U.S. History Chapter 6 Test: Industrial Revolution

U.S. History Chapter 6 Test: Industrial Revolution

What changes in track design allowed trains to travel faster?
double sets of tracks allowed trains traveling in opposite directions to pass each other
How did the standard gauge allow railroad transportation to travel faster?
passengers no longer needed to be transferred from train to train
How did the growth of railroads improve society?
1. encouraged urban growth
2. provided many jobs
What railway invention helped the meat packing industry?
refrigerated freight cars
How did the network of railroad lines improve the economy?
allowed companies to sell product nationally
What did the invention of refining oil lead to?
development of motors and the invention of the horseless carriage (automobile)
What did the invention of the internal combustion engine lead to?
Wright Brothers made the first flight in 1903
What did Samuel Morse invent?
telegraph as a means of communication
What did Alexander Graham Bell invent?
telephone in 1876
What did Chris Sholes invent in 1867?
typewriter
What did Thomas Edison invent in 1877?
phonograph
What did Thomas Edison invent in 1879?
light bulb
How did coal and steam contribute to the Industrial Revolution?
allowed factories to produce goods faster
What was invented from iron ore to allow heavy machinery to be constructed?
steel
What was the Bessemer process?
burned off the impurities of iron to produce steel
Why could steel be used to build large buildings?
steel was resistant to rust
What did Edwin Drake do?
used the steam engine to drill for oil leading to the Oil Boom
What did the availability of steel allow railroad companies to do?
encouraged railroad companies to lay thousands of miles of new tracks
What did railroad companies create in 1869?
first transcontinental railroad
What did George Westinghouse invent?
compressed air brake making it possible for trains to pull larger loads at faster speeds.
What did the novels of Harotio Alger Jr. place an emphasis on?
individuals improve social and financial status through hard work and motivation
What was free enterprise?
belief that the economy would prosper if businesses were left free from government regulations and allowed to compete in a free market
What was the philosophy of Marxism?
property and the means of production are owned by the community
What did Darwinists believe economically?
society progressed through natural competition
What are corporations?
organizations that raise money needed to fund the industries by selling stocks
What are the advantages of a corporation?
1. can raise large sums of money
2. limited liability
3. investors are not responsible for the debt
How do trusts help corporations?
1. limit overproduction
2. reduces competition
3. avoids monopolies
Who was the first person to buy supplies in bulk and produce goods in large quantities?
Andrew Carnegie
Who bought companies at each stage of oil refining allowing him to sell oil cheaper?
Rockefeller
What did Vanderbilt do with railroads?
made direct routes between urban centers
What did Westinghouse invent for railroads?
air brake for railroads making it possible to haul more cars at faster speeds
What did Pullman design for railroads?
dining cars and luxurious cars that passengers could sleep comfortably
What were created to sell a variety of goods in the urban market?
department stores
During the Industrial Revolution, did governmental policies benefit the owners or the workers?
owners
What was the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890?
outlawed monopolies and trusts
Why did the Sherman Antitrust Act fail to stop monopolies?
failed to define what a monopoly or a trust was
Did the government provide assistance for workers?
No
How did America address the demand for labor?
increased the number of immigrants
Why did many African Americans move from rural areas to the cities?
search for jobs in factories
Did women work during the Industrial Revolution?
yes to support their families
What happened to children who worked during the Industrial Revolution/
children worked long hours in terrible working conditions
fatigue led to injuries and sometimes death
What were company towns?
workers were paid in scrip and could it could only be used to pay rent to the company and buy goods from the company store
What was the Knights of Labor?
first union organization to support both skilled and unskilled workers
Did the Knights of Labor encourage women to join the union?
yes
Which nationality did the Knights of Labor not allow to join, because they accused them of taking jobs from Americans?
Chinese Americans
What three things did the Knights of Labor fight for regarding workers?
1. 8 hour work day
2. equal pay for equal work
3. end to child labor
What event encouraged more workers to join the Knights of Labor?
railroad strike of 1877
What was the Great Upheaval?
In 1886, the nation experienced intense strikes and violent labor confrontations
What was the Haymarket Riot?
The most intense strike of the 1880’s that wounded 60 police officers from a bomb exploding
What did companies do to strike back at union workers?
1. handed out a list of employees to all employers who agreed not to hire them
2. put clauses in worker’s contracts stating that they could not join a union
3. instituted lockouts barring union workers from entering factories and replacing them with other workers