as instruction is a procedure of civilisation and development. Recent grounds of a significant nexus between quality of schooling and single productiveness suggests that, from an economic efficiency position, quality facets of instruction deserve attending. Harmonizing to the Imran ( 2011 ) , the construct of quality in every field is complex in nature, elements, constituents, and in every regard. Quality is the most respectable but the slipperiest term in the field of instruction. Sometimes it is used in appraising sense, for illustration as a graduated table of goodness. Sometimes it is implied to seek some alone features. The quality in instruction refers to the criterion of direction, educational installations, course of study, methods of instruction, pupils, exanimation system, learning staff etc. Secondary instruction holds cardinal place in an educational system of every state, as it is a terminal phase for most of pupils and it besides serves as a linkage between simple phase and higher instruction. As it provides input for higher instruction and hence quality of higher instruction is dependent upon secondary instruction ( AIOU, 1997 ) .
Secondary instruction ( IXXII ) is an of import sub-sector of the full educational system. It provides the in-between degree work force for the economic system on one manus and on the other it acts as a feeder for the higher degree of instruction. Higher instruction, which produces quality professionals in different Fieldss, is based on the quality of secondary instruction. Therefore, this degree of instruction demands to be revamped in such a manner that it may fix immature work forces and adult females for the chase of higher instruction every bit good as may besides fix them to set in their practical lives meaningfully and fruitfully ( GOP, 1998 )
Developed states have economic and political stability due to their organized construction for instruction. On the other manus, quality of instruction is hapless at all degrees in developing and under developed states. Developing states like Pakistan need proper alterations in their educational systems harmonizing to the demands of their society and to accomplish their national aims. The criterion of instruction or quality of instruction is really low in Pakistan. Without bettering quality of instruction, we can non maintain gait with the modern epoch. Keeping this issue in position it was the demand of the twenty-four hours to compare the quality of secondary school instruction in public and in private managed schools to the factual place. Iqbal ( 1987 ) reported that pupils in developing states have a low average degree of accomplishment compared to industrial states and their public presentation shows a much greater fluctuation around the mean. Harmonizing to a study of the World Bank ( 1999 ) , the chief things which authoritiess can make to better the quality of instruction are puting criterions, back uping inputs to better, accomplishments, following flexible schemes for the acquisition and usage of inputs, and supervising public presentation. By and large the stairss are non taken because of the weight of the bing instruction hurrying and direction patterns. Learning procedure requires five inputs: the pupil with larning capableness, capable or information to be transferred, teacher holding bid on the topic, clip for acquisition, and tools for learning and acquisition.
Secondary instruction holds a cardinal place as it is the terminal phase for the bulk of pupils. The largest figure of educated work force in Pakistan is available at this phase. The economic experts believe the secondary instruction to be a anchor of the economic system while the sociologists consider it is an effectual arm of societal reforms. It can be said that the secondary instruction is strongly related with the economic advancement and societal public assistance of the state ( Ali, 1970 ) .
Two chief sectors working side by side in the field of secondary instruction are private and authorities sector in Pakistan. National Education Policy ( 1979 ) identified that private sector plays an of import function in the development of instruction in a state. It helps both in the qualitative betterment and enlargement. Private sector bears a good trade of outgos burden on this of import societal cause even in the most advanced states. In a state like Pakistan where the population growing rate is about 3 per centum, yearly and merely approximately 20 per centum of the bing kids are in the secondary schools, the support of the private sector is severely needed to portion this immense load. Government entirely can non construct and run all the schools required for this intent
Aims of the survey
This survey seeks to compare the quality of instruction of public and private schools of Gujranwala and the aims of survey were as:
To compare the consequences of their pupils who appeared in boards ‘ scrutiny.
To compare the quality of instruction in footings of physical installations and substructure qualities.
To compare the ability of instructors.
To compare their fee and salary construction.
To compare their educational procedures.
Significance of the survey
Quality instruction includes iˆ Learners, Environments, Content, Processes and Outcomes ( UNICEF, 2000 ) . Government sector is unable to suit the demands of quickly turning population. No 1 can deny the importance of private sector. Different surveies have highlighted the lacking quality of private sector. This survey endeavors to place the quality of larning environment and substructure in public and private schools. The consequences of this survey will be huge aid to the parents, pupils and general populace in the designation of the quality of public and private schools.
