Thesis1

READING MATERIALS IN DEVELOPING VOCABULARY SKILLS OF FIRST YEAR EDUCATION STUDENTS AT PAMANTASAN NG CABUAYO CABUYAO, LAGUNA: AN ASSESSMENT S. Y. 2011-2012 A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao Cabuyao, Laguna In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English by: Magallanes, Neressa B. Manago, Annie Vie A. Minor, Ma. Airene M. Sarinas, Mary Grace C. Villanueva, Elsa L. Villanueva, Lyn G. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The researchers would like to take this opportunity to extend their heartfelt gratitude to those who contributed in the success of the study.

To  our  parents  and  family,  for  loving  and  supporting  us  morally  and  financially. To Dr. Gaudencio L. Lat  for  being  considerate  and  understanding  in  the administration  of the  study. To Professor Honeylie Buitre and Professor Mary Grace Laugico, for giving insights and helping us in the statistical treatment. To Professor  Edwin  Paming  for  allowing  us  to  conduct  the  test  during  his  class. To Professor Michelle Morado, for her competent educational guidance and assistance  from  the  very  start  until  the  completion  of  the  study. To Mr.

Ronnie Batiao for his assistance, valuable advices, and generous support. To  Ms. Annie Vie Manago,  for  letting  us use  her  laptop  for  the  typing  and  editing of  the  manuscript. To Ms. Elham  Kashef  Saberi  and  Ms. Azadeh  Kashef  Saberi  for  their  help, cooperation  and  generous  support  for  the  completion  of  this  study. To  our  teachers,  for  sharing  their  knowledge  and  intelligence  with  the  researchers. To  our  classmates,  for  sharing  ideas,  concepts  and  even  moments  inside  and outside  the  classroom. The Researchers Vocabulary skills, in particular, are important.

Why is it important? What are the advantages one can get from gaining a wide range of vocabulary? How do we learn from reading materials? Is reading materials a significant factor in one’s learning ability? It  is  a  fact  that  reading  materials  helps  in  developing  the  vocabulary  skills of  the  students. They  become  well  informed  by  reading  different  reading materials  such  as  educational  books,  journals,  newspapers,  dictionaries,  and magazines. Most  knowledge  is  transmitted  to  the  printed  page  or  electronically through  the  World  Wide  Web.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Thesis1
or any similar topic only for you
We will write a custom essay sample on
Thesis1
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Order now

However,  based  on the  results  of  the  study,  exposure  to  reading  materials does  not  necessarily  mean  that  you  are  skilled  in  terms  of  vocabulary. There are many  factors  which  needs  to  be  considered  such  as  the  age,  gender,  preferred reading  material,  reading  styles  and  socio-economic  status. The  main  aim  of  this  study  is  to  determine  how  reading  materials  help develop  vocabulary  skills  of  First  Year  Education  of  Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao. How does their learning styles, age, socio-economic status affects the development of their vocabulary skills? Summary of Findings:

The following are the findings of the study: 1. Majority  of  the  respondents  with  the  frequency  of  38  at  38%  belong  to  17 years of  age. Female  respondents  register  at  a  frequency  of  80  comprising  80%  of  the total  number  of  the  respondents. Most  of  the  respondents  belong  to  the  middle class at  a  frequency  of  55%. 2. The  following  are  the  results  of  a  series  of  tests  which  reveals  that  majority  read books with  weighted  mean  of  3. 81,  which  implies  that  the  students  often  read books  rather  than  magazines,  dictionaries,  journals,  and  newspapers. . In  a  series  of  test  conducted,  it  shows  that  book  is  the  common  reading material  read  by  the  students  which  helps  in  developing  vocabulary  skills. 4. The  comparative  analysis   resulted  in  the  significant  relationship  between  the exposure  to  the  different  reading  materials  and  vocabulary skills  development  of the  respondents. 5. The  results  of  the  series  of  the  tests  revealed  that  silent  reading  is  the  preferred  reading  style  of  the  students  which  helps  them develop  their  vocabulary  skills,  with  a  weighted mean  of  2. 3  and  is  verbally  interpreted  as  the  highest  rank  among  other  reading styles. Summary of Conclusions: Based  on  the  above  stated  results  of  the  investigation,  the  following  conclusion are  drawn: 1. A  typical  respondent  of  the  study  is  a  female   First  Year  Education  student  of Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao  belonging  to  the  age  of  17. Furthermore, the  results    showed that  more  or  less  half  of  the  respondents  belong  to  the   middle  class  as  to  their  socio- economic  status  with  a  frequency  of  55  (55%). . The  First  Year Education  students  of  Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao  choose  to  read books frequently  rather  than  magazines,  dictionaries,  journals,  and   newspaper   which could  help  them  in  developing  their  vocabulary  skills. 3. The  common  reading  materials  has  no  bearing  on  developing  vocabulary  skills  of   the First  Year  Education  students  at  Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao. 4. Different  reading  materials  has  no  bearing  on  developing  vocabulary  skills  of   the First Year  Education  at   Pamantasan ng Cabuyao. 5.

