U.S. History Key Terms

U.S. History Key Terms

Nathanial Bacon
a member of Governor Sir William Berkeley’s council and also a planter whose foreman had been killed in a raid. Demanded governor commission him to lead a volunteer army against the Indians. Was declared an outlaw and his rebellion was suppressed, but not before the colony had been thrown into turmoil. Bacon’s Rebellion reinforced how dangerous a mass of freed indentured servants might prove.
Slave Codes
designed to control the population of slaves. A slave could to sue for his or her freedom just because he was a Christian. Also said that the status of a child followed the status of the mother, since children of mixed lineage usually had a free white father and black mother. Showed how the colonists were desperate for more workers because of plantations.
Providentialism
provides that one can best understand the natural world as the organic expression of God’s desire. Part of the existentialist movement because it stressed reason and finding things on one’s own, and using one’s mind.
Half Way Covenant (1662)
a new category of members who were converted but did not have full communion rights. Also allowed children of converted members to have church membership if they were not baptized. Showed how law, reason, and logic was hindering church participation, it was the puritan’s way of trying to revive the people during a more secular time period.
Salem Witch Trials
people were concerned about religious purity because of the increase of members, and members of struggling families began to accuse their more successful counterparts of witchcraft. Primarily woman were accused and burned at the stake, hanged, or drowned. The enlightenment brought more rational thinking and the people changed mindsets. The Enlightenment came at the perfect time to bring the people out of their old, irrational logic.
The Enlightenment
a way of thought that encouraged rationalism, logic, and reason. Was the basis of modern, American government because people studied balance and order.
John Locke
An enlightenment thinker who argued “tabula rasa” which meant that every mind began on blank slate and was shaped by its environment. Important because it encouraged people to adapt these theories to American society and create own identity.
Deism
belief held by some intellectuals that God functioned as Clock-Maker, creating the universe and then stepping back to watch his creation. Encourage deists to believe that there were natural laws and that man was in charge of controlling government and the way of life.
Benjamin Franklin
enlightenment thinker who was a self-made scientist who published valuable theories on electricity, medicine, physics, and astronomy. Was one of the founding fathers and put beliefs into the constitution.
Jonathan Edwards
superb preacher, became his generation’s greatest theorist of revivalism. Wanted to awaken a spiritual outpouring in his own congregation to counteract the Enlightenment and bring them back to God.
George Whitefield
“field preaching” that gathered hundreds and thousands of people into a public space and subjected them to highly emotional sermons. Was able to reach all 13 colonies and to advertise his journeys and accomplishments to revive the church and accelerate church membership.
Fort Duquense
the French and the English fought over the Ohio River Valley. The French decided to build a fort named Fort Duquesne in order to claim the area for the French. Named after New France’s new leader Marquis Duquense who established settlements in the North American interior. Fort was attacked by the British and increased tensions between the French and the British, which would later become important to the Americans.
Albany Plan of Union
intercolonial congress proposed this plan to defend their land from the French. It wanted to develop a colonial force of defense and self-imposed taxation to pay for defense. This meeting encouraged more independence and self-reliance and laid the groundwork for the republic of USA.
Paris Peace Settlement of 1763
confirmed that France no longer held control over any part of North America. Left the colonies completely to English control.
Proclamation of 1763
called for a halt to westward expansion beyond the Appalachians. The Britons wanted to keep the colonists tied closely to the English authority. It also would facilitate the collection of taxes. It angered the colonists because they felt they had the right to expand and felt British rule was completely unnecessary. They were becoming more self-reliant. Sparked the beginning of the Revolution.
Corrupt Bargain
When Jackson lost the presidency even though he had the popular vote, his supporters believed that Clay and Adams had conspired to get Adams into office. Clay scratching Adam’s back by giving him the presidential nod, and Adams returning the favor with a prime position in his cabinet.
Spoils System
Jackson believed in appointing his own staff comprised of his supporters, which also allowed him to eliminate the Adams and Clay supporters from his administration. This back scratching political system became known as this, and was present on a wide scale at all levels of government. Had several negative consequences and hurt government growth.
Whig Party (National Republicans)
The political revolution stirred up by Jackson’s alternative staffing methods also resulted in the shift from one party political system to a two-party system. Both Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams both called themselves Republicans, but they were obviously were not aligned. The supporters of each candidate polarized into two political parties. The Whig party supported Adams. Its roots were firmly entrenched in Hamilton’s Federalist ideals, including supporting a national bank and a strong central government that would finance improvements within U.S. borders. Northern industrialists flocked to this party because it emphasized protecting their industries through high tariffs.
Democratic Party
one of the two parties that emerged from Adams and Jackson. This party was picking up steam with Jackson’s election in 1828. Had “common man” ideals and denounced Henry Clay’s American system and supported states’ rights. Democrats also defended the spoils system as a necessary element of an efficient government. Began the formation of modern political parties.
Tariff of 1828
a tariff that would significantly raise taxes on manufactured items such as wool and textiles. It was meant to embarrass Adams out of office with such an outrageous tariff. It passed in 1828 and instead of being an embarrassment to Adams, it wreaked havoc during Jackson’s presidency and became known as the “Tariff of Abominations”. The Southerners with the most the complain because the economy there was stifling. They felt that they were being treated unfairly, which began one of the many feelings of resentment that would eventually lead to the civil war.
The South Carolina Exposition/ Nullification
a pamphlet called this which offered persuasive arguments for nullifying the Tariff of 1828, stating it was unjust and unconstitutional. Shows the growing tension between the south, north, and the federal government and brought about many constitutional issues.
John Calhoun
the author of the exposition, and he was the Vice President of the United States. He was raised in South Carolina and supported the efforts to nullify the tariff. Calhoun was serving as Jackson’s Vice President, but he had fallen out of Jackson’s favor as his successor thanks in part to Martin Van Buren’s efforts. He eventually resigned out of office and became senator of South Carolina to support the nullification efforts. Shows the greater divide.
Nullification Proclamation
a speech from Jackson that denounced South Carolina’s actions. He was disgusted by the idea that one state could nullify a federal law and secede from the union. He met their challenge by raising an army and sending it to South Carolina. Jackson stated his intention to enforce the tariff, although he too encouraged Congress to reduce the burdensome tariff.
Force Bill
with his standing army ready to enforce the tariff, Jackson called South Carolina’s bluff. He called upon Congress to develop this bill to authorize the use of army to enforce the tariff. This bill strengthened this power to do so, which put South Carolina in a corner and forced them to compromise.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
South Carolina and Calhoun pleaded with Henry Clay to help draft a solution. Clay’s proposal said that high tariffs that burdened the South would be reduced by ten percent of an eight-year period. It was passed by a small minority in Congress, but it finally brought about a significant tariff change. It allowed South Carolina to feel a small taste of victory, but this event stirred up the first rumblings that would eventually lead to the civil war.
Specie
in the early 1800s, the U.S. did not print paper money but instead minted gold and silver coins. The value of these coins was determined by the value of the metal in the coins themselves. People wanted a safe place to keep their coins, so they stored them in banks, and the bank would give them a receipt, or a bank not, as a claim against the gold and silver that had been deposited. These banknotes eventually led to huge troubles with the banks when they were not used correctly.
Wildcat banks
speculators burrowed as much money as they could from these banks that sprang up to cater to this demand. These banks were speculative in nature because they were more interested in making the fast dollar than building a secure banking business. Their successive loan practices caused many more banknotes to be in circulation in the U.S. than there were deposits to cover them. This caused confidence the banknotes to drop and made them lose value, and many more of them were needed to purchase the same amount of goods. The banking system has many flaws and can be easily abused.
Manifest Destiny
the expansionist movement that was given its name 1845 by John L. O’Sullivan who was the editor of the influential United States Magazine and Democratic Review. It was stimulated by nationalism and an idealistic vision of human perfectibility. It was America’s duty to extend liberty and democratic institutions across the continent. It was felt to be a divine American mission and was a feeling of racial superiority. They believed they had the natural right to move west and with them bring the blessings of self-government and Protestantism. It was during this time that they country really moved west, and this was the stimulus of expansion.
John L. O’Sullivan
the editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review who coined the name Manifest Destiny for the expansionist movement. He believed that it was the divine right of Americans to expand and became the expansionist movement.
Transcontinental Treaty
Spain ceded its claims of North American territory by this treaty in 1819 negotiated by John Quincy Adams, by which the United States acquired Florida and relinquished any nebulous claims to Texas under the Louisiana Purchase. Spain left its ties in North American and left the territorial disputes between Great Britain and the United States.
Oregon Trail/ Overland Trail
Americans were motivated by the spirit of Manifest Destin, and “Oregon Fever” seized thousands of western Americans hard hit by the economic depression, known as the Panic of 1837, which was triggered largely y an over-speculation in federal lands. Independence, Missouri was the starting point of the 2,000 mile Overland Trail, blazed by Jedediah Smith, Jim Bridger, and other mountain men. The route ran along the Missouri and Platte Rivers, across the Great Plains and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. The trains either moved into Oregon or to California. Most Oregon pioneers were young farm families from the middle west, who completed the difficulty journey in five of six months. Most California gold-seekers were young unmarried men who expected the return to their families as wealthy men. Many pioneers died on the trail, 17 per mile, but fewer than 400 were killed by hostile Indians. The Indians tribes frequently developed a flourishing trade with the whites passing through their lands and occasionally served as scouts for the wagons trains. About 5,0 Americans had made the trek to Oregon by the mid-1840s. It was a huge part of westward expansion.
Empresarios
Americans who decided to emigrate to Texas who were encouraged by the Mexican government in order to create a military buffer between the marauding Indians and the southern provinces. The Americans were required to give up their citizenship, convert to Roman Catholicism, and become Mexican citizens. In return, they were granted huge tracts of land in the region bordering Louisiana. The first American empresario was Moses Austin, a former New Englander who had traded with the Spanish for decades. This idea was important because it led to the secession of Texas from Mexico and then becoming part of the Union, which brought about many issues that led to the Civil War.
