U.S. History Final Exam Review

Major reform movements
Religion (The Second Great Awakening), Women’s Rights (Seneca Falls), Temperance, Education (Noah Webster, Horace Mann), Treatment of the insane, mentally ill, Prisons (Dorthea Dix)
Missouri Compromise
1820- All states above the line 36-30 north where free. All states underneath where slave states.
Popular Sovereignty
Let the people residing in the territories decide on the question of slavery themselves
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Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe, showed the humanity and suffering of slaves that capture sympathies from millions of northerners.
Kansas Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through Popular Sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
Bleeding Kansas
as a series of violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery “Border Ruffian” elements
Compromise of 1850
California is a free state, Utah and New Mexico have popular sovereignty, slave trade abolished (Feature Article Fin 486 Final Exam)
Fugitive Slave Act
Protection to slavery, Slave owners could go to court and present evidence that slave who owed service had escaped
Dred Scott
Missouri Slave sued for freedom, Claimed that his former owner, an army surgeon, had taken him to Illinois for several years (free state)
John Brown
deeper moral hatred of slavery, active abolitionist — someone who fights to abolish slavery by helping runaway slaves escape
Raid On Harpers Ferry
Brown and a few of his supporters rented a old farmhouse near Harper’s Ferry. Studied For 5 month’s maps and finalized plans
Lincoln Douglas Debates
Debates between Lincoln and Douglas in the Illinois Election of 1858. Spoke about the topic of slavery. Lincoln said that the nation would be for it or against it. There would be no splitting of slavery. Douglas Said that the Americans have the right to take part in whatever they feel. Sparked huge controversy.
Stephen Douglass
Democrat, white Americans where superior, tolerated slavery and believed it was the right of white citizens to choose the type of government they wanted.
Abraham Lincoln
part of the Republican Party, Lost to Douglas for senate Seat but gained national recognition
Election of 1860
Democratic split, South wanted to expand slavery and north wanted to end slavery
Crittenden Compromise
John C. Crittenden- Kentucky Amendment to protect slavery while absolutely limiting its spread (permanent reestablishment of the Missouri Compromise line
Confederate States of America
weak temporary nation, articles of confederation, un organized
Border States
Maryland, Delaware, Missouri and Kentucky. Also West Virginia which broke away from Virginia (DKMM)
Battle of Ft. Sumter
On April 12, the confederate army bombarded Fort Sumter and everything surrounding the harbor.There where no casualties in this battle besides one horse
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy, Printed money to cover the war’s expenses. Could not find a strategy to stop the Union army. Ineffective leader.
Anaconda Plan
Winfield Scott, Surround the entire confederacy and trap them in… cut off all ports
Robert E. Lee
Commanded the Confederate army. When Virginia seceded from the Union, he chose to support his home state in the Civil War. Took part in numerous battles: Antietam, Gettysburg, and battles in Virginia. Ended up surrendering to the Union army at the Appomattox Court house in 1860
Antietam
Union Army Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Robert E. Lee and his confederate army in Sharpsburg, Maryland, Draw in military point of view but really, this was a union victory because the Confederacy was pushed out of Maryland.
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by President Abraham Lincoln. Made slavery illegal and freed over 3.1 million slaves. Allowed slaves to join the army
Gettysburg Address
Speech made by Abraham Lincoln 5 months after the Battle of Gettysburg. He made the speech to honor the fallen Union soldiers that fought in the Battle of Gettysburg.
Advantages/ Disadvantages of the North and South
Advantages were that North had a huge population with many workers / fighters, industry and lots of weaponry /products/ammo and South knew the land,war was fought on home territory, lots of food to help feed soldiers, motivation. Disadvantages were North was not home territory, traveling to fight, army became stretch and South didn’t have a large population, not a lot of weaponry/ammo
Surrender at Appomattox Station
There were two groups on Lee and his army and Lee still pushed his whole army forward. McClellan’s failure of organization allowed the Confederate army to push forward slowly by slowly.
Copperheads
people in north supported confederacy dangerous to union a lot of them went to make money, wanted to end the war at any cost “poisonous”
Conscription
the draft of citizens into the military
Draft Riots
violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.
