U.S. History Chapter 9 Test

What does precedent mean?
act or decision that sets an example for others to follow
What does cabinet mean?
group of officials who head government departments and advise the President
What does national debt mean?
total sum of money that a government owes to others
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What is a bond?
certificate that promises to repay money loaned, plus interest, on a certain date
What is a speculator?
someone who invests in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit
What is a tariff?
tax on foreign goods brought into a country
What does it mean to be neutral?
not taking sides in a conflict
What is a Farewell Address?
final official speech of Presidents as they exit office
What does sedition mean?
stirring up rebellion against a government
What does nullify mean?
to cancel
What are states’ rights?
the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
How many terms did Washington serve as president?
2 terms
Name two precedents set by Washington during his presidency?
1.Chose well-known leaders to serve in his cabinet
2.Served only 2 terms
What are 2 parts of the cabinet and who filled these positions during Washington’s presidency?
1.Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson
2.Secretary of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton
What was Alexander Hamilton’s plan for reducing the U.S. debt?
-He wanted the government to buy up all the bonds issued by both the national and state governments before 1789
-He then planned to issue new bonds to pay off the old debts.
How does Hamilton ultimately get his plan approved?
Hamilton proposed a compromise in which southerners would support his plan for debt in exchange for his support to locating the nation’s capital in the South.
What was the purpose of Hamilton’s tariff?
It was a tax on foreign goods to protect the American industry from foreign products by making them more expensive.
Who supported the tariff? Why?
The North, because there were more factories and people needed less imported products.
Who opposed the tariff? Why?
The South, because they relied on foreign imports.
Why did farmers who grew corn decide to rebel against the tax on whiskey and liquor?
-These farmers relied on selling whiskey, which they made from the corn they grew
-This made purchasing whiskey more expensive.
How did Washington handle the Whiskey Rebellion?
He dispatched the militia to deal with the rebellion. He then pardoned the leaders.
What did Washington’s response to the Whiskey Rebellion show the American people?
This action showed that the government was strong enough to deal with a crisis effectively, violence will not be tolerated, and the pardon showed mercy.
Why were many Americans in support of the French Revolution?
They knew what it meant to struggle for liberty.
Who was opposed to the Revolution? Why?
– John Adams and Alexander Hamilton
– because it had gotten too violent
Why was the U.S. faced with war?
Because the U.S. had a treaty with France and they asked to use our ports while fighting Britain.
What were the two opposing views on the U.S. treaty with France?
1. Alexander Hamilton was against involvement with France because our treaty was with King Louis XVI and both he and his government were now dead.
2. Thomas Jefferson wanted to continue to honor our treaty with France
What did President Washington decide to do?
Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation that said the U.S. would remain neutral in wars involving France and England. It also forbade Americans from aiding either France or England.
What were European powers doing to threaten U.S. neutrality?
-Seizing American cargoes heading for each other’s port
-The British captured more than 250 ships trading in the French West Indies
How did John Jay ensure U.S. neutrality?
-with Jay’s Treaty:
1.British would pay for damages to seized American ships
2.In return Americans had to pay debts long owed to British merchants
3.Britain agreed to give up the forts still held in the West
What was the reaction to Jay’s Treaty?
Loud protests because it did nothing to protect the rights of American ships
What advice did Washington give to the nation as he was leaving office?
-He advised against Americans becoming involved in European affairs
-This becomes the foreign policy of America for the next 150 years
-DO NOT FORM POLITICAL PARTIES
What political party was Hamilton the head of?
the Federalists
What was Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists position on Economy?
-based on industry
-favored a national bank
-protective tariffs
What was Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists position on the Government?
-strong national government
What was Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists position on the Constitution?
-loose interpretation of the Constitution
-many powers of the Constitution are implied
What was Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists position on foreign policies?
-Pro-British
What was Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists position on Democracy?
-wealthy and well educated should lead the nation
-feared mob rule
What groups did Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists appeal to?
-lawyers
-merchants
-bankers
-shippers in New England
-some wealthy planters
What political party was Thomas Jefferson the head of?
The Democratic-Republicans
What was Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans position on the economy?
-based on agriculture
-“a nation of farmers”
-opposed a national bank
-opposed protective tariffs
What was Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans position on the Government?
-strong state governments
-weak national government
What was Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans position on the Constitution?
-strict interpretation of the Constitution
-use exact wording of the Constitution
What was Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans foreign policy?
-Pro-French
What was Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans position on Democracy?
-power rests with all people
-feared rule by only a few wealthy politicians
What goups did Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans appeal to?
-small farmers
-craftsmen
-skilled workers
-common man
-some wealthy planters

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