UGA History Exemption Test

UGA History Exemption Test

Yazoo Lands
The sparsely-populated central and western areas of the US state of GA, when its western border stretched to the Mississippi River.
James Jackson
October 18, 1819 – January 13, 1887. It was a US representative from GA, a judge advocate American Civil War, and a chief justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia. He nullified the yazoo sale and destructed records connected with the state. Later the Yazoo lands was given to the Federal Goverment.
Iroquois League
Known as the haudenosaunee of the “People of the Longhouse”, are a league of several nations and tribes of indigenous people of North America
Yazoo Fraud
a massive fraud perpetrated from 1794-1803 by several Georgia governers and the state legislature.
James Gun
Arranged the distribution of money of the Yazoo fraud and land to legislators, state officials, newspaper editors and cries of bribery and corruption.
Trail of Tears
Forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the US following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee, Seminole, Chickasaw and Choctaw nations, among others in the US, from their homelands to Indian territory (From Georgia to Oklahoma.)
Hernan Cortes
1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th Century
The Stono Rebellion
Slave rebellion that commenced on September 9 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution.
William Penn
October 14, 1644 – July 30 1718. It was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
The Great Awakening
Used to refer to several periods of religions revival in American religious history. Historians and theologians identify three or four waves of increased religious enthusiasm occurring between the early 18th and late 19th century. Each of these was characterized by widespread revivals lead by evangelical Protestant ministers, a sharp increase of interest in religion, a profound sense of conviction and redemption on the part of those affected, an increase in evangelical church membership and the formation of new religious movements and denominations.
Indentured Servitude
Historical practice of contracting to work for a fixed period of time, typically 3 to 7 years in exchange for transportation, food, clothing lodging and other necessities during the term of indenture.
Quakers
Members of the Religious Society of friends. Came to North America in the early days because they wanted to spread their beliefs to the British colonists there, while others came to escape the persecution that they were experiencing in Europe. First known quakers arrived in 1656. The colony of Rhode Island with its policy of religious freedom was a frequent destionation as the Friends were persecuted by law in Massachusetts until 1681. Pennsylvania was formed by William Penn in 1681 as a haven for persecuted.
Mercantilism
the economic doctrine that government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and military security of the state.
Thomas Paine
English-American political activist, author, political theorist and revolutionary. As the author or two highly influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he became one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He has been called “a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination.
Alexander Hamilton
(January 11, 1755 or 177 – July 12, 1804) was a Founding Father, soldier, economist, political philosopher, one of Amrica’s first constitutional lawyers and the first US Secretary of the Treasury.
Federalist papers
Series of 85 articles of essays promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and john jay
French vs. Indian War
The war was fought primarily between the colonies of British America and the New France, with both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great Britain and France. In 1756 the war escalated from a regional affair into a world-wide conflict. In Canada some historians refer to the conflict as the Seven Years War fought for control of eastern north america. British won.
American Revolution
Political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the USA.
Revolutionary War
1775-1783. began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the New USA, but gradually expanded to a global war between Britain on one side and USA, France, Netherlands and Spain on the other.
Tories
A traditionalist and conservative political philosophy which grew out of the Cavalier faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
Northwest ordinance
Act of the Congress of the Confederation of the US. Passed July 13, 1787. The primary effect was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the US out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
Political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799 in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.
Louisiana purchase
Acquisition by the US in 1803 of France’s claim to the territory of Louisiana.
Hartford Convention
An event in 1814-1815 in the US in which New England Federalists met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing war of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government’s increasing power.
Trustees dartmouth college vs woodward case
Was a landmark US Supreme Court case dealing with the application of the Contract Clause of the US constitution to private corportations
Frederick Douglass
February 1818- February 20, 1895. African American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. Former Slave
Nullification Crisis
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina’s 1832 Ordinance of Nullification.
Second Party System
Term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political party system existing in the US from about 1828-1854 after the First Party System. The major parties were the Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans and other opponents of Jackson.
First Party System
Model of American politics used by political scientists and historians to periodize the political party system existing in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824. It featured two national parties competing for control of the presidency, Congress, and the states: the Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Democratic-Republican Party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Eli Whitney
December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825. American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin.
Sectionalism
In national politics, this is often a precursor to separatism.
Civil War
1861-1865. war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly united nation state.
American Civil War
1861-1865. “War Between the States”, was a civil war fought over the secession of the Confederate States.
Women’s Right Movement
rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.
Abolition Movement
movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal.
In western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historical movement to end the African slave trade and set slaves free.
Abolitionism
After the American Revolutionary War established the United States, northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades to abolish slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution that declared all men equal; freedom suits challenging slavery based on this principle brought an end to slavery in the state. Similar declarations of rights, as in Virginia, were not taken by the courts to apply to Africans. During the following decades, the abolitionist movement grew in northern states, and Congress limited the expansion of slavery in new states admitted to the union.
Seneca Falls Convention
an early and influential women’s rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, July 19-20, 1848. It was organized by local New York women upon the occasion of a visit by Philadelphia-based Lucretia Mott, a Quaker famous for her orating ability, a skill rarely cultivated by American women at the time.
Morrill Act of 1862
Land-Grant are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges, including the Morrill Act of 1862 and the Morrill Act of 1890 (the Agricultural College Act of 1890)
New York City Riots
(July 13 to July 16, 1863; known at the time as Draft Week[2]) were violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The riots were the largest civil insurrection in American history.
New York City Riots Abraham Lincoln
President Abraham Lincoln diverted several regiments of militia and volunteer troops from following up after the Battle of Gettysburg to control the city. The rioters were overwhelmingly working-class men, primarily ethnic Irish, resenting particularly that wealthier men, who could afford to pay a $300 commutation fee to hire a substitute, were spared the draft.
Jefferson Davis
(June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history.
Ku Klux Klan
is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism.
Andrew Johnson
(December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States (1865-1869). he succeeded Abraham Lincoln following the latter’s assassination. He then presided over the initial and contentious Reconstruction era of the United States following the American Civil War. Johnson’s reconstruction policies failed to promote the rights of the Freedmen (newly freed slaves), and he came under vigorous political attack from Republicans, ending in his impeachment by the U.S. House of Representatives; he was acquitted by the U.S. Senate.
Reconstruction Era of the United States
the first covers the complete history of the entire U.S. from 1865-1877 following the Civil War; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Washington, with the reconstruction of state and society.