Sam Houston
The revolutionists in Texas who wanted to leave Mexico and have statehood declared their independence on March 2 1836 and adopted a constitution legalizing slavery. David G Burnet was chosen as president of the new republic and Sam Houston, a former Tennessee congressman and governor who fought under Andrew Jackson during the war of 1812, was selected as Commander in Chief of the army. A city was named after him, and after the revolution, he was named the president of Texas.
The Alamo
The Mexican government responded swiftly to put down the Texas rebellion. Santa Anna raised a force of about 6,000 troops and marched north to besiege the nearly 200 rebels under the command of Colonel William B Travis at the Alamo, the abandoned mission at San Antonio. The final assault was made on March 6 and the entire garrison was annihilated, including the wounded. Among the dead were frontier legends Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie. A few weeks later at Goliad, Santa Anna ordered the slaughter of 300 Texas rebels after they surrendered. The revolution struck a sympathetic chord with America and led to the idea of the statehood of Texas.
John Slidell
appointed by Polk to be the minister of Mexico, and instructed him to offer up 30 million dollars to settle the disputed claims and purchase California and New Mexico. These lands eventually became part of the U.S. and brought about slavery disputes that led to the Civil War.
Zachary Taylor
future president of the United States. He was a general during the Mexican-American War. He crossed the Rio Grande and defeated numerically superior Mexican forces at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. His men faced fierce house-to-house fighting against the Mexican army led by General Pedro de Ampudia, and he agreed to negotiate surrender, and allowed the Mexican troops to retreat with their arms. Polk countermanded the armistice and ordered Taylor to take a defensive position and planned an attack. Santa Anna tried to exploit Taylor’s weakened position, but the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847 was a stunning American victory. It was Taylor’s last fight-he returned home a military hero destined for the White House. He was president responsible
Mr. Polk’s War
the war with Mexico had mixed views throughout the Union. It was popular in the Mississippi Valley, but it was called Mr. Polk’s War in the northeast. Whigs generally opposed the war, but party members in Congress voted to support the America soldiers and marines during the fighting. Abraham Lincoln believed Polk rushed the country into war over disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. His views were not popular and he chose not to run for reelection as a Whig congressman.
Winfield Scott
commanding general of the United States army landed his men on the beaches near Vera Cruz and commenced a march that traces the route taken 300 years before by Cortes. Scott brushed aside Santa Anna’s army at Cerro Gordo, a battle in which Captains Robert E Lee and George B McClellan distinguished themselves. Santa Anna hastily recruited a Mexican army of about 20,000 troops but many of them were ill-trained and equipped. General Scott’s army of nearly 14,000 men overwhelmed the Mexican forces. The fortified hill or Chaputlepec was stormed despite the desperate resistance of the defenders. Mexico City fell on September 14, as American soldiers and marines entered the “halls of Montezuma”. It was the decisive campaign of the war that led to the annexation of Texas and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States.
Treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo- Nicholas P Trist was sent by Polk to negotiate a peace treaty with the Mexican government. It was signed on February 2, 1848 at Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico acknowledged the annexation of Texas (with Rio Grande as its border) and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States. In return, the United States paid 15,000,000 for the Mexican Cession and assumed up 3,250,000 of the disputed claims. This treaty brought about many sectional disputes that led to the Civil War.
Mexican Cession
the name of the area of California, New Mexico, Texas, all areas that were part of Mexico before the War that were taken by the United States after the war. The taking of these regions was fueled by the ideals of Manifest Destiny and brought about problems that brought about the Civil war. It became a political battleground between the North and the South.
Wilmot Proviso
the issue of the Mexican Cession that created a battleground between the North and the South was raised by David Wilmot, a Democratic congressman form Pennsylvania. Wilmot proposed that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired from Mexico. The Wilmot Proviso passed the House frequently in the next several years, but it was always defeated in the Senate . It never became law, but represented the extreme Northern position regarding the extension of slavery.
Popular Sovereignty
there were many different idea of compromise as to whether slavery was legal in the Mexican Cession. Calhoun argued that Congress had no right to prohibit slavery. Two compromise proposals were also advanced prior to the election of 1848. James Buchanan urged that the Missouri Compromise line of 36 30 be extended to the pacific. President Polk agreed, but it was becoming more difficult for politicians to concede any territory in the fight over slavery. The other compromise proposal known as popular sovereignty was introduced December 1847 by Lewis Cass. Cass adroitly proposed that the explosive slavery question be removed from the halls of Congress by letting the people of the territories decide the matter. Popular sovereignty would eventually not work when the gold rush began.
Forty NinersNiners
in January 1848, gold was discovered on property in Sierra Nevada foothills of northern California. It was supposed to be secret, but the word leaked shortly after the Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo. An estimated 100,000 forty-niners from around the globe flocked to the gold fields in 1849. The population of California exploded, and the issue of slavery was gain brought up. Politicians were debated as to whether California should be admitted as a free or slave state.
Gabriel Prosser
The first armed rebellion was organized by this man and 50 other slaves living near Richmond, VA. Hundreds of slaves heard about the plan, and 2 of them told the white authorities. Governor James Monroe called out the militia and Prosser and 25 of his followers were executed and their owners received compensation. Black resistance to enslavement played an important role in fashioning a compromise to the sectional controversy of 1850.
Denmark Vesay
another example of armed rebellion towards enslavement was by this man, a literate carpenter who purchased his freedom from lottery winnings, spent five years devising an elaborate scheme to seize control of Charleston, South Carolina. Vesay was betrayed like Prosser by slaves and hanged along with 35 fellow conspirators in the summer of 1822. These uprising brought about many questions about slavery, but did not have a significant effect.
Nat Turner
the only significant slave insurrection during the antebellum period was Nat Turner’s Rebellion. Turner was a literate slave who believed that hit was his divine mission to slay my enemies with their own weapons. In 1831, he led about 30 slaves on a rampage through tidewater Virginia, killing about 60 men, woman, and children. As an effect, a slaughter of blacks took place before the uprising was put down. Turner eluded his pursuers for 2 months before being captured, tried, and then executed. The Southern States as a result enforced laws prohibiting the education of slaves and increased surveillance of free African Americans. Northern black sailors were sometimes put in jail while in southern ports, and throughout the country side there were slave patrols that prevented blacks from meeting without whites present and to catch runaway slaves.
Underground Railroad
Some slaves that escaped the south were aided by the Underground Railroad when they reached the free states. It has been exaggerated over the years, but it was a loosely organized group of abolitionist “conductors” who operated safehouse “stations” in northern states and transported their passengers to freedom in Canada, beyond the reach of slave catchers. Harriet Tubman was dubbed the Moses of her people, and was the most famous Underground Railroad conductor. She escaped Maryland in 1849 and risked her freedom by returning from Canada 19 times to rescue some 300 slaves. She also served as a Union spy during the Civil War. This organization saved many slaves and also brought the morality of slavery into question.
Personal Liberty Laws
Fugitive slaves increased sectional tensions. In 1842, the Supreme Court ruled in the case of Prigg v The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that Congress had the sole power to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which led to the passage of personal liberty laws in several states, designed to protect the rights of alleged fugitive slaves by prohibiting state officials from assisting in their capture. Southerners complained that these laws made it impossible to return their slaves, and demanded a more stringent act. Adding more fuel to the explosive issue, some Northerners called Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia and ban it from the Mexican Cession. A political compromise was needed.
Compromise of 1850
The compromise regarding the slavery issue that stated that California was admitted as a free state, Utah and New Mexico were created as territories, Texas was compensated with 10 million dollars for accepting its present day borders, with the slave trade abolished in the District of Columbia, and a more stringent fugitive slave law was enacted. It was generally accepted among Americans, with the exception of political extremes in both the north and the south. The compromise tried to avoid war, but it only delayed it.
Fugitive Slave Act
the act that said that runaways were not permitted a jury trail or allowed to testify at their hearing, and the commissioners who decided the cases were paid ten dollars if they returned accused fugitives to slavery but only five dollars if they released them. All good citizens were commanded to aid and assist in the prompt execution of this law. Anyone who did not obey was liable to a maximum fine of 1,000 dollars and a six month term of imprisonment. This act was galling to many Northerners. Ralph Waldo Emerson reflected the feelings of many Northerners when he wrote, “This filthy enactment was made in the 19th century by people who could read and write.” and said that no one could obey the act without loss of “self-respect”. The most spectacular rescuers took place in the year following the passage of the Act, and it brought about more controversy over the slave issue.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
it was the most significant response to the Fugitive Slave Act. It was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was originally a series that ran for a abolitionist newspaper, but it became a book in 1852 and was a huge success. Many Union soldiers received their first lessons of slavery from the pages of the book. The novel released pent-up feelings of guilt and revulsion toward slavery among Northerners who previously had not given much thought to the sectional controversy, and it became a moral crusade. It had a huge impact because of its enchanting characters that were very realistic. The plot captured the imagination of readers and moved many to tears. Stowe championed domestic and family values and graphically depicted how slavery corrupted the Christian virtues of both whites and blacks. She later said that God wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and she influenced the Second Great Awakening. Her novel was a propaganda victory for the anti-slavery cause.
Aunt Phyllis’s Cabin
Southern writers attempted futilely to portray slavery as being a benign institution. This book described Christian masters who neither whipped their slaves nor broke up their families. Defenders of slavery contended that the slaves themselves were more satisfied with their lot than the desperate wage slaves of the northern factories. These efforts did little to change the Northern sentiments toward slavery. Uncle Tom’s Cabin inflamed public opinion in both the north and the south during the 1850s. For many Americans, Stowe imbued the slavery issue with an emotional fervor that hastened the Civil War.
