U.S. History to 1877

Absolute Chronology
locating these events to specific dates in a chronological era.
Generalizations
Statement of the nature of the relationship between two or more sets of facts
Inferences
Statements made by the speaker that are based on facts or observations
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Migration
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Primary Source
Text and/or artifacts that tell a first-hand account or are original works (letters, journals, etc.)
Relative Chronology
Depends less on specific dates and more on relationship of events. To sequence, must understand past, present and future, Must identify beginning, middle & end
Secondary Source
Text and/or artifacts that are not original, but written from something original (biographies, magazine articles, research papers).
Imports
goods and services purchased from other countries
Exports
Goods and Services sold to other countries
Neutral
one who does not side with any party in a war or dispute
1st Great Awakening
a series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies, from 1725-1770
Aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
William Penn
William Penn
Established the colony of Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers & a place where they could create a government based on their own standards
Self-government of the English Colonies
Virginia established House of Burgesses, a form of representative government. Males were given the right to vote. Basic rights were protected,
Magna Carta
Magna Carta
Cornerstone of English justice & laws. Signed by King John in 1215. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. “The Great Charter”
Mayflower Compact
Mayflower Compact
1620. Declared that the 41 men who signed it agreed to accept majority rule, participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony, and obey laws passed for the common good
Triangular Trade
Series of colonial trade routes. First leg, New England ships carried fish, lumber, and other goods to West Indies, picked up sugar & molasses & made rum. Rum, guns, gunpowder, cloth, and tools from New England went to West Africa. Final leg, slaves from West Africa to West Indies.
Virginia House of Burgesses
Created in 1619. It was an assembly of elected representatives from the Virginia Colony. It was the first representative assembly in the colonies & was used as a model by other colonies.
Quakers
Christian sect founded about 1660 and one of the first groups in the colonies to speak out against slavery
Monarchy
a government in which political power belongs largely to one ruler, generally called a king or queen, who receives his or her position by claim of divine or inherited right.
Mercantilism
Economic theory that states a nation’s wealth is based on the amount of gold and silver bullion in its treasury. Wealth equals power
1776
On July 4 of this year, fifty-six representatives from the thirteen colonies unanimously approved the Declaration of Independence.
Sam Adams
Played a role in many events which contributed to the Revolution including organized opposition to the Stamp Act, protests waged by the Sons of Liberty & the Boston Massacre.
Concord
Site of the second battle of the American Revolution. The British marched here hoping to capture the American arsenal. Minutemen met the British on a bridge and forced them to retreat.
Consent of the Governed
the idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people
Declaration of Independence
Mostly written by Thomas Jefferson. Listed reasons why colonies sought their own government. It stated that among other things the British government & King used power to unjustly control the colonies.
English Bill of Rights
Guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. It influenced the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Founded the first privately supported circulating library in America. Invented the lightening rod, bifocal glasses, and the Franklin stove. Represented colonies as American envoy in France 1776 – 1785. Negotiated alliance with France & Treaty of Paris which ended the War
French and Indian War
Struggle between the British & French in the colonies of North America in 1756 – 1763. British sought control of Ohio River Valley. Ended in the French being forced out of North America and contributed to the American Revolution.
Grievance
A grievance is a formal statement of complaint, generally against an authority figure
Patrick Henry
Entered Virginia House of Burgesses, quickly influenced colonial resistance to British taxation without representation. Member of First Continental Congress. Said, “give me liberty or give me death.” Opposed ratification of Constitution because of potential limitations to state rights
Intolerable/Coercive Acts
a series of laws passed by the British government in 1774 in response to the growing unrest in the colonies, particularly in Massachusetts after incidents such as the Boston Tea Party. Enforcement of the Acts played a major role in the outbreak of the Revolutionary War.
John Paul Jones
Founder of the U.S. Navy. “I have not yet begun to fight.” His Bonhomme Richard defeated the British Serapis in the American Revolution.
Loyalist
Any person in the colonies who supported the British during the American Revolution
King George III
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution
Marquis de Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette
French aristocrat who played a leading role in 2 revolutions in France and the American Revolution. He served as a major-general in colonial army.
