Unit 1 AP World History

Unit 1 AP World History

Complex Society
a form of large-scale social organization that emerged in several parts of the ancient world; emerged with the change from nomadic hunting groups to small organized agricultural societies with speacialized crafts, political systems, cultural traditions, and social classes; arose in 3500-500BCE in scattered regions across the world
Lucy
3.2 million year old female mummy found in Hadar, West Africa; Lucy was a hominid who could walk upright and manipulate tools with her hands but had a skull the size of a small grapefruit
Paleolithic
“old stone age” era, extends from beginning of hominids to development of complex societies 12,000 years ago; time when human beings foraged for food by hunting or gathering; social equality, hunting strategies, religion, and cave paintings emerged
Neolithic
“new stone age” era, from 12,000-6,000 years ago; time when early stages of agricultural societies emerged; specialized labor, villages and towns, pottery, metallurgy, textile production, and social distinctions also emerged in this time
Venus Figurines
small sculptures of women usually with exaggereated sexual features created with cetain intrest in fertility; suggest intrest in generation of new life; created to increase fertility; first form of religion
Lascaux Cave Paintings
date from 34,000-12,000 years ago; may hve been created to exercise “sympathetic magic” (to gain control over subjects like animals by capturing their spirits); meant to increase luck in hunting or just decoration
Metallurgy
first used copper, common and easy to mold; hammered metal then later heated it to bend; created first jewlelry and decorations, then weapons
Textile
starts 6000BCE if not earlier; came with selective breeding of animals and crops; machines later invented to weave fabrics and spin thread; most likely work of women who stayed home with children; textile production becomes very important in agricultural society
Social Class/Social Structures
land was ultimate source of wealth; qualitiy of interior decoration in houses and value of goods buried with individuals showed clear social distiction
Neolithic “Revolution”
included emergence of complex societies, pottery, metallurgy, textil production, social distinctions, differing religions; not agriculturally based
“Agricultural Transition”
transition from nomadic hunting and gathering groups to agricultural based complex societies
Demographic pressures
Pharaoh
Hieroglyphics
Pyramids
Savannah
Mercenary
Cataracts
Rosetta Stone
Cuneiform
a Sumerian writing style that requires the use of a stylus fashioned from a reed to impress symbols on wet clay; means “wedge-shaped” in Latin
Epic of Gilgamesh
book written about the mythical stories and adventures of Gilgamesh, a hero of ancient Mesopotamian society and apparently the 5th king of Uruk for 126 years around 2750BCE, he was granted with the perfect body and superhuman strength and courage from God
Sargon of Akkad
creator of the Mesopotamian Empire; a talented administrator and brilliant warroir, he seized each Sumerian city-state one by one and took control of the trade routes and natural resources until his army was unstoppable; ruled Mesopotamia until it collapsed due to rebellion towards imperial rule and invasions
Stele
Assyrians
one state fighting for control of Mesopotamia after Hammurabi; by 800 or 900BCE they gained Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, much of Anatolia, and most of Egypt
Stratified Patriarchal Society
Kings->Nobles->priests/priestesses->free commoners, dependent clients->slaves; patriarchal, much influence from Hammurabi’s code; women with less rights, by 1500BCE they had to wear veils
Mummification
Egyptian embalming tradition applied to pharaohs and wealthy families; includes removal of internal organs and placement of them into jars representing Egyption gods
Menes
Semitic
relating to the Semitic family of languages, including Akkadian, Aramaic, Hebrew, and Phoenician
Polytheism
Cross-cultural Exchange and Interaction
City-State
a city that not only controlled public life within the city walls but also oversaw affairs in surrounding agricultural regions
Empire
society that ruled over many cities and peoples; the combination of many cities or city-states into one society
Hammurabi
ruled Mesopotamia 1792-1750BCE under Babylon as capital; relied on centralized bureaucratic rule and regular taxation; created laws that relied much on lex talionis (“law of retaliation” offenders suffer their crime); empire fell to Hittie invasions
Indo-European
from the Indo-European homeland located above the Black Sea, connecting Europe to Asia, India, and Arabia
Hitties
as of 1900BCE, originated from Anatolia; first adopted many Mesopotamian cultures and technology through close relations with Mesopotamian people; toppled Babylonian empire in 1595BCE then lost it after 1200BCE due to waves of invaders
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
refers to rule of Nebuchandnezzar in “New Babylonian” empire (Mesopotamia) when he lavished the region with luxurious alterations, foliage, and valuable metals and jewels
Hebrews
early nomads in region between Mesopotamia and Egypt during 2nd millenniumBCE; part od the Old Testement of the Christian Bible
Israelites
a branch of Hebrews that migrated to Palestine under leadership of Moses where they fought a place for themselves; under Kind David and King Solomon they ruled the region between Syria and the Sinai penninsula, built Jerusalem, and entered into diplomatic and commercial relations with Mesopotamia
Jews
Israelites who returned to Judea after the Babylonian conquest; created several small Jewish states where they ruled using teachings from the Torah; Jews later significantly influence Chritianity and Islam
Abraham
Hebrew patriarch who migrated from Sumerian city of Ur to Palestine in 1850BCE possibly because of disorder in Sumer
Phoenicians
from coastal strip of land north of Jerusalem called Canaan; survived through trade and communication networks through the Mediterranian Sea and with Mesopotamia; had established alphabet of 22 symbols representing consonants