Theories of Leadership and Motivation

Introduction:

Leadership is the character which every administration wants to see in their staff and the individual who is self motivated and who can actuate the squad members become a good director. Leadership is nil but animating the squad leader is the 1 who does it, inspiration is nil but motive. So leading and motive is a chemical science which can take any hard undertaking to success. The leading and motive chemical science is largely helpful in direction sector whether it is in concern or in the squad ; every person posse ‘s leading but the 1 who patterns on the spell go a perfect leader.

The chief facet a leader consists is a vision for the certain intent. When a undertaking or undertaking is taken over by a company the company searches for a leader who posses cognition on the undertaking and vision how to develop the undertaking, make usage of co-workers and give the administration a net income on it. A leader tends to act upon the undertaking to be continued and alter to be taken topographic point to do the administration profitable.

There are several theories on leading by great leaders some of them say that “ leading is an action non place or individual ” . These theories help to fix a perfect leader, all these theories are proposed and practiced by great leaders and directors but latest direction considers a leader who follows his function.

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Leadership theories:

Sing leading reveals school of idea giving different leading theories such as Great Man theory, trait theory, behaviorist theory, situational leading theory, eventuality theory, transactional theory and transformational theory.

Great adult male theory is the 1 proposed before 20th century where it says that leaders are born with the endowment and leader should be a adult male this lead to the following theory trait theory.

Trait theory:

The trait theory rose from the constructs of the ‘Great Man ‘approach. This theory leads to place the of import features of a successful leader. The people who got the characters as defined by the traits attack are isolated or shortlisted and those are recruited as leaders. This type of attack was largely implemented in military and still used in some of the country.

Harmonizing to the trait theory the individual who got the undermentioned accomplishments is said to be a trait.

  • Ambitious and success oriented
  • Adaptable to all sorts of state of affairss
  • Co operative to all the members in the organisation
  • Highly active or energetic
  • Dominative
  • Good determination devising ability
  • Self-assured
  • Adaptable to emphasize conditions and
  • Reliable.

These are the characters which make a individual trait and they should posses some accomplishments which are

  • Skills
  • Intelligent
  • Skilled conceptually
  • Creative
  • Fluent in speech production
  • Tactful
  • Self motivated and self belief
  • Skilled socially

When these sorts of accomplishments and characters are identified in the individual, the individual is recruited in the squad.

Behavioral theory:

The trait survey does n’t give any conclusive consequences and it was difficult to mensurate some more critical issues such as honestness, unity and trueness. This leaded the attending to be diverted on to the behavior theories. The behavior theory focuses on human relationship and success public presentation every bit good.

Harmonizing to behavioral theory the director believes that the working environment should be like an amusement topographic point where the outgo of mental and physical attempts is treated to be drama and remainder. The thought of director is an mean individual non merely learns to accept but besides seek duty. The people will automatically larn to exert self-denial and self way to accomplish the end or mark. The organisational jobs can go inventive and originative.

Contingency theory theoretical account:

This theory illustrates that there are many ways for the director to take the squad to acquire best result. Harmonizing to the state of affairs the director can happen a best manner to acquire the best result.

Fiedler worked on eventuality theory harmonizing to that he looked for three state of affairss which define the status of a managerial undertaking.

  • Leader and squad member relationship
  • Work construction or undertaking construction
  • Position and power

The director should keep relation with their squad members to acquire along and make assurance and do them experience free to believe about the undertaking and give their thoughts to assist the undertaking to be finished. Undertaking construction is the occupation extremely structured or unstructured or in between. The power shows how much authorization a director does posses.

This theory rates the director whether the trough is relationship oriented or undertaking oriented. The undertaking oriented directors gets success in such state of affairss where there is good leader and squad member relationship and structured undertakings or undertakings does n’t count whether the place power is weak or strong. And acquire success when the undertaking is unstructured and does hold any kind of good vision by holding a strong power and place. The variables which affect the undertaking such as environmental variables are combined in a heavy some and differentiated as favorable and unfavorable state of affairss. The undertaking oriented direction manner depends on the favorable and unfavorable environment variables but the relationship direction manner stays in the center by pull offing or altering the variables to roll up with their manner.

Both manners of directions got their sides to be good when all the public presentation and squad work good in the undertakings. There is no good or bad direction in these two directions. Task motivated direction manner leaders do best when the squad performs good and they are good in accomplishing good gross revenues record and public presentation better than their rival where as the relationship oriented leaders are helpful to derive positive client service and construct a positive image to the administration.

Transactional and transformational leading:

Transformational leading “ is a relationship of common simulation and lift that converts the followings in to leaders and may change over leaders into moral agents ”

Transformational leading is pass oning with the leaders and the squad members to take them to higher degree something like a leader can go a moral agent and the follower can go a leader.

Transactional leading technique builds the individual to complete the certain undertaking such as occupation done for the clip being.

Some of the differences between transactional and transformational leading are

Transactional manner of leading builds a adult male to finish a certain undertaking where as transformational manners builds a member to go a leader.

This focuses on undertaking completion and tactical manner of direction where as transformational leading focal point on schemes and missions.

