U.S. History Chapter 4 test

Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 – British legislation passed measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
Intolerable Acts
authorized British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes, and other buildings, and it shut down the Boston Harbor. The colonists believed that they had the right to run their own affairs. committee of congress/continental congress then allowed communication between the 13 colonies.
Townshend Acts
taxed colonists on imported goods, such as glass, lead, paint and paper. –> lead to the colonists boycotting British goods.
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Boston Tea Party
a raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor (December 16, 1773) in which Boston colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea.
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Martial Law
rule imposed by the military
Patriots
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Loyalists
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Committee of Correspondence/ First Continental Congress
committees that allowed communication between the 13 colonies
Thomas Paine “Common Sense”
He believed that we needed to revolt against Britain once and for all to gain independence. He thought we needed war immediately and that it was the only way to achieve freedom.
Goals of Egalitarianism
To create equality
Foreign support during the Revolutionary War
France supported the colonists during the war, and understood their cries for independence
John Locke
influenced Thomas Jefferson in that he believed we had natural born rights (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
Ideas of enlightenment
reason and logic- people now believed that you can challenge the government and instead of looking for all answers from the Bible people start questioning things.
The Declaration of Independence
An act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were “Free and Independent States” and that “all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved.”
Purpose for the Declaration
inalienable rights
Second Continental Congress
they organized the continental army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected george washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the declaration of independence
Order of battles during The Revolutionary War
1. Lexington and Concord (we won)
2. NY (British won)
3. Trenton (British won)
4. Philadelphia (British won)
5. Saratoga (we won)
6. Yorktown (we won)
Lexington and Concord
American victory! it rose the morals of the patriots, gave them hope, because we defeated the most powerful military in the world. (this war marks the beginning of the revolution)
Sons of Liberty
Leader: Samuel Adams, The Sons of Liberty was a secret organization of patriots who want independence. The Sons spoke for the people, and they are the first rebels. The Sons of Liberty came about because of the Stamp Act.
Olive Branch Petition
colonists asked for forgiveness from Great Britain and they were denied.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country.
Advantages of Americans during the war
they knew the land, they were determined and fighting for their own lives, they wanted independence, Colonists guns were more accurate, good leader (Washington)
Weaknesses of the Americans during the war
we had less ammunition, and militia than the British, we were less skilled, we had no government, and we had shortage of food and supplies
Advantages of the British during the war
More ammunition, more militia, more skilled, and they had support of the natives
Disadvantages of the British during the war
weak military leaders that cared more about material things, such as gold and silver plates as opposed to actually fighting and winning the war, and they were not always prepared, they were unfamiliar with the terrain, they had less motive considering they were fighting for a king and not for themselves, and lastly they were far from home so it took a long time to get goods from home.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington’s army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Profiteering
the selling of goods in short supply at inflated prices
Inflation
an economic situation in which there is more money with less value (raising in prices)

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