Kansas
Nebraska Act-Senator Stephen Douglas wanted to create a railroad through Chicago and the Nebraska Territory. One problem he faced in doing this was the fact that this region was Indian Territory. However, he wanted to revoke earlier land promises and force the Indians to move. He then developed a political scheme to wine the support of Southerners. He introduced this act, which split the territory into two sections, slave state Kansas and free state Nebraska. He believed in popular sovereignty and pushed to led the residents of each territory decide whether their state would permit slavery. He called for the repeal of the MO compromise of 1820 that prohibited slavery because both Nebraska and Kansas were above the line. He created this in order to entice the Southerners to support his plan, but it also angered his fellow Northerners. The decision to reopen the slavery issue to allow more slave states re-ignited decades old conflict between the North and the South and set the foundation for the coming Civil War.
Beecher’s Bible’s
Kansas was the most likely to become a slave state, but since their was popular sovereignty, both abolitionists and pro slavery people set settlers to establish a majority. One organization, the New England Emigrant Aid Company, sent a lot of people to Kansas, and they were armed with pioneers with rifles named Beecher’s Bible after the Reverend Beecher who raised money to purchase the weapons. They traveled the new territory singing a song by a Quaker poet. This caused more problems to arise.
Bleeding Kansas
President pierce fanned the flames of controversy by denouncing the free state government. The crises reached a boiling point when a mob of proslavery people raided the free soil town of Lawrence and looted stores, burned building, and destroyed the town’s printing press. The violent attacks were the first of many to call the conflict “bleeding Kansas” by journalists. The controversy in Kansas reflected the growing crises that was in the entire nation.
Dred Scott v Sanford
After all the events that have occurred that have pushed the nation to war, this case took the nation one step closer. Dred Scott was a Missouri slave who frequently traveled with his owner through Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. He sued his owner’s widow for his freedom because he had residence in free state Illinois, where slavery was outlawed and made him a free man. Justice Roger Taney ruled that black people were not citizen of the United States, and since he was not a citizen, he could not sue for liberty. They also said that even if he was a citizen, his residence in Wisconsin Territory did not qualify him to be free. Taney argued that the MO compromise was unconstitutional because it deprived people of “property”. In summary, the ruling said that since slave owners could take their “property” anywhere, Congress could not ban slavery from territories. The decision shocked blacks, abolitionists, and popular sovereignty supporters who had fought the expansion of slavery. Republicans said that the Court’s ruling was an opinion and not enforceable. Southerners were outraged at the North’s defiance and it reopened their secession discussions. These actions brought the country closer to war.
Freeport Doctrine
Abraham Lincoln and Stephan Douglas had many debates while running from the senate position in Illinois. The most famous took place in Freeport, Illinois. Lincoln referred to the Dred Scott case when he asked if the residents of a territory could exclude slavery before the territory became a state. Lincoln believed slavery to be a moral issue, and hoped to trap Douglas and force him to comment on popular sovereignty and slavery. If he supported popular sovereignty, he would contradict the Court’s ruling. Douglas replied that laws were necessary to protect slavery, and if no laws existed, no slaves would be there. He concluded that if the residents did nothing, slavery would essentially be excluded from the territory. He effectively answered the questions without offending any supporter, and his answer became known as the Freeport Doctrine. His doctrine would resurface and cost him the Democratic nomination for presidency, however, when many southerner focused on the senator’s statement that the SC’ Dred Scott decision could be circumvented. They refused to support a candidate who did not completely back their views on slavery.
John Brown
He was an abolitionist who believed that he was appointed by God to rid the nation of slavery. His house was a station for the Underground Railroad, and he took part in many violent raids of Kansas, Missouri, and Virginia. When a proslavery constitution was in effect in Kansas, Brown formulated a plan to start a slave rebellion and form a free state for blacks. The heart of the plan involved attacking the federal arsenal of Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He got many volunteers and was financially backed by some Northerners. On a fall night, he led his gang to Harpers Ferry, overpowered the watchmen, and took Lewis Washington as a hostage. He figured it would be soon when the slaves and sympathetic whites arrived at the armory to take weapons and fight, but the slaves never showed up. When Brown’s men shot a railroad employee, the townspeople heard and told local militiamen and the U.S. Marines commanded by Robert E Lee. Buchanan then told more artillery to the place. Brown and four of his men were captured. He was charged with murder, conspiracy, and treason, but he refused the insanity plea because he wanted to become a martyr in death. His actions caused more uprising because many Democrats blamed the incidents on the teachings of the Republican Party, who were mainly northerners. The Civil War seemed inevitable.
Sir Walter Raleigh
took on one of the first English settlement attempts. Founded Virginia. Began English colonization to the New World.
Primogeniture
said only the eldest son inherited an estate. Left many entrepreneurial younger sons to seek their fortunes elsewhere, which caused immigration to the New World.
Joint Stock Companies
encouraged commercial expansion and provided financial backing. It allowed investors to pool their capital and share the risks and profits, becoming the predecessor of the modern corporation. Encouraged more people to invest in the New World and support expansion.
Colonial Charter
charter by the monarch that outlined the basic terms of venture. It guaranteed the settlers the same rights as the people of England. Allowed settlers to believe that the colonies were just an expansion of England, and not a separate nation, which encourage people searching for more land and ownership to expand.
Jamestown
Colony named after King James I. The Virginia Company set sail to the Chesapeake Bay and on the banks of the James River founded Jamestown. It was the first permanent English colony in the New World.
John Smith
Soldier who helped Jamestown by providing leadership and order. “He who shall not work, shall not eat.” Helped Jamestown survive by creating a fickle friendship between the Indians who helped the settlers with food and the land, and forced all settlers to pitch in for the good of the entire colony. Began the American identity of independence.
John Rolfe
Jamestown settler who started the tobacco industry in Jamestown, created a stable economy because of huge export of tobacco. Married Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan.
House of Burgesses
a form of self government in Virginia. Allowed settlers to choose delegates to advise governor. Began a new pattern of local, representative self-government and rooted the feeling of colonial independence.
Puritans
group of radical Protestants who wanted to purify Anglicanism. Embraced John Calvin, believe they were the elect. Wanted to completely de-Catholicize the Church of England. Separatists believed that the church was beyond saving and left for Holland, then the New World to create a Puritan colony. Created their own set of laws and self-government, without any higher authority.
Pilgrims
Puritans (separatists) who left England to establish a colony of their own customs.
Mayflower Compact
Pilgrims that arrived in Plymouth Bay thought were outside of Virginia Company territory. Drew up formal agreement. First standard in the New World for written laws and was signed by 41 adult men on the Mayflower. It showed that the people were capable of creating self-government and protection for themselves outside a greater authority (The King). William Bradford- elected governor of Plymouth Bay. Was responsible for the infant colony’s success through hardships. Kept the colony surviving.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Non-separatists first tried to save the Church of England, then moved to the New World after they believed it was beyond saving. Primarily a business venture, but also used as a refuge for puritans.
The Great Migration
Due to turmoil in Britain, many people moved to the New World (Massachusetts Bay Colony) in hope for relief. People found the New World as a place for a fresh start and freedom.
General Court
Government power in the Bay company. Was a group of shareholders who then elected the governor and his assistants. Another form of self-government.
John Winthrop
Bay Colony’s first elected governor who was a well-off English lawyer. Believed he had the divine right to rule. Local elected governor.
Visible Saints
Puritans only let those become members of the church if they could outwardly show that they had an encounter with God. Just leaving England in some cases was good enough proof.
Protestant Work ethic
meant that they were decidedly committed to working hard and to developing the community, in both material and spiritual ways. Showed how puritans believed in own, independent community where everyone pitched in and worked together.
Roger Williams
A Puritan who was a dissenter because he held a strong belief in an individual’s freedom of worship. Also thought that the English should respect the land rights of the Native Americans. Religious groups should be supported by voluntary tithes, not taxes demanded by the Bay Colony leaders. He was banished from the colony. Created own colony in Rhode Island- a religiously tolerant colony. It became the most diverse colony because of it’s religious tolerance.
Anne Hutchinson
A strong woman who clashed with views on salvation. Believed only thing one needed was God’s saving grace and that leading a holy life was not a guarantee of salvation. Banished from the colony and went to Rhode Island, but never reach it.
Antinomianism
The idea that if you were saved you did not need to obey the laws of God or man. Puritans were very concerned with good works not only for salvation but also for the good of society.
Thomas Hooker
Founded Hartford, along the Connecticut River because of the expanding population and increasing levels of Puritan intolerance in Massachusetts. People began created colonies on the basis of freedom. Everyone had the right to do what the wanted.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
A type of constitution created for the settlement in 1639. Unique because they did not reference the king of any power outside of Connecticut. It also established control by all citizens and did not limit voting rights to members of the puritan church.
Pequot War
Massachusetts colonists accused a Pequot Indian of murdering a settler. The English set fire to a Pequot villain and the Indians fled their huts and the Puritans shot and killed them. Virtually eliminated the tribe.
Metacom
King Phillip, a Wampanoag Indian who forged an alliance then led the coalition and attacked several English villages throughout New England. Beheaded.
Dominion of New England
sought to bolster the colonial defense in the event of war and bring the colonies under tighter royal control. Designed to promote closer relations between England and its colonies. Sought to stop American trade with anyone not ruled by England through Navigation Laws.
Quakers
a religious movement founded by George Fox. Spirituality was rooted in an individual’s personal relationship with God. English thought they were huge dissenters. Were being persecuted in England, so went to colonies, England allowed Quakers a colony- New Jersey.
William Penn
Quaker who was the son of a wealthy English admiral. Founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for his fellow Quakers. Best advertised of all the colonies. It was an amiable relationship between Quakers and Indians.
Lord Baltimore
founded Maryland similar to the religious motives that drove the Puritans and the Quakers. He sought the colony as a refuge for English Catholics, who were discriminated in England.
Act of Toleration
guaranteed freedom of religion to anyone professing to believe in Jesus Christ. Helped ensure Catholic safety in Maryland.
James Oglethrope
the leader of the group of London philanthropists who founded Georgia. Had a military background and was able to repel Spanish attacks.