Lexington
First battle of the American Revolution. Known as “Shot heard round the world.”
Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Contributed to the spirit of the revolution in America & France through his influential writings. Wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet which attacked the monarchical system, supported independence, and outlined a new form of government. Wrote the American Crisis, read by General Washington to inspire the troops
Patriot
Any person in the colonies who supported independence in during the American Revolution
Propaganda
information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause
Saratoga
Turning point in the war for independence. It ended the British threat to New England. Benedict Arnold beat back British General Burgoyne. France then became allies with the colonies
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Ended French & Indian War. Marked the end of French power in North America. Britain gained Canada and all French lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain gave up Florida but received all lands west of the Mississippi River.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Ended the American Revolution. Britain recognized U.S. As an independent nation. Borders extended from the Atlantic to the Mississippi River. Florida went back to Spain.
Unalienable Rights
Rights that cannot be denied
Yorktown
The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!
Founding Fathers
Founding Fathers
Individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. Independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution. Jefferson, Washington, Hamilton
Preamble
Introduction to a document
George Washington
George Washington
Commander-in-chief of Continental Army. 1st President of the United States. “Father of Our Country” Model for Civic Virtue. Believed in a strong central government.
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Author of Declaration of Independence. 3rd President. Approved Louisiana Purchase
1787
Delegates meet to revise the Articles of Confederation. Instead they drafted, debated, compromised, and finally approved for ratification the Constitution of the United States
13th Amendment
abolishes slavery in the U.S.
14th Amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Three-fifths Compromise
Necessary for the passage of the Constitution, it counted slaves as 3/5 of a person for purposes of population (used to determine representation in the House)
John Adam’s Foreign Policy
See XYZ Affair & Alien & Sedition Acts
Articles of Confederation
Nation’s first constitution. Limited power of national government. Created a weak national government incapable of dealing with the nation’s problems.
How a Bill Becomes a Law
Introduced in either house, approved by committee, approved by that house, sent to other house and same process. Compromise if bills were different. After it is passed by both houses it is sent to the president for final approval
Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution. It protects the rights of individuals & limits the power of government
Branches of Government
The power of government is divided into three branches Legislative (Congress) – makes laws; Judicial (courts) – interprets the laws; Executive (President) – enforces the laws
Checks and Balances
Each branch shares its powers with the other branches and thereby checks their activities
Civic Virtue
Involvement in a community. Citizens of a neighborhood, town, state, or nation have an obligation to be active, peaceful, loyal, and supportive members of their community. Those with civic virtue take an active role in improving the community
Democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Federalism
Division of powers between the national & state governments
Gibbons V. Ogden
Supreme Court case that said the Constitution gave control of interstate commerce to Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed
Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to four Continental Congresses, represented New York in the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. He co-wrote the Federalist Papers (87). He co-wrote the Federalist Papers. He also supported a strong national government & ratification of the Constitution. First Secretary of Treasury, he established the mint and supported the national bank, known as the Bank of the U.S.
Inaugural Address
Speech given by the president the day he is sworn into office
Individual Rights
These protected rights include economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences.
Free Enterprise System
An economic system characterized by private ownership of property and resources, the profit motive to stimulate production, competition to ensure efficiency, and the forces of supply and demand to direct the production and distribution of goods and services
Interest Groups
A private organization of like minded people whose goal is to influence and shape public policy
Judicial Review
The ability of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional. Comes from the Supreme Court case Marbury V. Madison
Limited Government
Everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Those in power cannot take advantage of their situation
Loose Interpretation
Government can do anything not expressly forbidden by the Constitution.
Marbury V. Madison
Marbury V. Madison
Supreme Court case which established the principle of judicial review
John Marshall
Established authority of the Supreme Court in defining the limits of the U.S. Constitution & the authority of the executive branch. Appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by John Adams.
George Mason
His writings influenced those working to develop a new government. Believed government power should be restricted and he supported protection of human rights. Anti-federalist.
