U.S. History Final Exam Study Guide 1st Semester

U.S. History Final Exam Study Guide 1st Semester

Christopher Columbus
Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages
Enlightenment
A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
French & Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley– English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
Battle of Yorktown
final battle of the war, in which French and American forces led by George Washington defeated British General Cornwallis
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Checks and Balances
system of overlapping the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to permit each branch to check the actions of the others
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Indian Removal Act
1830 law that called for the government to negotiate treaties requiring Native Americans to relocate west
Trail of Tears
forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region west of the Mississippi during which thousands of Cherokees died
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals. (Early 19th century) Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sections as a result: Promoted many reform movements in the north
Underground Railroad
a network of people who helped thousands of enslaved people escape to the North by providing transportation and hiding places
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Secession
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Confederate States of America
a republic formed in February of 1861 and composed of the eleven Southern states that seceded from the United States
Robert E. Lee
overall commander of confederate Army
Battle of Chancelorsville
Confederate victory in Virginia where Stonewall Jackson was killed.
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee’s Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Battle of Gettysburg
Union Civil War victory that turned the tide against the Confederates at Gettysburg, Pennslyvania, resulted in the loss of 50,000 soldiers
Reconstruction
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Sitting Bull
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
George Armstrong Custer
Former General during the Civil War, he set out in 1874 with his Seventh Cavalry to return the Plains Indians to the Sioux reservation. Defeated by an army that outnumbered his men 10 to 1.
Wounded Knee Massacre
The Sioux Indians were captured by the US Army and were forced to surrender their weapons, the deaths of the Sioux Indians came the next morning 153 died.
Geronimo
Apache leader who fought U.S. soldiers to keep his land. He led a revolt of 4,000 of his people after they were forced to move to a reservation in Arizona.
Homestead Act
1862 – Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
Capitalism
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Thomas Alva Edison
invented numerous devices; the most well-known is his perfection of the electric light bulb in 1879.
Tenement
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
Settlement house
Community center organized at the turn of the twentieth century to provide social services to the urban poor
Jane Adams
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Progressivism
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Prohibition
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, “Square Deal,” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Square Deal
Name of TD’s programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov’t regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation
The Jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 – Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Yellow Journalism
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) – this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador’s letter that published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
Rough Riders
volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Protectorate
country with its own government but under the control of an outside power
militarism
a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
Allied Powers
world war I alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.
Central Powers
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
Lusitania
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
U-boats
German submarines, named for the German Unterseeboot, or “undersea boat,” proved deadly for Allied ships in the war zone. U-boat attacks played an important role in drawing the United States into the war.
Zimmerman Note
1917 – Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile
Communists
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property
Liberty Bonds
Where people bought bonds so the government could get that money now for war. The bonds increased in interest over time.
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people’s minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel’s organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
Red Scare
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas
Palmer Raids
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
Sacco & Vanzetti
two Italian-born anarchists, unfairly tried and convicted for the armed robbery and murder of two pay-clerks in Massachusetts in 1920
Henry Ford
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Assembly Line
A manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product. The assembly line allowed Ford to create a Model T every 24 seconds. ( pg 494 )
Warren G. Harding
Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov’t or presidency. “return to normalcy” after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov’t land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over
Teapot Dome Scandal
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
Calvin Coolidge
Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people’s wealth increased
Flapper
women in the 1920’s who bobbed their hair, wore short skirts, and defied the morals and restrictions of the earlier generations
Scopes Trial
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
Bootlegger
a person who smuggled alcoholic beverages into the US during Prohibition
Speakeasy
a saloon or nightclub selling alcoholic beverages illegally, esp. during Prohibition.
Great Migration
Movement between 1915 – 1940 of millions of African Americans to the north in search of work and fair treatment
Harlem Renaissance
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
Langston Hughes
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Jazz
a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles
The Jazz Singer
1927 – The first movie with sound; this “talkie” was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
Charles A. Lindbergh
Hero of the 1920s; first aviator to cross the Atlantic non-stop in the “Spirit of St. Louis” aircraft (1927), NY to Paris 33 hours, former US Army and airmail pilot
Amelia Earhart
The first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean as a passenger in 1928 and then solo in 1932. She also set many other speed and distance records. During an attempt to make a circumnavigational flight of the globe in 1937 Earhart disappeared over the central Pacific Ocean.
Babe Ruth
The greatest baseball player of the 1920’s. He set a record for hitting 60 home runs in one season.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
writer of “This Side of Paradise” and “The Great Gatsby” who coined the term “Jazz Age”
Early Colonial Economies
•Almost all English colonies were commercial ventures + were tied in crucial ways to other economies
•Develop substantial trade w/ native pop of North America w/ Fr settlers to the north & w/ spanish colonies to the south & west
•Over time develop even more substantial trade w/in growing Atlantic economy
•AM colonists engage in wide range of economic pursuits, but (except for few areas in west where small white pop subsisted largely on the fur & skin trade w/ indians) FARMING dominated all areas of Eu + Afr settlement=some farmers engage in subsistence agriculture but whenever possible AM farmers attempt to grow crops for local, intercolonial, + export markets