Reconstruction Era
From 1863 to 1869, Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson (who became president on April 14, 1865) took a moderate position designed to bring the South back to normal as soon as possible, while the Radical Republicans (as they called themselves) used Congress to block the moderate approach, impose harsh terms, and upgrade the rights of the Freedmen (former slaves). The views of Lincoln and Johnson prevailed until the election of 1866, which enabled the Radicals to take control of policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the Freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, with support from the Army and the Freedman’s Bureau. The Radicals, upset at President Johnson’s opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges but the action failed by one vote in the Senate. President Ulysses S. Grant supported Radical Reconstruction, using both the U.S. Justice Department and the U.S. military to suppress white insurgency and support Republican reconstructed states. Southern Democrats, alleging widespread corruption, counterattacked and regained power in each state by 1877. President Rutherford B. Hayes blocked efforts to overturn Reconstruction legislation.
John Brown’s Raid
raid on Harpers Ferry was an attempt by white abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt by seizing a United States Arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia in 1859. Brown’s raid was defeated by a detachment of U.S.
Conscription
Conscription is the compulsory enlistment of people in some sort of national service, most often military service.
Populist Party
A U.S. political party that sought to represent the interests of farmers and laborers in the 1890s, advocating increased currency issue, free coinage of gold and silver, public ownership of railroads, and a graduated federal income tax. Also called People’s Party.
World War I
was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter.
Jim Crow
were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a “separate but equal” status for African Americans.
Progressive Movement
a general political philosophy advocating or favoring social, political, and economic reform.
America Prohibition
was a national ban on the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol, in place from 1920 to 1933.[1] The ban was mandated by the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution, and the Volstead Act set down the rules for enforcing the ban and defined the types of alcoholic beverages that were prohibited. Private ownership of consumable alcohol and drinking it was not made illegal. Prohibition ended with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment, on December 5, 1933.
Woodrow Wilson
December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924. was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. Running against Republican incumbent William Howard Taft and Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt, a former President, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912.
Treaty of Versailles
one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
League of Nations
was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Progressive Movement
a general political philosophy advocating or favoring social, political, and economic reform.
Federalist Party
considered the first American political party. It advocated a strong national government, and prominent Federalists included John Adams and Alexander Hamilton.
Whig Party
were a party in the Parliament of England, Parliament of Great Britain, and Parliament of the United Kingdom, who contested power with the rival Tories from the 1680s to the 1850s.
Progressive Party
….
Populist Party
was a political party in the United States between 1984 and 1996. It was far-right and often white nationalist in its ideology.
Mugwump Party
were Republican political activists who bolted from the United States Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate James G. Blaine. In a close election, the Mugwumps supposedly made the difference in New York state and swung the election to Cleveland.
New Deal
A series of economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D.
Great Depression
Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 after the passage of the United States’ Smoot-Hawley Tariff bill (June 17), and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s.[1] It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century.
World War II
was a global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. It involved a vast majority of the world’s nations-including all of the great powers-eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
Internment Camps
the relocation and internment by the United States government in 1942 of about 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States to camps called “War Relocation Camps,” in the wake of Imperial Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor. The internment of Japanese Americans was applied unequally throughout the United States.
Axis Powers
was the alignment of nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
January 30, 1882- April 12, 1945. was the 32nd President of the United States 1933-1945 and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war.
Victory Gardens
also called war gardens or food gardens for defense, were vegetable, fruit and herb gardens planted at private residences and public parks in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Germany[1] during World War I and World War II to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by the war effort. In addition to indirectly aiding the war effort these gardens were also considered a civil “morale booster” — in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made victory gardens become a part of daily life on the home front.
Calvin Coolidgde
July 4, 1872- January 5, 1933. was the 30th President of the United States 1923-1929
Scopes Trial
formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was a landmark American legal case in 1925 in which high school science teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee’s Butler Act, which made it unlawful to teach evolution in any state-funded school.
Father Charles Coughlin
October 25, 1891 – October 27, 1979. It was a controversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan’s National Shrine of the Little Flower church.
Tennessee Valley Authority
is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression.
Lend-lease act
was the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, Free France, and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945. It was signed into law on March 11, 1941, a year and a half after the outbreak of World War II in Europe in September 1939 but nine months before the U.S
Hiroshima
The atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan were conducted by the United States during the final stages of World War II in 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.
Harlem Renissance
a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the “New Negro Movement”, named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke.
The Cold War
often dated from 1947-1991, was a sustained state of political and military tension between the powers of the Western world, led by the United States and its NATO allies, and the communist world, led by the Soviet Union, its satellite states and allies.
Cuban missile Crisis
known as the October crisis in Cuba and the Caribbean crisis in the USSR-was a 13-day confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba on one side and the United States on the other; the crisis occurred in October 1962, during the Cold War.
Vietnam War
Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries.
Free Speech Movement
student protest which took place during the 1964-1965 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley under the informal leadership of students Mario Savio, Brian Turner, Bettina Aptheker, Steve Weissman, Art Goldberg, Jackie Goldberg, and others.
Civil Rights Movement
worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. In many situations it took the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change by nonviolent forms of resistance. In some situations it was accompanied, or followed, by civil unrest and armed rebellion. The process was long and tenuous in many countries, and many of these movements did not fully achieve their goals although, the efforts of these movements did lead to improvements in the legal rights of previously oppressed groups of people.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
January 15, 1929- April 4, 1968. was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. Novel Prize winner.
National Organization of Women
the largest feminist organization in the United States. It was founded in 1966 and has a membership of 500,000 contributing members. unsuccessfully campaigned for an equal rights amendment in const.
Richard Nixon
January 9, 1913- April 22, 1994. was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. The only president to resign the office, Nixon had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Watergate Scandal
was a political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon administration’s attempted cover-up of its involvement.
Communism
a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order.america feared this
1960’s youth movement
started because of the Civil Rights movement. belief was that how could the U.S fight for another countries freedom when their was racism and discrimination occurring in their own country? The first anti-war protest was “teach-ins”. These were meant to educate the public about the war.
youth movement
The youth were focusing on the freedom and rights for youth, but they were also protesting the Vietnam War. The protest against the war was organized marches and protests. They took a non- violent approach. Once it became obvious that it was impossible to win the war the protest movement reached its peak. Although they wanted to use non-violent approaches, some anti-war demonstration turned violent, for example, the March on the Pentagon, Kent State University, and Detroit Riots. The Kent State Incident
Youth movement-woodstock
lead to the temporary closures of about 500 Universities.