McCulloch V. Maryland
Supreme Court case that ruled the power of the federal government was supreme over that of the states. Maryland sued over national bank
Naturalized Citizen
A person of foreign birth who is granted full citizenship
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Philadelphia Convention
1787. Called to revise the Articles of Confederation. They ended up throwing out the Articles and writing a new plan of government, the Constitution.
Political Parties
Politically active people with competing interests, opinions, and attitudes unite under party names to unite their causes
Popular Sovereignty
Concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting
Representative Government
Power is held by the people and exercised through the efforts of representatives elected by those people
Republic
Democracy in which the supreme power lies with the citizens who vote for officials and representatives responsible to them
Republicanism
Philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. Republicanism says that the only legitimate government is one based on the consent of the governed.
Separation of Powers
First outlined by Baron de Montesquieu. Power is distributed between executive, legislative, and judicial branches. It is also distributed between the national and state governments
U.S. Banking System
Bank of U.S. Founded by Alexander Hamilton. Government deposited tax money and issued paper money. Gave loans to farmers & businessmen. 2nd bank charter in 1816. Jackson vetoed recharter in 1836.
U.S. Constitution
U.S. Constitution
Document that outlines the organization and power of the government. Written at the Philadelphia Convention in 1783
Strict Interpretation
A way of INTERPRETING the Constitution that allows the Federal government to ONLY do those things SPECIFICALLY mentioned in the Constitution
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington’s Farewell Address
1796. Washington decided not to seek 3rd term as president. Published in Philadelphia newspaper. In it he stressed 3 dangers facing the nation: 1) political parties could divide the nation, 2) avoid long term alliances with foreign nations, and 3) avoid sectionalism caused by geography and other differences.
Washington’s Foreign Affairs
Stay neutral in foreign affairs
1803
During Jefferson’s presidency the U.S. acquired the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon (France) for $15 million. This more than doubled the size of the country.
Star Spangled Banner
Star Spangled Banner
The National Anthem written by Francis Scott Key as he watched the Battle of Fort McHenry during the war of 1812
Cherokee Indians
During Andrew Jackson’s presidency they were forced to leave lands in the southeastern U.S. and move to government land in Oklahoma. This forced migration is called “The Trail of Tears”
Era of Good Feelings
The years following the war of 1812 where Americans felt a new sense of pride and faith in the United States.
Thomas Jefferson Foreign Affairs
Louisiana Purchase for France 1803. Doubled the size of the U.S. Embargo Act of 1807
Lewis & Clark Expedition
Assembled a crew that would leave St. Louis in the spring of 1804 and slowly work their way up the Mississippi to explore the new territory.
War of 1812
Often described as the 2nd War for Independence. Fought to protect U.S. & earn respect from Europe. Britain and France had paid little respect to the rights of the U.S. Reasons: impressment of U.S. Sailors, violation of rights at sea, British support of Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley
James Madison
Considered “Father of the Constitution” because of his role in its writing and ratification. Wrote Bill of Rights. One of the authors of the Federalist Papers. President during War of 1812
Manifest Destiny
Popular expression in the 1840’s. Belief that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from Atlantic to Pacific Oceans. This drove the acquisition of territory.
Mexican War
War between U.S. and Mexico over territory in the southwest. As a result, Mexico ceded all claims north of the Rio Grande which included California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Wyoming,
Monroe Doctrine
Statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the U.S. and other countries in Western Hemisphere
James Monroe
His Monroe Doctrine established one of the basic principles of American foreign policy
War of 1812
Often described as the 2nd War for Independence. Fought to protect U.S. & earn respect from Europe. Britain and France had paid little respect to the rights of the U.S. Reasons: impressment of U.S. Sailors, violation of rights at sea, British support of Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley
Indian Removal Act
It gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. Under these treaties, the Indians were to give up their lands east of the Mississippi in exchange for lands to the west.