Silent,  oral,  and  extensive  reading  are  the  top  three  that  is  most  preferred  reading styles  of  the  First  Year  education  Students  at  Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao   that  helps develop  their  vocabulary  skills. Recommendations: Based  on  the  result  and  conclusion  of  the  investigation,  the researchers  hereby recommend  the  following:  1. The  school  must  provide  interesting  reading  materials  appropriate to  the  age  of  the  students . Therefore,  the   reading  materials must  be  of  general  interest  to  all    readers   both  female  and  male.

Reading  materials  that  contains  interesting  facts  and  trivia’s  tend  to  attract  readers  from both  gender. The  results  also  shows  that  most  of  the  students   from  the  College  of Education   belongs  to  the  middle  class,  but   it  does  not  mean  that  those  students    from low,  higher  and  highest  class  should  be  satisfied  with  their  vocabulary  skills. They  are recommended  to  read  more,  especially   English  in  order  for  them  to  improve  their vocabulary  skills  that  will  be  necessary  in  their  future  professions.

It also recommended that the government should provide reading materials in every schools. 2. The school must provide more interesting reading materials in the library and the teachers should require to their students to go in the library to read newspapers, journals, magazines, books, and dictionaries. They  will  be  motivated   to  read  if  the  reading  materials  provided  for  them concerns  the  affective  domain. 3. More  reading  and  vocabulary  exercises  are  recommended  for  further  enhancement  of the  students  vocabulary  skills.

Even  though  the  students  preferred  to  read  books  as  the most  common  reading  materials  which  helps  in  developing  vocabulary  skills,  the   teachers should   promote  and  motivate   the  students  to  read  other  reading  materials. Teachers should also motivate the students to read magazines, newspapers, journals and dictionaries. 4. It is recommended that students and teachers must read more different reading materials and make as a daily habit in order to develop their vocabulary skills.

Also recommended  that teachers  should  consider  the  different  reading  materials  that  will be  used  and  its  significance, they  should  consider  the individual  differences   of   the  students  in  motivating    them  to  read. 5. The reading styles of the students should continuously indulge   themselves  in  reading  for them to  improve  their  vocabulary  skills. Although  some of  the   respondents  got  average  scores  in  the  test, it  is  not  a  reason  for  them  to  be satisfied.

They  are  still  recommended  to  read  newspaper, magazines, journals, dictionaries, and books  so  they  can enhance  their  vocabulary skills  and  become  effective  teachers  in  the  future. TABLE  OF  CONTENTS PAGE TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………… i APPROVAL SHEET…………………………………………………………. ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………… iii ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………… iv TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………….. v LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….. vi LISTS OF TABLES………………………………………………………….. vii Chapter I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction……………………………………………………………………… 1 Background of the Study                                                                 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………3 Hypotheses of the Study…………………………………………………….. 4 Objectives                                                                                         Scope and Delimitations…………………………………………………. …. 5 Significance of the Study                                  Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………….. 6 Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………. 9 Chapter II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Related Local Literature…………………………………………………. 12 Related Foreign Literature                                                               Related Local Studies…………………………………………………………. 17 Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies…………………………….. 19 Chapter III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research  Design………………………………………………………….. 21 Respondents  of  the  Study                                                                Data  Gathering  Tools/Instrument………………………………………….. 22 Data  Gathering  Procedure Statistical  Treatments  of  Data

Chapter  IV:  PRESENTATION,  ANALYSIS,  AND INTERPRETATION Profile  of  the  Respondent………………………………………………… 26 Statistical  Treatment……………………………………………………27 Reading  Styles  of  the  Respondents…………………………………….. 28 Chapter V:  SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATION SUMMARY………………………………………………………………32 CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………………………. 33 RECOMMENDATION……………………………………………………. 34 APPENDICES Bibliography Survey  Questionnaire Curriculum  Vitae LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1:  CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM LIST  OF  TABLES 1. Table 1. . The percentage distribution of the respondents according to age. Table 1. 2 The percentage distribution of the respondents according to gender. Table 1. 3The percentage distribution of the respondents according to socio- economic status 2 &3. Table 2&3. Kinds of reading materials, common reading materials and frequency of reading that helps in developing vocabulary skills. 4. Table 4. Test of Hypothesis for Pearson Correlation Coefficient Value 5. Table 5. Reading styles of the students which helps them develop their vocabulary skills.

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Reading  is  the  basic  tool  in  learning  other  subjects  taught  in  school. It   is  also an  instrument  in  understanding  the  different  subject  areas  like  arithmetic,  science, social studies,  English  and  other   subjects  depending  on  the  ability  to  read. Some  students are able   to  sound  words  although  they  do  not  know  what  the   word  means. In  the  real sense  this  is  not  reading,  what  the  students  do  is  nothing   but  word   calling (Galves,2005).

When we read, there must be comprehension, otherwise no learning takes   place. Some of the students nowadays are fond of reading books. Some  understand what  the  author  wants  to  convey  while  others  cannot,  others   just  simply  read  it  without analyzing  the  words   used,  or  simply  for  fun  and  entertainment  only. On  the  other  hand, some would consider it as a habit. Reading  books  affect  the  student’s  or  learner’s  way  of  thinking,  the  way  they act, the  way they  communicate and interact with other people.