SOUTH:
South less commercial/industrial than N. economies cuz depend on large scale cash crops:
*Chesapeake: TOBACCO establish basis of econ (farmers=dumb-never understand growing more tobacco=overproduction probs)
*Georgia + S. Carolina: RICE production (staple of econ)-“rice cultivation”= hard work-standing knee-deep in mud of malarial swamps under blazing sun, surrounded by insects
*S Carolina: new staple crop= INDIGO (popular export in Eng.)

NORTH: dominated by agri (diverse kind), BUT an important commercial sector of econ emerge=more non-agri activities cuz conditions for farming=less favorable then South (cold weather, hard rocky soil)
*modest cash crops (livestock, apples, corn) enable New England to trade for things they couldn’t grow (develop no staple crop)
*almost every colonist in New England + middle colonies manage to establish wide range of industrial activities on a modest scale (home industry=domestic efforts) / craftsmen, artisans, blacksmiths= ENTREPRENEURS

Differences between colonies
NORTH- Harsh weather; Separatists, Puritans; rocky soild; sold slaves; trading; bad relation w/ slaves.
MIDDLES-Farming(cash crops); religious freedom ->Quakers; better relation w/ natives; Dutch first colonists.
SOUTH-Indentured servants were first used; farming; warm weather; tabacco & rice major cash crops; 1st colonists were English settled in Jamestown.
Constitution
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
Great Compromise
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state’s representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
Judiciary Act
law that established federal court system and # supreme court justices, provided appeal of certain state court decisions to federal courts
1st Amendment
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and petition
Abolition Movement
A movement to end slavery led by William Garrison. He wrote the liberator and was in favor of emancipation. People worked to spread the word about abolitionist movement by going to churches and handing out pamphlets. Many people were against slavery and spoke at these meetings (Fredrick Douglass, the Grimke Sisters). The movement met much resistance in the South and the North ended up going to war with the South.
Mexican American War
Causes::::: American Imperialism, and Mexico’s unstable gov’t deterred them from being able to focus on the problem of the imposing Uncle Sam on their backyard. Effects::::: The Mexican-American War had many long-term effects. The first and most obvious is the vast territory Mexico was forced to give up to the United States, including the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. California also became a state after the war, following the short-lived ‘California Republic’ which had been declared in Sonoma by American settlers in revolt against Mexico (their flag is now the California state flag). The leading American general of the war, Zachary Taylor, would later be elected the 12th President. However, the the most important event (at least in American history) that resulted was the American Civil War.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Bear Flag Revolt
a revolt from Fort Devenworth to Santa Fe; 1846; John C. Frement- Americans in California wanted to be independent of Mexican rule; when the war with Mexico begin these Californians revolted and established an independent republic; hoisted short lived California Bear Flag Republic
Battle of Vicksburg
Turning points of Civil War in 1863; G: bloodiest battle where Lee’s army never recovered from casualties; V: placed Mississippi River under control of Union & split Confederacy in 1/2
Railroad Boom
The expansion of the railroad changed the West in many ways. Until they were regulated, railroads would overcharge where they had a monopoly and undercharge when they were competing with other railways in the same market. This practice was harmful to farmers in remote areas. Rail companies also led to the near-extinction of buffalo. This led to increased tension with the Native Americans who lived in the West. (The Battle at Little Big Horn). They also connected little towns to civilization, making them big cities. It accelerated industrial revolution. “Railroad time”, by which rail schedules were determined, gave the nation its first standardized method of time telling with the adoption of time zones. By 1889, North and South Dakota, Washington, and MOntana were populous enough to achieve statehood. Wyoming and Idaho followed in 1890.
