U.S. History chapter 18

U.S. History chapter 18

United Nations
international world peace-keeping organization (previously named League of nations after WWI, renamed during WWII); U.S. joins during WWII
problem with United Nations
Security Council must agree unanimously or else no actions will be take; US/France/GreatBritain vs. Communists (Soviet Union & China)
policy of containment
“contain” Communism wherever it is and not allow it to spread anywhere else
Truman Doctrine
any country that is threatened by the spread of Communism and doesn’t want to be Communist, U.S. will help by sending military aid and financial aid
problem after WWII
U.S. Allies (France & Great Britain) are broke; no one else left in Europe to help stop the spread of Communism
2 choices for U.S.
1- help Europe financially so they can help us stop Communism’s spread 2- be the only country fighting Communism
Marshall Plan
U.S. will supply economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII and help U.S. stop the spread of Communism
Dividing Germany
East (Soviet Union controlled) and West (U.S., GB, and France control)
Dividing Berlin
East (Soviet Union) West (US/GB/Fr originally 3 zones and then combined into one)
Berlin Blockade
1948 Soviet Union builds a wall to defend the city and thus fencing in the citizens; cuts off western Berlin electricity
Berlin Airlift
send bombers every 10 minutes carrying supplies to Berlin; 327 day operation in which U.S. and GB send 2.3 million tons of food, supplies, and medicines into West Berlin after Soviets blockaded the city; 1948 Soviets lift the blockade for unknown reason
millions of people
moved from East to West Germany
Berlin Wall
1961-1989; concrete wall separating East and West Berlin; built by Communist East German govt to prevent citizens from fleeing west
teams are being chosen
war is coming
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; U.S. is the leader/captain; Canada, U.S., Europe near Atlantic; protects U.S. to the N/E
SEATO
Pacific/Asia; protects US to the West
CENTO
central America; protects U.S. to the south
Warsaw Pact
Soviet Union and Communist Countries that Stalin had already taken over during WWII
China
Chiang Kai-shek: U.S. sends aid, but then he gets run out to Taiwan. Mao Zedong: leader of Chinese Communists; Soviet Union sends aid. Now China and Soviet Union are both huge Communists
Communism is spreading
U.S. is in trouble
US never declares war
so they don’t have to fight Soviet Union
“police action”
send troops to Vietnam and Korea to “check on them”
38th parallel
divides North and South Korea
Korean War
June 1950-Jan 1951
Macarthur
must notably retire since he disobeyed orders and dominated Korea
Truce line
1953 present-day boundary; ends the war
Soviet Spies
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg supposedly gave Soviets atomic bomb secrets from the U.S.; executed
McCarthyism
fear in America that Communists will take over the govt
brinkmanship
use all military and any means necessary; threaten an enemy with massive military retaliation for any aggression
Space Race
Soviets win (first person in space)