It proves that learning is limitless because some are not contented in one reference only. Reading is a good hobby, yet it needs proper parental guidance to prevent the child or youth in reading books  or  any  reading   material  which  is  inappropriate  for  their  age  level . Students  often get  addicted  in  reading,  especially  pocketbooks,  and  tend  to  disregard  their  assignments and  even  their  duties  at  home. Reading  is  a  good,  meaningful  and  relaxing  way  of  spending  your  past time, instead  of  playing  cards ,  window  shopping,  and   hanging  out  with  friends.

By  reading, you  will learn  more,  it  will  broaden  your  mind  and  help  you  understand  what  is  the reality of  life. Sometimes,  it  changes  people’s  perception  or  views  in  life  and  somehow develops  and enhances  good  personality,  because  of  the  ideas  and  knowledge  earned from  what  has  been  read. According  to  Cziko  et  al  (2000)  reading  is  sharing  and  getting  information  and idea  from  the  text. Many  people  think  of  reading  skills  which  is  taught  once   and  for all  on  few  years  of  school.

More often credits (or blame)  for  students  reading  ability goes  to  primary  teachers. Upper elementary and secondary school teachers at grade level only  need  to  teach  new  concepts  relevant  to  their  students  ability  to  comprehend. See this way, reading   process; readers decode each word in a text and then automatically comprehend  the  meaning  of  the  words  as  they  do  their  everyday   spoken   language. Reading   makes   our   mind  active  because  it  is  significant  to  apply    the  acquired knowledge   in  our  daily  lives.

Our   imagination expands    and enhances   our cognitive ability through what the readers have read. Also,  through  reading ,  ability  to  analyze  and evaluate  the  text  to  criticize  or  make  some  conclusion  is  also  developed. In   reading, you   recognize the structure of grammar. A  child  exposed  in    reading  earlier  in  his/her childhood   stage    provides  exercise  in  his/ her  mind. It   also develops their cognitive ability and improves their intelligence.

It  is  for  this  reason  that  the  researchers  will  undertake  this  study  and  use the  first  year  Education  students  as  the   respondents;  the  purpose  is  to  find  out  how students  would  cope  with  their  education  by  means of  determining  the  reading materials   that  could  enhance  the  vocabulary  of  the  students. Objectives 1. To determine the vocabulary development of the respondents when grouped according to:   1. 1     Age 1. 2     Gender 1. 3     Socio-economic status 2. To determine  the  kind  of  reading  materials  being  read  and  the   frequency  of  reading. 3.

To  determine  what  reading  materials  commonly  read  by  the  students  helps  in  developing  their  vocabulary  skills. 4. To  determine  the  significant  relationship between  exposure of  different  reading  materials  and  developing  the  vocabulary  skills  of  the  students. 5. To  ascertain   the  reading  styles  of  the  students  in  developing  vocabulary  skills. Statement of the Problem This  study  will  attempt  to  find  out  on  how  reading  materials  help  in  developing the  vocabulary  skills  of  the  students/learners  particularly  in selected First  Year  Education students  (BSED and BEEd)  at  PnC.

Specifically, the study will be answering the following questions: 1. What  is  the  demographic  profile  of  the  respondents  in  terms  of: 1. 1  Age; 1. 2 Gender; and 1. 2  Socio-economic Status? 2. What kind of reading materials are being read and the frequency of reading? 3. What  are  the  common  reading  materials  read  by  the  students  that  helps  in developing  their  vocabulary  skills:              3. 1 Books; 3. 2. Magazines; 3. 3. Journals; 3. 4. Newspapers; and 3. 5. Dictionary? 4.

Is  there  any  significant  relationship  of  exposure  in  different  reading  materials  and   developing vocabulary  skills  of  the  students? 5. What  are  the  reading  styles  of  the  students  which  helps  them  to  develop  their             vocabulary  skills? Hypothesis of the Study To  be  able  to  answer  the  above  questions,  the  study  divided  the  following hypothesis. Null  hypothesis-  There  is  no  significant  relationship  between  exposure  to  different reading  materials  and  the  vocabulary  skills  of  the  students.

Alternative  hypothesis-  There  is  a  significant  relationship  between  exposure  to different  reading  materials  and  the  vocabulary  skills  of  the  students. Objectives 1. To  determine  the   vocabulary  development  of  the  respondents  when grouped according   to: 1. 1  Age; 1. 2  Gender 1. 3  Socioeconomic  status 2. To determine  the  kind  of  reading  materials  being  read  and  the   frequency  of  reading. 3. To  determine  what  reading  materials  commonly  read  by  the  students  helps  in  developing  their  vocabulary  skills. . To  determine  the  significant  relationship between  exposure  of  different  reading  materials  and  developing  the  vocabulary  skills  of  the  students. 5. To  ascertain   the  reading  styles  of  the  students  in  developing  vocabulary  skills. SCOPE AND LIMITATION This  study  limits  its  coverage  on  first  year  Education  students  at  Pamantasan ng Cabuyao,  Laguna. It’s  main  purpose  is  to  determine  the  effectiveness  of  reading materials  in  developing   vocabulary  skills  of  the  respondents.