The Louisiana Purchase
Napoleon deserted desires for France to expand in America when the need for more troops in Europe hindered plans, and ordered Talleyrand to offer Louisiana to the Americans. Livingston and Moore decided to accept this offer without consulting with Jefferson because there was no time. Though it did double the size of the country, people were worried if this went against the Constitution’s rights for the federal government, and if it had the ability to purchase territory and to grant citizenship to 50,000 people living in Louisiana. They finally agreed to overlook this for the good sense of the country, but Jefferson abandoned is strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Meriwhether Lewis and William Clark
Jefferson planned an expedition of the new territory gained from France. He desired to find a water route to connect the Mississippi River with the Pacific Ocean. He appointed his personal secretary, Lewis, to lead the expedition, and he chose William Clark, a veteran army officer with experience as a mapmaker and frontiersman, as his joint commander. A group of 48 people departed from St. Louis and traveled northwest along the MO river toward the Pacific Ocean. They never found a route to connect the river with the ocean, but they recorded over 100 animals and 200 plants new to science.
Sacajawea
an Indian guide and interpreter for the journey. She had a son on the way, and she was a benefit to their journey because it showed that their intentions were peaceful. She remembered trails and made peace with many Indian tribes and helped them get to their destination. If it weren’t for her, the journey would not have completed.
Zebulon Pike
when the expedition did not find the route they wanted, Jefferson sent Lieutenant Zebulon Pike to find the source of the Mississippi and to explore the Colorado region. He offered Americans valuable info regarding the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains.
Aaron Burr
Jefferson’s first term vice-president who challenged the constitutional issue of the Louisiana Purchase. He collaborated with a group of radical Federalists to organized the secession of New England and New York. He dueled with Alexander Hamilton, who uncovered the plan and blocked the conspiracy, and killed him with one shot when Hamilton refused to fire. He planned to separate the western portion from the eastern portion, but was found out when James Wilkinson told Jefferson. He was tried but not convicted of treason. This showed the high burden of proof on the prosecution and established an important legal precedent that defended the rights of the accused. People did not want the federal government to exceed rights.
Judiciary Act 1801
John Marshall, appointed by John Adams during his last days as president. He passed this law which created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. The appointment of these midnight judges enraged Republicans who claimed the action defied the will of the people who had voted the Federalists out of office. Congress fought back by repealing these acts. And Marbury sued. People did not like a one-party controlled government.
Marbury v Madison
Congress repealed the Judiciary Act, and when James Madison refused to deliver a commission to William Marbury, one of the appointees, sued. This case went to the Supreme Court. The court’s opinion stated that Marbury deserved his commission, but the Court had no jurisdiction. This case answered the question regarding who had the authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution.
Judicial review
answered the question regarding who had the authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution. Set the standard for all other court cases in the nation, stated that the Supreme Court had to the power to rule a federal law unconstitutional and to impose its will on the states.
Samuel Chase
Jefferson sought the impeachment of this Justice. The Senate failed to generate enough votes to convict and remove Chase from his post. Shows that the executive government could surpass the law of the constitution secretly and over step its power.
Barbary Coast
North Africa, rulers of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli extorted money from countries wishing to send cargo ships through their waters. Britain regularly paid the pirates, but after the Revolution, the Americans were forced to deal with the situation themselves. They refused to pay the tribute, and Tripoli declared war on the U.S. Jefferson finally negotiated a treaty, which cost them more than if they had just paid the tribute. Shows how the country struggled with the need to defend themselves.
U.S.S. Philadelphia
American frigate that was sent to Tripoli during the war and was captured and its men held hostage. Set free for $60,000. The Americans had very little army to protect themselves, and Jefferson held the idea of remaining pacifists.
Chesapeake Incident
American shipping became entangled in European hostilities when Napoleon revived his war with England. English impress more than one thousand Americans each year into their Navy, and the American Navy offered little protection for merchants. The Chesapeake was stopped by the British frigate Leopard and was demanded to be searched. When the captain refused, the British opened fire and killed 3 American. Jefferson ordered all British ships to leave U.S. territorial waters. The U.S. struggles with protecting themselves but remaining strong and neutral in international conflicts.
Embargo Act 1807
Jefferson wanted peaceable coercion that would cause the French and the British to come to terms with the U.S. without war. It stopped all exports of American goods, but it did more harm than good because Americans had no place to sell their goods. Leading closer to inevitable war.
Orders in Council and Milan Decree
British order that punished Americans who traded directly with France, and also a French order that punished Americans who traded with Britain. Foreign relations remained tense and America was stuck in the middle of it, and being pacifist was no longer working.
Macon’s Bill
Congress passed a bill that eliminated all restrictions on commerce with France and England, and it also said that if either France or England revoked its sanctions against the U.S., American would re-establish its embargo against the other nation. Napoleon agreed to lift the sanction, and Madison restored the embargo against England. Napoleon tricked the U.S. into creating a blockade against the England. It ended America’s neutrality, and war became a huge possibility.
Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa
the British began to incite Indian resistance against the U.S. as an attack. The leaders behind the revolt were these 2 men, the chief and his brother, known as “The Prophet” because he claimed to have religious visions. They worked together to unify the tribes east of the Mississippi. Growing tensions and strains between the nations.
William Henry Harrison
governor of Indiana Territory, assembled a small army and advanced on Prophet town. The Indians were overpowered, but the Battle of Tippecanoe pushed Tecumseh to join forced with Britain against the U.S. Britain’s constant attempts to challenge U.S. authority and destabilize the unity of the states angered American and pushed the U.S. closer to war.
War Hawks
Older politicians who molded the Republican party were replaced by daring young go-getters, such as Henry Clay, who were intent on defending America’s honor. They were called this by their Federalist opponents, and were the primary force behind Madison’s decision to call for war with Britain.
Francis Scott Key
wrote the Star Spangled Banner after he witnessed a battle during the war of 1812. The American flag still waved even after the battle was over, and it proved that the Americans had successfully defended their ground. A feeling of nationalism and pride sparked this song and it soon became the national anthem.
Battle of New Orleans
British planned to overtake New Orleans. American farmers saw the ships and informed General Andrew Jackson, who was in charge of defending the Gulf Coast. He rallied his troops and ambushed the fleet. The battle was an overwhelming success for the Americans and made General Andrew Jackson a hero. Continued the feeling of nationalism.
Hartford Convention
many defiant Federalists continued to protest against the war. Some even participated in illegal trade with British troops. The convention was a meeting of radical New England Federalists who considered seceding from the Union. Proposed the creation of New England Confederacy that would establish peace with England so trading could be reinstate. After the leaders received news that a peaceful resolution to war was coming, the plan was aborted. The plan to secede from the Union spread throughout the states, and the Federalist support declined drastically. Showed early signs of civil war.
Treaty of Ghent
signed on Christmas Even, was essentially a draw. It called for both the British and Americans to quit fighting and returned conquered territory. It made no reference to the complaints that prompted the U.S. to declare war on Britain. Ships were free to sail to any port, goods could be traded with any customer. It ended on an ironic note. The consequence was an upsurge of nationalism that united the Americans and led to development of a national identity and agenda.
Virginia Dynasty
Monroe’s presidency was a continuation of this because all the presidents between 1801 and 1825 were from Virginia. This is significant because the Federalist party started to decline.
Era of Good Feeling
The Columbian Centinel, a Federalist newspaper in Boston, called this time period this because the country was at peace and the economy was thriving when Monroe on a goodwill tour of New England. Even though Monroe was a republican, the Federalists were willing to admit this was a time of peace.
Panic of 1819
the first few years of Monroe’s presidency were blessed with peace, but the prosperity following the War of 1812 collapsed. This marked the end of economic expansion and featured deflation, depression, bank failures, foreclosures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing, and overcrowded debtor’s prisons. Many factors included the downturn in exports and strong price competition from foreign goods, which impaired agriculture and manufacturing, triggering unemployment. Also risky lending practices of the west- the bank tightened their credit lending policies and eventually forced these banks to foreclose mortgages on farms, which resulted in bankruptcies and prisons full of debtors. Affected country, but no blame fell on Monroe. Led to the creation of American system.
The American System
formed by Henry Clay, concerns on tariffs, banking policy, sale of public land, and slavery created sectional regions. This plan drew upon the nationalism Americans were still feeling after the War of 1812. Plan to develop profitable American markets- 3 main parts: a strong banking system to provide abundant credit, a protective tariff to ensure successful eastern manufacturing, and internal improvements, such as roads and canals. This system was meant to build the national economy and bind the country together both economically and politically.
Rush Bagot Agreement 1817
There remained a few foreign policy issued the U.S, Spain, and Britain had to straighten out. This agreement stated the United States and Britain agreed to limited naval presence on the Great Lakes, eventually resulting in the demilitarization of the entire border. The spirit of this agreement gave rise to the tradition of an unfortified border between the U.S. and Canada.
Convention of 1818
the United States and Britain negotiated three important points: the vague northern limit of the Louisian Purchase was settled along the 49th parallel, from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. The U.S. also granted the right to share the Newfoundland and Labrador fisheries. Last, they agreed that the Oregon country would be open to joint occupation by both the British and Americans for 10 years. Shows the peaceful negotiations between the foreign powers.
Adams Onis Treaty 1819
Spain demanded the return of its territory, reparations, and punishment of Jackson, who attacked Spanish ports and hung 2 Indian chiefs against orders. This negotiation with the Spanish Minister to Washington, Luis de Onis, Adams bargained for Spain to cede all of Florida for 5 million dollars, which the U.S. actually paid to the Americans who held claims in spain, in exchange for America’s abandonment of claims to Texas, thus setting the western boundary of the Louisiana purchase. Ironic because more Americans lived in Texas.
Tallmadge Amendment
Missouri was the first area to apply for statehood that was entirely part of the Louisiana Purchase, and wanted to be a slave state. This desire would alter the balance between slave and free states. Congressmen Tallmadge introduced this amendment stating that no more saves could be brought into Missouri and that all slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25. However, the Senate was split on the issue. The House passed it strictly on sectional vote, but the Senate rejected it, with some Northern Federalists joining with the South. Slavery was already causing a split within the nation even before the Civil war.
