U.S History 2 Midterm Review

U.S History 2 Midterm Review

Progressive Era
the period from about 1890 to 1920, during which a variety of reforms were enacted at the local, state, and federal levels
Initiative
a process by which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting voters’ signatures on a petition
Conservationist
people who favor the protection of natural resources
Muckrakers
journalist who uncovers wrong doing in politics or business
Square Deal
Roosevelt made negotiation between United Mine Workers and the owners of coal mines where the workers received a 10% raise
Taft
27th president of the U.S, 1909-1913; continued Progressive reforms of President Theodore Roosevelt; promoted “dollar diplomacy” to expand foreign investments
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt’s plan for greater federal regulation of business and workplaces, income, and inheritance taxes and electoral reforms
Referendum
a process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by the legislature
Holding Company
a firm that buys up stocks and bonds of smaller companies
Election of 1912
Roosevelt, Wilson, Eugene V. Debs. Wilson won the election
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
law passed in 1914 to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890; specified big business activities that were forbidden
Home Rule
a system that gives cities a limited degree of self-rule
Social Welfare Program
help ensure a minimum standard of living
Direct Primary
an election in which citizens vote to select nominees for upcoming elections
Federal Trade Commission
1914 comission established by Wilson and Congress to enforce the Clayton Act and set up fair-trade laws
16th Amendment
gave Congress authority to levy an income tax
Insurgents
a person who engages in armed resistance to a government or to the execution of its laws
Lusitania
British passanger liner that was sunk by a U-boat. 120 Americans died, occured in 1915, and the ship was thought to have goods on board.
Fourteen Points
President Wilson’s proposal in 1918 for a postwar European peace
U-boats
a German submarine
Central Powers
in World War 1, Germany & Austria-Hungary
Militarism
policy of aggressively building up a nations’s armed forces in preparation for war, as well as giving the military more authority over the government and foreign policy
AEF
name given to American troops in Europe in World War 1
Treaty of Versailles
1919 treaty that ended World War 1
Allies
in World War 1, Russia, France, Serbia, and Great Britain
Archduke Ferdinand
shot by Princip. This started the war. He was visiting Sarajevo(Bosnia). He wanted Bosnia part of Serbia, not Austria-Hungary. His last word was “Sophia”(his wife). 1914
Spoils
rewards gained through military victory
Kaiser Wilhelm
emperor of Germany during World War 1; symbol to the U.S of German militarism and severe efficiency
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the U.S, 1913-1921; tried to keep the U.S out of World War 1; proposed League of Nations.
Zimmerman Note
a telegram sent by Germany’s foreign secretary in 1917 to Mexican officials proposing an alliance with Mexico and promising the U.S territory if Mexico declared war on the U.S
Liberty Loans
special loans of money made to support the Allies cause
John J. Pershing
Leader of the American Expeditionary Forces during World War I
Propaganda
information intended to sway public opinion
Sussex Pledge
Pledge by the German government in 1916 that its submarines would warn ships before attacking
Zepplins
a German floating airship
Vigilante
a citizen who takes the law into his or her own hands
Autocrat
ruler with unlimited power
Russian Revolution
collapse of the czar’s government in Russia in 1917, after which the Russian monarchy was replaced with a republican government
League of Nations
international organization formed after World War I that aimed to ensure the security and peace for all its members
Trench Warfare
dugouts in the ground used for protection. Passageways, rest stops, offices, and protecting during battle.
George Creel
a Denver journalist and former muckraker and appointed the head of the Committee on Public Information. His job was to rally popular support for the war.
Vittorio Orlando
a member of the Big Four from Italy. Prime Minister of Italy during World War I
George Clemenceau
a member of the Big Four from France. Prime Minister of France during World War I
David Lloyd George
a member of the Big Four from Britain. Prime Minister of England during World War I (Great Britain)
Selected Service Act
law passed in 1917 authorizing a draft of young men for military service in World War I. Ages 21-36
Genocide
organized killing of an entire people
Mobilization
the readying of troops for war
Reparations
payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war.
Rationing
distribution of goods to consumers in a fixed amount
Daylight Savings Time
turning clocks ahead by one hour for summer.
