U.S History Exam 1

The Civil Rights Act of 1866
Protected the rights of African American citizens, specifically their ability to own property and protect.
The Freedmen’s Bureau
Provided emergency food for refugees from the war, and contributed to the addition of new schools for African Americans.
The 14th Amendment
The amendment that define that citizenship belongs to anyone who is born in America.
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People who came down from the north to the south to plunder it.
People who were from the south and took office and corrupted the government for African Americans.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
Outlawed racial discrimination in theaters, hotels, railroads, and other public places
The Centennial Exhibition
The first worlds fair in the United States, that contained machinery hall and demonstrated the latest technology of its time. – 1876
Bessemer Process
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Vertical Integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product’s manufacture from raw materials to distribution
Horizontal Integration
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Informal agreement amongst competitors to arrange/control prices
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Boom and Bust Cycles
problem of free-market capitalism; left to its own under capitalism, the economy is either in a good blast or in a recession or depression; distribution of goods is based on ones ability to pay and not on ones needs
The Uprooted
Were immigrants who left behind their culture upon coming to America.
The Transplanted
Were immigrants who brought their culture along with them upon coming to America
Tammany Hall
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800’s and early 1900’s) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Machine Politics
an organizational style of local politics in which party bosses traded jobs, money, and favors for votes and campaign support
The Chinese Exclusion Act
Chinese were prohibited from legally immigrating to the U.S. – 1882
Hull House
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty. (Established by Jane Adams)
A system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farm workers in return for a portion of their crops. (Paid with Crops)
Tenant Farming
A system of farming where farmers rented their land from the landowner, and were allowed to grow what ever crop the preferred. However a portion of their profits were paid to the landowners.
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Plessy v. Ferguson
Decision that permitted segregated facilities “separate but equal”
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Dawes Severalty Act 1887
Allotted lands to various Indian tribes and extended protection through federal laws over the Indians. It was designed to encourage the breakup of the tribes and promote the assimilation of Indians into American Society. Dawes’ goal was to create independent farmers out of Indians — give them land and the tools for citizenship.
A name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879 and 1880. Driven by racial oppression and rumors of the re-institution of slavery.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
The Populist
They called for nationalizing the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal sub-treasury – a scheme to provide farmers with loans for crops stored in government-owned warehouses. They also wanted the free and unlimited coinage of silver.
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads.
The Farmer’s Alliance
A coalition of farmers seeking to overthrow the chains from the bank and railroads that bound them.
The Depression of 1893
The worst depression of the nineteenth century, it was set off by a railroad failure, too much speculation on Wall Street and low agricultural prices.
Coxey’s Army
unemployed workers marched from Ohio to Washington in 1894 to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief.
Pullman Strike
In Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the “company town”, Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
The Cross of Gold Speech
William Jennings Bryan – 1896 Democratic convention
(the gold standard was crucifying America on a cross of gold)
Seward’s Folly
Many criticized William Seward’s purchase of Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million, calling it his folly since there was nothing there.
Queen Liluokalani
Native Hawaiian ruler overthrown in revolution led by white sugar planters. She was a nationalist who didn’t want imperialist control of her country.
The White Man’s Burden
The white men belief that it was their job to spread civilized culture to uncivilized civilizations
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

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