Missouri Compromise
Henry clay played a key role in developing this role, which admitted Missouri as a slave state, and Mains was separated from Massachusetts and was admitted as a free state. This compromise preserved the balance between northern and southern states, as well as free and slave. Congress also prohibited slavery in all other parts of the Louisiana purchase north of the line 36º 30º. Both benefited from this compromise, but the Missouri compromise pretty much avoided the slavery question, and many American’s knew that the issue would eventually have to be confronted.
Fletcher v Peck 1810
Members of the Georgia legislature were bribed to sell 35 million acres in Mississippi for a small amount to private speculators. The court, and Marshall, ruled that the original sale was a legal contract, and therefore protected by the constitution. This was significant because it protected property rights against popular pressures, and it also clearly asserted the Supreme Court’s right to invalidate state laws that conflicted with the Constitution.
Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee
Virginia confiscated land owned by a British Loyalists named Denny Fairfax. Fairfax sued Hunter for return of land. The Supreme Court declared the land belong to Fairfax. The ruling rejected “compact theory”, which stated that the state governments and the federal government were equally sovereign. It was significant because it enforced the rights of the Supreme Court- Supremacy Clause of Constitution.
Dartmouth v. Woodward
New Hampshire tried to alter the college’s charter, which had been granted by King George II. The N.H. court ruled that Dartmouth was to be changed from a private to a public institution. The S.C. ruled that the original charter must stand because it was a contract and could not be altered or canceled without the consent of both parties. This was significant because it protected private corporations from domination by state governments.
McCulloch v Maryland
considered Marshall’s most important interpretation of the Constitution, because it dealt with the division of power between the federal government and the states. Maryland, to protect local banks, place an annual tax on the U.S. bank and other foreign banks. The Maryland bank sued when the U.S. bank refused to pay. Marshall upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the U.S. Said that the Bank’s legality was implied in many of the powers specifically granted to Congress. Maryland’s tax was unconstitutional. This was significant because it strengthened federal authority and the implied powers of Congress. – Loose Constructionist.
Gibbons v Ogden
“steamboat case”, regulation of interstate commerce. Fulton and Livingston pioneered commercial use of the steamboat and held a monopoly of steamboat navigation on the Hudson in N.Y. Ogden purchased rights to operate a ferry between N.Y and N.J. Gibbons held a federal trade license, and Ogden sued him. The S.C. decided in favor of Gibbons, destroying the monopoly, and reminding New York that Congress alone controlled interstate commerce. Significant because it checked the power of the states and upheld the sovereign power of the federal government.
Monroe Doctrine
had 2 main points. First, Monroe proclaimed that the era of colonization in the Americas had ended. “The American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are hence forth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” He felt the European political system should not be mixed with that of the New World. He said that any attempt to extend their political system on the Western Hemisphere would be seen as a threat to the nations’ peace. Second, Monroe said the U.S. would not interfere with existing European colonies in North or South America and would avoid involvement in European affairs. Keep peace and neutrality, this doctrine gave voice to a spirit of patriotism in the United States and did eventually become on of the cherished principles of American foreign policy.
KnowNothing party
the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the “natives” because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the “Order of the Star Spangled Banner”. The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.
Samuel Slater
he left Britain in disguise and arrived in American with plans to build a textile machine that would spin cotton. He contracted with a merchant manufacturer in Rhode Island to build the machine, and in 1791, he created the first efficient American machinery for spinning thread. He is often called the “father of the factory system” because the kicked off the industrial revolution in America.
Eli Whitney
devised a mechanism for removing the seeds from the cotton fiber that was 50 times more effective than handpicking process, thus inventing the cotton “gin”. He hoped to improve the life of slaves with his gin by making the tedious process of removing seeds less burdensome and to perhaps eliminate the need for slaves. He had unintentially begun a revolution, because the southern planters began to clear more land for cotton growth with the help of Whitney’s machine. He also developed machine tools to make parts of the musket so that they were virtually identical, allowing them to be interchangeable. This invention brought factories of mass production in the North. He both started and ended the Civil war because he increased slavery with the cotton gin, but helped the north make more war weapons with his interchangeable parts. The industrial revolution created the factory system and transformed agricultural production, communication, and transportation across the U.S.
Industrial Revolution
time of industrial growth, where people created machines that sped up the process of agriculture and manufacturing. Changed the economic climate of the United States, and led it into huge economic growth that had both positive and negative effects.
Samuel Morse
transmitted the first intercity telegraph message 40 miles from Baltimore to Washington. It was a message from the Bible. The invention created connections between cities spanned all the way to San Francisco, putting distant people in almost instant communication with one another. Helped nationalism because the people felt connected.
Elias Howe and Isaac Singer
Howe invented the sewing machine, which was perfected by Singer. This invention gave another boost to northern industrialization, specifically the read made clothing industry, It made clothes fit better and less expensive than homespun clothes. It also opened up a new line of employment for women, who began working in clothing factories.
Francis Cabot Lowell and Lowell System
added a new dimension to factory production. In Slater’s cotton spinning factories, the weavers could not keep up with the machines. Lowell combined the spinning machines with power weaving machines at the Boston Manufacturing company plant. He focused on mechanization of the entire process for mass-producing standardized cloth that was durable and cheap. It became a model for new factories by the Boston Associates, who developed a new labor system that employed young, unmarried women. The women lived in boardinghouses, were paid, much of which they sent home, and had many educational and cultural opportunities.
Commonwealth v Hunt 1842
The workforce demanded better working condition, and they tried to create unions. the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that forming trade unions was not illegal. While on the surface this ruling looked to be significant for organized labor, it soon proved to be more a symbolic gesture. Trade unions provided only marginal benefits for workers at this time, and it would be nearly a century before they could meet management on even terms.
Cyrus McCormick
invented a mechanical mower-reaper that transformed the scale of American agriculture. Farmers using hand-operated sickles and scythes could only harvest half an acre of wheat a day. With this invention, 2 men could work 12 acres a day. McCormick’s success attracted other inventors, and soon there were mechanical seeders that replaced the need to sow seed by hand. This boosted the migration west.
Philadelphia
Lancaster Turnpike-a broad, paved highway that was similar to the good European highways of that time. Called a turnpike because as drivers approached the tollgate, they were confronted with a barrier of sharp spikes that was turned aside when they paid their toll. This turnpike resulted in a turnpike building boom that lasted nearly 20 years.
Cumberland/National Road
constructing a decent road over the Appalachians was more difficult. Although the state was responsible for internal improvements, this road was an exception. Contributed to nationalism because it connected the east and west together in trade and commerce.
Robert Fulton
sent the fist commercially successful steam boat. Skeptics initially called it “Fulton’s Folly”. Called the Clermont, went from NYC to Albany. It made the run of 150 miles at about 5 miles an hour, proving it was an efficient vessel. The use of it spread rapidly, with steamers making the run from New Orleans as far north as Ohio. By 1830, there more than 200 steamers. Made trade more efficient, travel comfortable.
Erie Canal
canals under construction in the northeast to further improve the transportation network. Connected the Hudson River with Lake Erie. IT ran 363 miles from Albany to Buffalo. It reduced travel time from NYC to Buffalo from 20 days to 6, reduced the cost of moving a ton of freight from 100 to 5, and moved the country a step close to linking the Mississippi and the Atlantic Ocean. The canal also provided a water route from New York to Chicago, which marked the beginning of Chicago’s rapid growth. Financial success. Sparked a canal-building mania.
Pony Express
established as a form of transportation for carrying mail. Daring pony riders carried mail from Missouri to California in ten days. The riders changed horses at states every 10 miles, and rode summer, winter, day, or night, good weather or bad. It only lasted 18 months, succumbing to Samuel Morse’s telegraph machine.
Northern Democratic Party
the election of 1860 was greatly divided among many parties and geographical locations. Democrats divided because of different northern and southern views and elected separate candidates for president. The Northern Democrats elected Stephen Douglas and they supported his Freeport Doctrine, which accepted the decision of the Supreme Court.
Southern Democrat Party
this is the southern Democratic party that split from the Northern one over the issue of slavery. They nominated John C Breckinridge, Buchanan’s vice-president from Kentucky. The south refused to allow Congress of any territorial government to prevent citizens from settling in any territory with their “slave property”.
Constitutional Union Party
troubles continued for the Democrats as they splintered into a third party. This party was primarily former Whigs from the Upper Southern who did not share the same convictions as their southern brothers, and northern Whigs who had no defected to the Republican Party. They nominated John Bell from Tennessee as their presidential candidate.
Crittenden Compromise
With Lincoln winning the election, the southern state, who in some places did not even include his name on the ballot, threatened to secede from the Union. Hoping to stop the South from following through with its threats, Senator Henry Crittenden from Kentucky proposed amending the Constitution. The compromise prohibited slavery north of 36 30 parallel and protected slavery in all territories south of the line. It held that the states centering the Union after the amendment to the Constitution, whether they were north or south of the lie, could decide to prohibit or protect slavery on their own accord. Slavery was permissible in all southern territories, as long as they remained territories.
James Buchanan
When American voted Lincoln president, he officially became a lame-duck leader. As the southern leaders carried out their secession plans, Buchanan sat idle, unwilling to use force and unable to persuade the delegates in the Deep South to abandon their efforts to dissolve the Union. Many of his closest advisors and cabinet members were from the south, and they slowly left their posts in the D.C to support the Southern cause. Southerners began taking control of federal buildings in the area, but Buchanan refused to desert Fort Sumter. When time came to re-supply the garrison, he realized that sending U.S. Navy to the harbor who aggravate South Carolinians, and instead ordered a civilian chip to deliver supplies. However, soldiers stationed outside the harbor fired on the vessel and forced it to evacuate the waterway without landing its goods. His actions at Fort Sumter ultimately led to the secession to 6 other states.
