U.S. History Chapter 2 Test

U.S. History Chapter 2 Test

indentured servants
poor immigrants paid for their trip to America by agreeing to work for 4-7 years
Cause for fewer indentured servants in America
economy in England improved
Cause of Slavery
-landowners need more people to grow crops
-fewer indentured slaves=slave owners turn to buying slaves for workers
Slavery in the beginning
-indentured servants
-could vote and own land and slaves after they were freed
Slavery becomes Permanent
-colonial governments pass laws supporting permanent enslavement
-once legalized, slavery dramatically increased
Slavery in America
-slaves sold at actions; separated families
-few earned freedom
-some ran away
-many worked until they died
Slave prices Increased=
more work demanded from slaves-they were abused
Ways for slaves to avoid work
-faked being ill
-broke tools
mercantilism
building wealth and power for a nation or country by manufacturing(making) goods, exporting and selling goods for gold and silver
Ways to become really wealthy
-sell more than you purchase
*accumulate more gold and silver
-export more than you import
-import less from your competitors to drive them out of business
English had few raw materials
colonized America to get raw materials
How the English created wealth
-put poor people to work
*cheap labor
-turned raw materials from America into goods in factories in England
-sold goods in other countries
U.S Constitution Rights
-bear arms
-trialed by jury
-free elections
-freedom of speech
-subjects can petition the king
-no cruel of unusual punishment
-no taxation without Congress agreeing
Magna Carta (1215)
-document created by the nobility for the nobility in England
-limit government and power of the monarch
-limited taxation; House of Lords voted on taxes
English Government
1King
2Parliament
Two Houses of Parliament
-House of Lords(nobility)
-House of Commons(commons)
Parliament makes the laws
English Bill of Rights(1688)
-passed by Parliament
-limited the power of the King or Queen
-law of the English subjects and American colonists
-many of the same principles included in the U.S. Constitution
Documents that Influenced the U.S. Constitution
Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights
Enlightenment
new ideas and ways of thinking-problems can be solved by human reasoning (not just in God’s or government’s control)
Beliefs of John Locke for people’s natural rights
life, liberty, and property
Great Awakening
-religious movement in the colonies
-inspired by evangelical preaching
-preachers spoke of personal religious experience
-rejected Enlightenment views
-not everything was in the hands of humans(God was still in control)
Effects of the Enlightenment
-inspired Benjamin Franklin to create new inventions and write books
-John Locke
Effects of the Great Awakening
-new churches
-increased religious tolerance
-personal freedoms
Debts of the French and Indian War
-British spent a lot of money
-King George III and Parliament wanted colonists to help pay for the war
Sugar Act (1764)
-passed by Parliament
-enforced taxes already in place on molasses
-made people pay taxes who were trying to avoid paying taxes
Quartering Act (1765)
required colonists to house and give supplies for soldiers after the F&I War
Stamp Act (1765)
-passed by Parliament
-required colonists to pay taxes on all printed materials
-first direct tax on the colonists
Taxation without Representation
-no one in Parliament represented the colonists so they became very upset
-Parliament thought colonists were being selfish
Methods of Protest
-violence
-wrote fliers/posters/pamphlets
-formed groups/organizations
-speeches
-boycott
Results of Protests
-Stamp Act repealed
-tax collectors quit
-British lost business
Townshend Acts (1767)
-imposed taxes on imports
-riots begin in the colonies
Boston Massacre (March 1770)
-colonists threw rocks and snowballs at the British soldiers guarding a custom’s house
-British soldiers fired their guns
-killed 5 people
-colonial political leaders begin to organize
Boston Tea Party (1773)
-only allowed a British tea company to not sell tea with a tax
-Dec. 3, 1772 Boston Patriots dressed up as Indians and boarded 3 British ships and threw the tea overboard
Effects of the Boston Tea Party
Parliament passes Coercize Acts and Intolerable Acts
Coercize Acts
closed Boston Ports
Intolerable Acts
-forced colonists house troops
-changed colonial governments and boundaries
First Continental Congress
-representatives from every colony except Georgia
-met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
-boycott all British imports
-set up new governments
-unite
Effects of British General Thomas Gage named governor of Massachusetts
-colonists set up their own government to govern Massachusetts=Gage left out
-colonists began stock-piling arms and ammunition
Battle of Lexington and Concord
-April 19, 1775
-Gage sends troops to arrest the colonists who started the new government
– take away the weapons stockpile in Concord
-Paul Revere tipped off colonists by riding through the country to warn people the British were coming
Who fought the British at the Battle of Lexington and Concord?
-local militia
-drove the British back to Boston
militia
Patriot colonists who volunteered to help
Second Continental Congress
-met in Philadelphia
-May 1775
-all colonies were represented
-Congress took responsibility for the war
-appointed George Washington as commander of the army
loyalists
colonists who wanted to be free of British rule and did not want to fight a war
Patriots
colonists who wanted to be free of British rule and would fight or be in the militia
Common Sense
-written by Thomas Paine
-convinced many colonists to support the war
Common Sense was about…
-independence
-division between central and state government(republican state government)
-uniting the states
-leaders elected by the people
-opportunity for everyone
Declaration of Independence
-spring 1776 Continental Congress selects committee to draft a document declaring independence
-approved on July 4, 1776
-Thomas Jefferson wrote the declaration
The Declaration included…
-list of British abuses
-“all men are created equal”
-included the natural rights
-government could not take away natural rights
-declared the colonies were separating from the British
British abuses listed in the Declaration
-Quartering Acts
-mock trials for soldiers in the Boston Massacre
Reasons British Lost
-using old military strategies
-Patriots were motivated
-did not take colonists seriously as enemies
-did not support Loyalist militias
Reasons Colonists Won
-motivated
-used new military strategies
-George Washington would retreat and fight another day strategy
-Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
-assisted by French and Spanish
Treaty of Paris
-Americans led by Benjamin Franklin negotiated the treat with Britain
terms of the Treaty
-America was independent of Britain
-America secured territory all land east of the Mississippi River (except Florida and the gulf coast)
Effects of the War
-many loyalists fled to British America (Canada)
-slaves who fought with the British were re-enslaved
-Indians lost all their territory
Slavery-the division
-slaves who fought with the Patriots were freed
-some northern landowners sold their slaves to the south
-northern states freed their slaves
-many northern states would outlaw slavery