John Wilkes Booth
assassinated Abraham Lincoln
10 % Plan
If 10% of the 1860 population took oath, the state could set up a government. Wanted an amendment to abolish slavery.
Wade- Davis Bill
a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, made re-admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath
Andrew Johnson
Took over as president after Lincoln was killed. Shared same ideas, wanted different methods of reconstruction. Congress did not like him and they ultimately impeached him.
Reconstruction Acts (1867)
Creation of five military districts in the seceded states, Voters were to be registered, State constitutional conventions, comprising elected delegates, were to draft new governing documents providing for black male suffrage, States were required to ratify the 14th Amendment prior to readmission.
Impeachment
an accusation against a leader saying they aren’t doing their job right and need to be kicked out
Tenure of Office Act
members of the senate could not be removed unless there was consent of the senate
Radical Republicans
opposed slavery during the war, wanted harsh punishments for the south because they were traitors. Agreed with the way Congress wanted reconstruction.
Freedman’s Bureau
an organization that was designed to educate blacks
Sharecropping
blacks were able to tend the land of plantation owners in return for profit but were ultimately cheated by the white farmers
Convict Labor
escaped slaves or “convicts” were forced to do work on plantations
Carpetbaggers
Northerners that went down South for money
Scalawags
Southerners that supported the north
Black Codes
Continued legal discrimination against blacks. They could not work unless they were coerced. Restricted civil rights and freedoms
Jim Crow Laws
Mandates segregation in all public areas in the south
Ku Klux Klan
Secret Veterans’ club that began in Tennessee, spread throughout the south and became a terrorist organization.
13th amendment
“Abolishes slavery”, Pseudo slavery, Sharecropping: blacks were cheated and were in debt and had to serve
14th amendment
granted citizenship to blacks, and protected their civil liberties due process to law, confederates needed senate approval, couldn’t serve on the jury
15th amendment
Gave blacks the right to vote cant keep someone from voting race, religion, previous servitude
Compromise of 1877
ended reconstruction
Ulysses S. Grant
Civil war general and veteran. He was appointed President in 1868 because people liked that he was a good leader and he was in the civil war.
Greenbacks
voters who favored greenbacks and easy money (dollar bills).
Transcontinental Railroad
railroad that stretched across the entire United States
Homestead Act (1862)
act that allowed settlers to purchase cheap land out west, > 80 acres = $2.50 per acre, <80 acres=$1.25 per acre
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
the United States put said companies in charge of building the transcontinental railroad; they had full usage of land/minerals on either side of the track; this angered people who lived near it
Credit Mobilier
Private Company extorted millions of dollars from the federal government from the faulty stock loans and by swindling money by the contracting company giving over estimations to build the railroad.
Oklahoma Territory/ Indian Territory
territory in Oklahoma for indians
Reservations
Indians were organized into territories called reservations, they were separated from their families and tribes against their free will
Dawes Severalty Act
act that dissolved communities owned by tribal lands and granted land allotments to individual families according to size
Assimilation
learning and accepting another culture; the Indians were forced to accept the culture of the whites
Conflicts with Native Americans
the Indians were living where the Americans wanted to settle… especially in the path of the transcontinental railroad…,We couldn’t really trade with them because they stayed away from us, Didn’t move when we asked so we had to move them
Battle of Wounded Knee
the Indians tried to rebel against the white’s forced assimilation and relocation
Wounded Knee Massacre
the Indians were gunned down and massacred here when they were performing their ghost dance; a special sacred dance that they hoped would scare away the whites but the whites got scared and killed them.
“Cowboys”
Vaqueros (Aztec prisoners) were the FIRST cowboys, found herding cattle in New. Mexico, later became known as “cowboys”
Barbed Wire
Invented by Joseph Glidden; changed open plains to fenced farms; made cattle herding very difficult because barbed wire become a huge obstacle
Second Industrial Revolution
the part of the 1900’s where there as an immense amount of inventions being created, Bessemer process, telephone, lightbulb, electricity, monopolies
Incandescent Light bulb
invented by Thomas Edison in 1879 because it revolutionized the way homes and factories work and it made the workdays longer.