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
“Old Hickory” became the symbol of the common man’s rise from meager origins to positions of prominence. Military leader of the War of 1812. His style of government was called Jacksonian Democracy. He increased the power of the executive branch and began the use of the spoils system
Mormon Trail
The overland route the Mormon emigrants followed west from Nauvoo, Illinois to Salt Lake City
Oregon Trail
One of the key overland migration routes on which pioneers traveled across the North America in wagons in order to settle new parts of the U.S. during the 19th century
Removal & Settlement of Native Americans
Land was taken from Indians and they were forcefully “resettled” in Indian Territory (modern day Oklahoma).
Texas Annexation
Originally, U.S. Would not annex Texas. Sam Houston said Texas might become an ally of Britain. This contributed to the annexation of Texas by the U.S. in 1845.
Bessemer Steel Process
Bessemer Steel Process
Discovered by Henry Bessemer in 1851 it is the process of removing impurities from iron to make steel by blasting the melted iron with hot air
Cottage Industry
An industry where the creation of products and services is home-based, rather than factory-based.
Cotton Gin
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney. Increased production of cotton, thereby increasing the need for slaves.
Industrial Revolution
Period of rapid industrial growth resulting from new sources of power and new ways to make products. Handmade goods were replaced by machine made goods.
Interchangeable Parts
Identical parts that can be interchanged with each other thereby speeding up repair and assembly
Urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Abolitionist Movement
Began in Revolutionary era, partially in response to inhumane treatment of slaves and partially in an effort to remove blacks from white society. Realized their goal with passage of 13th amendment
Civil Disobedience
Process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies & government of a state or nation when the civil laws are considered unjust
Declaration of Sentiments
signed in 1848 by sixty-eight women and thirty-two men, delegates to the first women’s rights convention, in Seneca Falls, New York. it included a list of grievances followed by the rights of women and was one of the most important documents of the women’s rights movement
Distillery
A machine that produces distilled alcoholic beverages
Prohibition
any of several periods during which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages were restricted or illegal
Reform Movements
Reformers sought to change unfair labor practices, increase nutrition and improve conditions for the poor, enslaved, imprisoned, women, alcoholics, and the disabled
Saloon
a room or establishment where alcoholic drinks are served over a counter
Temperance
A movement in the 19th century which campaigned for the public to refrain from alcoholic drink
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau
Leading American essayist, poet, practical philosopher and transcendentalist. Transcendentalism is based on the idealism, the goodness of humankind and the harmony of creation. Abolitionist. Civil Disobedience – refused to pay taxes
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Book by Harriet Beacher Stowe that told the reality of a slave’s life. Caused great controversy and angered many Southerners
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
Raised issues which highlighted sectional conflicts and presaged the coming of the Civil War. Spokesman for increasing authority of states. Represented South Carolina in the U.S. Senate.
Henry Clay
Known as the “Great Compromiser” for his ability to smooth sectional conflict through balanced legislation. Favored internal improvements and westward expansion. Sponsored the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Pre-Civil War Compromises
Missouri Compromise – Missouri enters the Union as a slave state, Maine as a free state. This kept the number of slave states and free states equal. Compromise of 1850 – California enters as a free state; in Mexican Cession voters would decide if slave or
Frederick Douglass
Leading African-American abolitionist in 19th century. Spoke about issues of civil rights and human freedom. Ex-slave. Publisher of the North Star.
Dred Scott V. Sandford
Landmark Supreme Court Case in 1857 which confirmed the status of slaves as property rather than citizens
Freedman
Non-slaves. Usually lived in the North. Experienced discrimination. Denied the right to vote, serve on juries, to be educated, to worship freely, and to have access to public lands.
Freedmen’s Bureau
it’s purpose was to assist refugees, poor, and homeless Freedmen. Ran by Union soldiers provided, food, medicine, legal advice on labor contracts, and could request military courts to intervene for the freemen
Nullification Crisis
South Carolina declared a federal tariff null and void within its borders. Henry Clay proposed the compromise Tariff of 1833 which slowly reduced tariff. Northerners passed the Force Bill which authorized the army and navy to collect duties.