In  this  study,  the researchers  limit  the  use  of  English  reading  materials  on  the  following:   educational books,  journals, magazines,  newspapers,  and  dictionary. The  researchers  limits  their  reading styles  in  oral,  silent,  scanning,  skimming,  extensive,  and  intensive  types  of  reading. DELIMITATION This  study  did not cover  other  courses, year  levels, other  reading materials  other  than  educational books,  journals, magazines,  newspapers, and dictionary and  reading  styles  other  than  oral,  silent,, scanning,  skimming,  extensive, intensive  reading  styles of  the  respondents.

SIGNIFICANCE  OF  THE STUDY This  research  study  wants  to  gain  information  on  the  reading materials  in developing  vocabulary  skills  of  selected  First Year  Education  students  at  Pamantasan ng  Cabuyao,  Laguna,  school  year  2011-2012. This  will  serve  as  the   springboard  or basis  to  improve  the  vocabulary  skills  of  the  students. School Administrators. The  result  can  be  used  as  the  basis  for  providing reading  materials  taking  into  consideration  the  needs  of  college  students in developing their vocabulary skills.

School Instructors and Professors. The  findings   of  the  study  could  help instructors  and  professors  to  identify  the  reading  materials  being  used  where  they have  to  apply  certain  techniques  and  strategies  in  relation  of  developing  vocabulary skills. Students. The   result   of   the  study  may  provide  the  concerned  pupils how to  broaden  the  vocabulary  skills. Theoretical framework: Robert  Gagne’s  Information  Processing  Theory  or  Information-processing Approach  (1950).

The  two  theoretical  ideas  considered  fundamental  to  cognitive psychology  and  information processing  framework  were  “chunking”  and  the  test-operate- test-exit  (TOTE). Chunk  is  any  meaningful  unit  of  information  and  is  good  or appropriate  for  the  capacity  of the  short-term  memory,  like  for  example  familiarizing  any digit,  word,  chess  positions,  or  students’  faces. It  implies  that  short-term  memory  could only  hold  5-9  chunks  of  information  either  seven  plus  or  minus  two. TOTE  can  possibly replace  the  stimulus  response  as  fundamental  unit  of  behavior.

Here,  there  is  aconduction  of  testing  cycle  which  is  repeated  for  several  times  to  determine  the  success of  its  operation  until  the  goal  is  achieved  which  can  be  a  good  foundation  for  problem- solving  tasks. Origin  of  information  processing  theory  began  in  cybernetics,  game  theory, communication  theory  and  information  theory  which  gained  its  popularity  when  these things  reach  their  full  development. This  theory  likened  the  mind  to  a  processing  system where  knowledge  is  represented  in  the form  of  symbols.

It  is  important  to  study  information-processing  approach  in  order  to  understand how  information  is  encoded,   processed,  stored,  and  retrieved. In  sensory  registers, information  from  external  environment  is  represented  in  its  original  sensory  form  where there  is  a  separate  register  for  each  sensory  modality  like  visual,  auditory,  tactile, kinesthetic,  or  olfactory  that  can  hold  large  amount  of  information,  yet  only  for  a  matter of  milliseconds. Information  can  be  lost  at  the  end  of  that  time  unless  it  can  be described  during  the  pattern  recognition  process.

Short-term Memory  System (STM)  functions  in  two  important  ways:  1)  it organizes  information  by  integrating  new  information  with  the  existing  information  and  2) it  temporarily  stores  information  for  the  learners’  use  (Kameenui,  Carnine,  Dixon, Simmons,  &  Coyne,  2002). Also  known  as  the  working  memory,  the  short-term memory  system  has  a  smaller  capacity,  but  its  representations  are  more durable. In STM,  we  utilize  different  strategies  and  techniques  to  remember  or  solve  problems.

Limited  pieces  of  information  only  can  be  stored,  and  for  a  short  period  of  time. On the  other  hand,  if  we  do  some  cognitive  operations  on  the  data,  we  can  store  them in  the  long-term  memory (LTM). Data  that  is  stored  at  the  LTM  is  expected  to  be stored  indefinitely,  and  is  labeled  as  verbal  or  visual  information  for  future  use; it includes  the  episodic  and  semantic  knowledge. There  are  several  ways  to develop/strengthen  the  short-term  memory  system  these  are  repetition,  chunking, identification  of  logical  patterns  Brownell (2002).

The  Long-term  Memory  System  (LTM)  is  a  warehouse  of  knowledge. It  is  also known  as  data  bank  that  stores  information  likened  to  a  floppy  disk,  hard  desktop  USB that  stores  huge  amount  of  information. When  we  perceive  something  with  our  sensory modalities,  we  are  able  to  form  and  arrange  information  into  meaningful  order  as  we progressively  make  connections  in  our  brain. The  group  of  neurons  help  us  integrate knowledge,  arrange  it,  and  utilize  it  in  a  meaningful  context  so  we  can  understand  the everyday  occurrences.