Fort Sumter
Southerners began taking control of federal buildings in the area, but Buchanan refused to desert Fort Sumter. When time came to re-supply the garrison, he realized that sending U.S. Navy to the harbor who aggravate South Carolinians, and instead ordered a civilian chip to deliver supplies. However, soldiers stationed outside the harbor fired on the vessel and forced it to evacuate the waterway without landing its goods. By the end of January, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana joined S.C. in secession. One month later, Texas seceded too. Later, the fort was running low on provisions, and Lincoln was advised to desert the fort. After a month he sent unarmed boats to deliver goods. Neither Davis or Lincoln wanted to order the first strike, and Lincoln hoped to end the confrontation without military force. Davis didn’t want to strike, but Fort Sumter was key to the war strategy, so he sent his soldiers in. The forces fired the first shells in the fort, and after thousands of rounds, Anderson finally surrendered. Lincoln called for the border states to participate in suppressing the rebellion. His demand to enter the war pushed Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas to secede.
Jefferson Davis
in February, the leaders of the seceding states met in Montgomery to establish the Confederate States of America. They selected Jefferson Davis as the president of the nation. He was a former member of the U.S. Senate from Mississippi and attended West Point and offered the fledgling government a wealth of military and administrative experience. Showed that the CSA were going to put of a long fight.
Robert E. Lee
many southerners who held position in the Union left to join the Confederate army and cause. Nearly one-third of U.S officers left their posts. Robert E Lee was a high ranking officer to resigned 2 days after being offered the command of all Union forces. He felt that he needed to remain loyal to his home, and became a major general for the Confederate army.
Anaconda Plan
with failed attempts by the North to advance into Virginia, Lincoln gather his advisors and decided to initiate a blockade on all southern ports and gain control of the Mississippi River. Lincoln intended to cut off all routes to the south, essentially placing a stranglehold on imports and exports. If the Union could stop weapons, food, and clothing form entering the south, and prevent cotton and tobacco sales, Lincoln rationalized that he could starve the South into surrendering. This plan proved to be somewhat effective.
Copperheads
There was still fighting in Congress as to support of the war, and not everyone agreed on how to finance the campaign. A group of Democrats, called this, opposed any effort to support the fighting. They got their names from the copper pennies they wore around their necks, and other claim after the poisonous snake. They planned to get enough support and control Congress and force peace negotiations. They were not considered disloyal, but they did not generate much support. Shows the differing opinions even during the war.
George McClellan
a general for the Union army who was chosen to drill the union into battle shape. He worked on raising the moral and preparing them for war. He was overly cautious and did not take part in many opportunities in Union victories as he should of, like capturing Richmond and marching through Georgia and the Carolinas. The Union’s naval technology secured the waterway for the North and helped them control Yorktown. McClellan proceeded up river where he planed to meet reinforcements, which Lincoln diverted for another campaign. His group stalled near Richmond, and the delay gave Lee the time to launch and attack on the troops called the Seven Days battles, and it was a major Union defeat. It forced the Union to re-evaluate their plans. If he had not stalled and attacked Richmond when he could the war might have ended. Later, he gained info on the position of Lee’s men. But when darkness came he held his position, and lee was able to escape across the Potomac and back into Virginia. He allowed Lee to rebuild his army for another day. Lincoln angrily dismissed him for the second and final time.
Monitor and Merrimack
When McClellan finally advanced to Richmond, the went up the James river and the fighting moved to the water. The USS Monitor and the Confederate Merrimack participated in history’s first fight between armored ships. The Powerful ships battle to a standstill when the Merrimack began taking on water and returned to Norfolk. The Union’s naval technology secured the waterway for the North and helped them control Yorktown. McClellan proceeded up river where he planed to meet reinforcements, which Lincoln diverted for another campaign. His group stalled near Richmond, and the delay gave Lee the time to launch and attack on the troops called the Seven Days battles, and it was a major Union defeat. It forced the Union to re-evaluate their plans.
Battle of Gettysburg
After many failures as generals, the reins were handed to General George Meade, who was friends with Lee during the Mexican war. Meade took command of 100,000 troops at Gettysburg, Penn where the soldiers were battling 76,000 Confederate troops. For three days, (July 1-3) the momentum shifted from the South, to the North, and back to the South. On the 3rd, the Union guns went silent and they Confederates thought they had the upper hand, so General George Pickett, led a charge against the Union lines. The union forces sprang back to life and annihilated the advancing divisions. This battle became the bloodiest battle of the Civil War, with over 23,000 union causalities and 28, 000 confederate. Lincoln gave his famous speech commemorating the people of this battle. IT was significant because it shifted the tide of momentum in the Union’s favor. It also forced England and France to cancel major contracts to supply weapons and ships to the South.
Siege of Vicksburg
finally Lincoln found a general he could rely on named Ulysses S. Grant. After northern forces seized New Orleans, Grant led his army to attack Vicksburg, Mississippi. The Confederacy used the area between Vicksburg and Port Hudson to transport cattle and other supplies from west to south cities. After intense fighting, he seized Vicksburg on July 4, 1863. Less than a week later, he dealt a blow to the South with the capture of Fort Hudson. These victories made the turning point of war in the Union’s favor and changed foreign countries ideas about getting involved in the war.
Sherman’s March
As the Union continued to chase Lee throughout the upper south, General William Tecumseh Sherman marched his troops through Georgia to the sea. In his wake he left Confederate cities and towns in ruins so Southerners would not have anything left to use against the Union troops. Sherman told Grant that if a regiment of union soldiers could march through the south, they could prove to the south that they could do whatever they wanted. Sherman’s’ march marked the beginning of the end of the confederacy. On December 22, 1864, Sherman captured Savannah, Georgia, and I February overpowered southern troops in Colombia, South Carolina.
Appomattox Court House
Southern forces continued to deteriorate as Union troops conquered more cities. Then on April 3, 1865, Grant ordered more than 100,000 troops to surround Lee and his 30,000 men outside Richmond. The confederate leader realized the end and he met with Grant at this courthouse to agree to terms of surrender. Lincoln’s only terms was to have the Confederate lay down their arms. This marked the end of the civil war.
Ulysses S. Grant
was one of the few competent Union generals during the civil war. He had many successful victories. He was a graduate of West Point. His first success happen in February 162, when he led the capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donaldson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. He led his army to attack Vicksburg and seized it on July 4, 1863. He also dealt a significant blow to the Confederate with the capture of Port Hudson. He attacked Lee near Richmond and forced his to surrender at the Courthouse. He showed the power of the Union and would soon become president.
National Banking Act
During the war, the North was able to pass laws that favored them. In 1863, this act was authorized by Congress to stimulate the sale of government bonds and to establish a uniform currency. Banks that joined the national banking system could issue reliable paper money and buy government bonds. The system functions until 1913 when it was replaced by the Federal Reserve System. This was the beginning of our current system of banking.
Habeas Corpus
Lincoln revoked some civil liberties during his tenure without the prior approval of Congress. One of the was habeas corpus, which was one of the basic tenets of American civil liberties. It allows the examination of the circumstances of a person’s arrest and imprisonment to determine if that individual should be detained. It was meant to prevent unjust or illegal imprisonment. Lincoln negated it for the purpose of arresting anti-Unionists. It was in open defiance to the This shows that there could be long lasting tensions between the North and the South because of the Civil war.
Ex Parte Merryman
A Supreme Court case that Chief Justice Taney’s ruled that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of Congress. Lincoln openly defied the ruling by suspending it for the arrest of anti-Unionists during the Civil War. This shows how a president can sometimes overstep their power.
Confiscation Acts 1861
Lincoln wasn’t always an abolitionist. After becoming president he initially resisted these laws that pushed the Union toward abolition. This first Confiscation Act, approved August 6, 1861, granted freedom for all slaves of those who had served in the Confederate military. This act was only enforced in areas where the Union Army had a presence. This shows that Lincoln’s purpose of war wasn’t abolition until the middle of the war.
Second Confiscation Act 1862
Lincoln resisted the act because he feared the effect it would have on the political climate. He worried it would influence the border states into secession to protect their slavery system. He ordered union commanders to refuse escaped and liberated slaves admittance to their military units. Congress pushed forward with emancipation with the second act that was more direct, declaring freedom for the slaves of civilian and military Confederate officials. Although a vital step to complete emancipation, this act also was only enforced in areas with a Union military presence.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln refrained from full-fledged support of abolition until a significant revolutionary victory occurred on the battlefield. His opportunity came following the battle of Antietam, which was single bloodiest day of fighting. His first address was right after Anteitam, which he outlined the terms of freedom for slaves in states in rebellion. His final proclamation was given on January 1, 1863, which did not immediately free any slaves since it could not be enforced in those states targeted, it did foreshadow the end of slavery. Lincoln’s purpose was not the immediate freedom of all slaves, but rather he wanted to weaken the moral cause of the South and strengthen the Union’s moral cause. He felt that it gave the war a higher purpose, which was the leverage for the Union.
Thirteenth Amendment
the effect of the E.C was more emotional than physical, because many slaves were still working because they didn’t have many other options. Those doubts were finally laid to rest with this amendment, which said the slavery would no longer within the U.S. or any other place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress completely and abolished slavery. The Amendment was approved in December of 1865 with a two-thirds vote majority, and went in effect fully when the three-fourths states ratified it.
John Wilkes Booth
Lincoln was not able to see his proclamation through to completion. Attending Ford’s theatre in Washington on Good Friday, April 14th, 1865, less than a week after Lee’s surrender, this man, a radical pro-southern actor, shot him in the head. His assassination served to improve his reputation as a power historical figure. He made many political enemies and didn’t have much popular support, but this death blurred the edges of his shortcomings and gave him legendary status.
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln’s Vice President who attempted to follow with his plan for abolition and urged the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment. He was the vice president because he was a war democrat and slave owner from Tennessee who never attended school and taught himself to read. He campaigned for the rights of impoverished white planters, but refused to secede from the Union with his homes state. Lincoln believed that choosing him as his Vice President would give him the widespread appeal necessary to achieve re-election.