One of the most famous anti-war demonstrations was Woodstock. It was known as “Three Days of Peace and Music.” When one mentions the counterculture of the 1960’s, Woodstock is the first term and image that is constructed.
Baby Boomers
a person who was born during the demographic Post-World War II baby boom between the years 1946 and 1964, according to the U.S.
Containment
a United States policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad.
Brown V. Board of Education
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.
Malcolm X.
May 19, 1925- February 21, 1965. was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
John F. Kennedy
May 29, 1917- November 22, 1963, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963
Tet Offensive
a military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the People’s Army of Vietnam against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States, and their allies.
Kent State Shootings
occurred at Kent State University in the U.S. city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of unarmed college students by the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970. The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis.[5] Some of the students who were shot had been protesting against the American invasion of Cambodia, which President Richard Nixon announced in a television address on April 30. Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance
1961 Freedom Riders
were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to test the United States Supreme Court decisions Boynton v. Virginia (1960)[1] and Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946).The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C., on May 4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New Orleans on May 17
Freedom Riders
Boynton outlawed racial segregation in the restaurants and waiting rooms in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines. Five years prior to the Boynton ruling, the Interstate Commerce Commission had issued a ruling in Sarah Keys v. Carolina Coach Company that had explicitly denounced the Plessy v. Ferguson doctrine of separate but equal in interstate bus travel. The ICC failed to enforce its ruling, and Jim Crow travel laws remained in force throughout the South
Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955
a seminal episode in the U.S. civil rights movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional. Many important figures in the civil rights movement took part in the boycott, including Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy.
Greensboro Woolroth’s Lunch sit-ins
policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States. While not the first sit-ins of the African-American Civil Rights Movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action, leading to increased national sentiment at a crucial period in US history.
Gerald Ford
(born Leslie Lynch King, Jr.; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was the 38th President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the 40th Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974. As the first person appointed to the vice-presidency under the terms of the 25th Amendment (after Spiro Agnew had resigned), when he became President upon Richard Nixon’s resignation on August 9, 1974, he became the only President of the United States who was never elected President nor Vice-President by the Electoral College.
Richard Nixon
January 9, 1913- April 22, 1994. was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. The only president to resign the office, Nixon had previously served as a US representative and senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961
Jimmy Carter
born October 1, 1924 is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States (1977-1981) and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S.
Camp David Accords
In 1979, Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty that ended 30 years of conflict. The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
Ronald Reagan
February 6, 1911- June 5, 2004. was the 40th President of the United States (1981-89).worked to lift govt regulations, reduce taxes, and reduce domestic spending bycurtailing social welfare. launched the largest peacetime military buildup in am history
George Bush
born June 12, 1924 is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States (1989-93). was reagans vp
European Communism
collapsed in 1989, marking the end of the cold war
Gulf War
(2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a UN-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Bill Clinton
is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president.
liberal policies- national health care plan fell under a barrage of lobbying and patisan attacks & republican victories in 94 congressional elections forced him to shift toward republican
Conservatism
a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional institutions and supports, at most, minimal and gradual change in society.
Affirmative Action
refers to policies that take factors including “race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin” into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group “in areas of employment, education, and business”, usually justified as countering the effects of a history of discrimination.
Oil Crisis 1970
started in October 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or the OAPEC (consisting of the Arab members of OPEC, plus Egypt, Syria and Tunisia) proclaimed an oil embargo. This was in response to the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military during the Yom Kippur war.[1] It lasted until March 1975
Carter Administration
served as the thirty-ninth President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. His administration sought to make the government “competent and compassionate” but, in the midst of an economic crisis produced by rising energy prices and stagflation, met with difficulty in achieving its objectives.
Sexual Revolution
a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the Western world from the 1960s to the 1980s.
Ronald Reagan’s Policies
was the domestic policy in the United States from 1981 to 1989 under President Ronald Reagan. It retained conservative values economically, beginning with the president’s implementation of his supply-side economic policies,His policies included the largest tax cut in American history, as well as increased defense spending. Notable events included his firing of nearly 12,000 striking air traffic control workers and appointing the first woman to the Supreme Court bench, Sandra Day O’Connor. He believed in federalism, and passed policies to encourage development of private business, routinely criticizing and defunding the public sector. His policies included the largest tax cut in American history, as well as increased defense spending
Moral Majority
a prominent American political organization associated with the Christian right.
Reagan Revolution
in recognition of the political realignment both within and beyond the U.S. in favor of his brand of conservatism and his faith in free markets. The Reagan administration worked toward the collapse of Soviet Communism, and it did collapse just as he left office.
Operation Desert Storm
The Persian Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a UN-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Henry Ross Perot
born June 27, 1930 is a U.S. businessman best known for running for President of the United States in 1992 and 1996. Perot founded Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in 1962, sold the company to General Motors in 1984, and founded Perot Systems in 1988. Perot Systems was bought by Dell for $3.9 billion in 2009.
Nafta
The North American Free Trade Agreement is an agreement signed by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Battle of Wounded Knee
Massacre was committed on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA.
Booker T. Washington
April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915 was an African-American educator, author, orator, and advisor to Republican presidents.
Free SIlver
a central American policy issue in the late 19th century. Its advocates were in favor of an inflationary monetary policy using the “free coinage of silver” as opposed to the less inflationary gold standard; its supporters were called “Silverites”.
Sherman Anti Trust Act
July 2, 1890, is a landmark federal statute on competition law passed by Congress in 1890. It prohibits certain business activities that reduce competition in the marketplace, and requires the United States federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of being in violation.
Open Door Policy
a concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy in 1899 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country.
The Confederacy
The Union
During the American Civil War, it was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the 20 free states and five border slave states. It was opposed by 11 southern slave states that had declared a secession to join together to form the Confederacy. Although the Union states included the Western states of California, Oregon, and (after 1864) Nevada, as well as states of the Midwest, the Union has often been referred to as “the North”, both then and now.
James Edward Oglethorpe
was a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia.
James Wright
James Wright (May 8, 1716 – November 20, 1785) was an American colonial lawyer and jurist who was third, and final British Royal Governor of the Province of Georgia. Fled the colony when the American Revolution began
Nancy Morgan Hart
heroine of the American Revolutionary War whose exploits against Loyalists in the Georgia back country are the stuff of legend. most known for holding six British soldiers at gunpoint, but this is only one of her patriotic efforts against the British. Hart was determined to rid the area of Tories, colonists loyal to the King.
James Jackson
was a United States Representative from Georgia, a judge advocate in the American Civil War, and a chief justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia.