These are some theories of the leading which shows how a leader act on different state of affairss and how different leaders behave to acquire success in the organisation.

Motivation in Management:

Theories of motive:

The theories of motive can be divided into 3 wide classs.

Reinforcement theories – stress the agencies through which the procedure of commanding an person ‘s behaviour by pull stringsing its effects takes topographic point

. .

Contented theories – focal point chiefly on single demands – the physiological or psychological lacks that we feel a irresistible impulse to cut down or extinguish.

Procedure theories – focal point on the idea or cognitive procedures that take topographic point within the heads of people and that control their behaviour.

Early Theories of Motivation:

  • Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • Theory X and Theory Y
  • Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Contemporary Theories of Motivation:

  • ERG Theory
  • McClelland ‘s Theory of Needs
  • Cognitive Evaluation Theory
  • Undertaking Features Theories
  • Goal-Setting Theory
  • Equity Theory

Hierarchy of Needs Theory:

Abraham Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five demands:

  1. Physiological.
  2. Safety.
  3. Social.
  4. Esteem.
  5. Self-actualization.

Maslow so categorized these 5 demands into lower-order demands and higher-order needs.Lower-order demands are needs that are satisfied externally: physiological and safety needs.Higher-order demands are needs that are satisfied internally ( within the individual ) : societal, esteem, and self-actualization demands.

Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGrogor:

McGregor concluded that a director ‘s vision of the nature of human existences is based on a certain blend of premises and that he or she tends to model his or her actions toward subsidiaries harmonizing to these premises:

  • Employees of course dislike work and, whenever possible, will try to avoid it
  • Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with penalty to accomplish ends
  • Employees will avoid duties and seek formal way whenever possible

Motivation-hygiene Theory:

Harmonizing to Herzberg, the factors taking to occupation satisfaction are spliting and distinguishable from those that leads to occupation dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors include factors such as: company policy and disposal, supervising, interpersonal dealingss, working conditions, and salary. Motivator factors include factors such as: attainment, acknowledgment, the work itself, duty and growing.

Hygiene Factors

  • Company regulation and direction ;
  • Supervision ;
  • association with supervisor ;
  • Work fortunes ;
  • Salary ;
  • Relationship with equals ;
  • Personal life ;
  • association with subsidiaries ;
  • Status ;
  • Safety

Incentive Factors:

  • attainment
  • recognition ;
  • Work itself ;
  • Duty ;
  • patterned advance ;
  • Growth

Contemporary Theories of Motivation:

ERG Theory:

ERG Theory proposed by Clayton Alderfer of Yale University: Alderfer fights that there are three groups of nucleus demands:

  1. Being
  2. Relatedness
  3. Growth

Existence group is worried with supplying our basic stuff being demands. Relatedness group is the desire we have for keeping of import interpersonal relationships

McClelland ‘s Theory of Needs:

McClelland ‘s theory of demands focal points on three demands:

  1. Accomplishment
  2. Power
  3. Affiliation

Cognitive Evaluation Theory:

Allocating extrinsic wagess for behavior that had been antecedently per se rewarded tends to diminish the overall degree of motive. ( This construct was proposed in the late sixtiess. ) The mutuality of extrinsic and intrinsic wagess is a existent phenomenon

Undertaking Characteristics Theories:

These theories seek to place undertaking features of occupations, how these features are combined to organize different occupations, and their relationship to employee motive, satisfaction, and public presentation.

Goal-setting theory:

Specific and hard ends lead to higher public presentation. Feedback leads to higher public presentation than non-feedback. In add-on to feedback, 2 other factors have been found to act upon the goals-performance relationship. These are:

  1. Goal committedness.
  2. Sufficient self-efficacy.

Equity Theory:

Persons make comparings of their occupation inputs and outcomes relations to those of others and so move in response so as to take any unfairnesss ‘ . Stacy Adams proposed that this negative tenseness province provides the motive to make something to rectify it.

There are 4 referent comparings that employee can utilize:

  1. Self-inside.
  2. Self-outside.
  3. Other – interior.
  4. Other – exterior.

Decision

The alteration in the leading theories clip by clip says that the leader should posses certain characters which lead the organizational success whether to believe in keeping a relationship or to travel on tactically the director or the leader should move to the state of affairs and acquire success at the terminal. Depending on the companies motive the leader should respond or act with the squad members to accomplish the mark. Normally keeping a good relation helps to do the squad members life easy and pull off the work merrily. The squad members become more advanced and achieve marks easy where as with tactical manner leading may make some kind of force per unit area on the squad members, there is no warrant that in every state of affairs relational ship direction is successful. the leader should accommodate himself for the state of affairs and move harmonizing to a peculiar state of affairs. We have discussed above merely a aggregation of the motive theories and ideas of the assorted advocates of direction.In some of the theories and sentiment presented, nevertheless, one can detect some ‘glimpses ‘ of the individual and how, possibly, he or she could be motivated. This is fulfilling in itself. But, as noted earlier, pattern has been in progress of theory in this field, so allow us now move to the realistic side of direction of human behavior and motive in the workplace.

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