This survey will besides be imperative for contrivers and policy shapers to heighten the quality of instruction and supply footing for reforms in instruction to get the better of all failings of public and private schools by integrating all the superior facets of both sectors.
The research worker aims to pull the comparing the criterions of public and private secondary schools of Gujranwala in footings of quality of instruction.
Research Questions or Hypothesis
Q1: How can we compare quality of instruction in footings of quality of physical installations and substructure?
Q2: What is the difference of fee construction of public and private schools?
Q3: What is the difference of salary bundle of the instructors of public and private schools?
Q4: What is the difference of making of instructors of public and private schools?
Q 5: What is the difference of difference of occupation term of office of public and private schools?
Q6: What is the difference of making of principals of public and private schools?
Q7: What is the difference of professional making of instructors and principals of public and private schools?
In this chapter, a elaborate reappraisal of accessible literature on the quality of secondary instruction in Pakistan has been presented along with a critical reappraisal of the related research has besides been presented at the terminal.
Role of Education
Education is a powerful drive force which drives mental, physical, ideological and moral readying of an person, so at the same clip it ease them to hold full consciousness of an instrument for their religious development along with the material fulfilment of human existences. With- in the context of Islamic – perceptual experience, instruction is an instrument for developing the attitude of persons in conformity with the value of righteousness which helps to construct a sound Islamic society ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1998 ) .
Education plays an of import function in human resource development as it increases the end product, competency of persons and produces adept work force that is capable of taking the economic development. Importance of Education for human resource development does non necessitate any justification. The developed states give highest precedence to instruction ; same is the instance with the developing states. The fundamental law of Pakistan defines instruction as one of the cardinal rights of a citizen every bit good as constitutional committedness of the authorities accepts to supply entree to instruction to every citizen ( Govt. of Pakistan, 2000 ) .
Formal Education System of Pakistan
“ The Government of Pakistan shall supply free and mandatory instruction to maximal kids of the province. It might be determined by jurisprudence. ” ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1972 ) .
The intent of instruction is to extinguish the poorness and to better the societal behaviour. Education enhances the societal and ethical development. In formal instruction system, there are figure of phases.
The age-group for the pre-schooling is 3 to 5 old ages ( before one category, in Public schools Kachi category and in private schools. Play group /nursery/ homework ) .
The age-group for primary is 5 to 9 old ages ( Class 1 to 5 ) .
The age-group is 10 to 12years ( Class 6 to 8 ) .
Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education [ BISE ] conducts the scrutiny ( Class 9 & A ; 10 ) .
Higher Secondary/Intermediate Education
BISE awards the certification of Higher Secondary School Education ( HSSC ) ( Class 11 & A ; 12 ) .
Four old ages instruction after Higher Secondary Education is considered as higher instruction. Two old ages for Bachelor ‘s grade and farther 2 old ages for Master ‘s grade. BS awards is besides equal to this grade. M. Phil and PhD plans are besides farther promotion after the completion of maestro grade.
Academy of Educational Planning and Management ( 2010-11 ) reported the elaborate analysis of instruction system in Pakistan.
Beginning: Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Govt. of Pakistan ( 2010 )
Figure 2.1: Structure of instruction Sector in Pakistan
Education system of Pakistan is comprised of 270,825 establishments and is easing 40,926,661 pupils with the aid of 1,507,100 instructors. The system is composed of 194,151 public establishments and 76,674 private establishments. The public sector is functioning 26.63 million pupils to finish their instruction while the staying 13.96 million pupils are in private sector of instruction ( AEPM, 2010-11 ) .
Importance of Secondary Education
It is a true fact that fate of a state is shaped in the schoolrooms which implies that instruction is the chief beginning of advancement and development. It can be said without any vacillation that instruction can be largely responsible for the hereafter of Pakistan. Through instruction, state edifice procedure for the hereafter citizens of the state can take topographic point. As shortly the instruction molds pupils, state will be molded. From this point of position, a batch of duties lie with the educationalist for quality instruction. Therefore, the instruction must be qualitative so that the pupils may develop necessary cognition, attitude and accomplishments to execute their responsibilities efficaciously. It is in this context that quality instruction becomes the most of import component to heighten the quality of life in any state. It is so worthwhile to raise some issues in this respect and think of their solution ( AEPM, 2010-11 ) .