GA in the Civil War
Georgia played an essential role in the Civil War. As the most populous southern state and as the state with the most slaves, Georgia’s decision to secede was crucial to the secessionist movement.
Joseph Brown
was the 42nd Governor of Georgia from 1857 to 1865, and a U.S. Senator from 1880 to 1891. During the American Civil War, Brown, a former Whig, had constant disagreements with Confederate President Jefferson Davis, whom he saw as an incipient tyrant. Tried at times to keep his own troops apart from the Confederate forces and insisted on hoarding surplus supplies for his own state’s militias. He believed that his state had seceded so that it didn’t have to follow the dictates of a central government.
Milledgeville
It was the Fourth capital of Georgia from 1804 to 1868, notably during the American Civil War.
Henry L. Benning
April 2, 1814 – July 10, 1875. Was a lawyer, legislator, judge on the Georgia Supreme Court, and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He is also noted for the U.S. Army’s fort named in his honor
Robert Toombs
Secretary of state, strong advocate for secession. A senator and extremist from Georgia who said that the South would never let the federal government be controlled by the Republican party and threatened secession..
William T. Sherman
He commanded the Union army in Tennessee. In September of 1864 his troops captured Atlanta, Georgia. He then headed to take Savannah. This was his famous “march to the sea.”. His troops burned barns and houses, and destroyed the countryside. His march showed a shift in the belief that only military targets should be destroyed. Civilian centers could also be targets.
Crop Line System
is a credit system that became widely used by farmers in the United States in the South from the 1860s to the 1920s.
Rufus Bullock
He served as the 46th Governor of Georgia from 1868 to 1871 during Reconstruction and was the first Republican governor of Georgia. After various allegations of scandal, in 1871 he was obliged by the Ku Klux Klan to resign the governorship
Tunis Campbell
prominent African American politician of the 19th century, and a major figure in Reconstruction Georgia.Born in Middlebrook, New Jersey, he served as a Justice of the Peace, a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention, and as a Georgia state senator.Died with a goal to help freedmen vote,, he was appointed to the Board of Registration in Georgia. He was elected to congress as a senator in Georgia in 1868 only to be expelled from office because white congressmen agreed that blacks didn’t have the right to hold office. He was able to return to office in 1871, but lost in 1872 and eventually imprisoned in a Georgia labor camp before fleeing the state.
Republican State Senate president Benjamin Conley
Succeeded Rufus Bullock. Served Governor for the two remaining months of the term to which Bullock had been elected.
He later became president of the Atlanta Chamber of Commerce and in 1895 served as master of ceremonies for the Cotton States and International Exposition
Georgia Populism
Led by the brilliant orator Thomas E. Watson, this neew party mainly appealed to white farmers, many of whom had been impoverished by debt and low cotton prices in the 1880s and 1890s. Populism, which directly challenged the dominance of the Democratic Party, threatened to split the white vote in Georgia. Consequently, the Populists boldly tried to win black Republicans to their cause. Such appeals outraged Democrats and visited upon the state some of the most dramatic and bloody elections in its history
‘New South’ Crusade
Sought to diversify the Georgia economy; eventually led to the industrialization of the state.
W. E. B. Du Bois
Du Bois rose to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta Compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities. Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the talented tenth and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership.
Rebecca Latimer Felton
June 10, 1835 – January 24, 1930 was an American writer, lecturer, reformer, and politician who became the first woman to serve in the United States Senate. She was the most prominent woman in Georgia in the Progressive Era, and was honored by appointment to the Senate; she was sworn in on November 21, 1922, and served one day, the shortest serving Senator in U.S. history. At 87 years old, 9 months and 22 days, she was also the oldest freshman senator to enter the Senate. As of 2012, she is also the only woman to have served as a Senator from Georgia. She was a prominent society woman; an advocate of prison reform, women’s suffrage and educational modernization; and one of the few prominent women who spoke in favor of lynching.
Leo Frank
Leo Max Frank (April 17, 1884 – August 17, 1915) was a Jewish-American factory superintendent whose hanging in 1915 by a lynch mob, planned and led by prominent citizens in Marietta, Georgia, drew attention to antisemitism in the United States.
The County-Unit System
was used by the U.S. state of Georgia to determine a victor in its primary elections. Each county was given a certain number of votes and the candidate who received the highest number of votes in that county won all their ‘unit votes’, under a form of block voting. A candidate had to have a majority of county unit votes to win and if no candidate received a majority, then a run-off election would be held between the top two finishers.In 1963, the county unit system was declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in its Gray v. Sanders decision. The Supreme Court found that the system violated the ‘one man, one vote’ principle. The Federal District Court for the District of North Georgia had previously enjoined the state from using the county unit system in the spring of 1962 and had instead instituted a statewide preferential primary. The gubernatorial primary was won by Sen. Carl Sanders over former Governor Marvin Griffin (a Talmadge-machine backed candidate).
Eugene Talmadge
was a Democratic politician who served two terms as the 67th Governor of Georgia from 1933 to 1937, and a third term from 1941 to 1943. Elected to a fourth term in 1946, he died before taking office. To date only Joe Brown and Eugene Talmadge have been elected four times as Governor of Georgia.
went to uga, aganist new deal
The Agricultural Adjustment Adminstration
enacted May 12, 1933) was a United States federal law of the New Deal era which restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land (that is, to let a portion of their fields lie fallow) and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus and therefore effectively raise the value of crops. The money for these subsidies was generated through an exclusive tax on companies which processed farm products. The Act created a new agency, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies.
Herman Talmadge
Was an American politician from the state of Georgia. He served as the 70th Governor of Georgia briefly in 1947 and again from 1948 to 1955. His term was marked by his segregationist policies. After leaving office Talmadge was elected to the U.S. Senate, serving from 1957 until 1981. Declared that GA will ‘not tolerate the mixing of races in public schools or any other tax supported instutions.” Forcibly took over the Governor’s mansion until it was officially announced he had lost the election.
GA Flag Controversies
The state flag used from 1956 to 2001 featured a prominent Confederate Battle Flag, which some residents found offensive due to its historical use by the Confederate States of America and its contemporary use as a symbol by various white supremacy groups
GA Music and Literature
Georgia is known for such authors as Alice Walker and Margaret Mitchell; for musicians and bands such a R.E.M. and Ray Charles;
Literature
fiction novels such as Margaret Mitchell’s Gone With the Wind and The Color Purple by Alice Walker (The Color Purple’s stage adaptation is by Georgia Author and Agnes Scott Alumna Marsha Norman) are other examples. Among the most interesting of Southern literature’s genres is Southern Gothic, with such notable Georgia writers as Flannery O’Conner and Erskine Caldwell. Georgia’s poets, such as Sidney Lanier, nonfiction writers like humorist Lewis Grizzard also have a place in the state’s literary background
Music in GA
Music in Georgia ranges from folk music to rhythm and blues, rock and roll, country music, sludge metal and hip hop. The Georgia Music Hall of Fame, located in Macon is the state’s museum of music.