For  sensory  input  to  be  effective,  all  our senses  should  be  fully operational. A  student  who  cannot   see  or  hear  better  is  not  in  better  condition  to  attend to  and  process  the  environmental  stimuli. Brownell  (2002)  also  identified  certain  LTM techniques  they  are  association,  categorization,  mediation,  imagery,  and  mnemonics. Aquino (2009). According to Lockhart (2000)  that  in  recall,  you  produce  a  fact,  a  word,  or  other item  from  memory. Fill-  in  -the-  blank  tests  require  that  you  recall  items  from  memory.

In  recognition,  you  select  or  otherwise  identify  an  item  as  being  one  that  you  learned previously. Working  memory  holds  only  the  most  recently  activated   portion  of  long-term memory,  and  it  moves  these  activated  elements  into  and  out  of  brief,  temporary  memory storage  ( Dosher). Conceptual  Framework: Input Process Output Definition  of  Terms The  following  words  are  used  operationally  in  this  study: Communication.

This  refers  in  giving  or  receiving  of  information,  this  can  be  done  by gestures,  writings  and  by  talking. Comprehension. This  refers  to  the  readers  understanding  to  what  the  author  has  written. according  to  the  expert,  it  requires the  fusion  in  meanings  of  separate words   into  chain  of  related  ideas. Decode – Figure out how to pronounce. Education – This refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities and attitude, through instruction  and  training. Effectiveness. This  word  refers  to  an expected  response. It  is  synonymous  to  the word   success.

Extensive reading. Comprehensive  reading  of  long  texts  or  books  for  the expres purpose  of  discerning  global  meaning  images  is  the  art  of  extensive reading. It  is  reading  imaginatively,  creatively,  and  critically. Intensive reading. This reading strategy which is  characterized  by deliberate attention and    deep  concentration. It  is  reading  for  details. Learning. This  refers  to  the  psychological  activity  in  development  such  as acquisition   of   symbol  knowledge  or  motor  skills,  and  as  intellectual and   creative  process.

Long  term  memory. Warehouse  of  knowledge  and  also  known  as  data  bank  that  stores information   likened  to  floppy  disk,  hard  disk,  or  USB  that  stores huge   amount  of  information. Reading. Refers  to  the  recognition  of  printed  or  written  symbol,  which  serve as stimuli   for  the  recall. Reading   Interest. This  refers  to  the  pleasure  or  enjoyment  of  someone  when  interprets or understand  a  reading  materials. Sensory   Register. Information    from external environment is represented  in  its  original sensory   form.

Scanning. The research for a specific information or for an appropriate answer to a particular question is referred to as scanning. Skimming. As  a   strategy,  skimming  refers  to  the  method  of  glancing  rapidly through  the  reading selection or text for the purpose of  extracting  the thought , the  gist  or  main  points. Short  term memory. Temporarily stores information for the learner’s use, also known as   the working  memory. It  has  a  smaller  capacity  but  its representations   are  more  durable. Chapter 2

RELATED  LITERATURE  AND  STUDIES The  literature  that  follow  are  taken  from  different  authors  that  enlighten  the researchers  on  angle  and  aspects  of  the  current  study. RELATED  LITERATURE Local  Literature Reading  is  a  dynamic  process  in  which    the  reader  interacts  with  the  text  to construct   meaning. Inherent  in  constructing  meaning  is  the  reader’s  ability  to  activate prior  knowledge  use reading  strategies  and  adapt  to  the  reading  situation. (Ma. Cecilia Crudo 2005) Foreign  Literature

The  importance  of  vocabulary  to  life  success  makes  it  of  practical  importance  for Investigation  (Hoff 2007). Executive  functioning  refers  to  a  variety  of  related  cognitive  skills  that  involve  the ability  to  maintain  task-relevant  information  in  short-term  memory,  as  well  as  the  ability to  manipulate  this  information  through  the  engagement  of  focused  attention  (National Institute  of  Child  Health  and  Human  Development  Early  Child  Care  Research  Network [NICHD ECCRN],  2005;  Wolfe  Bell,  2007).

Among  these  skills  are  working  memory and  cognitive  inhibitory  control,  both  of  which  are  associated  with  frontal  lobe  function. Children  who  are  able  to  engage  in  goal-directed  behavior  by  reducing  their  attention  to distracting  stimuli,  either  internal  or  external,  demonstrate  such  skills. When  in  a  learning situation  with  other  children  or  adults,  increasing  levels  of  shyness  may  be  associated with  a  decreased  ability  to  focus  attention  on  the  task  at  hand.

Exploration  of,  and  engagement  with,  the  environment  fosters  the  development  of vocabulary  (Hart, 2004; Horn & Blankson, 2005;). Family environments provide opportunities for the development of vocabulary. Individuals  who are  reared  in  home  environments  that  encourage  exploration  have  many  opportunities  for the   development  of  vocabulary.

Indeed,   research   has  repeatedly  supported  the proposition  that  opportunities  for  productive  activity—the  extent  to  which  toys  and learning  materials  are  available  in  the  home  environment,  along  with  the  extent  to  which parents  directly  teach  their  child  concepts  and  take  their  child  to  places  and  events  that provide  enrichment–are  positively  related  to  vocabulary  (Bradley & Corwyn, 2005; Bradley,Corwyn, Burchinal, McAdoo, & Garcia Coll, 2001;).