Big Four
Davie Lloyd George of Britain, George Clemenceau of France, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Woodrow Wilson of America, came together at the League of Nations
Coolidge
30th President of the U.S, 1923-1929; promoted big business and opposed social aid.
19th Ammendment
gave all American women the right to vote. It was adopted in 1920. (women’s sufferage)
Roaring Twenties
a decade dominated by Republican politicans, economic prosperatity, and vast social changes. Jazz age, flappers, and speakeasies.
Washington Conference
Harding convinced the conference in 1921 to discuss the disarmament plan. Several major military powers signed a treaty limiting the size of their navies.
Fordney-McCumber Act
in 1922, Congress with Harding’s support passed this which raised import taxes to historically high levels. It discouraged imports that competed with goods made by new American industries such as, china, toys, and chemicals.
Teapot Dome Scandal
scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money
Harding
29th President of the U.S, 1921-1923; presided over a short admministration marked by corruption
Charles Lindbergh
aviator who became an international hero when he made the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. From New York to Paris.
Henry Ford
pioneering auto manufacturer in the early 1900s; made affordable cars for the masses using assembly line and other production techniques. Bold use of the assembly line.
Buying on Margin
an option that allowed investors to purchase a stock for only a fraction of its price and borrow the rest
Speculation
the practice of making high-risk investments in hopes of getting a huge return.
Scopes Trial
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools.
Red Scare
intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas. (Bombings, Communist in the U.S., Communists in the Russian Revolution, Strikes)
Assembly Line
manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product.
Disarmament
program in which the nations of the world voluntarily give up their weapons.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another.
Hoover
31st president of the U.S, 1929-1933; worked to aid Europeans during WWI; responded ineffectively to 1929 stock market crash and the Great Depression
Dust Bowl
term used to describe the southern and central Great Plains when the region experienced a period of drought and dirt storms
Black Thursday
October 24, 1929, prices in stocks dropped and investors sold their stocks, prices continued to fall. Came first and started the Crash.
Stock Market Crash
prices in the stock market dropped and people lost a lot of money
Hoover Blankets
term used to describe the newspapers that were used to keep the homeless warm
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
the highest import tax in history
Great Depression
the most severe economic downturn in the nation’s history, which lasted from 1929 to 1941.
Empire State Building
a dramatic symbol of hope, 102 stories; a few days after opening, more than 4,000 people paid to go to the top.
Hobo Symbols
usually written sidewalks, fences, or buildings. It was a form of communication for the homeless.
Black Tuesday
October 29, 1929, the day on which the Great Crash of the stock market began. 16.4 million stocks sold.
Hoovervilles
term used to describe a makeshift homeless shelter during the early years of the Great Depression.
Election of 1932
Hoover attacked the Democratic platform and their beliefs. He was sternly against the idea of giving the national government more power.
FDR
32nd President of the U.S, 1933-1945; fought the Great Depression through his New Deal social programs; battled Congress over Supreme Court control; proved a strong leader during WWII
WPA
an agency set up in 1935 and lasting 8 years, provided work for more than 8 million citizens. It built playgrounds, schools, hospitals, and airfields, and it supported the creative work of many artists and writers.
CCC
established by Congress in 1933, this program put more than 2.5 million young men to work restoring and maintaining forests, beaches, and parks.
Bank Holiday
Hoover closed the banks for 4 days so people couldn’t withdraw their monday
NYA
provided education, jobs, recreation, and counseling for youth ages 16 to 25.
Union Changes
Wagner Act, more workers, activism by powerful leaders, AFL and CIO
New Deal
term used to describe President Franklin Roosevelt’s relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression.
Closed Shop
workplace open only to union members.
Court Packing
an effort by FDR to pack the courts with politically sympathetic judges to the New Deal
AAA
established in 1933 to raise farm prices through government financial assistance
Hundred Days
period at the start of Franklin Roosevelt’s presidency in 1933, when many New Deal programs were passed by Congress
Recession of 1937
caused by the New Deal; August 1937, economy collapsed again; nation entered recession (period of slow buisness activity)
Social Security System
system established by 1935 Social Security Act to provide financial security, in the form of regular payments to people who can’t support themselves.
Second New Deal
period of legislative activity launched by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1935
Frances Perkins
Secretary of Labor 1933-1945 under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt; first woman Cabinet member.