1996 Olympic Games
The 1996 Summer Olympics, known officially as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially as the Centennial Olympics, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Atlanta, Georgia, United States, from July 19 to August 4, 1996. A record 197 nations, all current IOC member nations, took part in the Games, comprising 10,318 athletes.
US Invasion of Panama
The United States Invasion of Panama, code-named Operation Just Cause, was the invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989. It occurred during the administration of U.S. president George bush and ten years after the Torrijos-Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama by the year 2000.
Reasons for US Invasion
Safeguarding the lives of U.S. citizens in Panama. In his statement, Bush claimed that Noriega had declared that a state of war existed between the U.S. and Panama and that he threatened the lives of the approximately 35,000 U.S. citizens living there. There had been numerous clashes between U.S. and Panamanian forces; one U.S. Marine had been killed a few days earlier, and several incidents of harassment of U.S. citizens had taken place.
Defending democracy and human rights in Panama.
Combating drug trafficking. Panama had become a center for drug money laundering and a transit point for drug trafficking to the U.S. and Europe.
Protecting the integrity of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties. Members of Congress and others in the U.S. political establishment claimed that Noriega threatened the neutrality of the Panama Canal and that the U.S. had the right under the treaties to intervene militarily to protect the canal.
Fredrick Douglass
After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory[4] and incisive antislavery writing. He stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders’ arguments that slaves did not have the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens.
War of 1812
was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States and those of the British Empire. The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain’s ongoing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American desire to annex Canada
Tariffs
A tariff is either (1) a tax on imports or exports (trade tariff) in and out of a country, Tariffs for many years were primarily to collect Federal revenue and only secondarily to protect start-up industries.
Political Parties and Tariffs
Democrats favored a tariff that would pay the cost of government, but no higher. Whigs and Republicans favored higher tariffs to encourage or “protect” industry and industrial workers
George Washington
signed the tarriff act july 1789 which authorized the collection of duties on imported goods.
Whiskey Rebellion
a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. Washington called up the militia and repressing the rebellious farmers—all were later pardoned. The whiskey excise tax collected so little and was so despised it was abolished by President Thomas Jefferson in 1802.
World Trade Organization
was established to help establish uniform tariff rates. is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade.
War of Worlds Radio
is an episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air. It was performed as a Halloween episode of the series on October 30, 1938, and aired over the Columbia Broadcasting System radio network. Directed and narrated by actor and future filmmaker Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells’s novel The War of the Worlds.
Robert William “Bob” Packwood
is a U.S. politician from Oregon and a member of the Republican Party. He resigned from the United States Senate, under threat of expulsion, in 1995 after allegations of sexual harassment, abuse and assault of women emerged
Thurgood Marshall
was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court’s 96th justice and its first African-American justice.Before becoming a judge, Marshall was a lawyer who was best known for his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education. He argued more cases before the United States Supreme Court than anyone else in history.[2] He served on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit after being appointed by President John F. Kennedy and then served as the Solicitor General after being appointed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965. President Johnson nominated him to the United States Supreme Court in 1967.
Laissez Faire
is an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from tariffs, government subsidies, and enforced monopolies, with only enough government regulations sufficient to protect property rights against theft and aggression. The phrase is French and literally means “let [them] do”, but it broadly implies “let it be,” “let them do as they will,” or “leave it alone.” Scholars generally believe that state or a completely free market has never existed
President During Cuban Missile Crisis
JFK
Strategic Defense Initiative
The Strategic Defense Initiative was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983, to use ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level.
originally in the french colony
Georgia
Made in 1732. Last Settled Colony
Battle of Yorktown
The Battle of Yorktown or Siege of Yorktown was fought from April 5 to May 4, 1862, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War.
Battle of Saratoga
Conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne’s army in the American War of Independence and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war.During the summer of 1776, a powerful army under British General Sir William Howe invaded the New York City area. His professional troops defeated and outmaneuvered General George Washington’s less trained forces. An ill advised American invasion of Canada had come to an appalling end, its once confident regiments reduced to a barely disciplined mob beset by smallpox and pursuing British troops through the Lake Champlain Valley.
Unionism
a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union
Mexican American War
armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
president james f polk
Tenancy
1. (Law) the temporary possession or holding by a tenant of lands or property owned by another
2. (Law) the period of holding or occupying such property
3. the period of holding office, a position, etc.
4. (Law) property held or occupied by a tenant
Pilgrims Came to US
for religious freedom
Tabacco
first cash crop in us
Jamestown
first colony in north america
Bacon Rebellion
uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony in North America, led by a 29-year-old planter, Nathaniel Bacon. burned jamestown
House of Burgesses
The House of Burgesses was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America.
Staple Crops
crops in large demand and provide bulk of crops in region
Puritans
The Puritans were a significant grouping of English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries, including, but not also limited to, English Calvinists.not tolerant of others religion
King Philips War
between native americans and white new england settlers. the settlers gained firmer control over the region.
Merchantilism
must export more goods than import to gain wealth and remain secure
Treaty of Paris
1763 ending french and Indian war. 1783 ended the american revolution
Proclamations of 1763
made by king george 3 which forbade colonist from moving into territory west of appl. mountians it outraged many colonists
Stamp Act
british tax on printed material in the colonies that outraged colonists, resulted in boycotts aganist british goods, and eventually help lead to colonial calls for independence
Sons/Daughters of Liberty
boycotss aganist british goods in response to the stamp act
Intolerable Acts
laws passed by gb after boston tea party which enclosed the boston harbor
The Enlightenment
time that featured revolutionary idea in philosophy and political thought
John Locke
believed people were born with natural rights and no government can take that away
Thomas Jefferson
drafted the declaration of independence. Leader of anti federalist & republican party Served as secretary of state under george washington. Became 3rd president of u.s.
Inalienable Rights
rights that cannot be taken away from you through government
Declaration of Independence
adopted july 1776 proclaimed colonies independence from Great Britain
George Washington
commander of the continental army during the american revolution and first president of u.s.