In the earlier period of Pakistan, the highest precedences were literacy and numeracy in the schools. But subsequently, personal growing with the communicating accomplishment, accomplishment for societal life, problem-solving accomplishment and co-ordination of physical and mental accomplishments got attending and importance by the society. Schools contribute its function in a vivacious manner through the course of study. Secondary schools develop the ability of logical thinking, proper usage of linguistic communication, societal and emotional stability in the pupils. Secondary instruction plays a major function to bring forth realistic and adept pupils.
Secondary instruction in all over the universe recognized as an of import degree. The quality of higher instruction is depended upon the quality of this phase. This is the important age of adolescence for young person ( AEPM, 2010-11 ) .
In Italy higher secondary schools ware called “ tribunal schools ” . In England these types of schools were named “ Grammar Schools ” in1510.In USA foremost junior “ Inter montage ” came into being in California in 1907. In Pakistan, secondary instruction consists of four categories IX to XII. These are called secondary and higher secondary. In Pakistan higher secondary schools were established in 1954-55 ( Shahzad, 2007 ) .
Harmonizing to the National Education Policy ( 1979 ) , the instruction system consists of three degrees as:
Elementary Education: I to VIII
Secondary Education: IX to XII
Higher Education: Thirteen and so on ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1979 ) .
Five Year Plans and Secondary Education
Eight Five Old ages programs were presented by Government of Pakistan for the improvement of instruction in Pakistan.
The First Five-Year Plan ( 1955-60 )
Harmonizing to the First Five-Year Plan ( 1955-60 ) , the chief aims of secondary instruction were to present diversified classs in commercialism, agribusiness and proficient topics, to better the quality and to increase the figure of secondary schools. With the aid of repeat of history and political orientation of Pakistan, character edifice can be possible at secondary degree. Mathematicss and scientific discipline are mandatory topics for person ‘s calling. 15 schools will be upgraded to high degree. 75 new public schools will be opened. Grants-in-aid will be given to 100 privateschools.500 center and 100 high schools will be improved by adding scientific discipline classs. Registration in high schools increased from 0.109 million in 1955 to 0.149 million in 1960 ( Memon, 1986 ) .In this program the more accent on the measure instead than quality. The Second Five Year Plan ( 1960-65 )
The chief aims of the 2nd five twelvemonth program are integrating of in-between categories in higher secondary schools, variegation of classs, counsel coders, gap of residential schools, and increase of registration of secondary instruction ( Iqbal, 1993 ) . During the Plan 160 high schools were opened with all physical installations. 103 in-between schools were up-graded to high schools.
Harmonizing to Hussain ( 2003 ) , “ the plan for secondary instruction proposed in the program will increase the registration by 430.000 pupils at this degree. ” The program shapers emphasized on measure merely and cipher was concerned about the quality of instruction provided to the pupils.
The Third Five-Year Plan ( 1965-70 )
Iqbal ( 1993 ) defines the aims of the 3rd five twelvemonth program. The chief aims of secondary instruction are in-between phase would be mandatory, development of educational installations, upgrading of in-between schools to high schools, accent on scientific discipline and mathematics, to bring forth adept state, and alter the course of study from general instruction to development of agricultural, commercial and administrative accomplishments. Policy shaper did non concentrate the quality of instruction. Student ‘s registration was the Centre of attending.
Non- Plan Period ( 1970-78 )
Harmonizing to the Iqbal ( 1993 ) that during non-plan period, the chief aims of secondary instruction were to contract down the difference between schools with the aid of comprehensive course of study, to accomplish an registration ratio of 40:60 between scientific discipline and humanistic disciplines programmes and consolidation of go outing secondary schools.
Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1970 ) , “ At the high phase ( Class IX and X ) registration is proposed to be increased by: 35 million against an registration of 77 million at the terminal of 3rd Plan. ”
Fifth Five-Year Plan ( 1978-83 )
The 5th program is really of import in the respect of secondary instruction. There was a outstanding alteration in instruction of measure to quality. Curricula reform aimed at add-on of occupation orient preparation in secondary instruction. 195 Science research labs were constructed. The program provides the agro- proficient classs in 874 schools ( Memon, 1986 ) . Care and betterment of installations in all secondary schools would be mandatory. Although the necessity and importance of secondary instruction was accepted in all stakeholders, but subsequently decision makers neglected the said steps.
The Sixth Five-Year Plan ( 1983-88 )
Education is really necessary for the development of a society. Without instruction, no 1 has of all time been uplift himself and ne’er assist supply economically benefits to his state. In harmonizing to 6th program Mathematics, Urdu, Islamiyat, Pakistan Studies and Science topics were the mandatory topics. Particular focal point on mathematics and scientific discipline was indispensable for all pupils at secondary instruction ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1983 ) . Measure of high schools would be increased to 5530 and 1073 in-between schools to be up-graded ( Memon, 1986 ) .
The Seventh Five-Year Plan ( 1988-93 )
The instruction system suffers from critical status. Forty per centum of the kids do non hold entree to instruction. Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1988 ) , “ The 7th program scheme was to increase the literacy rate through betterment and enlargement of primary instruction every bit good as to actuate the private sector to play an active function. While it was estimated that the literacy rate will lift to about 40 per centum by 1992-93, the substructure created during the 7th program was expected to give a literacy rate of 80 per centum by terminal of the century. ”
The 7th program will be spread out the secondary instruction installations. The course of study at secondary degree will be changed. For the betterment of quality of instruction in secondary schools, Bachelor of Education ( B.Ed. ) grade holder instructors will be appointed. A little inn for pupils will be provided to secondary schools. One theoretical account school for male childs and one for misss will be launched in each territory for the betterment of quality ( Hussain, 2003 ) .
Eighth Five Year Plan ( 1993-98 )
Education is cardinal right of every kid. To carry through the demand of measure, schools ignored the quality and a big figure of educational establishments were opened without proper substructure. Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1993 ) , “ Facilities for secondary instruction will be extended to absorb the increased end product from primary schools. For this intent, about 2.4 million extra seats in categories VI to X will be created by upgrading primary and in-between schools, set uping new high schools and adding schoolrooms in the bing schools. Construction of extra schoolrooms and betterment of the bing edifices of schools will besides be carried out. In urban countries, 2nd displacement will be introduced in secondary schools wherever executable. ”
Private sector will be appreciated for the partnership to raise the registration at the secondary degree. Curriculum will be revised for better quality. Science laboratories will be provided with better-trained instructors ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1993 ) .
Hussain ( 2003 ) evaluated that “ The 8th national five twelvemonth program will promote in spread of quality educational establishments to the distant countries of the state. Till the terminal of the Eighth program, each territory will hold a theoretical account school for male childs and each division will hold such an establishment for misss in the populace or private sector. Private sector will be encouraged to set up the quality instruction establishments. Government will set up theoretical account schools merely in territories where such establishments do non be under public or private sector ”
National Education Policies in Pakistan
Secondary instruction was discussed in all National Policies of Pakistan.
Report of Commission on National Education ( 1959 )
On 30th December, 1958 the Government of Pakistan appointed a committee. The map of this committee is to analyse all the old studies and all on-going educational motions of the state. The committee recognized secondary instruction as a separate academic unit. The committee besides suggested that the secondary instruction should be divided into three phases ( 6 to 12 ) . Urdu, scientific discipline and mathematics should be taught as mandatory topics. Consequences should be complied on the public presentation of the pupils. Science labs and libraries should be provided in all secondary schools ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1959 ) .