TVA
federal project to provide inexpensive electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the Tennessee River Valley.
Wagner Act (NLRA)
law passed in 1935 that aided unions by legalizing collective bargaining and closed shops, and by establishing the National Labor Reactions Board
AFL
did little to attract unskilled industrial workers during the half-century of existence.
CIO
John Jay Lewis formed this group to help organize and represent the nations unskilled workers in mass production industries
Mussolini
Italian fascist leader who took power in the 1920s; called Il Duce (“the leader”); known for his brutal policies
Fascism
political philosophy that emphasizes the importance of the nation or an entire group and the supreme authority of the leader over that of the individual
Blitzkrieg
kind of warfare emphasizing rapid and mechanized movement; used by Germany during WWII
Battle of Dunkirk
battle of coastal city retreat spot for British and French soldiers across the English channel to Great Britain
Maginot Line
a massive string of fortifications along France’s border with Germany
Lend-Lease Act
1941 law that authorized the President to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American Security
Manchurian Incident
situation in 1931 when Japanese troops, claiming that Chinese soldiers had tried to blow up a railway line, took matters in their own hands by capturing several southern Manchurian cities and continuing to take over the country even after Chinese troops had withdrawn
Burma Roads
a 700 mile long highway linking Burma (presdent-day Myanmar) to China
Luftwaffe
the German air force
Stalin
leader of the Soviet Union from 1924-1953; worked with Roosevelt and Churchill during WWII by afterwards became an aggressive participant in the Cold War
Nazism
an extreme form of fascism shaped by Hitler’s fanatical ideas about German nationalism and racial superiority
Totalitarian
a government that exerts total control over the nation and citizens’ lives
Neutrality Act
1939 laws designed to keep the United States out of future wars
Churchill
leader of Great Britain before and during WWII; powerful speechmaker who rallied Allied morale during the war.
Cash and Carry
WWII policy requiring nations at war to pay cash for all nonmilitary good and to be responsible for transporting the goods from the United States.
Pearl Harbor
Japan has Pearl Harbor as target, the navel base on the Hawaiian island of Oahu that served as the home for the US pacific fleet. Japan thought they could cripple the American fleet and acheive their goals in Asia before the US could rebuild its navy and challange Japan. December 7th, Japan has more than 180 warplanes and bombs the fleet. Roosevelt asks Congress to decalre war on Japan. December 11th, Germany and Italy declare war on US.
Hitler
German leader of National Socialist (Nazi) Party, 1933-1945; rose to power by promoting racist and nationalist views.
Communism
official ideology of the Soviet Union, characterized there by complete government ownership of land and property, single-party control of the government, the lack of individual rights, and the call for worldwide revolution
Appeasement
policy of giving in to a competitor’s demands in order to preserve the peace.
Munich Pact
when Chamberlain and Daladiay went to Munich and met with Mussolini and Hitler. They gave the Sudtenland to Hitler, giving into Hitler’s demands.
Chamberlain
the British Prime minister; made the Munich Pact with Hitler
Non-Aggression Pact
Stalin and Hitler signed this 10 year aggreement which eliminated the danger of a Soviet Union invasion from the East.
Allies
in World War II, the alliance of Great Britain, the U.S, the Soviet Union, and other nations
Purge
in political terms, the process of removing enemies and undesirable individuals from power
America First Committee
group formed by isolationists to block further aid to Britain
Collaberation
close cooperation
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan in WWII
Resistance
movement in France that opposed German occupation during WWII
Puppet State
a supposed independent country under the control of a powerful neighbor
G.I
term used for American soliders in WWII, derived from the term “Government Issue”
D-Day
code name for the Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944
Victory Garden
a home vegetable garden created to boost food production during WWII
Rosie the Riveter
incoragement to women to work in factories during WWII.
Kamikaze
in World War II, a Japanese suicide plane
War Bonds
special bonds to support the allied cause; way for the government to make money for the war effort
Carpet Bombing
method of aerial bombing in which large numbers of bombs are dropped over a wide area
Liberty Ships
a type of large, sturdy merchant ship built in WWII
Office of War Mobilization
federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during WWII
Office of War Information
meant to support american patriontism
Battle of the Bulge
World War II battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west
United Nations
formed after WWII