Telephone
invented by Alexander Graham Bell, revolutionized communication
Electricity
completely revolutionized the entire nation, this allowed the workdays to go longer (lighting), faster production/manufacturing, more inventions (radio, telegraph, etc.)
Bessemer Process
the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron
Monopolies
when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity
Vertical Integration
When a company owns everything up in the making and distributing of their product; type of monopoly.
Horizontal Integration
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production.
Andrew Carnegie
Absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production.
John D. Rockefeller
Owned the Oil Company, his company undercut competition and got them out of the market by trusts, and used Horizontal integration.
Social Darwinism
Survival of the fittest; many companies who were monopolies believed in this because if another’s company was bad, and yours wasn’t then it shows that you would succeed they wouldn’t.
Robber Barron
Cruel ruthless businessmen who would not stop at nothing to achieve great wealth.
Captain of Industry
Ingenious and industrious leaders; praised for their skills and charity work.
Sherman Anti- Trust Act
Increased the coinage of silver (not enough to satisfy farmers and miners)
Labor Unions
Organized group of workers who discussed and tried to bring changes to salary, working conditions, benefits, etc.
Knights of Labor
an organization of individuals and not workers, open to everyone, supported an 8-hour workday, against child labor, wanted equal pay for their work
American Federation of Labor
Largest Union grouping in the United States during the 20th century. Opposed industrial unionism.
Haymarket Riot
Began as a peaceful strike until somebody threw dynamite and it exploded which caused police to fire and resulted in 7 police deaths and 4 civilian deaths.
Pullman Strike
George Pullman was a huge businessman who had a car company named Pullman Palace. He had his employees live in houses near the factories. Pullman decided to make the rent higher but keep the wages of his employees the same making it more difficult for his employees to pay rent. His employees began a strike by not running his cars and trains.
Child Labor
known as cheap labor along with immigrants. Type of labor which saw children work long hours in dangerous jobs with low pay and no benefits.
Graft
Political corruption
Hayes
Republican President from 1877-1880, Wanted to Reform the Civil Service System, merit system
Stalwarts
Senator Roscoe Conkling and his supports, he became a powerful Republican leader by determining who would receive lucrative jobs in the NY customs house
Garfield
signed the Pendleton act into law
Arthur
Became president when Garfield died
Cleveland
Jefferson style limited government, Supported lowered tariffs
Panic of 1893
a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893. This panic was marked by the collapse of railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures.
Populism
Political movement in the late 1800s from granger movement, farmer based movement, in order to bring about political change
Bimetallism
When the government would give people either gold or silver, in exchange for other forms of money such as paper; The dollar is defined as one ounce of gold and sixteen ounces of silver.
Richard Olney
Secretary of the state. Played a key role in the Venezuela Boundary dispute.
Cuba
USA was very dependent on Cuba because Cuba produced 90% of the sugar the United States uses
Jingoism
extreme nationalism for a country
Yellow Journalism
a type of journalism that presents little or no legit well-researched information. Instead, it uses eye-catching headlines to get more people to buy the newspapers.
Spanish-American War
caused by American jingoism, yellow journalism, the De Lome Letter, and the sinking of the Maine.
De Lome Letter
letter that undermined an 1898 diplomatic incident
USS Maine
U.S Navy ship that was sunk right before the U.S went to war with Spain, One of the leading factors why the U.S went to war against Spain.
Philippines
Territory that the United States paid 20 million for after the Spanish-American war.
George Dewey
commander of the Pacific fleet during the Spanish-American war.
Rough Riders
1st ever volunteer cavalry in the U.S military. Called upon by McKinley during the Spanish-American War.
Puerto Rico
Common wealth gained by the United States following the Spanish-American war.
Guam
Territory gained by the United States following the Spanish-American war.
Platt Amendment, 1901
amendment that said that the United States had the right to intervene in Cuba’s foreign affairs
John Hay
man who wanted all nations equal access to trade & investment in china
Panama Canal
French business had the right to build the canal. $280 million dollars lost along with $20,000 lost
Roosevelt Corollary
military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region.
Dollar Diplomacy
Dollars would be a more effective means of achieving national goals than bullets.
Open Door Policy
All nations could trade & invest in China.

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