U.S History chapter 4

French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley– English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Albany Plan Of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Militia
a group of civilians trained to fight in emergencies; Minutemen
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Prime minister
the person who holds the position of head of state in England
Siege
the surrounding of a place in order to force it to surrender; Quebec
Treaty of Paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War and the french and indian war; gave Britain most of Canada, Florida (from Spain), and all land east of Mississippi River
Pontiac’s Rebelion
a revolt against the British forts and american settlers in 1763, led in part by ottawada war leader Pontiac in response to settlers claims to
Native American lands and to harsh tereatment by British soldiers
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east; gave land from Mississippi to Appalachian to Indians
stamp act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
boycott
a group’s refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
First Continental Congress
Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
Battles Of Lexington and Concord
The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston
Revolutionary war
• The Revolutionary War lasted from the Declaration of Independence in 1776 until the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The American colonists defeated the British and won independence.
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
Preamble
an introduction to a formal document
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Rule Of law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
Battle Of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
Casualty
a person killed or injured in a war or accident
loyalist
A person who supported the British during the American Revolution
Mercenary
a professional soldier hired by a foreign army, fought for a country other than their own; Hessians
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day at night, Washington’s soldiers began crossing the Deleware River. The next morning, they suprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians.
Battle of Seratoga
turning point of the revolutionary war, france joins because they want revenge on britain
sons of liberty
the ones who organized the british boycotts
John Adams
tried case for British soldiers even though he was a patriot
Sugar Act
reduced the tax on legal sugar to encourage colonists to buy legal sugar to increase total taxes paid to britain
Quartering Act
colonists had to house British troops
Declaratory Act
after repeal of Stamp Act; declared England had the right to rule the colonies
Townshend Act
increased import taxes on lead, paper, paint, tea; colonists boycotted many products
Tea Act
retained tax on tea (all other taxes from Townshend were defunct) to help East Indian Tea Co.; colonists dumped tea
Intolerable Acts
coercive acts; closed Boston Harbor as punishment for tea dumping; led to First Continental Congress
blockade
British navy blocked atlantic coast;
profiteering
selling scarce items at high prices; colonists who profited during the war
inflation
steady increase in price; reduced people’s ability to buy stuff
Battle of Yorktown
closing battle of Revolution; Cornwallis British general
Treaty of Paris (1783)
End of Revolution; Great Britain, Spain, France, US; England realized US independent
Impact of Revolution
establish independence; inspired patriotism; no immediate political impact on women, but challenged ideas about women’s roles; disaster for indians; northern states abolished slavery but passed laws limiting legal rights of African Americans; in south slavery became more restrictive

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