Plantation System
System of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and the exploitation of slave labor and environment. Production usually concentrated on a cash crop. South – cotton, tobacco, sugar, rice
Protective Tariff
Tariff on imported products instituted to protect local industries. This tax increases the price of imported goods making them less appealing to consumers. Tariffs protect domestic products from competition from other countries.
Sectionalism
a political philosophy, prominent in the United States in the decades before the Civil War that favored the needs and outlook of one’s section of the country over the needs and outlook of the country as a whole
Separate But Equal
a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African-Americans and European-Americans would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc.), but that there would
State’s Rights
The concept that states should have the right to nullify national laws that are not in the best interest of their state
Tariff Policy
Governments raise operating funds by levying taxes on imported goods. They place foreign merchants at a disadvantage. Northerners favored tariffs, but Southerners opposed them
Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster
Represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Noted for his speaking ability and his commitment to preserving the Union.
1861-1865
Years during which the American Civil War was fought
Antietam
Northern General McClellan attacked Lee’s forces at Antietam, MD. More than 24,000 Union and Confederate soldiers were dead or wounded. Neither side won a clear victory. Bloodiest battle of the Civil War
Appomattox Court House
Appomattox Court House
On April 9, 1865, Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant in this town in south-central Virginia. The Confederate surrender was the end of the Civil War in Virginia and marked the beginning of the end of the war across the South.
Congressional Reconstruction
Series of acts passed by Congress between 1866 & 1867 as part of Reconstruction. Among other things Southern states had to accept the 14th Amendment & rewrite their state constitutions so all adult men were able to vote regardless of race.
Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy during the American Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Lincoln on September 22, 1862 in which all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free. Did not apply to slaves in the border states or to areas in South occupied by federal troops. It did not become effective until January 1, 1863
Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter
Guarded the harbor in Charleston, South Carolina. Confederate forces fired on it on April 13, 1861 beginning the Civil War.
Gettysburg
Gettysburg
July 1 – 3, 1863. Lee hoped to destroy the Union Army. A Confederate cavalry charge up Cemetery Ridge led by George Edward Pickett failed. This Confederate defeat marked the turning point in the American Civil War.
Gettysburg Address
Delivered by Abraham Lincoln on November 19, 1863 at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site where the battle of Gettysburg took place. “Four Score….government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of the Union Army during the Civil War. He created a plan to win the war & later accepted Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. He later goes on to serve as the 18th President of the United States.
Know Nothing Party
Name for U.S. Political parties formed during the 1840s that were against immigration and all the problems they perceived it to cause. Focused on trying to limit the amount and role of immigrants in American society. When asked about their parties beliefs
Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Commander of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. His battle strategies are still admired & studied today. He eventually surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House ending the American Civil War.
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Republican president during the American Civil War. Preserved the unity of the U.S. And took steps to abolish slavery, but was assassinated before he could implement his post-war plans. Most lasting influence is the 13th Amendment banning slavery.
Presidential Reconstruction
Abraham Lincoln’s idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
Radical Reconstruction
Favored harsh treatment of the South and quick incorporation of freemen into citizenship with full privileges including voting rights for all African-Americans, government seizure of land from planters for redistribution to freemen, and funding of schools
Reasons for Colonization
1) find gold or wealth 2) trade for furs or other products 3) religious freedom 4) fresh start 5) adventure
Slave Trade
1490s – 1790s. Most slaves came from West Africa. By 1790 all states except South Carolina and Georgia outlawed slave trade. Most slaves were captured by other Africans and sold to dealers on the coast.
XYZ Affair
incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France
Alien Act & Sedition Act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government
Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
The purchase of French land between the Mississippi river and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the US in 1803 for $15 million dollars.
Democratic-Republicans
One of the first American Political parties led by Thomas Jefferson, they believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Federalist Party
One of the first American political parties it was led by Alexander Hamilton, believed wealthy and educated people should lead the nation, favored strong central government, emphasized manufacturing shipping and trade, favored loose interpretation of constitution, were pro-British, favored national bank, favored protective tariff
Jacksonian Democracy
the philosophy (associated with President Andrew Jackson) that the right to vote should be extended to all adult male citizen and that all government offices of any importance should be filled by election

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