War Democrats
Dissention within the Democratic Party, due in part to the recent death of Stephen Douglas, divided the northern Democrats into three factions. The War Democrats put patriotism above party loyalty and supported Lincoln, and the Republicans sought an alliance with them. A partnership with the War Democrats brought a temporary end to the Republican Party, as a new alliance named themselves the Union party, which Lincoln won the nomination of. This shows the initial purpose of the war was to keep the union together.
Peace Democrats
they were party loyalists, and they withheld their support of Lincoln but did not take any radical action against him. The copperheads, however, openly demonstrated their disdain for him with physical and political attacks against him, the draft, and emancipation.
American Missionary Association
One thing that former slaves thirsted for most was religion, and they began forming their own churches. Because of this, many of them desired literacy in order to read the Bible. Black schools were established with some black teachers and some white teachers, primarily female from this association. There not enough teachers to meet demands, so eventually the government had to step in. It was one of the first steps toward racial equality.
Freedman’s Bureau
With Lincoln’s encouragement, along with Northern abolititionist, Congress developed this bureau that was a social welfare program that was dedicated to education, training, and providing financial and moral support for former slaves. One strong supporter was Union general Oliver O Howard, the founder of Howard University. Over 200,000 blacks learned to read through this program.
40 Acres and a Mile
Unfortunately, the system became corrupt. This catch phrase was what was promised to emancipated slaves with the plan to settle them on land confiscated from the Confederates. However, corrupt people usually kept the land for themselves and tricked the former slaves in signing labor contracts that basically placed them back in slave-like conditions. Shows there would be discrimination for a long time.
Scalawags
The whites who allied themselves with blacks became known as this. They were southerners who opposed secession and were accused of harming the South by helping the blacks and stealing from their state treasuries.
Carpetbagger
Northerners who were accused of putting all their worldly possessions in a carpetbag suitcase and coming to the south at war’s end to gain personal profit and power. The name-calling sometimes erupted in violence, suggesting that southerners believed that they were not superior only to blacks, but to black-friendly whites. This was typical of the early states of reconstruction.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Before the war ended, Lincoln issued this that was a compassionate policy for dealing with the South. It said that all southerners could be pardoned and reinstated as U.S. citizens if they took an oath of allegiance to the constitution and the Union and pledged to abide by emancipation. High confederate officers, were excluded from this pardon. It was called the 10 percent plan because if 10 percent of a population had taken the oath, the state government could be put in place that the state could be reintegrated into the Union. There was much debate over this and many argued it was not harsh enough.
Radical Republicans
a minority group let by Thaddeus Stevens in the House and Ben Wade and Charles Sumner in the Senate, sharply rejected Lincoln’s plan, claiming it would result in restoration of the southern aristocracy and re-enslavement of blacks. They wanted to effect sweeping change sin the south and grant freed slaves full citizenship before the states were restored. The influential group of radicals also felt the Congress, not the president, should direct reconstruction. They would play a major part in reconstruction.
Wade Davis Bill
in July 1864, the Radical Republicans passed this bill in response to Lincoln’s plan that required more than 50 percent of white males to take and ironclad oath of allegiance before the state could call a constitutional convention. It also required that the state constitutional conventions abolish slavery. Confederate officials or anyone who voluntarily bore arms against the U.S. were banned from serving at the conventions. Lincoln refused to sign the proposal, which is where the issue stood on the night of Lincoln’s assassination.
Black Codes
exconfederates began to take their spots back in Congress, and the new state legislatures began passing these repressive codes that was designed to restrict the freedom of free blacks in November 1865. They intended to preserve slavery as nearly as possible. The codes identified blacks as a separate class with few liberties and more restriction. Blacks could not serve in jury or vote, and were barred from renting and leasing land and could not carry firearms without a license. They also had strict labor provision, and were required to enter into annual labor contracts and could be punished and forfeit back pay if they violated the contract. Even though slaves were free, they still dealt with discrimination and hardship that was almost as bad as slavery.
Joint Committee on Reconstruction
the situation in the South left Northerners wondering why they had gone to war since blacks were essentially being re-enslaved, and so many moderates began rejecting Johnson’s plan and create this. It said that by seceding, the southern states had forfeited all civil and political rights under the Constitution They denied stating of southern legislators, and maintained that only Congress could determine if, when, and how Reconstruction would take place. Part of the reconstruction plan devised to replace Johnson’s plan is demonstrated in the Fourteenth Amendment, which was one the first steps for setting laws to protect blacks.
Civil Rights Bill 1866
to strike at the Black Codes, Congress passed this bill that granted American citizenship to blacks and denied the states the power to restrict their rights to hold property, testify in court, and make contracts for their labor. They aimed to destroy the Black codes and justified the legislation as implementing freedom under the 13th amendment. Johnson vetoed the bill, which prompted most Republicans to believe their was no chance of further cooperation with him. On april 9th, they overrode the veto, and from that point forward the frequently overturned Johnson’s vetoes.
Fourteenth Amendment
The republicans wanted to ensure the principles of the Civil rights act by adding a new amendment. Doing so would keep the southerners from repealing the laws if they ever won control of Congress. It was a radical measure during that time, and it said that persons born or naturalized in the U.S. were citizens, no state could diminish the privileges of citizenships, which struck at the black codes. NO state could deprive and person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Former confederates could not hold federal or state office. Representation of a state in Congress was reduced if it denied blacks voting rights. IT guaranteed the federal debt while rejecting all confederate debt. All republicans agreed that no state would be welcomed back into the Union without ratifying the amendment. Tennessee was the first to ratify it, while the other 10 seceded states rejected it. This bill would make blacks fully equal with whites.
Military Reconstruction
If the southern states had been willing to adopt the amendment, this might have been avoiding. This became the final plane for reconstruction and identified the new conditions under which the southern governments would be formed. Tennessee was exempt. It divided the former confederacy into 5 military districts that were each occupied by a Union general and his troops. They had the power to maintain order and protect civil rights of all persons. They were required to ratify the 14th amendment and adopt the new state constitutions guaranteeing blacks the right to vote in order for their representatives to be admitted to Congress and military rule to end. This paved the way for easy ratification of the 15th amendment later, and also created some tension between the North and the South that still exists today.
Fifteenth Amendment
R.R were still concerned that the readmitted states would amend their constitution and withdraw black suffrage, so they added this amendment, which prohibited the states from denying anyone the right to vote on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude. It did not guarantee the right to vote regardless of sex, which outraged feminists. This shows that all the laws for equality were set in place after the civil war, but they did not get enforced until 100 years later.
Republicanism
a form of government where the people elect the head of state. After the Revolutionary war, the people were debating as to what republicanism really meant. Thomas Paine believed that is was a moral code of behavior as well as a system of government in which the supreme power of the country is vested in an electorate. Another view was that the importance of an individual’s self-interest was the basis of a republic’s strength. The Americans desired to make a country that was different than anything they’d seen before, but studied past governments to take the good and the bad.
Articles of Confederation
the first national constitution. It linked the 13 states together to deal with common problems. It provided the stepping-stone to outlining the powers of the central government.
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
written by Thomas Jefferson to enforce the separation of church and state. IT said that no man compelled to support any church, and that matters of religion were based on opinion. It showed the idea of freedom for all coming into effect.
Abolition
ending slavery. The north agreed to it, but they did not need slavery as much as the South, who depended on them for their economy and plantations. Ironic because the people who desired freedom were not willing to give freedom for everyone- just for themselves. Even the founding fathers were unable to completely abolish slavery because they wanted political unity.
John Trumbull
painter who painted The Declaration of Independence, which showed the impact the Revolution had on society. The revolution inspired many people in ideas of freedom and liberty.
Fort Natchez
Spain was not an American ally. They captured the fort, even though it was in American territory, and refused to give it back without negotiation. Spain wanted to keep a strong presence in America, and the Americans had to deal with foreign affairs without the help of the British army.
Ordinance of 1784
called Congress to grant full statehood and self-government to a western territory only when the population reached the smallest of the 13 states. It encouraged people to group together and form a state, instead of spreading across the west.
Old Northwest
he sale of the land served as nationalizing force because once the land had been ceded to the national government, citizens realized what priceless national asset it was, and they wanted a part of it. This land was the beginning of the American’s desire for expansion.
Land Ordinance of 1785
set precedent for American expansion all the way to the Pacific Ocean. It gave people to motive to expand the American borders.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
validated property rights in America, and led to what eventually became the states. This greatly encouraged people to seek bigger land in the west in order to find wealth.
Shay’s Rebellion
economic difficulties continued to plague America, and many people began to feel unrest. A heavy tax fell on farmers and the poor, and because of this, many Massachusetts farmers began to lose their farms. These farmers formed Shay’s Rebellion. They were an armed mob that began to stop foreclosures by forcibly preventing the courts from holding their sessions. This rebellion caused a concern for the national government, and brought thoughts of having a stronger central government and to revise the Articles of Confederation.
Annapolis Convention 1786
the first steps toward reform were taken when a dispute between Maryland and Virginia over navigation on the Potomac River. The argument led to a conference, but only representatives from five of the thirteen states were present. This argument caused Alexander Hamilton to convince his colleagues that the states had to appoint representatives for a meeting to discuss the general commercial problems.
Constitutional (Philadelphia) Convention 1787
because Congress had no power under the Articles of Confederation, they decided to revise it. Delegates from each state when to Philadelphia to revise the articles. All had different ideas, but many believed that they had a need for unification. Instead of revising it, they decided to throw it out and write a whole new constitution that ended up remaining the constitution for future America.
James Madison
considered the Father of the Constitution because of his promotion of two key concepts: officials elected by the people and preference for a large republican government. Madison was a key factor in shaping the constitution that exists today.
The Virginia Plan
a plan for the basic structure of the new government. Under this plan, the population would drive representation, which would give larger states, such as Virginia, a distinct advantage over smaller states. Many delegates of smaller states were unhappy because they believed that they would have no say. However, this was a key factor in the making of the system.