Labor Unions
Organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labor.
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Urbanization
The movement of people from rural to urban areas, resulting in the growth of urban areas.
Assimilation
People of different cultures come to realize they are a part of a larger national family. It is when a group of people is integrated into a bigger group or society, it has often happened against the will of the minority group U.S. history.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
a fire in New York’s Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
ADL
Anti-Defamination League that fought Anti-Semitism
NACW
National Association of Colored Women; founded in 1896 to improve living and working conditions for African-American women
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Interstate Commission Commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
Federal Trade Commission
(WW) 1914 , A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy, support antitrust suits
Liliuokalani
The queen of Hawaii in 1887 who disliked foreigners entering her country. She didn’t want to go to war with America because she knew her people would get massacred.
Hawaii
America attained Hawaii by forcing the Hawaiian King to sign a constitution and reduced his power. The Queen Liliuokalani gave up her country because she didn’t want to go to war with America. Hawaii became the 50th State
U.S.S. Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War (Shane Teel – 1st period reenactment)
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Phillippines
The Spanish-American War began in Cuba in 1898 and soon reached the Philippines when Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at Manila Bay. Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines on June 12, 1898, and was proclaimed head of state. As a result of its defeat, Spain was forced to officially cede the Philippines, together with Cuba
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South and Central America by using military force.
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Trench Warfare
a bloody form of war that consisted of two opposing forces digging holes in the ground or “trenches” to provide shelter from enemy gunfire. Heavy Artillery would be able to shoot through trenches and infantry would race across “no man’s land” or the land between the two frontal trenches. Gas was also used to fill the trenches and kill all within them.
National War Labor Board
a board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war
Women in the Workforce
• Female labor force participation has increased steadily throughout the twentieth century. • Yet, the opportunity structure of women differs from men in important ways o Different normative expectations, institutional discrimination and occupational segregation
Sedition Act
Made it a crime to speak, write, or publish “false, scandalous and malicious” criticisms of the government
Espionage Act
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
14 Points
Woodrow Wilson’s peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
Isolationism
the policy of separating one’s country from the economic and political interactions with the rest of the world. nations
ACLU
This union was founded in 1920 to defend people’s civil rights, and tried unsuccessfully to get the Sacco and Vanzetti case overturned. The American Civil Liberties Union. It defends and preserves the individual rights and liberties that the Constitution and laws of the United States guarantee everyone in this country.
Installment Buying
buying on credit
Mass Production
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright. Ford revolutionized mass production with the production of large quantities of goods (the Model T) using an assembly line.
Advertisements
a public announcement in a newspaper or on the radio, television, or internet promoting something such as a product for sale or an event
Spinoff Industries
In regards to the Auto Industry, other industries took off because of the how big the Auto Industry became (gas stations, motels, radio, rubber, etc.)
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).
Zora Neal Hurston
1891-1960. American folklorist. Author of 1937 novel “Their Eyes Were Watching God”. Associated with Harlem Renaissance
Marcus Garvey
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Radio
The most important form of mass media in the 1920’s