Washington’s Army
farmers, volunteers and untrained. Short of supplies
Lord Cornwallis
southern british commander who foughtthe american army in the carolinas and utimately surrended to washington in yorktown
Benjamin Franklin and French Alliance
ben frank went to paris to convince the french to form an open alliance with the u.s. after the am. victory at sartoga, the french finally agreed. France promised money, troops, and support of french navy. Following the us-french treaty.
Marqui de lafayette
french man who made his way to america to fight for the revolution
Yorktown
site of cornwallis surrender to washington which ended the revolutionary war
Articles of Confederation
first national body of laws adopted by the u.s. following its dec. of independence. it proved ineffective bc it did not give enough power to the national govt
US Const
1787 replaced art. of confederation
Great Compromise
established a legislative branch with two houses
Separation of Powers
divides authority btw diff branched of govt
Alexander Hamilton
major leader of federalists who served as washingtons sec. of the treasury and introduced an economic plan for dealing with the nations economic crisis during washingtons first term
James Madison
federalist leader who played a key role in drafting the constitution and is often referred to as the “father of the constitution”
Hamiltons Economic Plan
economic plan proposed by alexander hamilton that proposed the federal government take on the state debts that were largerly due to the war, place a tax on whiskey, supported tariffs, and established a national bank
John Adams
2nd president of US after washington. federalist
Alien and Sedation Acts
laws passed by federalist that allowed to govt to arrest and detain or remove foreigners deemed untrustworthy and limit free speech and expression
Monroe Doctorine
stated that the US would no longer tolerate attempts by europeans to colonize the western hemisphere and that any effort to do so would be seen as an act of aggression. promised that US would not interefere in the affairs of other nations, both in US and europe
Northwest Ordinance
law that divided the are north of the ohio river into smaller territories and established guidelines for settlement in that region
Impact of Northwest ordinance on Slaves
made slavery illegal in the new territory and showed that the question of slavery would be a major issue as the nation expanded west. It also helped establish the guidelines under which new states could be admitted to the union.
In what ways did the industrial revolution affect the north and south
it contributed to sectionalism. Inventions like the cotton gin made the south more dependent on cotton and slavery, whil eother inventions and innovations like interchangable parts made the north more dependent on manufacturing, factories, and immigrant labor
Manifest Destiny
belief that it was God’s will for the U.S. to conquer and settle territory all the way to the pacific coast
The effect of the US and Mexican War
the u.s. acquired territory that eventually became arizona and new mexico
Erie Canal
NY economy grew because the canal allowed manufactureres to ship products easily
Andrew Jackson and his views on sufferance and views on government role in economic matters
supported by farmers
he believed any white man should be allowed to vote(universal sufferage)beleived in laissez faire economics. believed govt should not regulate buisness believed govt should not do anything that was not strict to the const.
Spoils System
practice by jackson rewarding political supporters with government positions
Elizabeth Cady Staton
most known for womens sufferage
Industrial revolution
time during late eigteenth century and early nineteenth when advances in technology led to massive economic change
interchangeable parts (eli whitney)
US-Mexican War
1840’s resulted in us taking cali and mush of the south west
Andrew Jackson
first “common man” president. 7th president. war hero who defeated british, he rewarded his political supporters with government positions
Leissez Faire
Laissez-faire is an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from tariffs, government subsidies, and enforced monopolies, with only enough government regulations sufficient to protect property rights against theft and aggression.
Susan B Anthony
supported temperance and abolitionist movements joined elizabeth staton to fight for women rights
womens sufferage -right for women to vote
Sectionalism
economic, social, cultural, and politial differences that exist between different parts of the country
Temperance Movement
social movement aimed at restricting and eventually banning alcohol
John C. Calhoun
known as a southern hero who supported state rights
Missouri Compromise
deal with the issues of slavery in new territories
Key Figures of Civil War
abraham lincoln-pres
ulysses s grant-effective union general defated the south and accepted robert e lees surrender 18th preswilliam t sherman-union general “march to the sea” burned and destroyed the southjefferson davis-1st and only president of the confederate states of amthomas”stonewall” jackson-confederate general and robert e lee right hand man strong and great navigator
The South Feared Abraham lincoln’s re election because
they feared that he would seek not only to prevent slavery in new territories, but to end it in the south as well
Gettysburg
major turning point in the war that ended the souths hope of succesfully invading the north. Many beleived that if gen. stonwall would have been alive the south would have won
Kansas Nebraska Act
allowed the previously free and unorganized territories of kansas ans nebraska to choose whether or not to permit slavery by pop. soverignty its guidelines replaced the missouri compromise and reignited slavery , resulting in a bloody civil war with kansas
Abraham Lincoln
first republican president, opposed expansion of slavery. led union through civil war
Writ of heapas corpus
guarentee that a person will see a judge before being imprisoned. ab lincoln suspended this right during the civil war to protect the union
Emancipation Proclamation
freed slaves in confederate while keeping them in boarding states loyal to the union
Antietam
bloodiest single day of the war
Gettysburg Address
ab lincolns speech at the cementary on the battlefeild
Appomatox Courthouse
where robert e lee surrended to uylsses s grant
Compromise of 1850
It was a package of five bills, passed in September 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).
Fugitive Slave Law
The fugitive slave laws were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory.
Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott v. Sandford, , also known as the Dred Scott Decision, was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court that people of African descent brought into the United States and held as slaves were not protected by the Constitution and were not U.S.
Election of 1860
Quadrennial election held on November 6, 1860, for the office of President of the US and the immediate impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War.
Democratic party split over the issue of slavery, enabling Abraham lincoln to win the election. His election made southerners mad so they seceded and lead to the civil war
Fort Sumter
union fort in charleston where the first shots of the civil war were fired after confederate forces fired on union soliders.
Battle of Vicksburg
was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
14th Amendment
Make sure African Americans were recognized as Citizens
15th Amendment
Gave African Americans the right to vote
ways southern whites tried to resist giving equal treatment to blacks after reconstrution
kkk arose and used violence and when reconstruction ended whites passed poll taxes, white primary, arbitrary registration, and literacy test to keep blacks disenfranchised(vote not count)
railroads in west
helped open the west and contribute to the rise of big buisness for people and goods to be transported easily
Chinese and Irish
contributed to building railroad
John D. Rockefeller
dominated oil industry by establishing a trust
Edison Light Bulb
transformed us culture and buisness by allowing ppl to work and engage in leisure activities later hours
wounded knee
us army troops engaged the souix at wounded knee after they became concerned that cheif sitting bull would use the ghost dance to start a native am uprising. troops killed sitting bull and eventually opened fire on men women and children killing more than 150. marked the last major violent confrontation btw whites and native am. over westward expansion
African American Women in Western Expansion
fufilled positions traditionally held by men, due to lack of white population . meanwhile af am. had an impact as cowboys or soldiers
Nativist
does not support immigration, believe jobs should go to natives
Poor laborers and Immigrants
poor working conditions long hours paid low even women and children work
Industrialization and urban growth effect on late 19th early 201th century
many middle and upper class citizens left the cities to live in the first suburbs, inventions like electric trolley, public transportation parks, sports
Union
organization of workers to protect the interests of its members
Samuel Gompers
leader of afl
Pullman Strike
Was a nationwide conflict between the new American Railway Union and railroads that occurred in the United States in summer 1894. It shut down much of the nation’s freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit.