The Education Policy ( 1972-1980 )
On 15th March, 1972 the president of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto presented the Educational policy 1972-1980. He expressed that the instruction system was rendered by the pick of the harvest in Pakistan. The authorities allocated really low budget for the instruction. The intent of instruction should bring forth the state with spiritual positions, traditions and civilization. Education system divided into four phases of primary secondary, college and university. Harmonizing to Memon ( 1986 ) ,
“ Secondary Education should non be abstract enterprise but must associate to the employment chances. The secondary instruction may supply for progressive integrating of general and proficient instruction. The registration in humanistic disciplines topics may be restricted to the bing degree and important addition should be made in scientific discipline and agro proficient instruction ”
National Education Policy, 1979
Secondary instruction was recognized as a terminal phase of pupils in the National Education Policy, 1979. The quality of higher instruction is based on the quality of secondary instruction. Elementary, secondary and university instruction are three degrees of Pakistan ‘s instruction system s. Physical installations such as scientific discipline labs, and libraries would be provided to the secondary schools. Curriculum should be upgraded. Mathematicss would be mandatory capable. One 1000 center schools will be upgraded to high schools and 200 new schools would be opened. New instructors would be appointed ( Ghaffar, 2003 ) .
Board of Intermediate and Secondary would be held the scrutiny system at secondary degree. Estimated needed budget was Rs. 8,073 million for secondary instruction ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1979 ) .
National Education Policy 1998-2010
In the position of National Education Policy 1998-2010, secondary instruction has played important function in the whole instruction system. It enhances the work force for the economic system and bring forth feeder the higher degrees of instruction. The quality of higher instruction is based upon the quality of secondary instruction ( Govt. of Pakistan, 1998 ) .
The policy shapers had pointed out some failing in the secondary instruction such as:
No attractive force for the investor.
Unplanned enlargement and irrational distribution of schools.
Being of scientific discipline and mathematics instructors had non been valued.
Technical and vocational instruction at secondary degree remained a controversial issue.
Physical installations and text editions were deficient.
The undermentioned stairss were identified in the policy for the accomplishment of the aims of secondary instruction in the state:
New theoretical account secondary school would be opened.
Definite career at secondary degree would be introduced.
Revision of course of study would be compulsory.
Multiple text books would be introduced at secondary degree.
In-service and pre-service instructors developing programmes would be arranged.
Project method of learning would be initiated at secondary degree.
Education service committee would be established
Salary constructions of instructors would be based on making.
Education card would be provided to destitute pupils ( Ghaffar, 2003 ) .
The secondary degree input rate is 32 per centum which will be raised to 48 per centum. Harmonizing to Govt. of Pakistan ( 1998 ) , “ Course of study at secondary phase will be based on two rules. First, at it will supply a compulsory nucleus of topics give every student the cognition utile for a underdeveloped society. Second, it will include extra topics and developing to fix the pupils of a definite calling. Curricula for secondary phase ( IX- XII ) shall be revised with a position to excite job resolution, independent thought and in the visible radiation of other aims outlined above.
National Plan of Action 2001-2005
Technical instruction was offered in Matriculation as capable. Its chief intent was to fix pupils for the practical life. After finishing their secondary instruction, they could take the work. National Plan of Action [ NPA ] had mark to set up 1,100 proficient high schools in the state. The chief aims of NPA were to emphasis on instruction of adult females, to heighten engagement of society and to advance the quality instruction. Quality betterment and school effectivity had been given cardinal importance. The chief quality inputs were besides pointed out in the National Plan of Action 2001-2005. National Education Assessment System ( NEAS ) was introduced ( Govt. of Pakistan, 2003 ) .
National Education Policy 2009
The reviewed procedure for the National Education Policy 1998-2010 was shaped in 2005 named “ White Paper ” . This White Paper became the footing of New Policy and finalized in March 2007.The secondary school system prepares immature people for life. Supplying accomplishments to the labour market and supplying input to the higher instruction are two of import functions of secondary instruction. Access at secondary schools in Pakistan is low in comparing to other states.
Average ratio of secondary to primary school is 1: 6 in Pakistan, but in different parts of the state, it is 1:13 ( Govt. of Pakistan, 2009 ) .
Following stairss will be taken for the betterment of secondary instruction in Pakistan:
Provision shall be expanded specially in those locations where the ratio of Secondary schools is low.
Student fiscal support shall be increased.
Students shall present more student-centre teaching methods.
Handiness of reding installations for the pupils.
Life Skills-Based Education ( LSBE ) shall be promoted.