The New Jersey Plan
it offered a unicameral Congress with each state having one vote. Congress would sit atop the governmental hierarchy with the most power, like taxing and regulating trade. The executive and judicial branches would be separate from Congress and would not be as powerful. Larger states did not like this plan either, and believed they should receive some acknowledgement of power based on their size. A huge debate erupted that eventually led to an important compromise.
Great Compromise
the compromise over the 2 plans that said a bicameral legislature would combine elements of both Virginia’s and New Jersey’s plans to appease both the small and large states. There would be 2 houses, one called the lower and the upper. (Representatives and Senate). The House of Rep. would be made up of a number of delegates based on each state’s population, and were to be elected directly from the people. The other, the Senate, would have 1 or 2 from each state and would be elected by the legislatures of each state. Bills concerned with taxations and revenue would begin in the lower house. The great compromise became what our legislature system is like today.
Commerce Compromise
after debate over trade and commerce, a compromise was reached that required no tax on exports, and only a simple majority needed to pass commerce bills through bills. Showed that much thought went into the constitution.
Three Fifth’s Compromise
the south feared not having enough representation because much of their population was black, and they had a desire to gain power. However, the north was afraid of the South gaining power. This compromise said the black people were considered three-fifths of a person, which would give the south more representation without more than the North. However, the issue of slavery was not even brought up, which is very ironic for a free country. This finished the constitution and made it ready for ratification.
Rogue Island
when the constitution went around each state for ratification, Rhode Island completely resisted the new constitution and the idea of a strong central government that it received this nickname. Shows how people were afraid of giving the power they fought for to a national government instead of keeping it with the state.
Federalists
public opinion over the constitution quickly separated into two camps. Federalists were mostly wealthy and educated, and unified by the desire for a powerful, centralized government. They had influential leaders like George Washington and Ben Franklin. They wanted an orderly efficient government that could protect their economic status. Organized and often controlled the elections of ratifying conventions with their power and influence. Early beginnings of the 2 party system.
Anti Federalists
-generally farmers, debtors and lower class people who were loyal to their state governments. Included Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry. Fought for individual liberties. One of their objections to the constitution was that it lacked a Bill of Rights, which would have afforded basic liberties to the public. Many believed a republican government could not rule a nation as large as America. They feared that so much power would take away their rights. Showed the difference of thinking between classes.
Patrick Henry
an Anti-fed who actually enjoyed wealth, unlike his fellow anti feds. Notorious for fighting for individual liberties. Helped keep Bill of Rights in constitution.
Federalist papers
These were essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to alleviate the anti-federalists’ fears. They were the most influential political writings of the time, and it argued that limitations on governmental power were built into the constitution with a series of checks and balances. It also explained the need for centralized government so the U.S. could earn respect of other countries. These papers helped the party break down resistance and gain enough support to ratify the constitution.
Bill of Rights
a part of a the constitution which enumerates the rights of the people that the government would protect. This part of the constitution brought about huge debate because the Federalists did not want to include it in the new constitution because it was in the state constitutions, but the Anti- Feds were afraid of the national government encroaching on these rights if they were not stated in the constitution.
Alexander Hamilton
was elected by George Washington as the Treasury Secretary. Developed an economic structure for the U.S. which would give the public confidence in the government’s financial affairs. Was a Federalist. He believed that what the constitution did not specifically forbid, it allowed. He also believed that a strong, central government was critical to encourage commerce and industry and to prevent chaos within America’s borders. Made huge contributions to the economic plan today.
Loose constructionist
believed that what the constitution did not specifically forbid, it allowed. Alexander Hamilton used this idea in building his economic plan.
First Report on the Public Credit
written by Alexander Hamilton which declared that the federal government would assume the debts of the individual states. Hamilton believed that these debts would not only give the public confidence in the federal government, but would also emotionally bind them to the government out of a sense of loyalty and gratitude. Since some southern states already paid off their debts, they would receive no benefit from this assumption. The plan offered to put a new national capital in the south, which would eventually become Washington D.C. IT was also to assume the confederation’s debts at par, which meant that interest would be included when the debt was paid. Felt that national debt would give the citizens unity and a sense of respect for the government. Third, wanted a national bank, based after band of England, which provided strong institution that printed and circulated paper money.
Necessary and Proper clause, elastic clause
Hamilton wanted a national bank because it was necessary to implement the constitution’s decree that the government collect taxes, pay debts, and regulate trade. This meant that what was necessary and the government could accomplish proper. This became an important aspect of the constitution today.
Strict Constructionist
believed that everything the constitution said should be take literally and interpreted strictly. Jefferson believed this, contrary to Hamilton, and Hamilton was an outspoken critic of Jefferson. Contrary ideas in same administration.
Thomas Jefferson
was Washington’s Secretary of State. Believed in a decentralized government that should exist primary to protect man’s naturally rights. Also, he felt that the states should hold greater authority than the federal governments, since the states were closer to the people and were less likely to abuse their authority. Believed Hamilton’s proposal of a national bank exceeded federal authority. People still afraid of the government encroaching on their power.
Whiskey Rebellion of 1794
Since the bank became a reality, Hamilton developed several duties and excise taxes that the new bank could collect. Congress passed tariff of around eight percent on dutiable imports and a domestic tax. Whiskey was included in this tax, and an unforeseen rebellion was a result. There was seven-cent tax on whiskey, and it was a trade necessity. Whiskey producers rebelled fearing for their livelihood. Turned violent with the distillers tarring and feathering revenue collectors. Hamilton urged him to take action. Showed that people don’t want their livelihood encroached.
Federalists/Hamiltonians
one party out of the two party system of government that was formed naturally in the United States government. Took different sides on mostly every argument, represented the idea of the public. In dealings with the French, they wanted to maintain a peaceful relationship with Britain to ensure continued trade to support the American economy. Start of the 2 party system we have today.
Democratic
Republicans/ Jeffersonian Republicans-the second party of the 2 party system. With the French issue, wanted loyalty with the French who helped them claim their own liberty, although Jefferson only wanted to lend moral support.
John Jay
Federalist Chief Justice who was sent to London to negotiate a treaty with Britain to maintain relations and avoid war. Demo-Reps were unhappy with this decision and thought he would betray his own country. Washington remained neutral- did not pick party.
Jay’s Treaty 1795
treaty that gave the British 18 months to withdraw from the western forts, although they were given the right to continue fur trade with the Indians. Also called for America to repay debts incurred to England during the war. Was a public outcry, but Senate passed treaty. Wanted to keep good relations with country that was beneficial to their economy, even if it mean sacrificing past treaties.
Pinckney’s Treaty 1795
Spain, fearing the treaty indicated burgeoning loyalties between the U.S. and England, moved to gain a foothold by establishing alliance. Granted almost all the U.S. request’s, including ownership of the previously disputed territory of north Florida. Also gave American western farmers and traders the right of deposit at New Orleans. New government helped form international alliances.
Washington’s Farewell speech
served 2 consecutive terms. Conveyed concerns regarding alliances. Felt that no alliance should be permanent, but rather limited by extraordinary emergencies. Also encouraged citizens to examine loyalty to the U.S. rather than party, believed that parties would bring more harm than good to union. Spirit of innovation would weaken the foundation set forth in the constitution. Was prophetic for the future politics of America, but he was the perfect person to lead the country during its first years.
XYZ Affair
when John Adams took oath, he inherited problem of strained relations with France. Sent 3 commissioners, but they arrived in a hostile environment. They communicated through 3 French agents. They insisted that the Americans pay a $250,000 bribe and $12 million load. Pinckney rejected terms, which became known as the affair. Relations with France were becoming more strained.
Quasi War
undeclared war between the U.S. and France. The American’s built up their forces and Navy and spent the next 2 years attacking French shipping and capture nearly ninety French vessels, while the French did the same. But Adams avoided real war because he believed that it would divide the colonies and lead to a civil war. Adams sent another delegation to negotiate a peaceful end. This was a good call because it may have jeopardized the American purchase of Louisiana in 1803.
The Convention of 1800
the two sides finally came to a agreement that annulled the 1778 treaty of alliance and excused the French from damage claims of American ships. Kept from going to war and dividing nation.
Alien and Sedition Acts
the feud with France created bad blood between the political parties, and they took advantage of every opportunity to undermine each other. The Federalist controlled Congress exploited the anti- French sentiment sweeping through colonies to pass laws on the surface promoted American safety but really quieted their Democratic-republican counterparts. These acts show how much power a party has if they control Congress. Many colonists were angry of how they abused authority.
Naturalization Act
Fourteen year residency requirement for citizenship (poor European immigrants favored Democratic-Rep.
Alien Enemies Act
president can expel aliens in war time. Federalists believed war with France was imminent.
Alien Act
president can deport or imprison all aliens whom he considered dangerous. Immigrants feared power and left country although never enforced
Sedition Act
prohibited anti-governmental activity. Illegal to publish or speak badly about government officials.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions 1798
Jefferson and Madison penned resolutions disputing the constitutionality of the acts. Went to the Demo-Rep legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia. The resolutions said that each state enter into a compact with the national government and delegate power to the centralized entity for the common good of all states. If the state decided that the national government overstepped its constitutional authority, it could intervene to protects its citizens from tyrannical law. Jefferson argued that the authority had been exceeded with these acts and wished to nullify it. No other state approved resolution. It would play a substantial role in the political events leading up to the Civil War.
Revolution of 1800
The election of 1800 was against the 2 parties, Republican Jefferson and Federalists Adams. After much debate, Jefferson was rewarded victory. It’s called a revolution because it produced the first orderly transfer of power from one party to another- without violence. Success of the political system.
12th Amendment
guarantee that a voting deadlock would never occur again. The electoral votes were equal in this election, and the choice of the president was made by much discussion. They passed this amendment so that each election would remain fair and not biased.
William Bradford
– elected governor of Plymouth Bay. Was responsible for the infant colony’s success through hardships. Kept the colony surviving.