Presidential Reconstruction
plan for reconstruction through andrew johnson less servere than radical
13th Amendment
ended slavery
Johnson’s Impeachment
congress impeach him bc he tried to fire secretary of war edwin stanton senate voted to spare johnson
Freedman’s Bureau
relief agency that provided clothes medical food and education to african americans coming out of slavery. established by Congress to aid African Americans undergoing the transition from slavery to freedom in the aftermath of the Civil War
African American in politics during Reconstruction
they had access to political process and many were legislatures
Poll Taxes
special taxes passed in the south after reconstruction to prevent blacks from voting by requiring them to pay money to vote
Black Exodus
mass black migration from south to west following the emanicipation
American Federation of Labor
It was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. stood for wages working hours and working conditions
Grandfather clause
laws designed to help the poor and less educated whites still vote by exempting them from literacy test and poll tax if their ancestors had voted or served in the confederate military
Isolationist
aganist US exapansion and foreign affairs
US Enters World War I
because it felt obligated to respond to unrestricted u boat attacks aganist its ships by the german navy. Also public support of the war had rise because of zimmerman telegram
Site of Victory in American Revolution
york town
General William Howe
left u.s.
5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence.
Antebellum
The history of the Southern United States reaches back hundreds of years and includes the Mississippian people, well known for their mound building.
Fireside chats
30 radio addresses by fdr
Herbert Hoover
known as the great engineer 31st president
Grover Cleaveland
only president to serve two non consecutive terms
Hay Market Bombing
refers to the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square[3] in Chicago. It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians, and the wounding of scores of others.
Theodore Roosevelt
president after mckinley
Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt ( ; October 27, 1858- January 6, 1919) was the 26th President of the United States of America (1901-1909).
Twin Pillars Policy
u.s. policy to promote iran and saudi arabia as local gaurdian of u.s. in persian gulf war
PT Barnum
Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, businessman, scam artist and entertainer, remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the circus that became the Ringling Bros.
Textiles Workers Strike
1934-largest strike in the labor history. inolving textile workers from new england. it lasted 20 years. fdr NIRA tried to reduce over production, raise wages, and have rights for workers
Eugene Talmadge
used martial law to control the textile strike
Cyrus McCormick
Cyrus Hall McCormick, Sr. (1809-1884) was an American inventor and founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, which became part of International Harvester Company in 1902. From the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, he and many members of his family became prominent residents of Chicago.
for farmers the reaper
First Indians in GA
woodland moundbuilders creek and cherokee
Spanish American War
US and spain in cuba and phillipines. lasted less than 3 months and resulted in cubas independence as well as us annexing puero rico,guam and phillipines
Platt Amendment
1901. was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, replacing the earlier Teller Amendment.
amendement to the cuba const. that put limits on what cuba can do. gave us two naval bases in cuba. and allowed us intervention
Panama Canal
canal built by us in panama which allowed us ships to travel back and forth between the pacific and atlantic without having to go through south america
Muckrakers
The term muckraker refers to reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines, continued a tradition of investigative journalism reporting, and emerged in the United States after 1900 and continued to be influential until World War I, when through a combination of advertising boycotts, dirty tricks and patriotism, the movement, associated with the Progressive Era in the United States, came to an end. roosevelt coined this name for them.
Upton Sinclairs
famous muckraker published “the jungle” about meat packaging
Temperance Movement
wanted to limit alcohol
Plessy V Ferguson
seperate but equal
NAACP
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is -to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination-.web dubois
17th Amendment
us senators elected by people not by state legislators
Recall
political reform that gives citizens power to hold special elections to remove corrupt officials from office befors their terms up
16th Amendment
established income tax and increased fed. govt. revenue and and elimited the need to tax according to the proportions of state populations
Archduke Ferdinand
assassination sparked the beginning of world war I
U Boats
submarines used by the germans to attack ships during world war 1. THeir attacks on us ships helped bring us to war
Selective Service Act
us act passed by congress during ww1 authorizing a draft of young men for military service
Fourteen Points
peace proposal by woodrow wilson following world war I
Eugene Debs
socialist leader in the us who ran for pres. and was eventually prisioned for violating espionage and sedition acts.
Isolation
us should stay out of international conflicts and should not desire exapansion
Chinese Exclusion Act
prohibted furthur immigration from china to us for 10 years it was extended and lasted till 1943
Theodore Roosevelt
as assistant secretary of the navy he favored expansion. he resigned his position in washington to lead the rough riders in the spanish am war. he eventually became vp and then pres. after mckinley was assassinated. As pres. he secured the building of panama canal and served during the progressive era.
Roosevelt’s Corollary
statement issued by teddy roosevelt which expanded upon monroe doctrine. it stated that US could intervere in the region if a nation had trouble paying its debts. Wanted to make sure that imperialist nations did not use debt collection as an excuse to occupy territories in the carribean or latin america
Referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal, usually a piece of legislation which has been passed into law by the local legislative body and was signed by the pertinent executive official(s).
Lusitania
commercial cruiseliner also carrying military supplies which was torpedoed by german u boat. 12 hundred people died
Zimmerman Telegraph
german telegram sent to the embassy officials in mexico directing them to ask mexico to attack us if it declared war on germany. in return germany promised to help mexico win back land that us had acquired as a result of the mex. am war. it helped increase anti german sentiment in the US
Armistice
an agreement to stop fighting. stopped fighting of world war I until treaty
League of Nations
organization proposed by president wilson and established by the treaty of versailles which was intended to provide a place whwere countries could peacefully discuss solutions to their difference rather than go to war
Espionage and Sedation Acts
laws passed by congress during ww1. these acts made it illeagal to interfere with the draft, obstruct the sale of liberty bonds, or make statements considered disloyal to, or critical of, the govt., the const., or the us military
The great migration
mass migration beginning during ww1 in which many af am began leaving the south in growing numbers to pursue better economic opportunities in the nothern cities in hopes of escaping southern racism,
Dust Bowl
or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought combined with farming methods that did not include crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops or other techniques such as soil terracing and wind-breaking trees to prevent wind erosion.