Research  also  indicates  that  engagement  in  productive  activities  is  related  to  attention focusing  and  memory,  both  of  which  are  elements  of  executive  functioning  (NICHD ECCRN, 2005). Swerling  (2005)  opines  that  reading  of  text-such  as  books, magazines  and newspapers,  plays  a  key  role  in  developments  of  reading  fluency  (speed  and  ease  of reading),  vocabulary,  background  and  even  spelling.

Memory  is  the  means  by  which  we  retain  and  draw  on  our  past experiences  to use  that information  about  past  experience( Tulving 2000; and  Craik,2000). As  process, memory  refers  to  the  dynamic  mechanisms  associated  with  storing,  retaining,  and retrieving  information  about  past  experience (Hernandez Blase, 2003). Specifically,  cognitive psychologist  have  identified  three  common  operations  of  memory:  encoding,  storage,  and retrieval(Baddeley,2000).

According  to Lockhart,(2000)  that  in  recall,  you  produce  a  fact,  a  word,  or  other item  from  memory. Fill-  in  -the-  blank  tests  require  that  you  recall  items  from  memory. in  recognition. RELATED  STUDIES Foreign  Studies According  to  Ehri and Rosenthal (2011),  an  experiment  with  different  assignments was  conducted  to   examine  the  effectiveness  of  a  technique  to  acquire  unfamiliar  English vocabulary  words  during  text  reading.

Lower  socio-economic  status,  language  minority fifth  graders  (M = 10  years,  7  months  n = 62)  silently  read  eight  passages  each  focused on  an  uncommon  multi-syllabic  word  that  was  underlined,  embedded  in  a  meaningful context,  defined,  depicted,  and  repeated  three  times. Students  were  grouped  by  word reading  ability,  matched  into  pairs,  and  randomly  assigned  to  one  of  two  conditions. In the  strategy  condition,  students  orally  pronounced  the  underlined  words  during  silent reading.

In  the  control  condition,  students  penciled  a  check  if  they  had  seen  the underlined  words  before  but  did  not  say  the  words  aloud. Results  of  ANNOVAs  showed that  the  oral  strategy  enhanced  vocabulary  learning  (ps ; . 01),  with  poorer  readers showing  bigger  effect  sizes  than  better  readers  in  remembering  pronunciation-meaning associations  and  spellings  of  the  words. In  a  second  experiment,  32  fifth  graders  from the  same  school  described  the  strategies  they  use  when  encountering  uncommon  words  in context.

Better  readers  reported  more  word-level  strategies  whereas  poorer  readers reported  more  text-based  strategies. Our  explanation  is  that  application  of  the  word-level strategy  of  decoding  new  words  aloud  strengthened  connections  between  spellings, pronunciations,  and  meanings  in  memory  compared  to  silent  reading  of  new  words, particularly  among  poor  readers  who  were  less  skilled  and  less  likely  to  use  this  strategy unless   instructed  to  do  so.

According  to  Derakhshan and Shahrzad (2011),  a  solid  body  of  research  findings substantiates  that  most  vocabulary,  in  first,  second  or  foreign  language,  is  learned incidentally  which  is  defined  as  learning  vocabulary  as  a  by-product  of  any  activity  not precisely  geared  to  vocabulary  learning.

Therefore,  the  present  study  mainly  focused  on the  effect  of  teaching  and  intervention  in  deriving  word  meaning  on  incidental  vocabulary learning  in  EFL  context;  secondly,  it  aimed  to  find  out  whether  the  contextualized  words that  appear  with  more  clues  learned  better  and  consequently  kept  longer;  finally,  it sought  to  explore  whether  instruction  could  lead  to  increase  in  incidental  vocabulary learning  in  the  text. To   these  ends,  50  freshmen  Iranian  college  students  from  Teacher Training  University  of  Azerbaijan  participated  in  this  study.

These students enrolled for the reading class in  two  separate  semesters. The results  of  the  TOEFL  and  Vocabulary Level  Test  (VLT)  revealed  that  the  participants  enjoyed  approximately  the  same  level  of proficiency. There  were  two  post-tests  which  were  taken  at  certain  time  intervals. The results  of  this  study  showed  that  the  instruction  in  deriving  word  meaning  had  positive effect  on  students’  incidental  vocabulary  learning. Also  it  was  concluded  that  students should  meet  the  words  in  contextualized  forms  more  frequently  in  order  to  keep  and retain  them  in  the  long  run.

Beck,  McKeown and Kucan, (2002), there  is  tremendous  need  for  more vocabulary  instruction  at all  grade  levels  by  all  teachers. The  number  of  words  that students  need  to  learn  is  exceedingly  large; on  average  students  should  add  2,000   to 3,000  new  words  a  year  to  their  reading  vocabularies. Students who enter school  with limited  vocabulary  knowledge. At  first-grade, high – performing  students,  but  that differential  gets  magnified  each  year, resulting  in igh-performing  12th  grade  students knowing  about  four  times  as  many  words  as  the  low-performing  12th graders(Hart and Risley, 2001). According  to  Hirch(2003), word  knowledge  is  crucial  to  reading  comprehension and  determines  how  well  students  will  be  able  to  comprehend  the texts  they  read  in middle   and  high  school. Comprehension   is far more than   recognizing words and remembering   their meanings. However,  if  a  student’s  does  not  know  the  meanings  of  a sufficient  proportion  of  the  words  in  the  text,  comprehension  is  impossible.

