U.S. History Semester 1 Final Exam Review

U.S. History Semester 1 Final Exam Review

federalism
power is divided between national and state governments
federalists
supported the new Constitution’s balance of power between state and national governments
anti-federalists
opposed having a strong central government; did not support Constitution; wanted natural rights
Checks and Balances
system to prevent any one branch from overpowering the others
Separation of Powers
three brances of government (executive, legislative, judicial)
Declaration of Independence
declared U.S. independence from Great Britain July 4, 1776
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Representative Government
people elect representatives to represent them in government
Salutary Neglect
British government neglected the American colonies
Unalienable Rights
rights everyone is born with and cannot be taken away (life, libery, and pursuit of happiness)
“Founding Fathers”
George Washington, Thomas Jefferson
Paine’s Common Sense
50-page pamphlet attacking King George and encouraging the colonies to fight for independence
Federalist Papers
series of 85 essays defending the Constitution
Battle of Saratoga
turning point in the American Revolution, caused the French to join the war on the colonies’ side, Colonies victorious
Battle of Lexington and Concord
start of the American Revolution
Homestead Act 1862
encouraged settlement in new areas of the U.S.
Nullification Crisis
South Carolina threatened to secede
Confederate States
opposed the Union
Goals of Reconstruction
rebuild the South quickly so it can be useful to the U.S.
Zimmerman Telegram & German U-boats sank Lusitania
reasons U.S. entered WWI
Appomattox Courthouse
General Lee & Ulysses Grant sign to end Civil War
Trial by Jury
Amendment #6
cities
overpopulated, unsanitary
Great Migration
Southern blacks moved north for jobs
colonies
want a representative government
fire-side chats
President Roosevelt’s radio talks about issues of public concern (especially New Deal) explained in clear, simple language
Long term effect of Spanish-American War
gained more territory and power
Goals of Progressive reforms
protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, fostering efficeincy
Muckrakers
journalists who exposed the ills of society (investigative reporters)
Yellow journalism
style of writing used to enrage readers (and call to action) by exaggerating details
Industrialization
factories, growing urbanization
13th Amendment
slavery is illegal
14th Amendment
individual’s rights
15th Amendment
right to vote regardless of color
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote
Jim Crow laws
will totally segregate the South by separating whites and blacks
Poll Tax
the tax people were required to pay in order to vote
Grandfather Clause
if your father or grandfather voted in an electio nprior to 1867, then the poll tax and literacy test do not apply to you
Women’s suffrage
women’s efforts to get the right to vote, especially Susan B. Anthony
Gilded Age/monopolies
Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner’s satirical novel; 1870s-1890s problems
Panama Canal
artificail waterway cut through the Isthmus; shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific
Long term effect of trans-continental RR
used to settle the west, linked the east and west, communication, ewstern industry growth, decrease cost to produce goods, increase efficiency
Effects of immigration
increase population in cities
Americanization
“educatio nprogram designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture
Reasons for Imperialism
desire for military strength, new markets, belief in cultural superiority
Henry Ford’s assembly line
sped up production