U.S. History- Chapter 10 Vocabulary & Section 1-Review

U.S. History- Chapter 10 Vocabulary & Section 1-Review

Popular sovereignty
Government subject to the will of the people; before the Civil War, the idea that people living in a territory had the right to decide by voting if slavery would be allowed there
Secession
Withdrawal from the Union
Referendum
The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
Insurrection
An act of rebellion against the established government
Confederacy
Nation declared to have been formed by the southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860-1861
Martial law
The law administered by military forces that is invoked by a government in an emergency
The Impact of the War with Mexico:
Wilmot Proviso: What did it propose?
Proposed that in any territory the U.S. gained from Mexico “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist”
Popular Sovereignty: What two groups favored it and why?
1. Many members of Congress liked it because it removed the slavery issue from national politics.
2. Northerners liked it because they believed Northern settlers would occupy most of the new territory and would ban slavery from their state
Free-Soil Party Emerges: What did most Free-Soilers want to do and why?
Wanted to preserve the western territories for white farmers because they felt that allowing slavery to expand would make it difficult for free men to find work
The Search for Compromise:
Background: Describe the California gold rush and what it led to.
In 1848, gold was discovered in California which led to that territory’s application for statehood, by the end of 1849, more than 80,000 “Forty-Niners” had arrived to look for gold, mining towns developed overnight, and the frenzy for gold led to chaos and violence
The Great Debate Begins: What were Senator Henry Clay’s three resolutions?
1. Allowed California to come in as a free state but organized the rest of the Mexican cession without any restrictions on slavery.
2. Settled the border between New Mexico and Texas in favor of New Mexico but compensated Texas by having the federal government take on its debt.
3. Outlawed the slave trade in the District of Colombia but did not outlaw slavery itself
What was Senator John Calhoun’s response to Clay’s proposals?
1) Northern agitation against slavery threatened to destroy the south.
2) The south needed an acceptance of its rights, the return of fugitive slaves, and a guarantee of balance between sections.
3) Secession was the only honorable solution for southern states to live in safety