Black Tuesday
The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash and the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began in late October 1929 and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout.
Neutrality Act
law passed by congress in 1935 which prohibitte the sale of weapons to warring nations and was meant to keep the us from forming alliances that might drag the nation into war
Red Scare
fear of communism that swept across us following world war I.
Henry Ford
first to succesfully market automobile. 1907-1920
TVA
built hydroelectric dams to create jobs and bring cheap electricty to south
Eleanor Roosevelt
one of the most impactful 1st lady. friend to common citizens and active
D Day
invasion of western europe launched by allies on june 6 1944 that eventually led to germanys surrender.
Douglass Macarthur
fleed when the japenese invaded but returned to us force that liberated the islands
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army who was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II.
Battle at Midway
key battle in the pacific won by us and which marked the turning point of the pacific war
Harry Truman
became president following death of fdr. pres when ww2 ended and authorized use of the atomic bomb aganist japan
Fair Employment Act
Executive Order 8802 was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941, to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry.
Joseph Stalin
leader of soviet union during world war II
Battle of Britain
battle fought between British and german air forces in the skies over england. resulted in destruction in cities
Pearl Harbor
brought us into world war II
Dwight Eisenhower
us general who planned and commanded allied forces during d day and the llied march to berlin which followed
Fall of Berlin
marked the end of the war in europe
Bataan Death March
The Bataan Death March (1942) was the forcible transfer, by the Imperial Japanese Army, of 60,000 Filipino and 15,000 American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II.
Charles Lindbergh
1923 flew his first solo flight at Souther Field in Americus
William B. Hartsfield
mayor of Atlanta from 1936 to 1961; targeted Democrats and Blacks and offered improvements
Hartsfield Airport
It is named after William Hartsfield, father of atlanta aviation, and (later)Maynard Jackson, the first black mayor. It increases trade and international businesses can travel to Atlanta.
Eastern Air Lines
used Hartsfield as a major hub
Field Order 15
Sherman’s special order granting 400,000 acres of land to newly freed black families in forty-acre segments; likely origin of the phrase “forty acres and a mule”
Andersonville
Horrific POW camp infamous for atrocities and prisoner mistreatment
Cobb Brothers
Howell presided over Confederacy’s organizing ; Thomas authored the constitution
Delta Airlines
moved its headquarters to Atlanta in 1941
Empire State of the South
title given to largest slaveholding state in the south
Tobacco Road
a poor shantytown, usually in the rural South, and usually populated by whites.
I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang
book by Robert Elliott Burns chronicling his imprisonment and escape
Mary Phagan
girl who was supposedly raped by leo Frank
460,000
Number of slaves freed during and after the war
Yamacraw Bluff
Geographic feature that impressed Oglethorpe to build Savannah
Salzburgers
German-speaking Protestant colonists that founded Ebenezer and New Ebenezer
St. Augustine
Built by the Spanish and attacked by Oglethorpe
Battle of Bloody Marsh
Victory for Oglethorpe over the Spanish on St. Simons Island in 1742
Fort Frederica
Built by Oglethorpe and attacked by the Spanish
Yamacraw
Tribe that helped the original settlers
John Reynolds
First governor of Georgia, 1752
Board of Trustees
Appointed by King George II in 1732 to govern Georgia until 1752
Debtors
One of the original motivation for the colony
Slavery
Was prohibited in Georgia until 1750
Henry Ellis
Georgia’s second and most popular Royal Governor, he wore a thermometer
Mary Musgrove
The chief translator and go-between of Georgia’s early days
Catholics
Barred from Georgia
George II
Granted charter to trustees in 1732
Creek
Native Nation the Yamacraw were part of
Tomochichi
Chief of the Yamacraw and friend to colonists
Zero
Number of debtors release and sent to settle in Georgia
500 Acres
Amount of land needed to be a legislator in Royal Georgia
50 Acres
Amount of land needed to vote in Royal Georgia
Commons House of Assembly
The lower legislative body in Georgia’s Royal Government
Governor’s Council
The upper legislative body in Georgia’s Royal Government
1732
Charter granted to Georgia
Jews
Among the earliest settlers
1733
Savannah founded
1752
Becomes Royal Colony, first governor John Reynolds
1742
Oglethorpe victory at Battle of Bloody Marsh
1750
The shame of slavery begins
University of Georgia
established 1785
Redeemers
Democrats working to counter reconstruction and equality
Black Legislators
27 duly elected were expelled from the General Assembly leading Congress to impose martial law and ban Georgia’s congressmen
1870
Georgia readmitted to the Union
Bourbon Triumvirate
Joseph E. Brown(ex-Confederate governor), John B. Gordon and Alfred H. Colquitt (ex-Confederate gennerals) maintained power from 1872-1890 focused on industrializing the stated for their own profit
Henry W. Grady
editor of the Atlanta Constitution, who spearheaded a crusade to build a prosperous “New South” centered around Atlanta
Signed U.S. Constitution
Abraham Baldwin and William Few Jr.
Thomas E. Watson
ran for vp on Populist Party ticket, in later life he became a racist
sharecroppers
tenant farmers, serfs, who worked the land they did not own for a meager share of the crops
Gold Rush
largest discovery of gold east of the Mississippi, 1828
Farmers’ Alliance
A Farmers’ organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Signed the Declaration of Independence
Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton
Augusta
Becomes capital in 1779
voting restrictions
poll taxes, literacy test, grandfather clause, property requirements aimed at disenfranching black voters
Wesleyan College
first womens college, 1836
Indian Removal Act 1830
Passed by Congress under the Andrew Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an “Indian Territory” where they would be “permanently” housed.
Athens
Ben Epps field 1907
John B. Gordon
general and clansman, lost Gubernatorial contest to Rufus Bullock
1861
When the Georgia Secession Convention held in Milledgeville
New South
dream that Georgia might lead the South phoenix like from the ashes as a land of prosperity and equality
Alexander Stephens
Vice president of the confedacy
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin, 1793
God’s Little Acre
A novel from the 1930s by Erskine Caldwell, about a family of sharecroppers from Georgia and their many tragedies.
Governor James Jackson
Overturned Yazoo Act; elected to First Congress; lost reelection