Vocabulary experts  agree  that  adequate  reading  comprehension  depends  on  a person  already knowing  between  90  and  95  percent  of  the  words   in  a text. Knowing at  least  90 percent  of  the  words  enable  the  reader  to  get  the  main  idea  from  the   reading  and guess what  many  of  the  unfamiliar  words  mean,  which  will  help  them  learn  new  words. Readers   do  not  recognize  at  least  90  percent    of   the  words  will  not  only   have difficulty  comprehending  the  text,  but  they  will  miss  out  on  the  opportunity  to  learn  new words.

Piksuki   and  Chard  (2003),  young  children  naturally  learn  to communicate through listening   and   speaking. In order  to  make  the  transition  to  communicating  through  reading and   writing,  they  need  a  large  meaning  vocabulary  and effective decoding   skills. There  is an   abundance  of   research  evidence  to  show  that  an  effective  decoding   strategy  allow student  not  only  to  identify  printed  words  accurately  but  to  do  so  rapidly  and automatically. Juel   at  al. 2003)  showed  that  while  teachers   in  kindergarten spent   considerable time  reading  and   discussing  books   to  children  with  below  average   vocabularies,  these activities  had  minimal  impact  on  the  progress  of  the  children. Only  when  teachers  spent focused  on  time  on  the  vocabulary  did  significant  growth  occur . We  apply  the  term “instructional  read  aloud”   to  read  aloud  events  where,  to  stimulate  an  interest  in  books in  reading,  there  also  a  deliberate  teaching  of  skills  that will  promote  independence  in reading,  such  as  an  increased  vocabulary.

Local  studies According  to Garcia (2006)  if  children  will not  read,  they  are  less  likely  to  develop automatically,  vocabulary  and  concepts  about  the  world  as  well  as  intrinsic  motivation  to read. In  a  book  by  Villamin  et  al,  (2001)  different  levels  of  thinking  was  classified with  interaction  between  the  reader  and  the  text  may  occur,  which  are  literal,  inferential, critical,  and  creative. However,  it  is  in  the  creative  level  of  comprehension  that  the reading,  in  its  fullest  sense,  is  said  to  truly  occur.

Dr. Thomas  C. Barrett  developed  a  taxonomy  now  popular  known as  “The  Barrett  Taxonomy  of  Reading  Comprehension”  to  meet  the  needs  of  teachers and  instructional  materials  developers    who  wanted  a  systematic,  structural  approach  to teaching  reading  skills. (Alcantara  et  al, 2003) Literal  comprehension  is  the  understanding  of  surface  meanings  or  idea  that are  explicitly  printed  in  reading  materials. It  is  merely  determining  what  the  writer  or idea  that  are  explicitly  printed  in  reading  material.

It  is  merely  determining  what  the is  conveying. Comprehending  at  the  inferential  level  involves  determining  relationships and  drawing  from  these  the  writer’s  intended  meanings  which  are  implied  in  the  reading material. Reading  at  the  critical  level  requires  the  reader  to  judge  the  worth  of  ideas presented  and  the  effectiveness of  presentation. Reading  at  the  creative  level  involves  the integration  of   bright  ideas  read  with  prior  knowledge  and  experience  so  that  the  new ideas  and  deeper  insights  are  formed.

This  levels  of  comprehension  follow  an  ascending sequence  of  difficulty   and  complexity  of  thinking – with  literal  comprehension  as  the lowest  level  while  creative  comprehension  at  the  highest. Thus,  comprehension  is  not  just “understanding,”   but  feeling  the  emotional  experience  embedded,  reasoning,  judging,  and creating. This  thinking  processes  may  not  necessarily follow  a  hierarchal  sequence  for  the reason  that  comprehension  may  occur  any  level  of  thinking. All  reading  require  a considerable  amount  of  understanding  the  literal  sense “of  what  is  read.   And  fully  gain  from  the  reading  experience  and enjoy  it  as  well,  the reader  must  go  beyond  the  literal  level  of  comprehension  and  reach  the  heights  of  the creative  level. In  some  classroom,  teachers  are  trying  out  several  techniques  to  see  which would  facilitate  comprehension  –  language  experience,  dimensional  approach,  program instruction,  diagnostic  – prescriptive  method,  semantic  webbing/mapping,  story  grammar etc. The  last  approach  seems  to  offer  possibilities  of  integrating  some  basic communication  skills  that  enhance  comprehension.

A  careful  scrutiny  however,  reveals that  the  grammar  is  not  an  entirely  new  technique. (Alcantara et al, 2003) Assessment  of  Related  Literature  and  Studies The  related  literature  summed –  up  has  significant  relationship  with  the  present study  for  the  reason  of  presenting  the  definition  of  the  word  reading  and  its  significance in  vocabulary  development,  the  importance  of  interests  in  reading  and  it  also  enumerated different  reading  materials  which  is  subject  of  this  present  day.

The  study  conducted  by foreign  and  local  researchers  has  bearing  because  of the  other  similarities  of  other variables  with  the  present  study. The   researchers  of  the  present  study  cleared  that  there is  no  duplication,  the  similarities  are  necessary  to  find  out  if  the  findings  are  true  and valid  in  other  places. Synthesis In reading, one must possess a wide range of vocabulary. A reader’s vocabulary is valuable in reading comprehension. A  reader  with  a  good  amount  of  words  in  his vocabulary  is  able  to  grasp  the  meaning  of  the  words.

One  disadvantage  of  a  poor vocabulary  is  the  reader  will  consume  more  time  in  searching  for  the  meaning  of  a certain  word. Chapter 3 RESEARCH  METHODOLOGY The  objective  of  the  research  would  not  be  realized  without  a  plan  or  strategy. This  chapter  presents  the  method,  instrument  use,  source  of  data,  validation, administration,  and  collection  of questionnaires,  presentations  of  the  respondents  of  the study,  and  the  statistical  treatment  of  the  data. Research  Design

The  researchers  used  the  descriptive  method  of  research  to  elicit  answer  to  the statement  of  the  problem  in  the  study. Descriptive  research  is  defined  by  Arevalo (2005),  as  a  fact  finding  research with  sufficient  interpretation. The  researchers  used  this  research  design  because  the  main purpose  of  descriptive   method  is  to  measure  the  variable  or  factors  in  a  certain  study. Thus,  this  survey  can  measure  the   vocabulary  skills  of  Education  students  at Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao. Respondents   of the Study

The   subject of   this study  consisted  of selected First  Year  Education  students  at Pamantasan   ng  Cabuyao. Their  total   population   is  equal  to  130. The  proponents  is  able to  select  98  of  its  members 75%  of  their  total  number. In  simple  random  sampling  technique  was  utilized  in  choosing  the  sample members. In  determining  sample  size,  the  Slovin’s  formula  was  used. The  computation  of the  sample  size  was  given  below. N=    = = = 98 Where  n =  sample  size;  N = population  size;  and  e = margin  of  error  (either  0. 01  or  0. 05) Development   of  Research  Instruments

In    preparation   of   the   questionnaire  the  major  research   instrument   used    by  the researchers  is  the  consultation  of  several  knowledgeable  persons and  gathering  of information  through  educational  books. The  researchers  also  make  it  a  point  that  the items  are  sufficient  enough   to  answer  all the  specific  questions  under  the statement  of  the problem. After  the  final  draft  of  the  questionnaire,  the  researchers  submitted  it  to  the thesis  adviser  for  necessary  corrections,  after  which  it  was  finalized. Data  Gathering  Procedure

The  researchers  conducted  this  study  and  gathered  data  by  distributing questionnaires  to  be  answered  by  selected  respondents. Before  working  on  this  research, the  researchers  asked  the  permission  of  the  Dean  of  College  of  Education  at  Pamantasan ng  Cabuyao  to  conduct  the  study  through  the  distribution  of  questionnaire  to  the respondents. After  the  researchers  has  secured  the  letter  of  permission  from  the  Dean,  the researchers  personally  administered  the  distribution  of  questionnaire  to  the  respondents  in their  respective  classroom.

After  the  respondents  had  answered  the  questionnaire,  the  researchers  checked  the answer  sheets. The raw scores were collected and tallied in tables. The results were analyzed and interpreted in the light of the goals of the  study. Validation  of  Research  Instrument For  validation  purposes,  the  researchers  read  several  theses  and  consulted  English teachers  for  the  questionnaire. It  was  validated  through  the  students  of  the  same  level from  other  school  before  it  was  administered  to  the  respondents. Statistical Treatment of Data

After   the  data  gathering,  the  data  were  tallied,  analyzed,  and  interpreted  using statistical  tools. To  determine  if   there  is  a  relationship  between   exposure   to   reading   materials and   vocabulary   skills  of           Selected  First Year  Education  students  at  Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao ,the correlation   was   established   using   Pearson   Coefficient   of Correlation. (http://davidmlane. com/hyperstat/A51911. html) The formula is Where: N – number of respondents X – first variable Y – second variable r  -relationship The  following  are  the  statistical  treatment  applied  in  the study.

The  frequency  and percent  distributions  were  used  in  presenting  the  reading  materials  in  developing  the vocabulary  skills  of  first  year  education  students  of  Pamantasan  ng  Cabuyao. The percentage  formula  is: %=   x 100% Total  frequency 1. Percentage 2. Weighted  mean 3. Pearson  Value Interpretation  for  Computed  Mean |Weighted  Mean |Interpretation |Symbol | |0. 505-1. 500 |Never |N | |1. 505-2. 00 |Seldom |Se | |2. 505-3. 500 |Sometimes |So | |3. 505-4. 500 |Often |O | |4. 505-5. 500 |Always |A | 4. Test  of  Hypothesis Tc  l = r Decision  rule: At  5%  level  of  significance, If  tc

Custom writing services

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out